Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (2019)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

APPLICATION OF FLOW COMPUTERS FOR MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL
Author(s): Al Majek
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of oil & gas production has progressed considerably since the days of paper charts and manual integration. While still in use today, the technology has moved increasingly to microprocessor based flow computers. Such devices allow for greater measurement accuracy, increased control functionality, and are readily integrated into a companys enterprise computer networks.
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Document ID: 1AA34F9A

FUNDAMENTALS OF ORIFICE METERING
Author(s): David Courtney
Abstract/Introduction:
The history of orifice metering began in the early 1900s. The first test data was done by the U.S. Geological Survey and in 1913 the first Handbook of Natural Gas was published. So, as you can tell, orifice metering has been around for over 100 years and in that time, much has been learned and improved on. Orifice metering flow equations have been derived from test data where an orifice plate, a plate with a hole in the middle of it, was placed in the flow line causing a restriction in flow. This differential was then compared to the actual amount that passed by the orifice and from that information engineers can then ascertain by mathematical algorithms what equations to use to duplicate those results. Below is a schematic of an orifice differential being compared to a known prover volume.
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Document ID: 16582D64

AN OVERVIEW OF PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION TECHNOLOGIES
Author(s): Jun Zhang, Peter Han, Michael Twomey
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipelines have transported water, oil and gas for hundreds of years, serving residential communities, industrial sites and commercial centers reliably and silently. Leak detection systems (LDS) are needed because pipeline spills occur more frequently as infrastructure ages and more hazardous products are transported. Leak detection systems cannot prevent leaks, but they can certainly help minimize the consequence of leak. Regrettably, too many leak detection systems fail to detect leaks, and other leak detection systems are ignored by the operators because they are unreliable. Thus, leaks that should have been small spills become disasters that cost pipeline owners millions of dollars. The key to the successful operation of pipeline leak detection systems is management commitment that assures the allocation of sufficient resources to the ongoing maintenance of leak detection systems and their supporting components. Every pipeline operator should consider a role for a leak detection champion who understands how their system works, continually monitors its performance, and supports the Pipeline Controllers. The leak detection system is not fit-and-forget and it requires ongoing management which is best achieved in-house with vendor support. When selecting a leak detection technology, it is critical to remember that every pipeline is different and the technology that is best for one pipeline may not serve well on another pipeline.
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Document ID: 393D8007

FUNDAMENTALS OF PRESSURE REGULATORS
Author(s): Jim Mueller
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry, there are two basic types of regulators used for both pressure reducing and back pressure (relief) control. The two types are: Self Operated Regulators (Sometimes referred to as spring loaded regulators) Pilot Operated Regulators (Loading and Unloading style pilot regulators) This paper will discuss the basic principle of Self Operated and Pilot Operated Regulators including components of the system, principles of operation, advantages and disadvantages, and some maintenance and inspection procedur
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Document ID: 0997A617

CALCULATION OF NATURAL GAS LIQUID QUANTITIES
Author(s): Keith Fry
Abstract/Introduction:
There is no substitute for well maintained, properly installed, and properly performing measurement equipment. Industry- standard measurement equipment installation, operation, and maintenance provide the raw data necessary for those dealing with natural gas liquids (NGLs) to transact business. Then, this raw data can be adjusted or converted to values suitable for transactions to take place and for proper accounting. To determining which adjustments or conversions to use, begin by understanding the desired results. Some measurement processes and accounting software applications require volumetric quantities. Others require mass quantities. For many NGL applications, the preferred outcomes are liquid volumes of pure components. This is because most NGLs are eventually fractionated into pure products and market prices for these are readily available. Sometimes, the gas equivalent values of liquids are useful for operations. Knowing the starting point is equally important. The starting point can vary depending on the type of measurement. Different resources and applications provide for different means of measuring NGLs. Quantity measurements can be made on a mass basis or a volumetric basis.
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Document ID: 10DAB803

FUNDAMENTALS OF PRESSURE RELIEF VALVES IN NATURAL GAS INSTALLATION - OPERATION - MAINTENANCE
Author(s): Paul J. Murtaugh
Abstract/Introduction:
What Are They and Why Are They Needed What: A stand-alone device that opens and recloses at a pre-selected pressure, containing an orifice sized to flow a required capacity to prevent / avoid overpressure. Why: All natural gas equipment (pipelines, pressure vessels, air-cooled heat exchangers, compressor cylinders, odorant tanks, instrument control lines, valves, underground storage, industrial-residential-commercial system supply) has a maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) rating. Pressure ratings (MAOP) of each piece of equipment may be different. Pressure relief valves with proper application will prevent overpressure above MAOP. Set point is dictated by the lowest MAOP equipment in the system.
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Document ID: C9454775

DEVICES FOR FIELD DETERMINATION OF WATER IN NATURAL GAS
Author(s): J. David Hailey
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents fundamental information necessary to understand and appreciate the concept of total gas energy in a natural gas pipeline. That is, to be able to converse with peers within the natural gas industry and understand basic concepts and terminology. Discussed is the historical transition from volumetric measurement to total gas energy including some of the basic terminology, physics, measurement, as well as the reasons for changes in methodologies. Included is industry acceptance of new concepts and regulations involving custody transfer as well as the instrumentation and systems involved in traditional and newer, more progressive forms of gas measurement.
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Document ID: 22FA5B77

FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS TURBINE METERS
Author(s): PAUL HONCHAR
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of all gas measurement used in the world today is performed by two basic types of meters, positive displacement and inferential. Positive displacement meters, consisting mainly of diaphragm and rotary style devices, generally account for lower volume measurement. Orifice, ultrasonic and turbine meters are the three main inferential class meters used for large volume measurement today. Turbines are typically considered to be a repeatable device used for accurate measurement over large and varying pressures and flow rates. They are found in a wide array of elevated pressure applications ranging from atmospheric conditions to 1440 psig. Turbine meters have also become established as master or reference meters used in secondary calibration systems such as transfer provers. A significant number of both mechanical and electrical outputs and configurations have become available over the past 60 years of production. This paper will focus on the basic theory, operating principles, performance characteristics and installation requirements used in turbine meter applications. A discussion of fundamental turbine meter terminology is also included.
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Document ID: 838323FA

CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF ULTRASONIC METERS
Author(s): Randy Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many in our industry who would consider the advancement of the ultrasonic meter to be one of the most important improvements in gas measurement in the past twenty years. It is my opinion that the immense improvement in gas measurement is not so much the ultrasonic meter itself. Instead, I believe it is the meters ability to detect conditions that would compromise its own accuracy and ability to communicate those conditions to the user. It is in the area of communicating those conditions, that we often under-utilize the meters capabilities. The natural gas pipeline industry has seen tremendous changes in the past twenty years, including a smaller multi- skilled workforce. The reality of todays pipeline workforce is fewer technicians performing a wider range of tasks. Much of their measurement work is performed with less frequency, and on more complex equipment than ever before. Gaining the proficiency needed to recognize and troubleshoot ultrasonic meter problems, requires time and experience to learn. By bringing the meters diagnostic data into our SCADA system, we can provide alarms and trending capabilities that are not dependent on the frequency at which a Technician can visit a measurement facility. Furthermore, it is not dependent on whether a Technician has the necessary expertise to recognize potential meter problems. Another change our industry has seen are meter stations with larger but fewer meters. With the high turn down capabilities of ultrasonic meters, large volume meter stations that before would have been built with four or more orifice meters are now built with one or two larger ultrasonic meters. Fewer meters, means we are placing a higher liability on each meter.
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Document ID: A2E82EEE

Basics of Ascertaining Effective Pressure and Temperature Measurement
Author(s): Brian Cleary
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurements of pressure and temperature are made for many reasons and by several methods. This paper will focus on measurements made during gas production and transportation and suggests criteria to be used in the selection and installation of the instruments used to measure these physical properties. In this industry, pressure and temperature measurements are primarily being made for three (3) reasons: Safety Control Compensation
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Document ID: 534DCC66

PHMSAS RULE IMPACT ON GAS MEASUREMENT (CONTROL ROOM MANAGEMENT)
Author(s): Russel W.Treat
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper summarizes a SCADA implementers perspective regarding the intent of the Pipeline Hazardous Materials Safety Administrations (PHMSA) Control Room Management (CRM) rule. In addition, this paper provides a fresh approach to CRM, describing why companies should use the CRM process to go beyond compliance requirements and implement operating best practices that would significantly enhance operations reliability and pipeline safety.
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Document ID: 2D2AA142

FIELD INSPECTION AND CALIBRATION OF VOLUME CORRECTING DEVICES
Author(s): George E. Brown Ill
Abstract/Introduction:
Timely, diligent field testing and calibration of gas volume recording, and correcting instruments ensure that measurement information fairly represents actual volumes. The instruments save a company capital and operating costs because they can record or integrate volumes at pressures and temperatures above the normal pressure base conditions specified in contracts for volume calculation. This allows the company to use smaller and fewer meters. Recording and correcting instruments normally are connected to positive displacement, rotary and turbine meters in lieu of direct reading/compensating index. The compensating instruments include: Volume and pressure/temperature recording gauges Mechanical pressure/temperature volume correctors Electronic pressure/temperature volume correctors Electronic flow computer
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Document ID: AA1C135E

OVERVIEW OF PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION TECHNOLOGIES
Author(s): Jun Zhang, Peter Han, Michael Twomey
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipelines have transported water, oil and gas for hundreds of years, serving residential communities, industrial sites and commercial centers reliably and silently. Leak detection systems (LDS) are needed because pipeline spills occur more frequently as infrastructure ages and more hazardous products are transported. Leak detection systems cannot prevent leaks, but they can certainly help minimize the consequence of leak. Regrettably, too many leak detection systems fail to detect leaks, and other leak detection systems are ignored by the operators because they are unreliable. Thus, leaks that should have been small spills become disasters that cost pipeline owners millions of dollars. The key to the successful operation of pipeline leak detection systems is management commitment that assures the allocation of sufficient resources to the ongoing maintenance of leak detection systems and their supporting components. Every pipeline operator should consider a role for a leak detection champion who understands how their system works, continually monitors its performance, and supports the Pipeline Controllers. The leak detection system is not fit-and-forget and it requires ongoing management which is best achieved in-house with vendor support. When selecting a leak detection technology, it is critical to remember that every pipeline is different and the technology that is best for one pipeline may not serve well on another pipeline.
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Document ID: 3F685A7A

FLUID FLOW CONDITIONING FOR METER ACCURACY AND REPEATABILITY
Author(s): Danny Sawchuk
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow conditioning is one of the most critical aspects dealing with any type of volumetric flow metering. Flow conditioning is the final buffer between the flow meter and the upstream piping layout and is responsible for eliminating swirl, restoring flow symmetry and generating a repeatable, fully developed velocity flow profile. Even though modern advancements have resulted in low uncertainty, high repeatability devices that are effective across a range of flow rates, proper utilization of flow conditioner is still required to maximize the meters performance, diagnostics and ensure the most stable long term flow measurement. All flow conditioner technologies are not made equal, as commonly used designs such as AGA tube bundles and straightening vanes can actually cause more measurement problems than they resolve. This paper will focus on two main types of flow conditioners perforated plate systems and tube bundles. Flow conditioner systems such as AGA-3 19 tube Bundles and straightening vanes have an extensive history of use in liquid and gas measurement systems over the past few decades. They are even being used in modern measurement scenarios that utilize ultrasonic flow metering. The common belief was that due to their length, straightening vanes were very effective at swirl removal, resulting in an excellent measurement device that offered a low pressure drop. Modern research has shown that this is quite the opposite. Their excessive length and low pressure loss makes them unsuitable for use in precision measurement applications, both in liquid and gas phase scenarios.
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Document ID: 269FC0DC

GAS ODORANTS - SAFE HANDLING, HEALTH, AND ENVIRONMENT
Author(s): Daniel E. Arrieta, David C. Miller, Eric Van Tol
Abstract/Introduction:
Thiols (mercaptans), alkyl sulfides (dimethyl sulfide and methyl ethyl sulfide), and cyclic sulfides, such as tetrahydrothiophene, have been widely used in the odorization of natural and liquefied petroleum gas due to the fact that natural gas does not possess an odor. Mercaptans, for example, have proven to be very effective in odorizing because of their low odor threshold and therefore, immediate impact on the olfactory system (Roberts, 1993). Although, gas odorants are characterized as having a low hazard potential regarding health effects, their unique physical chemical properties such as, high flammability, require that they be handled safely. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the human health and environmental concerns associated with gas odorants, to recommend safe handling and personal monitoring, and to discuss the impact of regulatory changes associated with the chemical management of these chemicals.
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Document ID: CB793922

The Effect of Pulsations On the Accuracy of Gas Metering
Author(s): Sarah Simons, Terry Grimley
Abstract/Introduction:
The recent boom in natural gas production has led to an increased need for gas compression infrastructure, including meter stations that can transport larger volumes of gas at higher velocities and pressures. When improperly designed, these meter stations can create poor conditions for accurate flow measurement. Among the factors that should be considered when developing a meter station are the static pressure environment (for pulsation minimization) and pulsation distortions of the velocity profile. Measurement accuracy can be improved through the understanding of the influence of these factors on various meter types and by identifying and mitigating potential sources. This paper is a survey paper composed of previously published material by current and previous employees of Southwest Research Institute: S. Simons, T. Grimley, R. McKee, R. Durke, E. Bowles, and K. Brun as noted in the reference section. This paper will discuss the basics of pulsations in piping systems, various methods for attenuating pulsations, and the effect on orifice, turbine, ultrasonic, and Coriolis meter readings. Field case studies of different types of problems experienced at meter stations will be used to demonstrate these effects.
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Document ID: AA2C6F73

Gas and Liquid Measurement Validation
Abstract/Introduction:
Fundamental to all electronic gas measurement (EGM) and electronic liquids measurement (ELM) systems is the ability to accurately measure, review, correct, and report data. Any weakness in this chain undermines the accuracy and data integrity in the system. Recent industry standards and practices have greatly expanded the emphasis on data integrity. The Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) Act of 2002 focuses on the integrity and consistency of all financial-based transactions for an organization. A SOX auditor will directly reference the American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) Chapter 21 (popularly known as API 21) as the standard for all steps in the measurement process throughout an organization. Therefore, measurement personnel must possess a thorough understanding of API 21 and put its requirements to practice in order to satisfy the audit process. Natural gas operations must comply with API MPMS Chapter 21, Section 1 (API 21.1), Flow Measurement Using Electronic Metering Systems-Electronic Gas Measurement. A second edition, published in 2013, includes substantial revisions to the original, 1993 edition. Over recent years, a number of companies in the industry have acquired natural gas and petroleum liquids operations. Measurement departments tracking both natural gas and liquids must comply with API 21.2 as well as API 21.1.
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Document ID: A274BEAA

ELECTRONIC GAS MEASUREMENT AUDITING
Author(s): Gary P. Menzel
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic gas measurement auditing or EFM auditing is a very important process in the natural gas industry. Within the last twenty years, the natural gas industry has changed from the dry flow chart recorder to the Electronic flow Computer(EFM) as the primary method of recording the measurement data for custody transfer. These flow computers are still typically connected to an orifice meter and are subject to all of the problems in the primary device that a chart recorder was. In addition they have their own set of problems that crop up in the flow computer and transmitters, some of which had similar problems when it was a chart recorder and some of which are unique to the flow computer. Careful review of the meter data should still be (and usually is) a part of the monthly close process. Even with the review process, occasionally measurement errors make it through to the payment calculation. It is for this reason that auditing is necessary and prudent. A proper audit procedure can be cost effective and ensure that proper credit is received for any delivery. As a side benefit, it will also help ensure that internal measurement is being performed properly.
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Document ID: 84E381EA

How Not to Measure Gas - Orifice Measurement
Author(s): Dee Hummel
Abstract/Introduction:
Measuring natural gas is both a science and an art. Guidelines and industry practices explain how to accurately measure natural gas. The art comes in trying to minimize errors and prevent measurement problems. However, sometime its easier to explain how not to measure gas when reviewing measurement errors. Measurement errors can be caused through poor installation practices, poor measurement practices, operational changes, and human error. The purpose of this paper is to address some real life cases of measurement errors.
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Document ID: 24DB95D7

FUNDAMENTALS OF NATURAL GAS LIQUID MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Don Sextro, Dan Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of natural gas liquids (NGL) is similar in many respects to that of other hydrocarbon liquids but is markedly different in other aspects. The main difference in NGL measurement is the need to properly address the effects of solution mixing. Measuring NGL by mass measurement techniques will properly address solution mixing effects because the mass measurement process is not sensitive to the effect that pressure, temperature and solution mixing have on the fluid measured. Another difference is the effect of higher vapor pressures on the measurement of natural gas liquids. In static measurement methods, the liquid equivalent of the vapor space must be determined. In dynamic measurement methods, the equilibrium vapor pressure, or that pressure at which a liquid and its vapor phase is in equilibrium at a given operating temperature, must be deducted from the operating pressure when determining the compressibility effects on measured volumes. This paper will describe the basic concepts used to measure and report the quantities of NGL streams.
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Document ID: AA67521E

MEASURING HYDROCARBON AND WATER DEWPOINTS
Author(s): Sohrab Zarrabian
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrocarbon Dew Point (HDP) remains one of the key quality parameters of natural gas streams. Its determination is needed for operational and safety considerations, as well as to satisfy tariffs and regulations in US and overseas pipeline operations. The recent development of shale gas in US has added to the need for accurate and consistent measurement of HDP across a range of different mixtures of natural gas. Theoretical methods for prediction of natural gas have been used in the past, but have been shown to have significant errors associated with them1. In general, theoretical methods using GC component analysis and EOS models have too much error to be useful. Direct measurements, using a chilled-mirror, continue to remain the preferred method for measurement of HDP. We introduced our line of hydrocarbon and water dewpoint measurement instruments about 5 years ago. These analyzers utilize CEIRS technology, which is a novel implementation of the chilled-mirror principle. It utilizes IR spectroscopy to not only detect the dewpoint but also whether it was a water dewpoint or hydrocarbon dewpoint. We have collected the data from our analyzers corresponding to approximately 20 years worth of data. In this paper, we discuss some of the findings from the analysis of this data.
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Document ID: ECE0AD35

FUNDAMENTALS OF MASS MEASUREMENT (CORIOLIS METERS)
Author(s): Marsha Yon
Abstract/Introduction:
The first flow meter utilizing the Coriolis force to measure mass flow was patented in 1978. Today, hundreds of thousands of Coriolis meters are in service in the hydrocarbon industry to measure mass, volume, and density of a wide variety of fluids. The American Petroleum Institute published Chapter 5.6 entitled Measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbons by Coriolis Meters in October 2002 and reaffirmed the standard in 2013. The standard describes methods to achieve custody transfer levels of accuracy when a Coriolis meter is used to measure liquid hydrocarbons.
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Document ID: C66FD5B6

HOW TO PERFORM A LOST & UNACCOUNTED-FOR GAS PROGRAM
Author(s): John McDaniel
Abstract/Introduction:
Many (likely most) gas pipeline companies struggle with lost-and-unaccounted-for-gas (L&U) and it can be a significant cost to their bottom line as shown below. As shown in this inset, by reducing L&U from 0.6 percent to .25 percent, a typical company with a 2 BCF daily throughput could save Over 7.6 million dollars annually based on 3.00 gas prices, which is a daily loss of 21,000.
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Document ID: C7587431

FUNDAMENTALS OF ENERGY DETERMINATION
Author(s): J. David Hailey
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents fundamental information necessary to understand and appreciate the concept of total gas energy in a natural gas pipeline. That is, to be able to converse with peers within the natural gas industry and understand basic concepts and terminology. Discussed is the historical transition from volumetric measurement to total gas energy including some of the basic terminology, physics, measurement, as well as the reasons for changes in methodologies. Included is industry acceptance of new concepts and regulations involving custody transfer as well as the instrumentation and systems involved in traditional and newer, more progressive forms of gas measurement.
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Document ID: A6ED4C07

GAS CONTRACTS IMPACT ON MEASUREMENT ACCURACY
Author(s): Ted Glazebrook
Abstract/Introduction:
Much effort is spent to achieve accurate measurement. Up to date measurement standards, modern meter station design, high quality equipment, and proper measurement operations are all necessary for measurement accuracy. Unfortunately, these processes do not assure measurement accuracy if the contract does not also support accurate measurement. The contract impacts measurement accuracy by what it addresses and what is left unaddressed. More focus needs to be applied to the measurement sections of the contracts. Hopefully this paper will help the reader better understand the relationship between the contract and accuracy.
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Document ID: 3FCE7E1C

EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP AT ALL LEVELS
Author(s): Bill Stahl
Abstract/Introduction:
We study Engineering, Accounting, Business Management, Computer Science and a host of other curriculums on our way to employment. Technical schools teach us Ohms Law, Fundamental Physics, Chemistry, Electronics and Welding. Courses and complete degree programs in Leadership are available but for some reason, Effective Leadership is rarely taught in the disciplines found in our industry. While we admire sports heroes and winning coaches, how often do we admire winning CEOs or Managers? How many coaches, teachers or other people of influence have mentored us to success? How do we adapt the winning qualities we find in sports or college to Leadership in our careers? Sadly, Managers often lead or manage as they were managed. Traditions and bad habits persist as employees tolerate poor leadership but sometimes move to competition or out of the industry all together as they are simply seeking a pleasant place to work and excel in their careers. Market trends find us increasingly dependent upon technology and processes with many managers believing computers, smart phones and elaborate SCADA networks enhance productivity to the point we are expected to accomplish more with less people all in shorter periods of time. We need to communicate with each other effectively, taking time to use digital tools to their advantage and not being bogged down because we can instantly communicate. Critical thinking skills and experience keep daily operations on the right path. Effective leadership sees communication tools for the positives they are, leveraging them to their fullest value but never overlooking the value of face to face communication.
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Document ID: 77945647

FUNDAMENTALS OF VOLUME MEASUREMENT (TURBINE METERS)
Author(s): Kevin Tansey
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine meters have been used for the custody transfer of refined petroleum products and light crude oils for over 40 years. When correctly applied, they offer high accuracy and long service life over a wide range of products and operating conditions. Traditionally turbine metes were used for the measurement of low viscosity liquids and PD meters for higher viscosities. However, new developments in turbine meter technology are pushing these application limits while increasing reliability and accuracy. This paper will examine the fundamental principles of turbine meter measurement as well as new developments including: smart preamps for real-time diagnostics, helical flow turbine meters for higher viscosity applications, higher performance flow conditioners to increase accuracy, and viscosity compensation to extend the application limits.
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Document ID: 7DE99716

AUTOMATING GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Richard L. Cline
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address concepts of SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) Systems and their application to the measurement industry. An important focus of the paper is to provide the reader with an understanding of the technology and with guidelines to be used to evaluate this equipment as part of an automation project.
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Document ID: C32E9E76

FUNDAMENTALS OF PRESSURE REGULATORS
Author(s): Jim Mueller
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry, there are two basic types of regulators used for both pressure reducing and back pressure (relief) control. The two types are: Self Operated Regulators (Sometimes referred to as spring loaded regulators) Pilot Operated Regulators (Loading and Unloading style pilot regulators) This paper will discuss the basic principle of Self Operated and Pilot Operated Regulators including components of the system, principles of operation, advantages and disadvantages, and some maintenance and inspection procedures.
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Document ID: 0C171B1E

COMPAIRING PLUG & SEAT REGULATORS & CONTROL VALVES
Author(s): Rick Schneider
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays charging world of technology there have been may changes in controls that now allow to truly compare a plug and seat regulator to a control valve for high-pressure natural gas installations such as: power plants, city gate stations, large industrial customers, compressor stations, and storage fields. The features, benefits, capabilities, and differences of both devices will be outlined, to enable the reader to make an educated selection. In addition, acceptable design practices will be reviewed concerning sizing, gas velocities, noise levels, equipment layout, and performance. The ball valve is the most commonly used type of modulating valve for natural gas pipeline control applications, for that reason, we will limit this discussion to comparison between the plug and seat regulator and versions of a 1/4 turn ball valve.
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Document ID: E26F26D7

IMPROVING FLOW MEASUREMENTS WITH IMPROVED CALIBRATION AND DATA HANDLING PROCEDURES
Author(s): Duane Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The continual flow of information from field measurement technicians to measurement analysts in the corporate office is extremely demanding and creates tremendous and constant challenges for all organizations. Every day, measurement technicians test their knowledge and skill sets regarding: Electronic and pneumatic controls Communication system support Multiple technical disciplines Measurement and verification equipment Keeping current with applicable measurement standards Standard operating procedures Facility regulatory requirements Ongoing training Measurement analysts require a completely different skillset to verify the flow measurement data along with interpreting the meter testing and calibration data received from the field. Analysts are tasked with absorbing large quantities of information and utilizing their extensive knowledge base to determine whether a current month adjustment or even prior month(s) adjustments are warranted. Throughout the process, maintaining data integrity requires all parties to continually ask: Did the technician and analyst follow the correct procedures in performing the calibration and the adjustment?
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Document ID: 1B349369

MEASURING HYDROCARBON AND WATER DEWPOINTS
Author(s): Sohrab Zarrabian
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrocarbon Dew Point (HDP) remains one of the key quality parameters of natural gas streams. Its determination is needed for operational and safety considerations, as well as to satisfy tariffs and regulations in US and overseas pipeline operations. The recent development of shale gas in US has added to the need for accurate and consistent measurement of HDP across a range of different mixtures of natural gas. Theoretical methods for prediction of natural gas have been used in the past, but have been shown to have significant errors associated with them1. In general, theoretical methods using GC component analysis and EOS models have too much error to be useful. Direct measurements, using a chilled-mirror, continue to remain the preferred method for measurement of HDP. We introduced our line of hydrocarbon and water dewpoint measurement instruments about 5 years ago. These analyzers utilize CEIRS technology, which is a novel implementation of the chilled-mirror principle. It utilizes IR spectroscopy to not only detect the dewpoint but also whether it was a water dewpoint or hydrocarbon dewpoint. We have collected the data from our analyzers corresponding to approximately 20 years worth of data. In this paper, we discuss some of the findings from the analysis of this data.
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Document ID: 0BD2D00F

INTEGRATING AND TRENDING USM, FLOW COMPUTER, AND CHROMATOGRAPH DIAGNOSTICS TO IDENTIFY MEASUREMENT PROBLEMS
Author(s): Ed Hanks
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays smart measurement devices produce significant diagnostics information. When the diagnostics from the various devices are collected, trended, and integrated, operators can remotely and continuously identify measurement problems. The vocabulary associated with this topic is evolving. In the past, the industry used terms such as SCADA and Condition Based Monitoring to describe this process. These terms are being replaced by terms such as Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and Big Data Analytics, and even AI. In either case, this paper looks at the problems associated with collecting, trending, and integrating diagnostics information. It then gives examples of how diagnostics can be used to identify measurement problems. Finally, the paper provides an example of the reduction in exposure to Lost and Unaccounted For gas (LAUF) that operators may expect through implementing comprehensive diagnostic monitoring and analysis systems.
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Document ID: 3AB50EEF

FACTORS AFFECTING DIGITAL PRESSURE CALIBRATION ASSOCIATED TECHNIQUES, USES, TRACEABILITY, AND PROBLEMS
Author(s): Scott A. Crone
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure calibration is as important today as it has been for a very long time, but the way calibration is done and the equipment used to do it has changed drastically. In the past it was a standard practice to use a primary standard for pressure calibration. That standard was normally a dead weight tester or a manometer. Today with more accurate secondary standards available there is a larger choice in what can be used for pressure calibration. What is used normally will depend on the requirements that have to be met and the equipment that is available. This paper discusses issues that should be taken into consideration when choosing a pressure calibrator from the many that are available today along with some of the challenges involved with performing a calibration or validation with a digital standard.
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Document ID: 3B188E38

NATURAL GAS SAMPLING
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
In the last 25 years, the natural gas pipeline industry has transitioned from the supplier of clean, dry natural gas to the mover of billable gas energy clean and dry or dirty and wet. The amount of hydrocarbon product that is transported between producer, processor, distributor and user is significant. To be able to verify the exact composition of the product is important from an economic and product treatment standpoint. In addition, if the best sampling procedures are followed, the potential for disputes between supplier and customer will be greatly reduced. The importance of properly determining hydrocarbon gas composition benefits all parties involved and will achieve greater significance as this resource becomes more expensive and plays a larger role in our energy needs worldwide. From the Gas Processors Association publication GPA 2166-05 we read, The objective of the listed sampling procedures is to obtain a representative sample of the gas phase portion of the flowing stream under investigation. Any subsequent analysis of the sample regardless of the test, is inaccurate unless a representative sample is obtained. And, from ISO-10715, a representative sample is defined as, A sample having the same composition as the material sampled, when the latter is considered as a homogeneous whole. API 14.1 offers a similar statement in the latest revision, a representative sample is compositionally identical or as near to identical as possible, to the sample source stream, as does ASTM 5287 -97. These standards are the most common referenced on Gas Sampling procedures, along with the AGA Gas Measurement Manual, which is currently under revision.
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Document ID: 62D2DA39

FUNDAMENTALS OF PYCNOMETERS AND DENSITOMETERS
Author(s): Kevin Fields
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss the use of pycnometers for densitometer provings. The primary objective will be to provide guidance in the operation and maintenance of a densitometer and pycnometer (pyc), as well as common issues found during normal operation.
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Document ID: 68C57FFD

Methods of Gathering Electronic Gas Measurement (EGM) Data
Author(s): Tony Cocchiarella
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is to discuss the various methods of gathering electronic gas measurement (EGM) data. There are various options when it comes to collecting EGM data in the Natural Gas Industry. Devices such as RTUs, PLCs and EFMs are typically used to collect and store the data locally. The focus of this paper is on the various technologies used to remotely gather the information stored on these devices. Depending on each companys needs, these collection options could range from someone physically connecting to a device to collection via a satellite system. Spread spectrum networks became increasingly popular over the years, which as a result introduced realized interference due to the number of networks installed. Many companies are utilizing IP technologies versus serial in order to combine other networks and protocols. Licensed networks have been utilized for quite some time and are still used to meet reliability requirements. Cellular networks are often used when there is no infrastructure available in that area. Cellular networks will of course have a reoccurring cost associated with them. Satellite technology is required in some remote and/or saturated areas. Satellite communications can be costlier but is the only option available in some areas.
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Document ID: 2C9A1D3A

FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONIC FLOW METER DESIGN, APPLICATION & IMPLEMENTATION
Author(s): Martin Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic flow measurement as applied to the natural gas industry has advanced considerably over the last 30 years. Applications to address Upstream, Midstream and Downstream gas measurement technologies have become more complex. Over time it has become necessary to understand the fundaments that make up this ever-changing environment. This paper will discuss the important fundamental parameters to consider when designing an Electronic Flow Measurement (EFM) system. Please be aware of the many variances to each specific design and understand this is only a fundamental paper to give new gas industry members a first look at the technologies that are required when considering an EFM design.
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Document ID: 84DDF4F0

ODORANT LEAK MANAGEMENT
Author(s): Eric Olivier, Pierre Braud, Olivier Griperay, Jean-Benoit Cazaux
Abstract/Introduction:
All around the world, propane, butane and natural gas must be odorized. The odorization ensures a safe transport, distribution and use of this valuable energy to residential buildings. Regulations vary from one country or state to another. The natural gas can be odorized at different points of the gas grid: in some countries (France, Spain, South Korea...), odorization takes place at the entry points of the countrys gas grid, either at the gas transmission pipes or at Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) terminals just after vaporization. In other countries (USA, Canada, Mexico, Germany, Italy, Belgium, China...), natural gas is often odorized at city gate level, where gas is depressurized to allow distribution to residential points. Odorants also may vary from one country to another, and within the same country as well. The International Organization for Safety (ISO) is listing in the ISO 13734(1) components commonly used: odorants are mainly composed of Sulfides (TetraHydroThiophene, MethylEthylSulfide, DiMethylSulfide) and Light Mercaptans (mainly TertiaryButylMercaptan, IsoPropylMercaptan). With the exception of TetraHydroThiophene which can be used as a standalone odorant, odorants are composed of blends of these thiochemical compounds. By definition, these odorant are flammable products and have a very low odor detection threshold: 0.3 part per billion in volume for TertiaryButylMercaptan(2). Any small leak of odorant can trigger a misleading gas alert. A significant leak will do the same and may lead local authorities to evacuate large city areas to manage the public reaction and protect people against the potential fire and chemical risks.
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Document ID: A6B9A529

AUDITING GAS ANALYSIS LABS
Author(s): Carl Alleman
Abstract/Introduction:
The data produced by Gas Chromatograph (GC) laboratories is used for many purposes, including product specification, accounting, safety and environmental compliance issues. The accuracy of this data has direct impact on all of these areas. Auditing laboratories responsible for producing this data is prudent business practice. The audit will provide a means of process improvement, through proper identification of deficiencies and a precise plan for corrective action. The level of confidence in analytical results will increase when the appropriate corrective actions are implemented. The amount of financial and legal exposure can be reduced from a properly executed audit program.
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Document ID: C36B387D

ONSITE PROVING OF GAS METERS
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increased use of Natural Gas as a fuel, and higher natural gas prices buyers and sellers of natural gas are seriously looking at ways to improve their natural gas measurement and reduce the error in natural gas measurement. A 6 Turbine or Ultrasonic meter operating at 1,000 Psi will move 100 MMSCF/Day. An error in measurement of only one tenth of one percent (0.1%) on 100 Million Standard Cubic Feet (MMSCF) of Natural Gas selling at 4.00 per Thousand Standard Cubic Feet (MSCF) will cause an over or under billing of 400.00. Therefore the error in a year is (400 X 365) 146,000.00 This will more than pay for a proving or verifying system. The Btu in one barrel of oil is equivalent to the Btu in approximately 5,600 cubic feet of natural gas. At 4.00 per thousand cubic feet, the natural gas equivalent of one barrel of oil is 22.40 which is much less than a barrel of oil so natural gas is becoming the fuel of choice. In the petroleum liquid industry, no custody transfer liquid measurement system would be complete without a method to prove the meter, either as part of the equipment, or through connections provided to connect a portable prover. Under billing causes loss of revenue and over billing can cause a future correction that can cost the company millions of dollars to correct over billing.
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Document ID: 6C3022A7

Advanced Communication Designs
Author(s): Bob Halford
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: C5A015B8

OVERVIEW OF EQUATIONS OF STATE (EOS)
Author(s): Adam G. Hawley, Darin L. George
Abstract/Introduction:
Determination of fluid properties and phase conditions of hydrocarbon mixtures is critical for accurate hydrocarbon measurement, representative sampling, and overall pipeline operation. Fluid properties such as compressibility and density are critical for flow measurement, and determination of the hydrocarbon due point is important to verify that heavier hydrocarbons will not condense out of a gas mixture in changing process conditions. In the oil and gas industry, equations of state (EOS) are typically used to determine the properties and the phase conditions of hydrocarbon mixtures. EOS are mathematical correlations that relate properties of hydrocarbons to pressure, temperature, and fluid composition. Various software packages are available that use different EOS to calculate a range of natural gas properties and phase conditions. This paper discusses the different EOS that are available, the properties that can be obtained from each EOS, and practical uses of EOS software for natural gas pipeline applications.
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Document ID: A598823B

CORIOLIS MASS FLOW METERS FOR GAS AND LIQUID MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Thomas Koczynski
Abstract/Introduction:
A Coriolis mass flow meter is a meter that can be used to measure liquids and gases. It directly measures mass and density and these can be used to calculate actual volume flow in liquids. With gas applications the mass can be converted back to standard conditions with some simple math and a verification of the gas composition. Coriolis meters have been around for over 30 years and as time passes are becoming more accepted in industry where a more precise measurement is needed. This paper will review Coriolis mass flowmeter technology and applications with reference to measurement of liquids and gases, as well as challenges and best practices.
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Document ID: 19442ACC

OVERALL MEASUREMENT ACCURACY
Author(s): Paul J. La Nasa
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents methods for determining the uncertainty of both differential and positive metering stations. It takes into account the type of meter, number of meters in parallel, type of secondary instruments, and the determination of physical properties. The paper then relates this information to potential influence on system balance
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Document ID: 1F8BF7F2

CALCULATION OF NATURAL GAS LIQUID QUANTITIES
Author(s): Keith Fry
Abstract/Introduction:
There is no substitute for well maintained, properly installed, and properly performing measurement equipment. Industry- standard measurement equipment installation, operation, and maintenance provide the raw data necessary for those dealing with natural gas liquids (NGLs) to transact business. Then, this raw data can be adjusted or converted to values suitable for transactions to take place and for proper accounting. To determining which adjustments or conversions to use, begin by understanding the desired results. Some measurement processes and accounting software applications require volumetric quantities. Others require mass quantities. For many NGL applications, the preferred outcomes are liquid volumes of pure components. This is because most NGLs are eventually fractionated into pure products and market prices for these are readily available. Sometimes, the gas equivalent values of liquids are useful for operations. Knowing the starting point is equally important. The starting point can vary depending on the type of measurement. Different resources and applications provide for different means of measuring NGLs. Quantity measurements can be made on a mass basis or a volumetric basis.
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Document ID: D2E2BACD

METHODS FOR CERTIFYING MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT
Author(s): Scott A. Crone
Abstract/Introduction:
Like any other piece of equipment, a measurement artifact must be maintained. Obviously, it has to be in working order in general. However, what is more important is that it be operating within specified parameters and providing measurements that are traceable to a known source or sources. This paper provides a general overview of calibration and certification. It also discusses some key terminology and methods.
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Document ID: 8B0AE500

Flare Measurement According to API 14.10
Author(s): Eric Estrada
Abstract/Introduction:
With the recent release of the Green House Gas Regulations, the increased visibility of flaring natural gas and increased awareness of royalty owners, the ability to accurately measure and account for the amount of product flared from a facility has become increasingly important to regulators, royalty owners and operators. In the past, flare gas was not considered a necessary measurement, so the measurement of flared product has often been overlooked or not given the same attention as custody transfer measurement. As such API published API MPMS Chapter 14.10, Measurement of Flow to Flares, in June of 2007. This paper will provide a quick overview of the contents of API MPMS 14.10 but is encouraged to obtain 14.10 if more detailed information is desired. In addition, a brief discussion on the importance of calibrating flare flow meters is also discussed.
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Document ID: E490E9A9

METER VALIDATION FOR DIFFERENT PRESSURE FLOW MEASUREMENT DEVICES USING ADVANCE METER DIAGNOSTICS
Author(s): H.K.Narayan, Dr. Richard Stevens
Abstract/Introduction:
Differential Pressure (DP) Flow meters are popular for being relatively simple, reliable and inexpensive. Their principles of operation are relatively easily understood. However, traditionally there has been a misconception that no DP meter self-diagnostic capabilities exist and as such only upgrading to newer ultrasonic or Coriolis technology can help bridge this gap. In 2008 & 2009 a generic Differential Pressure (DP) meter self-diagnostic methodology 1,2 was proposed to the industry. In this paper these advanced diagnostic principles were applied towards helping provide end user a newer yet effective, methodology for DP flow meters diagnostics, field proven with experimental test results. These results form the basis of a comprehensive validation methodology designed to help meter operators achieve improved confidence on their DP measurement and thereby help lower their operational risks associated with large measurement uncertainties due to non-compliance. The paper also aims to demonstrate how such new advanced tools/methodologies can help reduce operating costs (OPEX) by moving towards a risk based predictive maintenance plan.
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Document ID: 1739CC8D

FUNDAMENTALS OF NATURAL GAS CHEMISTRY
Author(s): Steve Whitman
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to understand the chemistry of natural gas, it is important to be familiar with some basic concepts of general chemistry. Here are some definitions you should know: Matter - anything that has mass and occupies space. Energy - the capacity to do work or transfer heat. Elements - substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical changes. There are approximately 112 known elements. Examples: carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. Atom - the smallest unit in which an element can exist. Atoms are composed of electrons, protons, and neutrons. Compounds - pure substances consisting of two or more different elements in a fixed ratio. Examples: water and methane. Molecule - the smallest unit in which a compound can exist or the normal form in which an element exists. Example: One molecule of water consist of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. One molecule of nitrogen consist of two atoms of nitrogen. Mixture - combination of two or more pure substances in which each substance maintains its own composition and properties. Examples: natural gas, gasoline, and air.
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Document ID: CA5AD921

LIGHTNING-FREE AUTOMATION
Author(s): Glenn Longley, Jim Gardner
Abstract/Introduction:
What if you could install lightning-free automation? Well, now you can. Wireless automation has changed the paradigm associated with lightning damage to oilfield automation equipment. Historically, oil & gas automation has relied heavily on the direct burial of cable for signal communication from remote devices back to a central controller. This cable acts as a copper conductor for power transients (indirect lightning strikes). A majority of all automation damage is caused by indirect lightning strikes. Copper cable buried on a location acts like an antenna picking up all inducted power surges from the surrounding area.
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Document ID: 6880C220

BASIC ELECTRONICS FOR FIELD MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Steve OBannon
Abstract/Introduction:
Since Thomas Edison invented the light bulb, Electricity has become the life blood of industrialized nations. Today, we depend on it for every aspect of our lives. Electricity is used for everything from powering motors, to running the most complicated computer systems, factories and defense systems, to charging our iPods and iPhones. This paper will focus on the use of electric circuits that apply to the devices used in the oil and gas industry.
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Document ID: 491C6119

LNG CUSTODY TRANSFER MEASUREMENT
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 68FBD338

DEW POINT WET GAS AND ITS EFFECT ON NATURAL GAS SAMPLING SYSTEMS
Author(s): Philip A Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
Wet gas measurement is becoming widely used in the modern oil and gas market place. The effect of entrained liquid in gas and its impact on measurement systems is being researched world-wide by various laboratories and JIP working groups. The impact can be very significant financially. Hydrocarbon Dew Point can also effect the financial operation of a gas transportation company if not managed effectively amounting to hundreds of thousands of dollars per annum based on incorrect sampling and its subsequent analysis. The subject is quite large and encompasses many different concepts, meter types, standards and opinions, with many new ideas brought to the forefront each year as more research is done. From upstream applications to midstream measurement issues caused by liquid drop out in the pipelines were gas gathering systems are used. The issue of liquid entrained gas is becoming a big issue! Small quantities of hydrocarbon liquid in a gas sample stream can have a large impact on the BTU value analysis and cause large losses or gains depending on which side of the financial fence you are. This paper will describe the phenomenon of wet gas, liquid drop out and some of the various types of measurement concepts that are and may be used for these types of measurement, together with some recent thinking and concepts associated with wet gas measurement. The paper will mention some of the terms and mathematical concepts used to enable the reader to grasp a better understanding of what this stuff is about together with some information on wet gas impact in the high gas volume fraction (GVF) applications and sample collection.
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Document ID: B645378E

LIQUID MEASUREMENT STATION DESIGN with NGL CONSIDERATIONS
Author(s): Michael P. Frey
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many factors that must be considered to properly design a liquid measurement station. While many of the components of measurement stations are similar, the criterion that determines the equipment to utilize for a given application or product can vary significantly from project to project. This paper will address the most common applications in the liquid hydrocarbon industry for large volume product measurement as it pertains to custody transfer applications. Custody transfer measurement includes accurate quantity measurement using metering, though equally important is accurate quality measurement using quality and sampling equipment. These custody transfer and/or fiscal metering stations consist of mechanical components and instrumentation on a skidded system along with simple to complex supervisory control systems with flow computers, programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and a human machine interface (HMI) with customized programming to achieve the required measurement goal.
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Document ID: A2BBF568

ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS AND INSTALLATION EFFECTS ON MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Terry Jackson
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of electronics is evolving in the measurement industry. The technology of measurement and control has evolved over the past few decades. Systems have moved from mechanical devices that were read on site to early versions of electronic systems that were polled infrequently. Current systems can control several devices such as pumps, meters or injectors simultaneously using advanced electronics to measure, control and communicate at greater frequency than ever. The need for technicians to understand basic electrical troubleshooting is greater than ever before. Due to the increased reliance on advanced electronic systems throughout the industry... Due to greater regulatory requirements for analysis and reporting... Due to the increased complexity of the electronics that are used in oil & gas industry... There are two ways to learn a subject: The first involves: Rote Memorization Mnemonics Tables Cramming The second involves: Critical Thinking Subject Comprehension Complex Ideas Multiple Predictable Outcomes
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Document ID: 54AB2766

Liquids Measurement, Whats an Industry To Do?
Author(s): Mark V. Goloby
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquids measurement in the oil patch is suddenly getting a lot of attention. Some are dismayed at the low level of technology used to measure liquids. Today, custody transfer of 80 to 85% of onshore crude and condensate production is still documented by a hauler climbing to the top of the tank and strapping it. That would be a fair estimate, concurs Mark Davis Staff Engineer Shell Exploration and Production. The hauler straps the tank before loading his truck and again when he finishes. The producer is paid on whatever that hauler writes on the ticket. I did not realize it was that immature, remarked Grant Farris, Vice President Producer Services, CIMA Energy. So, why it is that immature? Simple, really. The United States is experiencing the highest level of active liquids exploration and production in 40 years. Five years ago finding an oil play at NAPE was almost impossible. While the industry was diligently automating gas measurement to the digital world via electronic flow measurement, oil at 30/bbl and 15bbls/day was not given the same level of attention nor effort. These dynamics have changed.
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Document ID: AC71AD91

AN OVERVIEW OF THE AGA GAS QUALITY MANAGEMENT MANUAL
Author(s): Terrence A. Grimley
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides an overview of the recently released Gas Quality Management Manual 1 that was developed by the American Gas Association Transmission Measurement Committee over a period of roughly seven years. The manual pulls together a wide range of information and provides context that allows both the expert and the novice to understand the why, how and what needed to develop a plan for managing gas quality.
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Document ID: 42E9CA4C

METER SELECTION FOR VARIOUS LOAD REQUIREMENTS
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr., Adam G. Hawley
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to provide meter station designers with a basic methodology for selection of an appropriate flow meter (or meters) for a given application. Since many applications require that a meter station operate over a broad range of flow rates or loads, an example is provided on how to address system rangeability while maintaining accurate flow measurement. Detailed technical descriptions of the functionality of the various available gas metering technologies is beyond the scope of this paper, but information of that type can be found in other papers in these Proceedings.
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Document ID: BBA4D379

FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS TURBINE METERS
Author(s): PAUL HONCHAR
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of all gas measurement used in the world today is performed by two basic types of meters, positive displacement and inferential. Positive displacement meters, consisting mainly of diaphragm and rotary style devices, generally account for lower volume measurement. Orifice, ultrasonic and turbine meters are the three main inferential class meters used for large volume measurement today. Turbines are typically considered to be a repeatable device used for accurate measurement over large and varying pressures and flow rates. They are found in a wide array of elevated pressure applications ranging from atmospheric conditions to 1440 psig. Turbine meters have also become established as master or reference meters used in secondary calibration systems such as transfer provers. A significant number of both mechanical and electrical outputs and configurations have become available over the past 60 years of production. This paper will focus on the basic theory, operating principles, performance characteristics and installation requirements used in turbine meter applications. A discussion of fundamental turbine meter terminology is also included.
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Document ID: B5CB9D9C

CONSIDERATIONS FOR LIQUID MEASUREMENT IN PRODUCTION APPLICATIONS
Author(s): Joey Raskie
Abstract/Introduction:
With the proliferation of horizontal drilling allowing access to tight oil formations, liquid production in the U.S. has significantly increased over recent years. Consequently, there is renewed interest in accurate measurements for both custody transfer and allocation purposes. Advances in measurement automation have yielded operators savings in the millions of dollars annually. Over the last several years, the increase of shale play drilling has created a problem within the industry. Most of the shale plays have been developed in primarily natural gas production areas, where a lack of liquids measurement knowledge may exist. While there certainly are knowledgeable people in these areas, measurement personnel can be spread thin due to the many active drill sites. Both allocation measurement and custody transfer measurement occur in these areas, so measurement personnel must be well versed on both. Typical questions that come up are: What is the right technology to use in each of the areas of measurement? Should I use turbine meters, Coriolis meters, or maybe just orifice meters? What data do I need to get back to my host system? Should I just count barrels or do I want to get some real insight into the process? In years past, most people just wanted to know how many barrels they produced into their knockout pots. Sometimes they did not even care about that, as that was just a bi-product of what they really wanted to measure - GAS! With the shale plays producing hydrocarbon liquids that are very high in energy value (BTU content) yet very light, these liquids have become much more valuable, especially since the quantities have increased from 10-15 barrels per day up to 1,000-3,000 barrels per day. At its highest point, oil was selling at about 120 per barrel, so how important is it to measure that oil accurately? In my estimation, it is very critical not only to measure the product accurately, but also, to make sure the equipment used to measure the product is always working properly.
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Document ID: 82FA808E

AUDITING ELECTRONIC GAS MEASUREMENT PER API MPMS, CHAPTER 21.1
Author(s): Keith Fry
Abstract/Introduction:
Auditing evolved as a business practice as owners began to realize a standardized form of accounting must exist to prevent fraud. Financial audits made their way into businesses during the late 1700s. The industrial revolution brought about the separation of job duties beyond what a sole proprietor or family could oversee. Managers were hired to supervise the employees and the business processes. Businesses began to expand geographically where previously they were all local. Owners, who could not be in more than one place at a time or chose to be absent, found an increasing need to monitor the accuracy of the financial activities of their growing businesses. Owners responded by hiring people to check their financial results for accuracy, resulting in the process of financial auditing. In the early 1900s and at the request of the Securities and Exchange Commission, the auditors reports of duties and findings were standardized. Financial auditors developed methods of reporting on selected key business cases as an affordable alternative to examining every detailed transaction. It was found with auditing that the evaluation of both financial risk and financial opportunity was improved. The fingers of the financial audit eventually began to reach into other areas of business operations. Owners became interested in the integrity of the financial transactions and began to look at the values used to generate them. Business owners began to understand that not only are the numbers important, the neutrality and consistency of their derivation is important as well. This most recent wave of fraud protection in auditing practices culminated in the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX), which the United States federal government implemented in 2002. This federal law is also known as the Public Company Accounting Reform and Investor Protection Act (i.e., the U.S. Senate version of the act) and the Corporate and Auditing Accountability and Responsibility Act (i.e., the U.S House of Representatives version of the act).
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Document ID: 7CA8BC80

AUDITING LIQUID MEASUREMENT FACILITIES
Author(s): Galen Cotton
Abstract/Introduction:
The word Auditing is often used to imply that activities related to a review of general business practices, and procedures for an asset or business unit, are under way. The objective of those activities is to assure compliance with corporate policies and procedures, industry and government standards, and sound management principles. Additional objectives may include review of accounting and financial transactions for accuracy, completeness and timeliness. The Institute of Internal Auditing defines the process as: Internal auditing is an independent, objective assurance and consulting activity designed to add value and improve an organizations operations. It helps an organization accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance processes.
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Document ID: BE4821B5

BASIC IP NETWORKING FOR FIELD TECHNICIANS
Author(s): Burke P. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays oil & gas industry is facing major technology changes in the field automation and control of devices. In the past nearly all SCADA and EFM devices only had a serial port to gather the data. These devices now have Ethernet ports along with serial ports, to communicate, control, program and transmit the data back to a company central data gathering/polling host. This change from mostly serial to mostly Ethernet communications has made the job of a field automation / measurement technician more complex. Setting up the Ethernet port in a meter involves knowing a number of parameters to ensure reliable communications of the data being polled. This article will cover some of the basic things a technician will have to know to connect to your company WAN (Wide Area Network).
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Document ID: AE975331

BASICS OF GAS ULTRASONIC FLOW METERS
Author(s): David Crandall
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to explain the measurement of natural gas for custody transfer applications through the use of ultrasonic meters. Specifically, this paper explains the operation of ultrasonic meters, issues surrounding their performance in natural gas, calibration procedures, and proper installation considerations. Additionally, the electronics making the measurements generate calculated values relating to the operation of the meter and as a result a database is available to provide analysis of the meters ongoing performance. Meter health parameters can be evaluated to verify the meters operation and these principles are explained.
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Document ID: D29B8AE1

APPLICATION IN LIQUID MEASUREMENT USING CLAMP-ON ULTRASONIC TECHNOLOGY
Author(s): Ron McCarthy
Abstract/Introduction:
Clamp on ultrasonic flow meter technology (COUSMT) offers the advantage of providing a non-custody transfer, non-intrusive method to obtain the pipe flow rate. The distinct advantage of the technology is there is no need to present access to the fluid flowing in the pipe. The method is quite robust and simple to implement. More and more measurement practitioners are looking to this technology to fulfill that aspect of the metering requirements in their company.
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Document ID: FE613895

COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE OFFICE AND FIELD
Author(s): Kenny Blackburn
Abstract/Introduction:
It is vital for the success of any measurement organization to establish effective communication between the field measurement operations and the measurement office. Although technically a simple task, the lack of effective communication often leads to measurement error, increased risk of lost revenue, and increases costs. Achieving the goal of effective, efficient processes and measurement accuracy requires effective two-way communication and collaboration between the office and field organizations. The measurement information that is retained and communicated varies depending on the task (meter inspection vs. tube inspection vs. gas sample), the fluid phase (gas vs liquid), type of meter (orifice vs. Coriolis vs ultrasonic), and requirements (company policy, contractual, regulatory, etc). The scope of this paper will be specifically addressing the communication of information.
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Document ID: CA4CE714

CONSIDERATIONS FOR SAMPLING WET, HIGH PRESSURE, AND SUPERCRITICAL NATURAL GAS
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux, Shannon M. Bromley
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the problems encountered when sampling wet, high pressure and supercritical natural gas for on-line BTU analysis, and provides solutions and comments on how they relate to the API and GPA industry standards for natural gas sampling. It also discusses the use of phase diagrams in the design and operation of a natural gas sampling system.
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Document ID: 6FD71325

COPING WITH CHANGING FLOW REQUIREMENTS AT EXSISTING METERING STATIONS
Author(s): James M. Doyle
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays competitive gas market, utility companies must meet aggressive market strategies or suffer the consequences. All industries have cash registers, and gas distribution is no exception. Our measuring stations are our cash register. The problem is, these stations were designed 10, 20, 30 or even 50 years ago, and are now performing tasks they were not designed for. Therefore, changes must be made. Measurement personnel today must be trained and taught to cope with changing flow requirements. But, modifying a station to meet todays aggressive market can be very expensive. Equipment, such as regulators and the primary element (the meter tube, the orifice plate holder, and the orifice plate), must meet A.G.A. 3 requirements. The secondary element (the recording device) can raise expenditures significantly. Sometimes modifications cannot be made to deliver the specified volume of product needed, and replacement of a complete station is even more expensive. Companies today must watch money closely, and work to reduce operating and maintenance costs. To handle these situations effectively, technicians must be trained and taught to cope with changing flow requirements. Knowing your stations and their characteristics are an absolute. Technicians must become familiar with the kind of equipment their station has, and its proper use. The goal here is to detail the appropriate methods and equipment required to handle these tasks.
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Document ID: DBBB383A

DETERMINATION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE AND TOTAL SULFUR IN NATURAL GAS
Author(s): Marshall T. Schreve
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen Sulfide, ( H2S) found in natural gas and crude oil, was formed when animal and vegetable matter decayed in the absence of oxygen. Although we generally give credit to the dinosaurs for the oldest and largest sources, we are still generating this dangerous and unstable compound today in landfill, waste water treatment and as a byproduct in chemical and petrochemical processes. The need to detect, quantify and control Hydrogen Sulfide was met in the early 1970s when an industrious group in Houston Texas created the first commercial Hydrogen Sulfide Analyzer. The detection and analysis of Hydrogen Sulfide left the lab and became a valuable field instrument. Their methodology was simply a roll of paper tape, impregnated with a solution of Lead Acetate (C4H604Pb) and Acetic Acid (CH3COOH) . The paper tape was humidified by bubbling the sample gas through a solution of 5% Acetic Acid (95% distilled water), and then directing the gas to a detector block that allowed a very small aperture to expose the tape to any Hydrogen Sulfide that might be present in the gas stream. The Hydrogen Sulfide with the Lead Acetate to form a dark stain of Lead Sulfide (PbS). The challenge was to determine exactly how to calculate the darkness of the stain in relation to the concentration of Hydrogen Sulfide present in the gas sample.
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Document ID: 75850331

DIFFERENTIAL METERS OTHER THAN ORIFICE: ALTERNATIVE OPTIONS AVAILABLE FOR DIFFERENTIAL MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Richard L. Wakeland, Cheryl D. Wakeland
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow is one of the four major physical measurements in processes. Flow meters may be classified in four categories: differential pressure, velocity, mass and positive displacement or volumetric. Each category has advantages and disadvantages however, the focus of this paper will be the differential pressure flow meters. Differential pressure (dP) flow meters include flow elements such as the orifice plate, venturi, flow nozzle, wedge meter, cone meter and proprietary devices. The elbow flow meter, pitot and annubar are also differential type flow meters, but have a different operating principle than the others and are outside of the scope of this paper. These meters may be referred to as flow elements (FE) or primary flow elements. These flow elements are called primary because an additional or secondary device must be attached to indicate the measured differential pressure. This secondary device may be an electronic transmitter, manometer, standpipe or gage. dP flow elements are often called head type, obstruction or inferential meters. The flow rate is calculated or inferred from the measured difference in pressure or head. The basic principle of operation is that an obstruction is placed in the flow stream reducing the flow area, thereby creating an increase in velocity and a decrease in the flowing pressure. The theories of dP flow meters were proposed in the 17th century. The basic concepts were established by the works by Bendetto Castilli (1578-1643) and Evangelista Torricelli (1608-1647). In 1738, Daniel Bernoulli (1700 - 1782) published his textbook on hydrodynamics in which he stated a relationship in frictionless flow between pressure, velocity and elevation. Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) offered a complete derivation of the Bernoulli Equation in 1755. The first testing of conical contraction and expansion was done by Giovanni Venturi (1746-1822). His study was published in 1797. In 1898, Clemens Herschel (1842-1930) invented the classical venturi.
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Document ID: 6C130433

FIELD TESTING GAS METERS BY TRANSFER PROVING
Author(s): Larry K. Wunderlich
Abstract/Introduction:
Transfer proving was initially developed to provide an easier and more accurate field meter proving method. Because of the capacity capabilities of transfer provers (2000 CFH to 80,000 CFH) transfer provers are utilized in meter shops where bell prover capacity is limited and allow for shop testing of the larger capacity meters.
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Document ID: 168A22F1

FLUID FLOW CONDITIONING FOR METER ACCURACY AND REPEATABILITY
Author(s): Danny Sawchuk
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow conditioning is one of the most critical aspects dealing with any type of volumetric flow metering. Flow conditioning is the final buffer between the flow meter and the upstream piping layout and is responsible for eliminating swirl, restoring flow symmetry and generating a repeatable, fully developed velocity flow profile. Even though modern advancements have resulted in low uncertainty, high repeatability devices that are effective across a range of flow rates, proper utilization of flow conditioner is still required to maximize the meters performance, diagnostics and ensure the most stable long term flow measurement. All flow conditioner technologies are not made equal, as commonly used designs such as AGA tube bundles and straightening vanes can actually cause more measurement problems than they resolve. This paper will focus on two main types of flow conditioners perforated plate systems and tube bundles. Flow conditioner systems such as AGA-3 19 tube Bundles and straightening vanes have an extensive history of use in liquid and gas measurement systems over the past few decades. They are even being used in modern measurement scenarios that utilize ultrasonic flow metering. The common belief was that due to their length, straightening vanes were very effective at swirl removal, resulting in an excellent measurement device that offered a low pressure drop. Modern research has shown that this is quite the opposite. Their excessive length and low pressure loss makes them unsuitable for use in precision measurement applications, both in liquid and gas phase scenarios.
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Document ID: FBEF3827

EFFECTS OF WET GAS FLOW ON GAS ORIFICE PLATE METERS
Author(s): Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice plate meters are one of the most widely used technologies in industry for gas flow metering. This is due to their relative simplicity, the extensive publicly available data sets that led to several orifice plate meter standards 1, 2, 3, 4 and the fact that they are a relatively inexpensive method of gas metering. However, it is common in industry for gas meters to be installed in applications where the flows are actually wet gas flows, i.e. flows where there is some liquid entrainment in a predominantly gas flow. This is usually done out of economic necessity or due to the fact that the system designers were not aware at the systems conceptual design stage that the gas flow would have entrained liquid. Therefore, with the orifice plate meter being such a popular gas flow meter it is by default the most common wet gas flow meter. The affect of wet gas flow on an orifice plate meter configured for gas flow service is complicated. There are on going research programs aimed at improving the understanding of the reaction of the orifice plate meter to wet gas flow. Whereas much of this research is published in recent conference papers it is very technical and is not always immediately relevant to the technician in the field how this information can be practically applied. This paper attempts to review the current scientific knowledge from a practical users stand point.
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Document ID: 03D99A25

AUDITING ELECTRONIC GAS MEASUREMENT PER API MPMS, CHAPTER 21.1
Author(s): Keith Fry
Abstract/Introduction:
Auditing evolved as a business practice as owners began to realize a standardized form of accounting must exist to prevent fraud. Financial audits made their way into businesses during the late 1700s. The industrial revolution brought about the separation of job duties beyond what a sole proprietor or family could oversee. Managers were hired to supervise the employees and the business processes. Businesses began to expand geographically where previously they were all local. Owners, who could not be in more than one place at a time or chose to be absent, found an increasing need to monitor the accuracy of the financial activities of their growing businesses. Owners responded by hiring people to check their financial results for accuracy, resulting in the process of financial auditing. In the early 1900s and at the request of the Securities and Exchange Commission, the auditors reports of duties and findings were standardized. Financial auditors developed methods of reporting on selected key business cases as an affordable alternative to examining every detailed transaction. It was found with auditing that the evaluation of both financial risk and financial opportunity was improved.
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Document ID: CB917F79

ETHICS
Author(s): John L. Chisholm and Patrick L. Mills
Abstract/Introduction:
In any discussion of ethics, the first issue is always nomenclature. Unfortunately, this is often the topic that receives the least attention. Frequently, those involved in the conversation conduct deep insightful discourses in which there is virtually no understanding exchanged, although the participants will all agree that the quality of the rhetoric was outstanding. The problem with the words ethics and morals is that they are generally interchangeable. Admittedly there are subtleties in their use and connotation, but generally they both mean a system of standards for good and evil, right and wrong, and the condition of being in harmony or disharmony with them (ethical, unethical, moral, immoral). In the study of ethics, a common set of definitions is needed so the key ones are summarized below.
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Document ID: 78762179

FIELD DATA CAPTURE WITHOUT PAPER FORMS
Author(s): Bruce Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter inspections, configuration changes, calibration verification, troubleshooting, and gas sampling generate important subsets of measurement data. Automated computer systems capture, process, store, and report this data better than manual, paper-based systems minimizing effort, time, resources, and error for field and office workers.
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Document ID: 1C599064

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF ROTARY DISPLACEMENT METERS
Author(s): Cristina A. Lancelot
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classifications of gas meters. The first consists of inferential type meters, including, orifice, ultra-sonic and turbine meters, and the second is the positive displacement meters, which consist of diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferential type meters are so-called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas flow and calculating the volume based on the measurements. The positive displacement type meters are so-called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them. The reliability of the rotary positive displacement meter, rangeability, long-term accuracy, and ease of installation, maintenance and testing have made this meter a favorite among gas utilities for billing purposes in industrial and commercial applications. Rotary meters have continue to gain popularity in the production and transmission markets. This document briefly discusses the concepts of rotary positive displacement meters and the related operating principles, sizing practices, accuracy and rangeability, along with the installation, start-up and maintenance of the meters.
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Document ID: 240171DD

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF DIAPHRAGM DISPLACEMENT METERS
Author(s): Timothy Clark
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement is the center of any natural gas utility. The ability to measure natural gas is key to generating the revenue to maintain and improve utilities natural gas infrastructure. While Natural Gas has been in use for millenia, Natural Gas Measurement is a relatively recent development. The industry started out with a single rate system in which all paid the same price regardless of gas consumption. Of course, this system was very unfair as all users didnt use the same amount of gas. Today utilities spend millions of dollars to install, maintain, and upgrade their metering systems. Meters are placed throughout the transmission and distribution systems all to gain the most accurate measurement possible. Natural gas measurement today is accomplished by different types of meters. Positive displacement meters measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them. Diaphragm meters are one type of positive displacement meters and will be discussed throughout this paper. This paper will present basic operation principles, accuracy, rangeability, and benefits of diaphragm metering technologies used throughout the natural gas industry today
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Document ID: 8DB0277B

FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS LAWS
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters. A standard cubic foot is defined as one cubic foot of gas at a pressure and temperature agreed upon by the buyer and seller. Common standard conditions are 14.73 psia and 60 Fahrenheit. The gas passing through a meter is rarely at standard conditions. It is necessary to convert the gas in the meter from the metered conditions to standard cubic feet. The tools we have for relating volume to pressure and temperature are Equations of State or, simply, the Gas Laws. The Gas Laws serve two purposes. They allow the conversion of a gas stream from metered conditions to standard conditions. They also provide an understanding of what the gas is doing and why. This paper will briefly present the Gas Laws and the physical properties of gas that the Gas Laws describe.
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Document ID: B4984030

FUNDAMENTALS OF ODORIZATION
Author(s): Matthew S. Parrott
Abstract/Introduction:
In the one hundred and thirty years, or so that we have known natural gas as a fuel source in the United States, the demand for natural gas has grown at an astounding rate. There is virtually no area of North America that doesnt have natural gas provided as an energy source. The methods of producing, transporting, measuring, and delivering this valuable resource have advanced, and improved in direct relation to the demand for a clean burning and efficient fuel. While todays economic climate determines the rate of growth the gas industry enjoys, in a broad sense, natural gas is certainly considered essential and a fuel of the future. Of primary importance, in the process of delivering gas for both industrial and public use, is providing for the safety of those who use it. Whether in the home, or workplace, the safety of all who use or live around natural gas systems is of primary concern. Natural gas is a combustible hydrocarbon and its presence may under certain conditions be difficult to determine. One need only to remember the tragic explosion of the school building in New London, Texas in the 1930s to understand the potential for injury when natural gas accidentally ignites. Because of this possibility for accidents, regulations have required the odorization of natural gas when it comes in contact with the population. This enables people living and working around natural gas to detect leaks in concentrations well below the combustible level of the natural gas. This intent of this paper is to provide basic information regarding the process of odorizing natural gas, which includes characteristics of chemical odorants, typical methods of injecting odorant into natural gas pipelines, and detecting odorant in natural gas. I have sought and used information on areas within this paper dealing with chemical odorants and odorant testing equipment from colleagues whom I consider experts in these fields. You will find them referenced and I urge you to use these references to obtain more information on these critical areas which are so important to the odorization process.
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Document ID: 719A7AA0

FUNDAMENTALS OF NATURAL GAS LIQUID MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Don Sextro, Dan Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of natural gas liquids (NGL) is similar in many respects to that of other hydrocarbon liquids but is markedly different in other aspects. The main difference in NGL measurement is the need to properly address the effects of solution mixing. Measuring NGL by mass measurement techniques will properly address solution mixing effects because the mass measurement process is not sensitive to the effect that pressure, temperature and solution mixing have on the fluid measured. Another difference is the effect of higher vapor pressures on the measurement of natural gas liquids. In static measurement methods, the liquid equivalent of the vapor space must be determined. In dynamic measurement methods, the equilibrium vapor pressure, or that pressure at which a liquid and its vapor phase is in equilibrium at a given operating temperature, must be deducted from the operating pressure when determining the compressibility effects on measured volumes. This paper will describe the basic concepts used to measure and report the quantities of NGL streams.
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Document ID: F8B236E8

FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY
Author(s): Jamie Marsden
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chromatography is one of the most widely used techniques for analyzing hydrocarbon mixtures. Some of the advantages of chromatography are the range of measurement (from ppm levels up to 100%), the detection of a wide range of components, and the repeatability of the measurements. Chromatography is used in the laboratory, in permanently installed online systems, and in the field with portable systems. No matter the location, style or brand, all gas chromatographs are composed of the same functional components that are the sample handling system, the chromatograph oven, and the controller electronics (refer Figure 1). This paper will cover the principles or sample handling, how chromatograph columns separate the components, why and how multi-port analysis valves are used, the common detector type used in the hydrocarbon applications, and the analysis processing that provides the component concentrations and the other calculated values (such as heating value and specific gravity) through physical reports or interfaces to other devices.
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Document ID: 055E8EE7

FUNDAMENTALS OF MULTIPATH ULTRASONIC FLOW METERS FOR LIQUID MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Dan Hackett
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of Liquid Ultrasonic Meters for liquid petroleum applications such as custody transfer or allocation measurement is gaining world wide acceptance by the Oil Industry. Ultrasonic technology is well established but the use of this technology for custody transfer and allocation measurement is relatively new. Often users try to employ the same measurement practices that apply to turbine technology to the Liquid Ultrasonic. There are some similarities such as: the need for flow conditioning, upstream and downstream piping requirements but there can also be differences such as the proving technique. This paper will discuss the basics of liquid ultrasonic meter operation and performance. While proving liquid ultrasonic meters is not specifically discussed, diagnostic information available to troubleshoot meter performance in general will be presented.
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Document ID: EB8FA6C8

FUNDAMENTALS OF MULTIPATH ULTRASONIC FLOW METERS FOR GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Jim Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past 30 years, gas ultrasonic meters have transitioned from the engineering lab to wide commercial use as the primary device of choice to measure gas volume for fiscal accounting. Wide acceptance and use by gas pipeline companies has occurred during this time due to the devices Reliability Accuracy Repeatability Capacity (rangeability) Commercial availability that translates into product support, and Adoption of industry standards for fiscal measurement applications Briefly, the historical development of fluid velocity measurement in closed conduits with sonic pulses was first considered in the 1920s with the discovery that transmission and reception of repetitive sound bursts could be used to describe the location and speed of moving objects this principle was soon used to build sonar and radar arrays. Attempts were made over the years to apply the principle to measurement of fluid velocity in conduits, but it wasnt until the development of economical high speed electronics and digital signal processing in the late 1970s that a repeatable instrument with sufficient resolution for gas applications was devised.
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Document ID: 90E47C32

FUNDAMENTALS OF NGL METER STATION DESIGN
Author(s): Tony Lockard, Doug Patel
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides a fundamental overview of an NGL meter station design reviewing the nuances of configuring similar components in different ways. There are multiple considerations that influence the meter station design and all must be taken into account. Major considerations are: what product or products will be measured, what meter technology to utilize, and the process design limitations. The first thing that must be taken into account is whether the product is a purity product or a mixed compositional product. Most purity products are measured and accounted for by volume, while a mixed compositional product is measured and accounted for by mass. This influences the meter skid design, since mass product skids must be set-up to allow for the streams mass and streams composition to be measured properly. The second consideration that influences the skid design is the meter technology chosen. The skid components required can change depending on the meter technology selected. There are numerous meter technologies available on the market, but the three major meter technologies commonly used for NGL custody measurement are Turbine meters, Coriolis meters, and Positive Displacement (PD) meters. Other minor considerations will be discussed at the appropriate times throughout the paper.
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Document ID: 8EDE3463

FUNDAMENTALS OF NGL SAMPLING SYSTEMS
Author(s): Dominic Giametta, Jim Klentzman
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to discuss in depth the systems we use as a standard to sample natural gas liquids, or NGLs. Before we discuss the systems and methods used to sample these products, we must first clearly define what NGLs are. NGLs can be a combination of any fluid in liquid form that is taken from the pipeline under pressure. Typically, NGL refers mainly to ethane, propane, butanes, and natural gasolines (pentanes) & condensates. Because of the broad range of products that can be claimed as NGLs, there are many different approaches to the methods by which we sample them. The common thread among all NGLs is that these products in order to be maintained and properly sampled, require the use of specific sampling techniques unique to light liquid and NGL sampling.
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Document ID: 30DB8503

FUNDAMENTALS OF CORIOLIS METERS AGA REPORT NO. 11
Author(s): Marc Buttler
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early 1980s, Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in gas, liquid, and slurry applications with an installed base of more than one million units. Through significant design, enhancements in the early 1990s Coriolis meters have rapidly gained worldwide acceptance in gas phase applications with over 100,000 meters installed worldwide and most notably the publication of the second edition of AGA Report Number 11, Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis Meter. Having the ability to bidirectional measure almost any gas from -400 to +660 degrees Fahrenheit with little to no concern of error caused by flow profile disturbances, pulsations, or flow surges, Coriolis meters are becoming the meter of preference in many applications. Coriolis is a small to medium line-size technology currently the largest offering from any vendor for gas applications is a 250mm (10) equivalent flow diameter.
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Document ID: 7445A46D

An Overview of Industry Standards Related to Natural Gas Measurement
Author(s): Barry Balzer
Abstract/Introduction:
What is a standard? Why are standards important? Merriam-Webster dictionary defines standard as: 1) a conspicuous object (as a banner) formerly carried at the top of a pole and used to mark a rallying point especially in battle or to serve as an emblem 2) something established by authority, custom, or general consent as a model or example 3) something set up and established by authority as a rule for the measure of quantity, weight, extent, value, or quality 4) the fineness and legally fixed weight of the metal used in coins 5) the basis of value in a monetary system 6) a structure built for or serving as a base or support From these definitions, it appears that one could conclude that a standard should have value be established by general consent or by an organization be a yardstick to measure quantity, quality, and value and be a base or support upon which one can build procedures and policies. Standards have been developed and are continually being developed to help provide uniform and consistent actions or results, improve safety, minimize legal action, and to improve efficiencies.
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Document ID: 30176C77

AN OVERVIEW AND UPDATE OF AGA 9
Author(s): Jim Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association published Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters 2nd Edition Ref 1 in April 2007. Report 9 details recommended practice for using multipath gas ultrasonic meters (USMs) in fiscal (custody) measurement applications. This paper reviews some of history behind the development of AGA Report No. 9 (often referred to as AGA 9), key Report contents, which includes information on meter performance requirements, design features, testing procedures, and installation criteria. This paper also discusses changes that will be incorporated in the next revision. Rev3 of AGA TMC Report 9 was published in July of 2017.
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Document ID: 37997A45

PERIODIC INSPECTION OF REGULATORS AND RELIEF VALVES
Author(s): James M. Doyle
Abstract/Introduction:
Inspections and tests on regulators and relief valves is a Department of Transportation Compliance rule. The sections within the DOT manual stating the rule include 192.351 through 192.359, 192.751, 192.479, 192.481, 192.739, and 192.741. Keep in mind these rules are the minimum required tests. Your Company or Regulatory Agency may be more stringent and require more or detailed testing. You must also keep in mind that the Manufacturer of your equipment will also provide a guideline pertaining to maintenance. These tests are not only required for safe, reliable service to your Customers, but also could be used in any legal proceeding for documentation and purpose. There are many important tasks and precautionary measures to perform and inform before you actually start the actual testing. Listing these items and performing a checklist could provide to be a reminder. Some station designs and equipment installations may require more than one person to perform a safe, reliable test. Plan the procedure within your work group, be sure all safety equipment and notifications are in place, perform the task and document the results according to your Company procedures. We must also be aware of the Operator Qualifications rule. The Technician must be completely OQ qualified and have the proof of all the required OQ tests readily accessible. Most importantly, these required DOT and Regulatory Agency tests are done for the safety of the system, customers and you.
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Document ID: F8FB9B0B

PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS OF GEOMETRIC TOLERANCES IN API MPMS CHAPTER 14.3/AGA REPORT NO. 3 - PART 2
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr., Jacob L. Thorson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the current contents of the United States (U.S.) orifice flow metering standard - American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) Chapter 14.3, Orifice Metering of Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbon Fluids, Part 2, Specification and Installation Requirements.1 This document is also known as American Gas Association Report No. 3, Part 2.2 As of the writing of this paper (i.e., May 2017), this standard was in its fifth edition and was last revised in March 2016. API MPMS, Chapter 14.3, includes four parts: Part 1: General Equations and Uncertainty Guidelines Part 2: Specification and Installation Requirements Part 3: Natural Gas Applications Part 4: Background, Development Implementation Procedure The focus of this paper is Part 2 of the standard. As a brief history of the development of API MPMS, Chapter 14.3, Part 2, research on orifice flow meters began in the U.S. around 1904. Thomas Weymouth published an ASME paper in 1912 describing the results of a series of flow experiments dating to 1904 that he had performed on a flange tap orifice meter. Orifice meter research by what was known at the time as the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) (now known as the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)) and others continued through the late 1920s. The first U.S. metering standard was produced by the American Gas Association in 1930...AGA Report No. 1 (which later evolved into API MPMS, Chapter 14.3 or AGA Report No. 3) for orifice flow meters. This followed the publication of a preliminary report published in 1927 and revised in 1929.
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Document ID: 545045D5

PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS IN MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Terry Jackson
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of electronics is evolving in the measurement industry. The technology of measurement and control has evolved over the past few decades. Systems have moved from mechanical devices that were read on site to early versions of electronic systems that were polled infrequently. Current systems can control several devices such as pumps, meters or injectors simultaneously using advanced electronics to measure, control and communicate at greater frequency than ever. The need for technicians to understand basic electrical troubleshooting is greater than ever before. Due to the increased reliance on advanced electronic systems throughout the industry... Due to greater regulatory requirements for analysis and reporting... Due to the increased complexity of the electronics that are used in oil & gas industry... There are two ways to learn a subject: The first involves: Rote Memorization Mnemonics Tables Cramming The second involves: Critical Thinking Subject Comprehension Complex Ideas Multiple Predictable Outcomes
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Document ID: 13F08212

Pressure, Temperature, and Other Effects on Turbine Meter Gas Flow Measurement
Author(s): Paul W. Tang
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper explains the general working principle of gas turbine meters and the common causes for turbine metering errors. Field observations and laboratory test examples are presented in this paper. The author also suggests methods to optimize the measurement performance of turbine meter installations.
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Document ID: 1335F54A

PROBLEMS UNIQUE TO OFFSHORE GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Royce Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Some major problems and unique solutions will be addressed with gas measurement on offshore platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. This presentation will show the major roll safety, transportation, and weather play in the technicians ability to verify the accuracy of the gas measurement facility. Proper operation, design, and installation will ensure accurate measurement.
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Document ID: AC44EC95

PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT EFFECTS ON GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): John McDaniel, Tom Cleveland
Abstract/Introduction:
The drill bit penetrates a rock formation thousands of feet below the surface of the earth, a steel casing is slid into the hole, and perforations are made to the casing that reach into the surrounding rock. At that point, an escape route is created for anything in the formation that can be released to the surface, which has lower pressure, or that can be lifted by that process. The producer must be able to obtain enough of what comes up to the surface and conditioned to a marketable state to make it worthwhile. Obviously, the natural gas, natural gas liquids (NGLs), crude oil and condensates are the valuable commodities that are produced and sold. Unfortunately, other materials are included in what surfaces from inside the earth. Many of these require production equipment to remove the material or condition the product for sale, and the effects of some types of production equipment used can have an effect on measurement.
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Document ID: 4DCEACA2

PROTECTION OF NATURAL GAS MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT AGAINST MOISTURE AND CORROSION
Author(s): DONALD P. MAYEAUX
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation addresses problems associated with moisture and corrosion caused by high relative humidity and airborne contaminants. By controlling moisture and corrosion long-term, many problems associated with sensitive field electronics can be avoided.
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Document ID: 675E727A

REAL TIME ELECTRONIC GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Al Majek
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of oil & gas production has progressed considerably since the days of paper charts and manual integration. Technology has moved increasingly to microprocessor based flow computers allowing for greater measurement accuracy, increased control functionality, and ready integration into a companys enterprise computer networks.
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Document ID: B3F93624

D.O.T. REQUIREMENTS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF SAMPLE CYLINDERS
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The United States Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) is a department of the U.S. Federal Government which oversees all issues regarding transportation within the United States of America and U.S. Territories. Its influence around the world is great and widely respected, but its jurisdiction and power of enforcement is limited to the USA and its territories. As regards this paper, we will discuss the D.O.T. and its involvement surrounding sample cylinders for the hydrocarbon industry and the rules regarding the movement of these cylinders from point to point in the United States. The most important statement to be made is that the D.O.T. and Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49 (CFR-49) is the definitive and final authority on all issues regarding the handling and transportation of sample cylinders. Much has been written and quoted over the years and many regulations have changed over the years. It is the sole responsibility of each company involved with sample cylinders, to have a copy of CFR-49 and to be responsible for clarification of any issues they have, by researching CFR-49 and consulting with D.O.T. representatives. They have the final word on any questions. D.O.T. is the enforcement agency regarding sample cylinder transportation. The author of this paper and the company he represents do not present themselves as authorities on this matter for you or your company. This paper is presented for the sole purpose of providing limited information and to encourage you and your company to become better informed for your specific needs and operations.
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Document ID: 82F7DF99

SAMPLING CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH UNCONVENTIONAL GAS SOURCES
Author(s): Mark Firmin
Abstract/Introduction:
Advances in exploration, drilling and production technologies make it feasible to extract natural gas from sources that in the past have been regarded as unconventional and so, such sources are becoming a larger percentage of the gas supply. The feasibility of producing gas from a source is the primary factor in determining whether that source should be categorized as conventional or unconventional. What has been unconventional in the past may be considered conventional in the future. This paper will discuss gas sampling system design fundamentals and highlight key aspects of current industry standards. It will also explore the challenges associated with sampling gas from unconventional sources such as shale formations, deep-water offshore wells and enhanced recovery systems. Proper sampling of natural gas from unconventional sources usually requires equipment and techniques that are more sophisticated than those that have performed well for conventional gas sources. Methods for the continuous sampling of natural gas that is wet, at high pressure or even supercritical will be presented. The primary focus of this paper is on minimizing the error associated with sampling for compositional analysis. Sampling considerations associated with the measurement of single components will however also be discussed.
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Document ID: 7659464B

SCADA AND TELEMETRY IN NATURAL GAS OPERATIONS
Author(s): Russel W. Treat
Abstract/Introduction:
SCADA systems are combinations of field devices, communications infrastructure, computer hardware and software integrated into a system that provides for safe, reliable, and effective operation of remote facilities. Producers, gatherers, midstream operators and pipelines use SCADA system for operations. In addition, SCADA gathers data used by advanced applications such as measurement accounting. SCADA is key for highly profitable operation. This paper provides and overview of the building blocks of the SCADA system. The SCADA host and advanced applications are discussed in detail. The paper concludes with a discussion of SCADA trends.
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Document ID: 9C417B5B

AMI FOR GAS UTILITIES
Author(s): DAVID ANGLIN
Abstract/Introduction:
There was once a time when you could get a car in any color...as long as it was black. They had frames, running boards and 15 horsepower engines. Who could ever need more? Just like the auto industry has adapted from this original approach to meet the demands of consumers, regulators and shareholders, the gas industry must do the same. Automated meter reading - also known as AMR or AMI - provides that opportunity. This paper will compare and contrast AMR and AMI for gas utilities and provide important areas for gas utilities to consider when adopting or upgrading wireless meter technology.
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Document ID: 157A96BC

CALCULATING THE SPEED OF SOUND IN NATURAL GAS - FROM AGA REPORT NO. 10 TO AGA REPORT NO. 8
Author(s): Eric W. Lemmon, Jerry Paul Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
The speed at which a sound wave travels in natural gas is a thermodynamic property, and varies depending on the composition of the gas, the pressure of the gas, and the temperature of the gas. The American Gas Association (AGA) Report No. 10, Speed of Sound in Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbon Gases, first published in 2003, provided an accurate method for calculating the speed of sound in natural gas or related gases. AGA 10 has now been superseded by the latest release (2017) of AGA 8 (see references 1 and 2).
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Document ID: 85ECA191

TECHNIQUES OF COMPOSITE GAS SAMPLING
Author(s): Marielle Verot
Abstract/Introduction:
In the always competitive natural gas market, producers are continually striving to maximize their market value, to achieve the highest return of invested income. The month to month and sometimes week to week fluctuations in pricing make this an increasingly important goal. One way to accomplish this goal is to ensure that you are receiving maximum value for the products produced. In addition to the producer, it is extremely important for all other stakeholders whether they be, gathering system operators, processors, or transporters to do their due diligence to ensure they are also receiving and/or properly accounting for the true and full value of the natural gas products that pass through their systems. Royalty rates, transportation levies and processing fees are based on the value of the natural gas being commercially bought and sold, processed, or transported. Sampling and analysis when properly implemented can ensure that everyones needs and product expectations are met. This paper will discuss issues that must be considered to obtain a good representative gas sample through continuous composite sampling.
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Document ID: 9F627F76

TECHNIQUES FOR SPOT SAMPLING GAS
Author(s): Matthew S. Parrott
Abstract/Introduction:
While inaccuracies in measurement can be costly and common, they are also avoidable in most cases. Technicians willing to study the experiences and best practices of industry leaders can make a world of difference by applying what theyve learned and sharing the knowledge shared in this paper with others. This paper aims to describe spot sampling as defined by industry standards, and discuss important factors that may impact accuracy when taking a spot sample.
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Document ID: 1782A8D3

TECHNIQUES OF COMPOSITE SAMPLING
Author(s): Marielle Verot
Abstract/Introduction:
In the always competitive natural gas market, producers are continually striving to maximize their market value, to achieve the highest return of invested income. The month to month and sometimes week to week fluctuations in pricing make this an increasingly important goal. One way to accomplish this goal is to ensure that you are receiving maximum value for the products produced. In addition to the producer, it is extremely important for all other stakeholders whether they be, gathering system operators, processors, or transporters to do their due diligence to ensure they are also receiving and/or properly accounting for the true and full value of the natural gas products that pass through their systems. Royalty rates, transportation levies and processing fees are based on the value of the natural gas being commercially bought and sold, processed, or transported. Sampling and analysis when properly implemented can ensure that everyones needs and product expectations are met. This paper will discuss issues that must be considered to obtain a good representative gas sample through continuous composite sampling.
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Document ID: 8A9EB826

BASICS OF ULTRASONIC FLOW METERS
Author(s): David Crandall
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to explain the measurement of natural gas for custody transfer applications through the use of ultrasonic meters. Specifically, this paper explains the operation of ultrasonic meters, issues surrounding their performance in natural gas, calibration procedures, and proper installation considerations. Additionally, the electronics making the measurements generate calculated values relating to the operation of the meter and as a result a database is available to provide analysis of the meters ongoing performance. Meter health parameters can be evaluated to verify the meters operation and these principles are explained.
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Document ID: 5FBD6051

AN OVERVIEW OF THE GAS INDUSTRY AND LNG MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL
Author(s): Thomas Quine
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: E815B9A0

TRAINING FIELD MEASUREMENT PERSONNEL
Author(s): Ardis Bartle
Abstract/Introduction:
Technology in the field of gas measurement and control is constantly evolving. Although many are well trained in the specific equipment used in their own companys operation, it is also important to have a solid understanding of the fundamentals and theory of operation of the mechanical and physical processes involved. Therefore, the training of field measurement technicians is of the utmost importance. These technicians must be continually educated to have the most current knowledge of the latest equipment, electronics, communications, and metering devices on the market. Also, it is essential that this type of instruction be taught in a controlled environment where the technicians can learn and develop the necessary skills with the least number of interruptions from external sources.
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Document ID: B708EAD3

TRANSIENT OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION FOR ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENT DEVICES
Author(s): Bob Garner
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement, control, and automation are critical to todays business environment. However, the electronics that enable these systems to function, and make these systems so valuable, can be vulnerable to the damaging effects of overvoltage transients. The damage can easily be seen when components or equipment has been transformed to charred ruins and slag metal, but many times the damage is not readily visible and/or may show up in the future as glitches or inconsistencies. This paper will explore the sources of these transient overvoltages, how they get into the systems, and an approach to protection of these critical systems that can, along with the technologies (and their tradeoffs) that we can employ, to greatly enhance the survivability of the electronic equipment.
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Document ID: 4674D45C

APPLICATION IN LIQUID MEASUREMENT USING CLAMP-ON ULTRASONIC TECHNOLOGY
Author(s): Ron McCarthy
Abstract/Introduction:
Clamp on ultrasonic flow meter technology (COUSMT) offers the advantage of providing a non-custody transfer, non-intrusive method to obtain the pipe flow rate. The distinct advantage of the technology is there is no need to present access to the fluid flowing in the pipe. The method is quite robust and simple to implement. More and more measurement practitioners are looking to this technology to fulfill that aspect of the metering requirements in their company.
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Document ID: 2CD83E16

ULTRASONIC FLOW METER CALIBRATION - CONSIDERATIONS & BENEFITS
Author(s): Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic meters (USMs) have become widely used custody transfer meters for gas transmission and distribution measurement systems. USMs have taken the place of measurement stations that have historically utilized orifice metering. While orifice metering has been a good form of measurement, technology has driven the demand for a new, more effective form of fiscal measurement. USMs are not only being installed in new measurement stations but are also being used to upgrade/retrofit legacy orifice metering stations. For all custody transfer applications, users require flow calibrations to improve meter performance and overall measurement uncertainty. The latest revision of AGA Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters, Third Addition Ref 1, requires flow calibration for ultrasonic flow meters when being used for custody transfer applications. Some users will also still choose to flow calibrate USMs that are installed in non- custody applications, but where accurate measurement is still critical. What considerations then, should be taken when choosing to flow calibrate an ultrasonic flowmeter? What are the benefits to the user? What should a user expect from a flow calibration? What kind of performance should the customer expect or accept from an ultrasonic meter? What are the diagnostic capabilities inherent in an ultrasonic meter? These areas, as well as others will be explored and considered.
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Document ID: FF3B5CDD

ULTRASONIC METERS FOR COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Author(s): Paul Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
An ultrasonic meter falls into the classification of inferential meters. Unlike positive displacement meters that capture volume to totalize volume, inferential meters measure flowing gas velocity to totalize volume. Ultrasonic meters use sound waves to measure flowing gas velocity to infer volume. Ultrasonic meters have been around for many years, primarily in liquid measurement. However, we are seeing more and more applications in the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: D9411278

Overview of operation and maintenance of wetted-sensor ultrasonic flow meters
Author(s): Dan Hackett
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses fundamental principles of ultrasonic gas flow meters used for measurement of natural gas and the available basic diagnostic capability to assess meter operation and performance. The basic requirements for obtaining good meter performance, when installed in the field, will be reviewed. Most of this information can be generalized to other manufacturers transit time ultrasonic flow meters however, these examples provided, particularly with respect to some diagnostic features, are based on the Daniel SeniorSonic ultrasonic flow meter. Advanced diagnostic data, in conjunction with gas composition, pressure and temperature, that provides diagnostic benefits beyond that of other primary measurement devices is outside the scope of this paper, though these topics will be covered in the companion paper, Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics - Advanced.
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Document ID: C3297589

Overview of advanced diagnostic features of wetted-sensor ultrasonic flow meters
Author(s): Dan Hackett
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses advanced diagnostic features of ultrasonic gas flow meters used for measurement of natural gas which are generally used to assess dynamic meter operation and performance. The basic diagnostic features of most gas ultrasonic flow meters were covered in the companion paper Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics - Basics which covered diagnostics that relate to meter health or validation that the meter is operating properly. Advanced diagnostics are typically those that provide operators information regarding flowing conditions that may affect optimum meter performance. These can include determination of installation effects, upstream blockages, dirt or other similar operating conditions that can adversely affect the uncertainty or repeatability of the volumetric flow rate information determined by the flow meter. Most of this information can be generalized to other manufacturers transit time ultrasonic flow meters however, these examples provided, particularly with respect to some advanced diagnostic features, are based on the Daniel SeniorSonic ultrasonic flow meter.
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Document ID: 668CEE02

BASIC IP NETWORKING FOR FIELD TECHNICIANS
Author(s): Burke P. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays oil & gas industry is facing major technology changes in the field automation and control of devices. In the past nearly all SCADA and EFM devices only had a serial port to gather the data. These devices now have Ethernet ports along with serial ports, to communicate, control, program and transmit the data back to a company central data gathering/polling host. This change from mostly serial to mostly Ethernet communications has made the job of a field automation / measurement technician more complex. Setting up the Ethernet port in a meter involves knowing a number of parameters to ensure reliable communications of the data being polled. This article will cover some of the basic things a technician will have to know to connect to your company WAN (Wide Area Network).
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Document ID: 2F0D8EAA

Unidirectional Captive Displacement Prover for Verification of all Metering Technologies
Author(s): Greg Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will verify the history, requirements, and operation of all Provers accepted for liquid pipeline meter uncertainty verification in the Liquid Oil/Gas Industry. It will continue with an explanation and the industries wide acceptance of the Uni-directional Captive Displacement Prover (UDCDP). This document will supply the reader with information regarding meter types and the flow volumes that can be used with the UDCDP and will look at the opportunities for the use of a UDCDP as a mass prover. It will also provide the information for field verification of provers known as a water draw.
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Document ID: 1C4D0DEF

Upstream Natural Gas Sales Verification
Author(s): Mark B. Fillman, Jayson A. Payne
Abstract/Introduction:
Within the upstream sector of the oil and gas industry, the custody transfer of natural gas is usually determined by orifice measurement which is governed by a sales agreement between the producer and pipeline company. In most cases, the gas sales agreement references a combination of American Gas Association (AGA), American Petroleum Institute (API), and Gas Processors Association (GPA) standards which are to be incorporated into the custody measurement procedures. Verification that the physical deliveries of natural gas are accurate and accountable, for both parties, is fundamental to the business cycle that occurs each month. This paper reviews the relationships between producer and pipeline, the varying responsibilities of each party, and some useful methods to produce more accurate and accountable natural gas measurement results.
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Document ID: 87DD3F88

UTILIZING WIRELESS INSTRUMENTATION IN WELL OPTIMIZATION
Author(s): Denis Rutherford
Abstract/Introduction:
The Natural Gas and Oil industry is continually driven by cost cutting measures and the need to gain more operational efficiencies and visibility to regulatory requirements. This paper summarizes a solution in which wireless instruments integrate with other conventional equipment to offer a rapidly deployable advanced well optimization system. Wireless instrumentation products provide cost-effective and easy to install alternatives to traditional, hardwired sensor sites. These rugged field units are designed for the majority of Oil & Gas applications and for installations ranging from general purpose to Class I Div I hazardous locations with extreme temperature and humidity ranges. True wireless instrumentation is comprised of self-contained, self-powered field units providing process data to a centralized base radio through an unlicensed band, spread-spectrum, and frequency hopping wireless connection. Networks of up to 100 field units (900 MHz version) can be created and polled by a single base radio using a secure, proprietary Industrial Wireless protocol, with a typical range between field unit and base radio of up to 5000ft (1500m). With the capability to scale up to as many as 256 wireless instrumentation LANs, Wireless Instrumentation networks easily accommodate future expansion plans.
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Document ID: 028BA617

METER VALIDATION FOR DIFFERENT PRESSURE FLOW MEASUREMENT DEVICES USING ADVANCE METER DIAGNOSTICS
Author(s): H.K.Narayan, Dr. Richard Stevens
Abstract/Introduction:
Differential Pressure (DP) Flow meters are popular for being relatively simple, reliable and inexpensive. Their principles of operation are relatively easily understood. However, traditionally there has been a misconception that no DP meter self-diagnostic capabilities exist and as such only upgrading to newer ultrasonic or Coriolis technology can help bridge this gap. In 2008 & 2009 a generic Differential Pressure (DP) meter self-diagnostic methodology 1,2 was proposed to the industry. In this paper these advanced diagnostic principles were applied towards helping provide end user a newer yet effective, methodology for DP flow meters diagnostics, field proven with experimental test results. These results form the basis of a comprehensive validation methodology designed to help meter operators achieve improved confidence on their DP measurement and thereby help lower their operational risks associated with large measurement uncertainties due to non-compliance. The paper also aims to demonstrate how such new advanced tools/methodologies can help reduce operating costs (OPEX) by moving towards a risk based predictive maintenance plan.
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Document ID: 58C0D9C3

Verifying Gas Chromatographs at Custody Transfer Locations
Author(s): Kyle Flint
Abstract/Introduction:
Chromatography is the separation of a mixture by passing it in solution or suspension or as a vapor (as in gas chromatography) through a medium in which the components move at different rates. Russian botanist Mikhail Tswett is credited with discovering the technique of chromatography. He used chalk and alcohol to determine plant extract properties. Verifying gas chromatographs at custody transfer locations is one of the most critical measurement procedures there is today. Not knowing exactly what the Gc is reading and how accurate the results are could cost the company hundreds of thousands of dollars depending on flow rates and time between verifications. Calibrations are not always a fool proof way making sure that the Gc is working correctly since minor human errors can occur.
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Document ID: C578CEF7

Liquids Measurement, Whats an Industry To Do?
Author(s): Mark V. Goloby
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquids measurement in the oil patch is suddenly getting a lot of attention. Some are dismayed at the low level of technology used to measure liquids. Today, custody transfer of 80 to 85% of onshore crude and condensate production is still documented by a hauler climbing to the top of the tank and strapping it. That would be a fair estimate, concurs Mark Davis Staff Engineer Shell Exploration and Production. The hauler straps the tank before loading his truck and again when he finishes. The producer is paid on whatever that hauler writes on the ticket. I did not realize it was that immature, remarked Grant Farris, Vice President Producer Services, CIMA Energy. So, why it is that immature? Simple, really. The United States is experiencing the highest level of active liquids exploration and production in 40 years. Five years ago finding an oil play at NAPE was almost impossible. While the industry was diligently automating gas measurement to the digital world via electronic flow measurement, oil at 30/bbl and 15bbls/day was not given the same level of attention nor effort. These dynamics have changed.
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Document ID: 5AA08E74


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