Measurement Library

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (2019)

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course

INTRODUCTION TO GAS QUALITY USING SPECTROSCOPY
Author(s): Sohrab Zarrabian
Abstract/Introduction:
Optical spectroscopy is an established group of techniques. These methods all share a fundamental common feature they use the interaction of electromagnetic waves (e.g. light) with materials to deduce information about the make-up of the material under analysis. Optical spectroscopy has been around for almost 100 years. Despite this relatively long history, practical industrial applications in the industry have been somewhat of a more recent trend. Field applications (outside of laboratories) have been even more recent phenomena. In the last 20 years, advances in optical components, computing power, and display technologies have worked hand in hand to enable many new applications of elddeployed spectroscopy in many different industries. Wide ranging applications in medical, semi- conductor, environmental, materials, pharmaceutical, food, and energy industries have emerged making signicant contributions to safety and efficiency in these industries.
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Document ID: 402644B3

SCADA COMMUNICATIONS FOR THE GAS INDUSTRY
Author(s): Joseph A. Furjanic
Abstract/Introduction:
With the growth in the Natural Gas Industry, the need for ever increasing information from the eld is going to force us, as an industry to re-evaluate how we communicate with equipment at remote sites. For the next hour, we will look at some of the options available and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of them. Communications links can be broken down into two general categories: LEASED FACILITIES and OWNED FACILITIES. Most systems that need to cover a large geographic area may require a combination of the two to achieve the optimum communications efficiency. LEASED FACILITIES Leased facilities are those where the communications infrastructure is owned by a third party, and the user contracts for those services. The most common of these are services leased from a local Telephone Company (aka TELCO). The services they can provide vary with company and service area. Well discuss some of their options later in this paper. Another popular option today is cellular data, where the data infrastructure is provided by a cellular phone provider. Satellite communications is another leased option, especially in extremely remote sites.
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Document ID: E5AA88C9

CONSIDERATIONS FOR IIOTS M2M HYBRID WIRELESS NETWORKS
Author(s): Dan Steele
Abstract/Introduction:
Utilities with geographically dispersed assets, such as those in the energy and utility industries, are continuously developing and implementing new ways to monitor and control all aspects of their business, especially for operations in remote locations. With company personnel and automated machinery constantly in motion, businesses have had to create smarter communication networks out of necessity. A key indicator of enterprise organizations expanding their networking infrastructures ties directly to recent industry reports showing that the number of embedded wireless sensors installed across the world will reach billions and maybe even trillions over the next decade. This means these organizations must also leverage communication technologies to connect everything together - from the corporate office to the eld site to the individual sensor - and everything in between. With a greater focus on operational efficiency to both reduce overhead and increase productivity, organizations are continuously tasked with objectives to improve the bottom line. Connecting to the IOT of IIOT (Industrial Internet of Things) is easy but you need to know some ground rules.
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Document ID: 7A66C0F0

WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS-APPLICATIONS IN OIL & GAS
Abstract/Introduction:
COMPANY OVERVIEW OLEUMTECH Credentials Founded in 2000 with the mission of enabling the wireless digital oileld. With over 350,000 nodes and 35,000 networks, OleumTech is the leading provider in the space. OleumTechs products have radically transformed how companies gather data in the eld. Made in the USA, in-house R&D and manufacturing. Patented wireless technologies ISO-9001 Certied. Worldwide presence. Self-Contained, Battery Powered C1 D1 Transmitters. Sensor-to-Gateway Connectivity for IoT. Field-Proven in some the harshest environments. Scalable Architecture. Solutions for every possible measurement variable. (Pressure, Flow, Temperature, Level, Alarms, etc.)
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Document ID: 2090C5BF

DATA COMMUNICATIONS IN THE MARCELLUS & UTICA
Author(s): Brad Waldrip
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this discussion is to explore the various types of data connectivity that are available for data communications to the various points needed, in the Oil & Gas Industry. We will explore the various data connection types, pros and cons of each type and practical applications. The locations that we will be discussing are primarily in West Virginia, Pennsylvania and Ohio. While each type of data connections is feasible there are considerations that need to be observed. These considerations are cost, terrain, bandwidth, serviceability and power consumption. CONNECTION TYPES: 1. Hard Line, or Copper (Fixed Connection) 2. Fiber (Fixed Connection) 3. Cellular 4. Satellite 5. Radio
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Document ID: CBDC523C

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF PILOT OPERATED FLEXIBLE ELEMENT REGULATORS
Author(s): Michael Garvey
Abstract/Introduction:
Pilot Operated Flexible Element Regulators are capable of providing very accurate control in natural gas transmission and distribution pipelines. The Pilot Operated Regulator provides advantages over both self-operated regulators and control valves. Primary benets include simplicity of operation and elimination of any fugitive emissions caused by atmospheric bleed gas. However, it is important to recognize the limitations of the pilot operated exible element regulator and apply it accordingly. The original Flexible Element Regulator, the Flex- o, was developed by the Grove Valve and Regulator Company circa World War II. The original intent for the regulator was to regulate water in submarine ballasting systems. However, Grove quickly recognized that the Flexo regulator product was ideally suited for pressure control applications in natural gas pipelines. Many advances have been made since the original Flexible Element was created more then fty years ago, but the same basic operational advantages and principles of operation remain unchanged.
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Document ID: 2C4D1B8D

Benefits Around Timely Analysis Of Measurement Data
Author(s): Duane Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Timely capture and analysis of measurement data relies on ever-evolving technology, equipment, and procedures.
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Document ID: 05C864F4

INTRODUCTION TO SINGLE PATH ULTRASONIC METERS
Author(s): Paul Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
An ultrasonic meter falls into the classi
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Document ID: 208082AD

GUIDELINES FOR EVALUATING SCADA SYSTEMS
Author(s): Anthony Elliott
Abstract/Introduction:
SCADA has the ability to perform an immense complex number of functions. Given the sheer volume of SCADAs potential benets, how do you ensure your organization receives the full extent of SCADAs value? The evaluation of complex systems is both difficult and risky this is especially true if you are learning the new technology while at the same time keeping up with daily responsibilities. However, while difficult, making an informed decision regarding a future SCADA solution is critical to the entire organization. The decision to implement a major SCADA system binds the company to that system for a minimum of seven to ten years. It is imperative that frontend engineering take place and that all business groups associated with operational eld data are involved in order to obtain and implement business requirements. The data collected from SCADA systems should easily migrate to other business systems for engineering analysis, accounting purposes, and other technical needs.
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Document ID: D7ABB6DB

REMOTE MONITORING AND CONTROL - IMPACT OF EVOLVING COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES AND PROTOCOLS
Author(s): Vishal Prakash
Abstract/Introduction:
Monitoring of remote assets has been in practice since the 19th century. Since then, there has been many quantum changes including the type of assets that are being monitored, remote control of instruments and processes, type of media and the protocols used. There is a plethora of information available on the World Wide Web that documents and explains these changes, in detail, including a number of white papers. The focus of this white paper is look at the evolution to newer communications technologies such as high speed radio and 3G cellular and advanced protocols such as DNP3 and the advantages that this offers for remote monitoring and control applications. This paper will also discuss the emergence of IIoT (Industrial Internet of Things) as a potential new paradigm for remote monitoring and control.
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Document ID: BDA597E7

CONSIDERATIONS FOR CHOOSING AND CONFIGURING LEVEL SENSORS IN TODAYS PRODUCTION ENVIRONMENTS AND WITH TODAYS WIRELESS RADIOS
Author(s): Todd Mathias
Abstract/Introduction:
The long-term ramications can be long lasting when a making decisions, selecting and implementing a wireless M2M network. There are factors to consider today that did not exist or where not important several years ago. One must rst consider what the level data will be used for and how does it t with the corporate network. Then, there are other considerations that can affect the satisfaction with the sensor. Among these considerations, specically when thinking about level sensors working with your wireless network, are production levels, power consumption, and network exibility. First, one should consider, what you are going to do with the data? The use for level in a tank can be very simple, like showing level in a tank to prevent an overow. It can be used to alarm or notify a hauling company to pick and transport oil or water. In many cases, level in a tank will be measured to ensure a proposer hydrostatic pressure to feed a LACT unit downstream. In any of these cases, accuracy is not as important as the reliability of the measurement and the durability of the sensor. A simple readout at ground level can suffice or there can be a simple output to a PLC or HMI.
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Document ID: 88888467

PRINCIPLES OF ODORIZATION
Author(s): Greg Ebert
Abstract/Introduction:
Unfortunately many regulations are drafted on the heels of a disaster. Current regulation Odorization of Gas 49 CFR part 192.625 began setting roots after the deadly school explosion that claimed the lives of nearly 300 school children and teachers in New London Texas. The apparent cause of the explosion was an undetectable natural gas leak, that when concentrated above the lower explosive limit, found an ignition source. This explosion on March 18, 1937 may have been avoided if just 1 out of the 500+ occupants had the ability to recognize or detect the level of danger that existed. Today, regulations, guidelines, policies and procedures are active in the effort to prevent incidents as described above. The information provided in this article is meant to provide a snapshot of odorants, odorization equipment, odorization rates, tools and techniques, as well as general best practices when working with odorant presently in the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: AA8B343C

COMMISSIONING OF ODORIZATION SYSTEMS
Author(s): Steve Sams
Abstract/Introduction:
SELECTING AN ODORIZATION SYSTEM Factors to Consider In Odorizer Selection Type/Method Sizing Reliability Support Three Primary Methods In Use Wick/Bypass/Farm Tap Liquid Injection System (Pump/Drip) Electronic Smart Bypass Odorizer Method - Wick How it works Odorant is drawn up the wick from the container and into the gas stream Oldest and simplest method based on free evaporation of odorant into the gas Dosage controlled by the size of the wick The disadvantages during low or high ow periods the gas can be under/over odorized
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Document ID: 0323B318

ODORANT LEAK MANAGEMENT
Author(s): Pierre Braud
Abstract/Introduction:
All around the world, propane, butane and natural gas must be odorized. The odorization ensures a safe transport, distribution and use of this valuable energy to residential buildings. Regulations vary from one country or state to another. The natural gas can be odorized at different points of the gas grid: in some countries (France, Spain, South Korea...), odorization takes place at the entry points of the countrys gas grid, either at the gas transmission pipes or at Liqueed Natural Gas (LNG) terminals just after vaporization. In other countries (USA, Canada, Mexico, Germany, Italy, Belgium, China...), natural gas is often odorized at city gate level, where gas is depressurized to allow distribution to residential points. Odorants also may vary from one country to another, and within the same country as well. The International Organization for Safety (ISO) is listing in the ISO 13734(1) components commonly used: odorants are mainly composed of Suldes (TetraHydroThiophene, MethylEthylSulde, DiMethylSulde) and Light Mercaptans (mainly TertiaryButylMercaptan, IsoPropylMercaptan).
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Document ID: 0025C9C1

GAS ODORANTS - SAFE HANDLING, HEALTH, AND ENVIRONMENT
Author(s): Daniel E. Arrieta,David C. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Thiols (i.e. mercaptans), suldes, and tetrahydrothiophene (THT) have been widely used in the odorization of natural and liqueed petroleum gas due to the fact that natural gas does not possess an odor. Mercaptans, for example, have proven to be very effective in odorizing because of their low odor threshold and therefore, immediate impact on the olfactory system (Roberts, 1993). Although, gas odorants are characterized as having a low hazard potential regarding health effects, their unique physical chemical properties such as, high ammability, require that they be handled safely. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the human health and environmental concerns associated with gas odorants, to recommend safe handling and personal monitoring, and to discuss the impact of regulatory changes associated with the chemical management of these chemicals.
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Document ID: C48E490C

NATURAL GAS ODOR LEVEL TESTING PROGRAMS
Author(s): Mark E. Gunsalus
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas odor level testing programs are an important part of delivering safe and reliable natural gas. We will review olfactory biology basics, regulations, odor fade, program development, program execution and training. As an operator and Director for 28 years responsible for this process, we have developed and rened processes and procedures that ensure proper odor levels and identify deciencies so they can be quickly rectied.
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Document ID: 909E2F27

ODORIZATION EQUIPMENT DECOMMISSIONING
Author(s): Wesley Lucas
Abstract/Introduction:
DECOMMISSIONING OF OBSOLETE ODORIZERS Reasons for decommissioning Process, cradle to grave Waste handling (classication, transportation, incineration) Residual odorant handling, (reuse vs. disposal) 4 Case Studies WHY DECOMMISSION AND DISPOSE? Natural Gas industry is a fast growing segment of our energy industry and there is a need to keep the operations safe and environmentally friendly. Obsolete odorization equipment needs to be removed and disposed of in an environmentally sound and odor-free manner in order to avoid business disruption or potential liquid/vapor odorant leaks from obsolete equipment.
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Document ID: E326D605

PICKLING A NEW NATURAL GAS PIPELINE
Author(s): Shawn Jennings
Abstract/Introduction:
WHY DO WE ODORIZE NATURAL GAS? New London, TX In the United States for all practical purposes odorization of natural gas originated due to the explosion of London school in the small east Texas town on New London on March 18, 1937. Approximately 600 students and 40 teachers were in the building at the time. Approximately 300 students and teachers perished.
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Document ID: D29A3681

LNG SAMPLING, ANALYTICALLY ACCURATE PRACTICES AND TECHNIQUES WITH INDUSTRY OVERVIEW OF LNG FLOW LAB AND LNG INDUSTRY
Author(s): LNG SAMPLING, ANALYTICALLY ACCURATE PRACTICES AND TECHNIQUES WITH INDUSTRY OVERVIEW OF LNG FLOW LAB AND LNG INDUSTRY
Abstract/Introduction:
Sampling and transportation of LNG (Liqueed Natural Gas) has increased as this has become a Global Market with many new liquefaction plants, export and import terminals that have been built to date and more under construction or in the planning stages due to the increase in world demand of LNG. This demand has increased due to LNG being considered by many countries as the fuel of choice based on its safe properties, availability, cost, cleanness and ease of transportation. With the increase of liquefaction, storage, blending and transportation so has the need increased for Analytically Accurate measurement of the LNG in the realm of custody transfer. This has also led to new techniques in LNG sampling to help verify the measurement results. This paper will cover these new techniques in their approach and their unique challenges for the industry.
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Document ID: 0FD4D627

WHEN DOWN TIME IS NOT AN OPTION IMPROVING RELIABILITY WITH A DC-UPS SYSTEM
Author(s): Ed Merkle
Abstract/Introduction:
Power fluctuations and outages can cause damage to control equipment as well as unexpected down time. This situation can lead to lost productivity and revenue. As the number of power faults and outages increase across the US, many users are installing back-up systems as part of their standard equipment to prevent such losses and down time. For industrial applications, uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) have become more and more important. DC-UPS systems are used for a safety shutdown, nishing processes or providing the energy for a communication system.
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Document ID: 88152A4C

CONTROL ROOM MANAGEMENT-ARE YOU IN CONTROL?
Author(s): Julie Porcaro, David Weeden
Abstract/Introduction:
Starting in 2011, many pipeline operators were required to implement the requirements listed in 49 CRF 192.631 - Control Room Management. Many of the requirements were either identied as necessary after a review of pipeline incidents or are considered industry best practices. Some of the high-level requirements listed in 192.631 are: Control Room Operations o Training on system operations o Shift Scheduling Fatigue Management Shift Change Protocols o Operator Roles and Responsibilities o Documentation of Actions during normal and abnormal operating conditions o Communication Between Control Room and Field Between Control Room and Management
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Document ID: 32133F8E

THE IoT AND DIGITALIZATION IN O&G - DISCOVER YOUR UNTAPPED ASSETS
Author(s): Marty Dingman
Abstract/Introduction:
The Internet of Things (IoT) is driving the rapid pace of digital adoption across multiple industries. Facing a potentially lower for longer scenario, the oil and gas industry is beginning a transformation of its own, increasingly looking toward data-driven solutions to boost performance, enhance efficiency and ultimately, to reduce costs. As the worlds oil and gas industry strives to expand margins by reducing production costs wherever possible, advanced capabilities enabled by the integration and digitalization of upstream operations can help in substantial ways. One prime example is remote condition monitoring of well-site equipment, especially offshore.
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Document ID: 4F18CE16

MITIGATING LOST AND UNACCOUNTED-FOR GAS: DETERMINATION AND CORRECTIVE ACTION IN CONTEMPORARY UPSTREAM, MIDSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM OPERATIONS
Author(s): Duane Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
In light of volatile prices, the industry has assumed an every drop counts approach to running the business. In this environment, issues such unaccounted-for (UAF) gas, with which every operation has dealt before, nd themselves under new scrutiny. Production, gathering, midstream, pipeline and distribution companies are all responsible for managing UAF. Long gone are the days when the cost and impact of UAF was passed directly to the customer with virtually no requirements for managing and reducing costs associated with the loss. While UAF has, historically, been the result of a combination of issues, current trends in the industry have managed to further complicate it. Interest in shale plays has given rise to mergers and acquisitions, which have resulted in diversied, oil & gas operations. An increasing number of producers and midstream companies must track and balance multiple uids, including natural gas, natural gas liquids (NGLs) and heavier hydrocarbons in their systems. At the same time, measurement departments are faced with more ambitious UAF loss targets.
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Document ID: A45DDA3B

EFFECTS AND CONTROL OF PULSATION IN GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Michael Royce Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulsation created by compressors, ow control valves, regulators and some piping congurations are known to cause signicant errors in gas measurement. In recent years the Pipeline-and Compressor Research Council (PCRC) now know as (GMRC) Gas Machinery Research Council, a subsidiary of the Southern Gas Association, commissioned and funded various pulsation research projects at Southwest Research Institute (SWRI) in San Antonio, Texas. This research culminated in the publication of several technical papers, including the April 1987 PCRC report 10.87-3 titled Pulsation and Transient-induced Errors at Orice Meter Installations and a report, An Assessment of Technology for Correcting Pulsation Induced Orice Flow Measurement dated November 1991.
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Document ID: 487EB470

SAMPLING CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH UNCONVENTIONAL GAS SOURCES
Author(s): Mark Firmin
Abstract/Introduction:
Advances in exploration, drilling and production technologies make it feasible to extract natural gas from sources that in the past have been regarded as unconventional and so, such sources are becoming a larger percentage of the gas supply. The feasibility of producing gas from a source is the primary factor in determining whether that source should be categorized as conventional or unconventional. What has been unconventional in the past may be considered conventional in the future.
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Document ID: 9CB177AA

PORTABLE LNG VAPORATION
Author(s): John Tirrell
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this presentation is to explain some of the considerations that go into planning and executing a portable gas supply operation using Liquied Natural Gas (LNG). Gas utility personnel have been safely performing portable LNG operations in the United States since the 1970s. Transgas, National Grid, and many other gas utilities and pipelines that have used portable LNG for planned maintenance outages for several decades. LNG is an odorless, colorless liquid form of methane at -260 deg. F. LNG has the most thermal energy per unit weight of any hydrocarbon fuel. Due to the price differential and clean environmental differences between natural gas and oil in the past ve years, LNG is becoming a very popular commodity for transportation and thermal energy consumers in the US and the world.
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Document ID: DC2EE782

FUNDAMENTALS OF CONTROL VALVES AND PNEUMATIC CONTROLLERS
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry utilizes two devices to reduce gas pressure and control gas ow. The rst is the regulator and the second is a control valve. The control valve is utilized for high volumes and it can perform ow control as will as pressure control. This paper will provide the fundamentals of control valve types, sizes, and the controllers that are utilized to operate the control valves. We will also investigate the differences between the regulator and the control valve and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
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Document ID: 619D91C2

FUNDAMENTALS OF NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS (NGLS)
Author(s): Ken Haynes
Abstract/Introduction:
Before discussing NGLs, it is rst necessary to build some background on natural gas. Natural gas is a naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbons (compound of hydrogen and carbon) and nonhydrocarbon gases found in porous geologic formations beneath the earths surface. Natural gas is a mixture of the hydrocarbon components of methane, ethane, propane, butane, and pentanes, with the principal constituent being methane. Natural gas also can contain non-hydrocarbon gases such as carbon, dioxide, water, hydrogen sulde, and nitrogen. The natural gas extracted from underground gas elds and brought to the surface by gas wells (commonly called raw gas) is much different than the natural gas used to heat our homes, to cook our food or to generate electricity. The natural gas used by consumers is composed almost entirely of methane. In contrast, natural gas found at the wellhead, although still composed primarily of methane, is by no means as pure.
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Document ID: 0326CA1F

WET GAS TEST COMPARATIVE RESULTS: ORIFICE VS. USM
Author(s): John Lansing, Toralf Dietz, Dr. Richard Steven, Jim Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
The CEESI Nunn Wet Gas facility consists of a closedloop test stand with up to 650 horsepower that permits ow rates from about 83 to 620 ACMH. This corresponds to 3 to 23 m/s in 4-inch Schedule 80 piping. Pressures can range from 1,380 kPa up to 7,500 kPa (13.8 Bar - 75 Bar). Gas ow is measured using a calibrated 6-inch turbine meter, and the injected liquid is measured using one of 2 different Coriolis meters (1/2 and 2 sizes). The liquid typically used is Exxsol D80, but water, or a mixture of both can also be used. The rst test involved a 4-inch dual-chamber orice meter with the gas USM were installed in series. The second test incorporated a 3-inch dual-chamber orice and 2-path USM, both in series. In both cases the USM was located upstream to minimize, if not totally eliminate, any affect on the orice meter. In order to ensure that the ow prole is as realistic as possible to what would be seen in the eld, the non-intrusive USM was located upstream of the orice meter.
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Document ID: D49B1B1A

OVERVIEW OF AN APPALACHIAN SHALE GAS PROCESSING PLANT
Author(s): Ryan Savage & Jim Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this class is to provide an overview of a typical northeast Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) processing plant. The Marcellus and Utica Shale play in the Appalachian Basin area has brought the need for new substructure, compressor stations, facilities and processing plants. The natural gas production in Appalachia has historically been lower pressure Devonian gas which is considered dry when compared to the rich Shale gas. The terms dry, wet, lean and rich are industry terms for describing the physical state and composition of the gas as it is produced from the earth. The term dry gas or lean gas refers to natural gas that has a BTU value range of approximately 900 to 1100. The terms wet gas or rich gas is used almost interchangeably, but the more accurate term for description is probably rich because wet can also refer to the gases water content. Rich gas is natural gas that has a BTU value above 1100 generally.
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Document ID: E5EA7C7E

WET GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Wet gas ow metering technology spans a wide scope of applications from off-shore subsea large diameter, high pressure, high owrate, high value ows, to on-shore small diameter, low pressure, low ow rate marginal well gas production. Although there are no clear borders between different types of wet gas ow meter technology, broadly speaking, the methods can be categorized into three general groups: 1) Standard gas meters applied to wet gas ows, 2) Wet gas meter technologies that meter bulk gas and liquid ows, and 3) Multiphase wet gas meters designed to meter gas, water, and oil ows, and perhaps measure water salinity, monitor for water break-through etc.. The complexity and cost rises from group 1 to 3. The topic is too wide to cover in one paper, and this paper therefore concentrates on groups 1 and 2. Group 3, i.e. multiphase wet gas meter technology is discussed in a separate ISHM paper on general multiphase ow metering (Class # 8110).
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Document ID: 8368858B

NATURAL GAS LIQUID MEASUREMENT-DIRECT & INFERRED MASS
Author(s): Dean Minehart
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) streams consist of mixtures of hydrocarbons including ethane, propane, butane, pentane and natural gasoline. NGL is sometimes referred to as y-grade. The American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) Chapter 14 Section 7 provides guidance on the mass measurement of NGL. Mass measurement techniques are applied to NGL measurement due to solution mixing of a variable uid composition within the NGL stream. Mass measurement can be achieved by direct measurement (Coriolis ow meter) or inferred by multiplying a volumetric ow rate times owing density. This paper will discuss the relative advantages of direct mass measurement for NGL streams. NGL stream components are bought and sold on a volumetric basis. Conversion of measured mass during a measurement interval to the volume of each NGL stream component will be discussed.
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Document ID: 4EF76731

PROVERS FOR MEASUREMENT VERIFICATION
Author(s): Greg Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
This document will provide the reader an understanding of what a prover is, the need for proving meters for accurate measurement verication, the equipment deemed acceptable and available for use in the oil and liqueed gas market. It will also dene the general terminology used in the industry, general operational aspects for verication devices, and general information utilized by the groups and agencies that govern the meter verication process.
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Document ID: AF311AE0

PROPER SAMPLING PROCEDURES FOR NGL AND RICH GAS
Author(s): Jason Rine
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this class is to provide a basic overview of proper sampling procedures that should be followed for any natural gas/natural gas liquid sample taken. Additionally, this class offers a more detailed review of proper sample collection per GPA 2174-14. Lastly an overview of basic analytical guidelines is discussed. COLLECTING PROPER SAMPLES For any sample to be collected the following questions should be asked before and during collection to make sure that a quality sample is collected. Analytical Parameters - The answer to this question drives the rest of the decisions that are made during the sampling. For example, if the sample to be collected is for the analysis of Sulfur Compounds then passivated sample bottles and collection equipment must be used to collect a representative sample, or if a NGL sample is to be collected the sampler can gather the correct sampling ttings to purge and collect a pressurized liquid sample.
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Document ID: 6A09192D

SAFE HANDLING AND OPERATION OF LIQUID PRODUCTS
Author(s): SAFE HANDLING AND OPERATION OF LIQUID PRODUCTS
Abstract/Introduction:
In our industry Liquid Products are becoming more and more valuable. As an industry we are converting our gases to liquids for a multitude of reasons. These reasons include easier transportation, easier means of storage, and more efficient operations. With these practices comes a different role of responsibility. Different safety measures must be taken when handling these liquids. When the correct steps are performed, this makes for much more efficient and safe operations. To understand the safe handling of liquid products, you must rst understand the different types of liquid products. The three different types of liquid products that will be covered are: Liqueed Petroleum Gas (LPG), Lique- ed Natural Gas (LNG), and Natural Gas Liquids (NGL). When dealing with these different liquids you must understand the physical properties of each.
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Document ID: E7E9ADD8

MEASUREMENT OF NATURAL GAS BY CORIOLIS FLOW METER AGA REPORT NO. 11
Author(s): Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early 1980s, Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in gas, liquid, and slurry applications with an installed base of more than one million units. Through signicant design, enhancements in the early 1990s Coriolis meters have rapidly gained worldwide acceptance in gas phase applications with over 100,000 meters installed worldwide and most notably the publication of the second edition of AGA Report Number 11, Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis Meter.
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Document ID: F39A1171

FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Pat Donnelly
Abstract/Introduction:
Samuel Clegg made the rst practical gas meter in England in 1815. It was a water-sealed rotating drum meter that was improved in 1825 however, it was still very costly and very large. Thomas Glover developed the original diaphragm meter in England in 1843. It consisted of two diaphragms, sliding valves and linkage. T. S. Lacey patented the pre-payment meter in 1870. The most signicant change to diaphragm meters over the years has been in the materials of construction. Brass parts have been replaced by plastic, and leather diaphragms have been replaced with synthetic rubber. A rotary piston meter was invented in the late 1800s, but it was primarily used a blower. In the 1940s a Roots-Connersville dimensional rotary meter was used. The style of rotary meter in use today was rst used in the 1960s in the cast iron version, the extruded aluminum style came out in the 1970s. The modern turbine meter was developed in the 1970s. It has had minor modications over the years, but the basic operation is the same. Ultrasonic measurement was rst developed in the 1980s and has been rened over the years.
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Document ID: B9CD4E97

FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS TURBINE METERS
Author(s): John A. Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of all gas measurement used in the world today is performed by two basic types of meters, positive displacement and inferential. Positive displacement meters, consisting mainly of diaphragm and rotary style devices, generally account for lower volume measurement. Orice, ultrasonic and turbine meters are the three main inferential class meters used for large volume measurement today. Turbines are typically considered to be a repeatable device used for accurate measurement over large and varying pressures and ow rates. They are found in a wide array of elevated pressure applications ranging from atmospheric conditions to 1440 psig. Turbine meters have also become established as master or reference meters used in secondary calibration systems such as transfer provers. A signicant number of both mechanical and electrical outputs and congurations have become available over the past 50 years of production.
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Document ID: C9F48D6A

ROTARY DISPLACEMENT METERS BASICS
Author(s): Todd Willis
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classes of gas meters. These are inferential type meters, which include orice and turbine meters, and positive displacement meters, which include diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferential type meters are so-called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas ow and calculating the volume based on the measurements. The positive displacement type meters are so-called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them. The rotary positive displacement meter has been in existence for over 75 years. Its reliability, rangeability, longterm accuracy, and ease of installation, maintenance and testing have made this meter a favorite among gas utilities for billing purposes in industrial and commercial applications. Rotary meters have also gained popularity in the production and transmission markets.
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Document ID: 436831AE

AUTOMATING METER SHOP PRACTICES USING AMR/AMI TECHNOLOGY
Author(s): Scott Haldi
Abstract/Introduction:
AMR devices or endpoints have historically been used to reduce labor costs associated with meter reading. They can provide other bene
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Document ID: F5AA038D

A CASE STUDY: ONE COMPANYS TRANSITION FROM ORIFICE TO ULTRASONIC MEASUREMENT
Author(s): John Bachman
Abstract/Introduction:
In this case study, we will review one gathering companys experience (for the purpose of anonymity, known as Tra-dition Production) as they methodically transitioned their production
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Document ID: 36843222

DISTRIBUTION GAS METER PROVING: THE EQUIPMENT AND METHODOLOGY USED TODAY IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY
Author(s): Gregory A. Germ
Abstract/Introduction:
The performance accuracy of a natural gas meter is de-termined by passing a known volume of air from a mea-surement reference or standard-the meter registra-tion is compared against this known volume. The known volume of air originates from the meter prover. In earlier times, the gas meter prover was a stand-alone device (usually a bell-type prover), manually operated without any electronics or automation. Today, the majority of gas meter provers are fully automated computer controlled and operated, and responsible for other job functions be-sides the proving of gas meters. The bell-type meter prov-er - though still commonly used in the industry - is not the only kind of meter prover used today. The advance-ments and developments in electronics and computer technology has lead to an evolution of meter proving equipment - far from the manual proving methods that were commonplace only a few decades ago. Many utili-ties have replaced the bell-type prover with sonic nozzle and transfer provers. Provers can now store and retrieve information from a utilitys meter management system, reduce the human error factor in the proving operation, and provide self-diagnostics to assist the prover operator in maintenance and in troubleshooting problems.With the advancements made in gas meter provers, there exists the need to understand gas meter proving basics. The gas meter prover determines the accuracy of a gas meter.
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Document ID: 4B57B1FE

ULTRASONIC GAS FLOW METER BASICS
Author(s): James W. Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the operating principal and application of ultrasonic gas ow metering for custody transfer. Basic principals and underlying equations are discussed, as are considerations for applying ultrasonic ow meter technology to station design, installation and operation. These applications are illustrated based on operating experience with the Instromet 3 path and 5-path Q.Sonic custody transfer ow meter, however, many of these issues may be generalized to devices manufactured by others.
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Document ID: 505EAFF3

BASICS OF DIAPHRAGM METERS
Author(s): Jerry Kamalieh
Abstract/Introduction:
The rst gas company in the United States, The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with nancial and technical problems while operating on a at-rate basis. Its growth was slow, its charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority. By comparison, the New York Gas Light Company founded in 1823 prospered and expanded. They had built their system on the use of gas meters to measure the supply of gas to customers, and a large one to register the quantity made at the station before it is conveyed to the gasometers. The pattern of operation used by this New York company was quickly copied by other companies throughout the east coast, including the Baltimore company. Seeing the success in New York, businessmen formed new gas companies in Albany, Boston, Philadelphia, New York, etc., and the new industry in the United States began to ourish.
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Document ID: BC198640

DIFFERENTIAL TESTING OF ROTARY METERS
Author(s): Ron Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the introduction of rotary meters in the 1920s, gas distribution companies have used the differential pressure across the meter as an indication of meter condition and performance. Using manufacturers recommendations in concert with industry and regulatory standards differential testing is a cost effective method to verify the condition of a rotary meter while in service. With acceptance by many U.S. public utility commissions, differential testing has been used by gas distribution companies for many years. This paper will discuss the traditional methods used for differential testing as well as the most recent developments that improve the efficiency and effectiveness of a differential pressure testing program.
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Document ID: B59F88A7

NON-INTRUSIVE ULTRASONIC FLOWMETERS IN LIQUID AND GAS APPLICATIONS-TECHNOLOGY AND INSTALLATION TECHNIQUES
Author(s): NON-INTRUSIVE ULTRASONIC FLOWMETERS IN LIQUID AND GAS APPLICATIONS-TECHNOLOGY AND INSTALLATION TECHNIQUES
Abstract/Introduction:
NON-INTRUSIVE ULTRASONIC FLOWMETERS IN LIQUID AND GAS APPLICATIONS-TECHNOLOGY AND INSTALLATION TECHNIQUES
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Document ID: E7020A10

ADVANCED APPLICATION OF ROTARY METERS
Author(s): Ron Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will examine and explain several common characteristics of rotary meters and their use in the natural gas distribution, transmission and production markets. The selection, proper installation, start-up procedures and regular maintenance routines will be covered, as well. ROTARY METER OPERATING PRINCIPLE As gas ows through a rotary meter the impellers turn, trapping known volumes of gas. This measuring chamber and impellers are constructed of hard coated anodized aluminum to offer strength and resistance to damage from gas ow debris. For the purposes of this paper it is important to note that the impellers and cylinder do not touch each other and are separated by gaps that measure an average of .003. As a meter begins to increase its speed this gap creates a uidic seal so that any slippage (unmeasured gas), is conned to very low ow rates.
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Document ID: 45126380

DIAGNOSTICS FOR LARGE HIGH VOLUME FLOWORIFICE PLATE METERS
Author(s): Mark Skelton,Simon Barrons, Jennifer Ayre, Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
In 2008/9 DP Diagnostics disclosed a proprietary dif-ferential pressure (DP) meter diagnostic methodology 1,2. Swinton Technology (ST) has subsequently devel-oped software named Prognosis in partnership with DP Diagnostics. Prognosis allows these generic DP meter diagnostic methodologies to be applied in
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Document ID: B998DE2E

FROM THE WELLHEAD TO THE BURNER TIP:A SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is presented at the Appalachian Gas Mea-surement Short Course - Fundamentals Section. The paper is designed for the
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Document ID: CBF07AF8

WHATS NEW IN AGA REPORT #9 2017
Author(s): David Crandall
Abstract/Introduction:
AGA Report No. 9 is a performance based specification for multipath ultrasonic flow meters typically use in custody transfer applications for natural gas. In July 2017, AGA Report No. 9 Third Edition was published as an update to the previous second edition dated April 2007. The document provides complete information on ultrasonic meters terminology, operating conditions, meter requirements, installation, calibration, and commissioning.
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Document ID: 771A220D

FLOW CALIBRATING HIGH VOLUME ULTRASONIC FLOWMETERS-CONSIDERATIONS AND BENEFITS
Author(s): Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary method for custody transfer measurement has traditionally been orice metering. While this method has been a good form of measurement, technology has driven the demand for a new, more effective form of scal measurement. Ultrasonic owmeters have gained popularity in recent years and have become the standard for large volume custody transfer applications for a variety of reasons. Most users require ow calibrations to improve meter performance and overall measurement uncertainty. The latest revision of AGA Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters, Second Addition Ref 1, now requires ow calibration for ultrasonic ow meters when being used for custody transfer applications. What considerations then, should be taken when choosing to ow calibrate an ultrasonic owmeter? What are the benets to the user? What should a user expect from a ow calibration? What kind of performance should the customer expect or accept from an ultrasonic meter? What are the diagnostic capabilities inherent in an ultrasonic meter? These areas, as well as others will be explored and considered
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Document ID: DCBB52A2

UNDERSTANDING GAS ULTRASONIC METER DIAGNOSTICS-ADVANCED
Author(s): Lansing Measurement Services
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses advanced diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USMs), and how capabilities built into todays electronics can identify problems that may have gone undetected in the past. It primarily discusses scalquality, multipath USMs and does not cover issues that may be different with non-scal meters as they are often single path designs. Although USMs basically work the same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in AGA 9 Ref 1. However, some provide more advanced features that can be used to help identify issues such as blocked ow conditioners, liquids, and gas compositional errors. This paper focuses on the Westinghouse and British Gas congurations (both being four-path chordal designs), and the information presented here may or may not be applicable to other path designs.
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Document ID: D658AFC3

FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS LAWS
Author(s): Tushar Shah
Abstract/Introduction:
Today millions of people depend of Natural Gas for cooking food, heating home/office, heating water and much more. As gas moves from well head to the burner tip, there are many points where gas transportation changes hand from supplier to customer (called custody transfer). These custody transfers include various types of companies/ utilities. Such as, from upstream to midstream, from midstream to downstream, from distribution company to end customer etc. The custody transfer of gas requires accurate measurement as currency is involve in billing for natural gas. Natural gas is naturally occurring gaseous substance that is highly compressible, highly expandable hydrocarbon mixture and with a low specic gravity. The understanding of fundamental of gas laws are important in order to understand accurate measurement of natural gas. Also, it helps in understating the behavior of natural gas under different conditions. Also, it helps in designing and operating natural gas system.
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Document ID: 6FD727EA

LARGE CORIOLIS METERS AND THE APPLICABILITY OF WATER CALIBRATIONS FOR GAS SERVICE
Author(s): Marc Buttler,Tonya Wyatt, Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
In the late 1970s, the rst Coriolis mass ow meter was introduced. By the early 1980s, the use of Coriolis meters gained popularity for liquid applications, but few were used for gas applications. In the 1990s major design enhancements were made to the technology improving its usability in gas applications. Driven by the need for a standard industry practice to guide its use in gas applications, the American Gas Association (AGA) published the rst edition of AGA Report Number 11, Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis Meter in 2003. Today, with an installed population of over 100,000 Micro Motion Coriolis meters in gas applications and the 2013 publication of the second edition of AGA Report No. 11, many users are applying Coriolis meters in gas custody transfer applications.
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Document ID: F3ED29D2

HIGH VOLUME MEASUREMENT USING TURBINE METERS
Author(s): HIGH VOLUME MEASUREMENT USING TURBINE METERS
Abstract/Introduction:
For over one hundred years the turbine meter has been servicing large volume applications of the natural gas market. During this time the turbine has continuously evolved into a device that offers the industry new and unique features. This paper will focus on the significant advancements of this technology as well as how they are applied in the field today.
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Document ID: 2D689207

FLEXIBLE ELEMENT REGULATORS
Author(s): Bryan Vranek
Abstract/Introduction:
This class will consist of a presentation about exible element style regulators. Flexible element regulators are offered in both a tube style as well as a exible diaphragm style design. Both types of regulators are used in a pressure control system, which is a system that controls the ow of uid from a supply to a load system while maintaining pressure. It is important to have these types of regulators to control pressure to allow for safety and efficiency. Below is an example of where pressure control devices will be used in a natural gas distribution system.
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Document ID: 3BC18747

REGULATOR/CONTROL RUN DESIGN OPTIMIZATION
Author(s): Peter Glaser
Abstract/Introduction:
Through proper piping design and equipment selection, many regulator and control valve station issues encountered in the eld are preventable. This paper explores the key design considerations to assist in avoiding many of the potential regulator and/or control valve station issues and optimizing the station design to suit the operational needs of the facility. This includes exploration of the valve selection process, station control confgurations, and design of the station piping to match the engineered equipment.
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Document ID: DDFB4B6A

BASIC PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS
Author(s): John H. Batchelder
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is misunderstood by many. It is believed by some that all gas is a liquid that is pumped into automobiles or into tanks and is used as a fuel. It is thought of as a dangerous material that will blow up easily. Others do not differentiate between LP gas, natural gas, or gasoline - They are all the same thing, right? While it is true that the above mentioned materials are all made up of the same basic components, each has its own physical and chemical characteristics
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Document ID: A6FE6C95

GATE STATION DESIGN
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
The City Gate or, Take, Station, is the interchange of natural gas between: Two interstate pipelines An interstate pipeline and a local gas distribution company (LDC) An interstate pipeline and a large industrial end user (usually a power plant) The City Gate station is one of the more complex designs a natural gas engineer will deal with in the course of a career. Like all projects, a properly designed and constructed gate station begins with good preliminary engineering. In preliminary engineering, all of the major project goals and hurdles are dened. If the preliminary engineering document is written properly, it will serve as the backbone for the entire project.
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Document ID: A9E37FF2

UNDERSTANDING REMOTE CONTROLLED CONTROL VALVES AND AUTOMATED VALVES FROM THE SCADA CONTROL ROOM TO THE FIELD DEVICE
Author(s): Raymond J. Schnebelen
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays modern natural gas infrastructure requires the need for natural gas utilities and pipelines to remotely control ow and pressure through control valves, regulators and actuated block valves to properly and safely control the gas ow to critical systems. For those new to the gas industry, much of this technology may seem overwhelming, and difficult to understand how commands from a gas control center are transferred to the eld devices, and signals from end devices are relayed back to the control center. There are many factors that are used in the selection of these control devices so that proper operation and control is consistent, reliable and operates safely in the eld. This paper outlines the basic techniques used to achieve these goals.
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Document ID: 056FE302

BASIC APPLICATION OF FLOW COMPUTERS AND TELEMETRY SYSTEMS
Author(s): Todd Lamb
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to ow computers being commonly used in the measurement of hydrocarbons, most telemetry systems were used to collect control information and real time data and provide control commands to Remote Terminal Units (RTU). Most of the local metering was being handled by chart recorders and local data collection by operations personnel. The collected charts were sent to the central facility where the information provided custody transfer reports and or eld operations reports. Most of the commonly used chart recorders were the standard circular chart format and pneumatic devices. These were used to process the information for billing, regulatory operations, and monthly operations, but generally culminated into a cumbersome and costly task. The measurement departments often had to deal with discrepancies in data and information that was often weeks or months old. There was an urgent need for collecting real time information from metering equipment and custody transfer data. Although there were telemetry systems in place, collecting real time data and getting this information to a central office was not easily accomplished with the early types of SCADA systems in place. Most of the early RTU and SCADA systems were used for control purposes, such as start/stop, open/ close, and alarm reporting. Some RTUs did have analog signal input and output capabilities. The RTU could be used to download remote set points and collect valve position data.
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Document ID: D16F3C83

REAL-TIME ELECTRONIC GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Chris Carville
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of oil & gas production has progressed considerably since the days of paper charts and manual integration. Technology has moved increasingly to microprocessor based ow computers allowing for greater measurement accuracy, increased control functionality, and ready integration into a companys enterprise computer networks.
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Document ID: BF5B936A

BASICS OF USING MODBUS IN MONITORING AND CONTROL
Author(s): Tushar Shah and Elias Davis
Abstract/Introduction:
The MODBUS is a common industrial communication protocol. It is widely available either as a standard or an option in an industrial control and monitoring equipment e.g. Remote Terminal units (RTUs), Programable Logic Controllers (PLCs), Flow Computers, Volume Correctors, Pressure Recorders, Ultrasonic Meters, Coriolis Meters, Chromatographs, Valve controllers, Odorizers, Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems etc. Originally, MODBUS serial communication protocol was published in 1979 for use with its PLCs by Modicon (now Schneider Electric). It has become a de facto standard communication protocol for industrial electronic devices. Since 2004, the development and update of MODBUS protocol is managed by the Modbus organization. Over the years the protocol has evolved, including the latest variation allowing communication over an ethernet network. Modbus is a simple protocol however, it can get confusing as there are different avors of MODBUS available i.e. MODBUS ASCII, MODBUS RTU, MODBUS TCP, MODBUS Plus, Extended MODBUS etc.
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Document ID: 276C140E

FUNDAMENTALS OF PRESSURE CONTROL
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure control is the fundamental operation of all natural gas delivery systems. It provides a safe and reliable energy source for manufacturing and heating systems throughout the world. Pressure control is utilized to balance the system supply demands with safe delivery pressures. Pressure control is used in all phases of the delivery system as follows: Production Wells Up to 5,000+ psig Compressor Stations Pumping into Storage or Boosting Transmission Supply. City Gate Stations Reduce Transmission Pressures to Distribution Pressures. District Regulation Stations cutting pressures for safe delivery End User Regulation Providing a safe pressure for end user appliances.
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Document ID: 36842D01

WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS-APPLICATIONS IN OIL & GAS
Author(s): WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS-APPLICATIONS IN OIL & GAS
Abstract/Introduction:
COMPANY OVERVIEW OLEUMTECH CREDENTIALS Founded in 2000 with the mission of enabling the wireless digital oileld. With over 350,000 nodes and 35,000 networks, OleumTech is the leading provider in the space. OleumTechs products have radically transformed how companies gather data in the eld. Made in the USA, in-house R&D and manufacturing. Patented wireless technologies ISO-9001 Certied. Worldwide presence. Self-Contained, Battery Powered C1 D1 Transmitters. Sensor-to-Gateway Connectivity for IoT. Field-Proven in some the harshest environments. Scalable Architecture. Solutions for every possible measurement variable. (Pressure, Flow, Temperature, Level, Alarms, etc.)
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Document ID: C8794009

WIRELESS HART SOLUTIONS IN OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION
Author(s): Tony Simpkins
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 5D529FF5

UNDERSTANDING HYDROCARBON LIQUIDS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): UNDERSTANDING HYDROCARBON LIQUIDS MEASUREMENT
Abstract/Introduction:
BASIC VOLUME & MASS TERMS Indicated Volume - The meter pulses divided by the K-Factor (ex: Pulses/(Pulses/Gallon) gallons Gross Volume - The Indicated Volume multiplied by the Meter Factor - This is what a truck driver is concerned with. Gross Std Volume - The Indicated Volume multiplied by Correction Factors BS&W Volume - The Gross Std. Volume multiplied by the Basic Sediment & Water percentage value. Crude oil will contain some amount of water and suspended solids from the reservoir formation. The particulate matter is known as sediment or mud. Net Std. Volume - The Gross Std. Volume minus the BS&W volume - what you get paid for. Gross Mass - Can be calculated from the Gross Volume & Density or can be a direct mass reading from mass meter
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Document ID: FA97C919

OPTIMIZING FLAME AND GAS COVERAGE AND PROTECTION
Author(s): Brian Ledeboer
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 5D09AD0D

NETWORK ANALYSIS - PART 1 GAS FLOW EQUATION FUNDAMENTALS
Author(s): Tim Bickford
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past 25 years engineers in the natural gas industry have come to depend on the computer as a tool to perform complex hydraulic network analysis. Analysis, which would take weeks to perform by hand or by punchcard machines 30 years ago, can now be accomplished in mere hours or sometimes seconds. Today gas network analysis software, though complex and extremely sophisticated, has become very user friendly. Low cost PCs, inexpensive software and exible software licensing now make it possible for almost anyone to have access to these powerful engineering tools. Today, more and more non-technical persons are using this cutting edge technology to perform analyses that were once performed by specialists. Although computer technology has paved the way for a new generation of gas network analysis enthusiasts, it is important that fundamental gas pipeline hydraulic concepts are not forgotten. Its imperative that users of network analysis software know what is going on behind the scenes.
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Document ID: 29799250

CORROSION CONTROL CONSIDERATIONS FOR M&R STATIONS
Author(s): John Otto
Abstract/Introduction:
NACE International The deterioration of a material, usually a metal, that results from a reaction with its environment. What is Necessary for Corrosion to Occur Anode Cathode Electrolyte Metallic Path Note - Current ow must occur between the Anode and Cathode Galvanic Corrosion Occurs when two dissimilar metals are electrically connected The metal with the most negative voltage (higher potential) with reference to a copper/copper sulfate half cell will corrode
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Document ID: 8BCB1050

PROJECT MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS
Author(s): John Jay Gamble, Jr., P.E.
Abstract/Introduction:
What is a Project? A temporary, non-routine endeavor to create a unique product or service limited by time, budget, and specications. The purpose of a project is to achieve its objectives and transfer to operations. How does it differ from Operations? Operations are on-going, permanent, and repetitive. The purpose of operations is to sustain or maintain the business
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Document ID: C68F1820

LNG PEAK SHAVING PLANTS-LIFE EXTENSIONS
Author(s): Pat Convery, Yash Sanghai, and Anthony Sweeney
Abstract/Introduction:
SAFETY MOMENT Appropriate PPE depends on the job you are doing, and where you are doing it. In an LNG plant for example, FR clothing, face shields, aprons and high cuff gloves are standard issue, while your colleagues who work in distribution may have more standard (Level D) PPE When in doubt about the appropriate PPE, ask the safety person, plant manager, consult the JSA, or ask at the morning tailgate. If none of these things exist, take a step back and re-assess. LNG-A QUICK REVIEW Liqueed Natural Gas (LNG) is regular pipeline gas that has been cleaned up and cooled until it turns into a liquid. This happens at about -260 degrees F. LNG is often stored in the market areas, usually near the LDC system center, to provide peak shaving in the winter. The other primary use of LNG is to enable shipping of the gas overseas to countries where pipeline gas is not available (Japan) or not plentiful enough (Spain, France, UK, and until recently, USA)
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Document ID: 1731A1CB

PIPING AND CALIBRATION CONSIDERATIONS FOR SMALL DIAMETER ULTRASONIC METERS
Author(s): Peter Kucmas
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will explore the effects of upstream/ downstream piping, ow conditioners, inspection tees and quick opening closures and their effects on small diameter ultrasonic meter calibrations. Special issues regarding small diameter meters of this type will be reviewed in detail. Small Ultrasonic meters are a phenomenal way to measure natural gas... eos Three things to look at-small USMs and other technology Engineering design & Cost Calibration Operation / maintenance Small ultrasonic meter runs 4, 3, 2 and less ...... Careful engineering, installation and maintenance are key The returns are ... consistent, bullet proof measurements for a life time .... There are things that we do need to take into consideration This is the core of our discussion today
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Document ID: 0C25B10B

LIFE OF A MODERN SHALE WELL
Author(s): Ryan Deaderick
Abstract/Introduction:
Since its discovery and use in ancient times to the beginning of the industry in the 1850s, oil and natural gas have largely inuenced the reality of our modern world. Most scientists theorize that the majority of the worlds oil and natural gas were created from the transformed remains of ancient marine organisms. Today, we nd deposits of oil and gas within underground formations of sedimentary rocks and continue to develop techniques and technologies to extract these resources. Unique developments involving one particular type of sedimentary rock called shale have created a renaissance in oil and gas production in the United States. Thousands of private companies in the US operate to primarily develop and produce hydrocarbons from the major and prolic shale basins. Successful shale development operations require signicant nancial investment, long term planning and the great work of dozens of unique, exciting professions. It is estimated that the shale gas industry supports more than 800,000 American jobs.
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Document ID: 27E9F80D

DESIGN CONSIDERATION FOR SHALE GAS GATHERING STATIONS: A BIG PICTURE
Author(s): Austin Day
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the advancements of horizontal directional drilling, the physical size of gas gathering systems has increased accordingly. Integral to these advancements are the design considerations for maintaining natural gas ow and pressure via pipelines to allow producers to get their products to market. Gas Gathering compressor stations provide a vital role in maintaining the movement of these products. This paper provides a broad overview of key considerations for the design of gas gathering stations, including location selection, associated infrastructure, equipment, and permitting
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Document ID: 14C31864

UNDERGROUND STORAGE 101
Author(s): Zachary Evans
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: D8BAD630

PHMSA REGULATIONS FOR UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE
Author(s): Zachary Evans
Abstract/Introduction:
HISTORY OF API 1171 Anticipating future regulations based on PHMSAs 2011 Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking regarding pipeline safety, the American Petroleum Institute (API) convened a group of industry experts to draft recommendations for underground storage operations. Recommended Practices specically outline how to safely design, store, and operate natural gas in salt caverns and depleted oil and gas reservoirs. RP 1170 - Salt Caverns (July 2015) RP 1171 - Depleted Reservoirs (September 2015) After several years of formulation, peer review and revision, documents were nalized and distributed in hopes of guiding potential regulatory decision making in the future.
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Document ID: 4D31C03E

COMPRESSOR STATION DESIGN BASICS AND AN OVERVIEW OF THE DESIGN PROCESS
Author(s): G. Mitchell Mazaher
Abstract/Introduction:
PURPOSE OF A COMPRESSOR STATION Production -Move gas from wells into transmission pipelines Storage -Move gas in and out of storage elds to and from transmission pipelines Transmission -Move gas through a pipeline
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Document ID: 254ABBA6

GLYCOL DEHYDRATION
Author(s): Andrew Glascock
Abstract/Introduction:
DEHYDRATION? The term dehydration means to remove water from a substance. Water vapor is removed from natural gas through the glycol-absorption process. The glycol absorbs the water from the gas, and then the water is distilled from the glycol and driven off into the air. Why Dehydrate? If water vapor is allowed to remain in the natural gas it will reduce the efficiency of a pipeline. The water will cause corrosion and reduced capacity of the pipeline. Water and other corrosive agents will in time eat holes in the pipe or vessels through which the gas ows. The water vapor mixed with Hydrocarbons will form hydrates or ice blocks in pipes, Valves and Vessels Hydrates will form at fairly high temperatures when gas is under pressure. Hydrates can form @50 to 70 deg F in 1000 psi lines.
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Document ID: 8806E20F

WELLHEAD EQUIPMENT
Author(s): Eric Rosema and Bruce Lautner
Abstract/Introduction:
What Exactly Is A Wellhead A wellhead is the component at the surface of an oil or gas well that provides the structural and pressure containing interface for the drilling and production equipment. The primary purpose of a wellhead is to provide the suspension point and pressure seals for the casing strings that run from the bottom of the hole sections to the surface pressure control equipment.
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Document ID: 0D22CEDA

UNDERSTANDING HYDROCARBON DEW POINTS IN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES
Author(s): James N. Witte
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will present a discussion on the hydrocarbon dew point of a gas, and is intended as an introduction for operations technicians to the conditions that determine a hydrocarbon dew point value, operating concerns generated when the hydrocarbon dew point is reached, and approaches to the management of gas quality to control hydrocarbon dew point in pipeline systems. The hydrocarbon dew point is one of the most important parameters dening the quality of a natural gas mixture. The signs of having reached hydrocarbon dew point are readily recognizable. Evidence of reaching the hydrocarbon dew point include a high liquid line (stain) found on an orice plate, liquid that is found when trying to take a gas sample or a sound speed comparison error in an ultrasonic meter diagnostic routine. One of the distinguishing characteristics of hydrocarbon liquid is that at atmospheric pressure and temperature the liquid will rapidly vaporize without a trace.
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Document ID: 6A5B2603

ADVANCES IN HYDROCARBON DEWPOINT MONITORING THEORY AND PRACTICE
Author(s): Sohrab Zarrabian
Abstract/Introduction:
Monitoring the hydrocarbon dewpoint of natural gas is becoming ever more important. We have collected more than 20 years worth of data from our customers who use our analyzers in a few different countries with different climates. We have analyzed this data to look for trends and other information that may be useful to the industry. Our customer base includes pipeline operators, gas processors, storage operators, as well as power plants. While these customers are from distinct segments of the gas industry, they face similar issues in controlling the hydrocarbon dewpoint of their natural gas streams. The range of observed dewpoints show strong correlation with ambient temperatures. In general, hydrocarbon dewpoints are higher in warmer climates, while in colder climates, the dewpoints are usually lower. However anomalies, manifested by high hydrocarbon dewpoints, pose a signicant challenge to pipelines and natural gas users regardless of climate.
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Document ID: 77AF89D0

PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR GAS SAMPLING AND GAS SAMPLING SYSTEMS
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The amount of hydrocarbon product that is transported between producer, processor, distributor and user is signicant. To be able to verify the exact composition of the product is important from an economic and product treatment standpoint. A small percentage savings made by correctly determining composition will quickly recoup the investment made in the purchase of a system designed to obtain an optimum sample. In addition, if the best sampling procedures are followed, the potential for disputes between supplier and customer will be greatly reduced. The importance of properly determining hydrocarbon gas composition benets all parties involved and will achieve greater signicance as this precious commodity becomes less plentiful and more expensive. From the Gas Processors Association publication GPA 2166-05, The objective of the listed sampling procedures is to obtain a representative sample of the gas phase portion of the owing stream under investigation. Any subsequent analysis of the sample regardless of the test, is inaccurate unless a representative sample is obtained. And, from ISO-10715, a representative sample is, A sample having the same composition as the material sampled, when the latter is considered as a homogeneous whole. API 14.1 offers a similar statement in the latest revision, a representative sample is compositionally identical or as near to identical as possible, to the sample source stream, as does ASTM 5287-97. These standards are the most common referenced on Gas Sampling procedures, along with the AGA Gas Measurement Manual, Part No. 11, Section 11.3.
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Document ID: 8ACB7058

SELF-OPERATED REGULATOR BASICS
Author(s): Trent Decker
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. It is only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application that we need to look more deeply into the fundamental of the regulator operation
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Document ID: 42F2AC96

WATER VAPOR EFFECTS ON NATURAL GAS QUALITY AND NATURAL GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): James N. Witte
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is produced from underground formations in which the gas is at an equilibrium condition with water typically in the formation. Since the gas has been in the formation for a sufficiently long period, full saturation at the pressure and temperature conditions that exist in the production formation is a good assumption. This paper will discuss the effects of water vapor content on natural gas quality and the effect of water vapor on gas measurement.
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Document ID: DB68E6AD

DETERMINATION OF H2S & TOTAL SULFUR IN NATURAL GAS
Author(s): Byron Larson
Abstract/Introduction:
In the natural gas industry, H2S and total sulfur are monitored to validate tariff limits or to ensure process specications are maintained at receipt, sales, and process control points throughout the system. Typical measurement ranges are 0-20 ppm for H2S and 0-100 ppm for total sulfur on transmission lines. Wellhead treating, particularly shale gas development has created the need to measure higher ranges of 1000 to 5000 ppm measurement at H2S treater skid inlet with a target treater outlet of 1 to 5 ppm. Downstream processing plant inlet applications require percentage measurement of 1-10% and sulfur plant feed or H2S re-injection ranges of 20-60%. Natural Gas gathering systems may blend off-spec gas with spec gas to maintain gas quality specications in the 0-5% H2S range. Liquid rich shale gas presents a need to measure H2S in condensate or light oil streams. Natural gas streams used as feed stock in fertilizer production or any other sulfur sensitive catalyst bed dependent process requires sub ppm to as low as 10 ppb sulfur measurement. This paper summarizes principles of operation and points to consider when employing available technologies for various applications and concentrations encountered in the gas industry and related downstream facilities
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Document ID: 478B7C49

FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY
Author(s): Jamie Marsden
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chromatography is one of the most widely used techniques for analyzing hydrocarbon mixtures. Some of the advantages of chromatography are the range of measurement (from ppm levels up to 100%), the detection of a wide range of components, and the repeatability of the measurements. Chromatography is used in the laboratory, in permanently installed online systems, and in the eld with portable systems. No matter the location, style or brand, all gas chromatographs are composed of the same functional components that are the sample handling system, the chromatograph oven, and the controller electronics (refer Figure 1). This paper will cover the principles or sample handling, how chromatograph columns separate the components, why and how multi-port analysis valves are used, the common detector type used in the hydrocarbon applications, and the analysis processing that provides the component concentrations and the other calculated values (such as heating value and specic gravity) through physical reports or interfaces to other devices.
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Document ID: 90C6A386

FUNDAMENTALS OF WATER VAPOR MEASUREMENT IN NATURAL GAS
Author(s): Ken Soleyn
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of moisture in natural gas is an important parameter for the processing, storage and transportation of natural gas. Natural gas is dehydrated prior to introduction into the pipeline and distribution network. For interstate custody transfer of natural gas maximum allowable levels are set by tariff, normally expressed in terms of absolute humidity in pounds per million cubic feet (lbs/ mmscf). The dew point temperature (C or F Td) is of interest to insure that liquid water or ice does condense in the system. Moisture concentration in parts per million (ppmv) is used in Liqueed Natural Gas (LNG) Several technologies exist for the online measurement and for spot sampling. A review of the most commonly used instruments using the following technologies: chilled mirror, impedance sensors, quartz microbalance, and tunable diode laser adsorption will be discussed. An intercomparison of those technologies with consideration to the measurement range, accuracy, long-term drift, response time, maintenance and gas sample conditioning will be provided.
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Document ID: C8526B9D

2019 Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr., James N. Witte, and Adam Hawley
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas ow rate measurement errors at eld meter stations can result from the installation conguration, the calibration of the meter at conditions other than the actual operating conditions, or the degradation of meter performance over time. The best method for eliminating these or other sources of error is with in-situ (on-site) calibration of the meter. That is, the measurement accuracy of the eld meter station should be veried under actual operating conditions by comparing to a master meter or prover. Comparisons of ow meters in the eld have been performed for nearly as long as ow meters have been in existence. For example, Figure 1 shows an orice meter being compared to three 60-A tin meters (a.k.a., diaphragm meters) in Rosedale, Kansas in 1921.1 Each tin meter had the ow capacity of 1,800 standard cubic feet per hour. In this particular test, a 1.6% difference in reading was discovered between the orice meter and the tin meters (so named because their housings were made of thin tinned sheet metal.
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Document ID: 35C98E03


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