Measurement Library

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (2018)

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course

BENEFITS AROUND TIMELY ANALYSIS OF MEASUREMENT DATA
Author(s): Duane Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Timely capture and analysis of measurement data relies on ever-evolving technology, equipment, and procedures. Current industry practices use flow computers located near the primary measuring device to capture, calculate, and store measurement data. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems or polling engines (PEs) are used to collect measurement information on a scheduled frequency using microwave, fiber, satellite, or cellular communication channels. After the SCADA/PE system collects the measurement data, the information is available to the measurement system. The measurement system provides the necessary processing layer that validates the measurement data to ensure integrity and compliance with regulatory and industry requirements.
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Document ID: BEA1510F

MEASUREMENT OF NATURAL GAS BY CORIOLIS FLOW METER AGA REPORT NO. 11
Author(s): Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early 1980s, Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in gas, liquid, and slurry applications with an installed base of more than one million units. Through significant design, enhancements in the early 1990s Coriolis meters have rapidly gained worldwide acceptance in gas phase applications with over 100,000 meters installed worldwide and most notably the publication of the second edition of AGA Report Number 11, Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis Meter.
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Document ID: ACB224BE

FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS TURBINE METERS
Author(s): John A. Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of all gas measurement used in the world today is performed by two basic types of meters, positive displacement and inferential. Positive displacement meters, consisting mainly of diaphragm and rotary style devices, generally account for lower volume measurement. Orifice, ultrasonic and turbine meters are the three main inferential class meters used for large volume measurement today. Turbines are typically considered to be a repeatable device used for accurate measurement over large and varying pressures and flow rates. They are found in a wide array of elevated pressure applications ranging from atmospheric conditions to 1440 psig. Turbine meters have also become established as master or reference meters used in secondary calibration systems such as transfer provers. A significant number of both mechanical and electrical outputs and configurations have become available over the past 50 years of production.
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Document ID: BAA3EC92

ROTARY DISPLACEMENT METERS BASICS
Author(s): Todd Willis
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classes of gas meters. These are inferential type meters, which include orifice and turbine meters, and positive displacement meters, which include diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferential type meters are so-called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas flow and calculating the volume based on the measurements. The positive displacement type meters are so-called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them.
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Document ID: D5887C06

ULTRASONIC GAS FLOW METER BASICS
Author(s): James W. Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the operating principal and application of ultrasonic gas flow metering for custody transfer. Basic principals and underlying equations are discussed, as are considerations for applying ultrasonic flow meter technology to station design, installation and operation. These applications are illustrated based on operating experience with the Instromet 3 path and 5-path Q.Sonic custody transfer flow meter, however, many of these issues may be generalized to devices manufactured by others.
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Document ID: 3FE36EFC

BASICS OF DIAPHRAGM METERS
Author(s): Jerry Kamalieh
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the United States, The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat-rate basis. Its growth was slow, its charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority. By comparison, the New York Gas Light Company founded in 1823 prospered and expanded. They had built their system on the use of gas meters to measure the supply of gas to customers, and a large one to register the quantity made at the station before it is conveyed to the gasometers.
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Document ID: 81543108

NON-INTRUSIVE ULTRASONIC FLOWMETERS IN LIQUID AND GAS APPLICATIONS-TECHNOLOGY AND INSTALLATION TECHNIQUES
Author(s): Ron McCarthy
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas and Oil are different in their physical, chemical, and ultrasonic properties. Nevertheless, each fluid state can use Widebeam technology that uses the pipe wall as a Sonic Waveguide, permitting accurate, repeatable and reliable non-intrusive flow metering. This paper explains non intrusive gas ultrasonic metering, providing field and laboratory test data demonstrating the ability of Clamp- On Ultrasonic meters to provide accurate Measurement. It also explains the importance of correct installation.
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Document ID: 83AE4665

ADVANCED APPLICATION OF ROTARY METERS
Author(s): Ron Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
95 This paper will examine and explain several common characteristics of rotary meters and their use in the natural gas distribution, transmission and production markets. The selection, proper installation, start-up procedures and regular maintenance routines will be covered, as well. ROTARY METER OPERATING PRINCIPLE As gas flows through a rotary meter the impellers turn, trapping known volumes of gas. This measuring chamber and impellers are constructed of hard coated anodized aluminum to offer strength and resistance to damage from gas flow debris. For the purposes of this paper it is important to note that the impellers and cylinder do not touch each other and are separated by gaps that measure an average of .003. As a meter begins to increase its speed this gap creates a fluidic seal so that any slippage (unmeasured gas), is confined to very low flow rates.
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Document ID: CF465889

IN-SITU (ON-SITE) GAS METER PROVING
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles James N. Witte Adam Hawley
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas flow rate measurement errors at field meter stations can result from the installation configuration, the calibration of the meter at conditions other than the actual operating conditions, or the degradation of meter performance over time. The best method for eliminating these or other sources of error is with in-situ (on-site) calibration of the meter. That is, the measurement accuracy of the field meter station should be verified under actual operating conditions by comparing to a master meter or prover. Comparisons of flow meters in the field have been performed for nearly as long as flow meters have been in existence. For example, Figure 1 shows an orifice meter being compared to three 60-A tin meters (a.k.a., diaphragm meters) in Rosedale, Kansas in 1921.1 Each tin meter had the flow capacity of 1,800 standard cubic feet per hour. In this particular test, a 1.6% difference in reading was discovered between the orifice meter and the tin meters (so named because their housings were made of thin tinned sheet metal.
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Document ID: 8EDE368C

ULTRASONIC METERS FOR COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Author(s): Paul Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
An ultrasonic meter falls into the classification of inferential meters. Unlike positive displacement meters that capture volume to totalize volume, inferential meters measure flowing gas velocity to totalize volume. Ultrasonic meters use sound waves to measure flowing gas velocity to infer volume. Ultrasonic meters have been around for many years, primarily in liquid measurement. However, we are seeing more and more applications in the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: D55544E4

AUTOMATING METER SHOP PRACTICES USING AMR/AMI TECHNOLOGY
Author(s): Scott Haldi
Abstract/Introduction:
AMR devices or endpoints have historically been used to reduce labor costs associated with meter reading. They can provide other benefits, as well, which would save meter shops additional operating costs, while simultaneously improving overall efficiencies. This paper will address those options. Meter shops perform key activities related to the preparation of meters for distribution. Facing changing technologies, many meter shops now have to deal with not only mechanical meters but also with electronic endpoints. This places even greater demands on meter shops to process meters through their systems in a smooth, costeffective manner.
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Document ID: 080AB15A

INTRODUCTION TO GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
Any overview of gas measurement must start with a working knowledge of the Basic Gas Laws and then proceed to utilizing those concepts in the real world. Charles Law, Boyles Law, Ideal Gas Law, Real Gas Law, or the Gas Measurement Law can be used during the exchange of energy from the utility provider to the end consumer to determine the cost of energy supplied.
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Document ID: C5C4446B

LOW PRESSURE GAS MEASUREMENT USING ULTRASONIC TECHNOLOGY
Author(s): Dr. Volker Herrmann Toralf Dietz John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
The utilization of ultrasonic metering as a cost effective form of measurement has grown dramatically over the past 10 years. A growing portion of this market is in custody transfer applications. This growth is primarily due to growing acceptance in industry, advances in the technology, extensive self diagnostic capabilities and industry/ regulatory standards and recommendations related to their use in custody transfer applications. With the research and development which has been completed to date, ultrasonic meter use in domestic /residential and high pressure applications has been proven and has widespread acceptance. New research and development is being done to address the segment of the market which poses additional challenges in the use of this technology. This is the use of these meters in atmospheric and low pressure applications such as gas distribution systems, and industrial fuel gas measurement.
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Document ID: 39F85B5E

DISTRIBUTION GAS METER PROVING: THE EQUIPMENT AND METHODOLOGY USED TODAY IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY
Author(s): Gregory A. Germ
Abstract/Introduction:
The performance accuracy of a natural gas meter is determined by passing a known volume of air from a measurement reference or standard-the meter registration is compared against this known volume. The known volume of air originates from the meter prover. In earlier times, the gas meter prover was a stand-alone device (usually a bell-type prover), manually operated without any electronics or automation. Today, the majority of gas meter provers are fully automated computer controlled and operated, and responsible for other job functions besides the proving of gas meters. The bell-type meter prover - though still commonly used in the industry - is not the only kind of meter prover used today. The advancements and developments in electronics and computer technology has lead to an evolution of meter proving equipment - far from the manual proving methods that were commonplace only a few decades ago.
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Document ID: F8C4F717

DIFFERENTIAL TESTING OF ROTARY METERS
Author(s): Ron Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the introduction of rotary meters in the 1920s, gas distribution companies have used the differential pressure across the meter as an indication of meter condition and performance. Using manufacturers recommendations in concert with industry and regulatory standards differential testing is a cost effective method to verify the condition of a rotary meter while in service. With acceptance by many U.S. public utility commissions, differential testing has been used by gas distribution companies for many years. This paper will discuss the traditional methods used for differential testing as well as the most recent developments that improve the efficiency and effectiveness of a differential pressure testing program.
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Document ID: A0D8F62E

LARGE VOLUME CONE DP METERS
Author(s): Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Differential Pressure (DP) meters have been used extensively since Herschel developed a commercial Venturi meter in the 1880s. Since then many different variants of DP meters have been developed. One of the most recent is the cone meter. The cone meter is a generic DP meter. It uses the same generic DP meter flow equation as all other standard DP meters. All DP meter types exist on the market as they offer some particular advantage over the others. If a meter does not have some niche, whether it be reduced flow rate prediction uncertainty, lower pressure loss, no requirement for calibration, more robust, wider range ability, resistance to flow disturbances, self-verification capable, or simply an attractive price, it would not be successful on the market. The cone meter has been steadily growing in market share for twenty-five years. Originally a patented device the patent expired in 2004 and now the meter is a generic type offered by multiple suppliers.
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Document ID: F2A1678B

WHATS NEW IN AGA REPORT #9 2017
Author(s): David Crandall
Abstract/Introduction:
AGA Report No. 9 is a performance based specification for multipath ultrasonic flow meters typically used in custody transfer applications for natural gas. In July 2017, AGA Report No. 9 Third Edition was published as an update to the previous second edition dated April 2007. The document provides complete information on ultrasonic meters terminology, operating conditions, meter requirements, installation, calibration, and commissioning. There are also five Appendices describing Calibration, Electronics design testing, flow meter package and/or flow conditioner performance verification tests, uncertainty calculation examples, and USM commissioning and verification tests. First and foremost, these are performance based specifications, meaning the equipment has flexibility in terms of design but it must meet certain performance and design criteria defined in the standard. This paper highlights the significant changes incorporated in the third edition because of advances in technology and the practical applications experience gained since the prior edition.
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Document ID: 47263D7D

FLOW CALIBRATING HIGH VOLUME ULTRASONIC FLOWMETERS- CONSIDERATIONS AND BENEFITS
Author(s): Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary method for custody transfer measurement has traditionally been orifice metering. While this method has been a good form of measurement, technology has driven the demand for a new, more effective form of fiscal measurement. Ultrasonic flowmeters have gained popularity in recent years and have become the standard for large volume custody transfer applications for a variety of reasons. Most users require flow calibrations to improve meter performance and overall measurement uncertainty. The latest revision of AGA Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters, Second Addition Ref 1, now requires flow calibration for ultrasonic flow meters when being used for custody transfer applications.
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Document ID: 8346181E

RECOGNITION & RESOLUTION OF PROBLEMS WITH GAS ULTRASONIC FLOW METERS
Author(s): Jim Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline Operators have used Ultrasonic meters commercially for gas custody transfer applications since the late 90s. These meters combination of operating features, including superior rangeability and on-board diagnostics have made this the technology of choice for most high volume gas metering applications. As user comfort with, and capabilities of, the technology has increased and the size and cost of ultrasonic meters has decreased, Operators and Manufacturers continue to stretch the envelope of application possibilities. This includes use in upstream, corrosive and high CO2 applications, where the technology previously couldnt work or didnt make economic sense.
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Document ID: E9A25575

UNDERSTANDING GAS ULTRASONIC METER DIAGNOSTICS-ADVANCED
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses advanced diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USMs), and how capabilities built into todays electronics can identify problems that may have gone undetected in the past. It primarily discusses fiscalquality, multipath USMs and does not cover issues that may be different with non-fiscal meters as they are often single path designs. Although USMs basically work the same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in AGA 9 Ref 1. However, some provide more advanced features that can be used to help identify issues such as blocked flow conditioners, liquids, and gas compositional errors. This paper focuses on the Westinghouse and British Gas configurations (both being four-path chordal designs), and the information presented here may or may not be applicable to other path designs.
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Document ID: 1EAAE23D

LARGE CORIOLIS METERS AND THE APPLICABILITY OF WATER CALIBRATIONS FOR GAS SERVICE
Author(s): Marc Buttler Tonya Wyatt Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
In the late 1970s, the first Coriolis mass flow meter was introduced. By the early 1980s, the use of Coriolis meters gained popularity for liquid applications, but few were used for gas applications. In the 1990s major design enhancements were made to the technology improving its usability in gas applications. Driven by the need for a standard industry practice to guide its use in gas applications, the American Gas Association (AGA) published the first edition of AGA Report Number 11, Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis Meter in 2003. Today, with an installed population of over 100,000 Micro Motion Coriolis meters in gas applications and the 2013 publication of the second edition of AGA Report No. 11, many users are applying Coriolis meters in gas custody transfer applications.
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Document ID: 4A68B2F3

HIGH VOLUME MEASUREMENT USING TURBINE METERS
Author(s): John A. Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
For over one hundred years the turbine meter has been servicing large volume applications of the natural gas market. During this time the turbine has continuously evolved into a device that offers the industry new and unique features. This paper will focus on the significant advancements of this technology as well as how they are applied in the field today.
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Document ID: 9C60EC8B

BASIC PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS
Author(s): John H. Batchelder
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is misunderstood by many. It is believed by some that all gas is a liquid that is pumped into automobiles or into tanks and is used as a fuel. It is thought of as a dangerous material that will blow up easily. Others do not differentiate between LP gas, natural gas, or gasoline - They are all the same thing, right? While it is true that the above mentioned materials are all made up of the same basic components, each has its own physical and chemical characteristics.
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Document ID: F4EDD510

FLEXIBLE ELEMENT REGULATORS
Author(s): Bryan Vranek
Abstract/Introduction:
This class will consist of a presentation about flexible element style regulators. Flexible element regulators are offered in both a tube style as well as a flexible diaphragm style design. Both types of regulators are used in a pressure control system, which is a system that controls the flow of fluid from a supply to a load system while maintaining pressure. It is important to have these types of regulators to control pressure to allow for safety and efficiency. Below is an example of where pressure control devices will be used in a natural gas distribution system.
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Document ID: ECD61851

REGULATOR/CONTROL RUN DESIGN OPTIMIZATION
Author(s): Peter Glaser
Abstract/Introduction:
Through proper piping design and equipment selection, many regulator and control valve station issues encountered in the field are preventable. This paper explores the key design considerations to assist in avoiding many of the potential regulator and/or control valve station issues and optimizing the station design to suit the operational needs of the facility. This includes exploration of the valve selection process, station control configurations, and design of the station piping to match the engineered equipment.
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Document ID: F9A097FB

GATE STATION DESIGN
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
The City Gate or, Take, Station, is the interchange of natural gas between: Two interstate pipelines An interstate pipeline and a local gas distribution company (LDC) An interstate pipeline and a large industrial end user (usually a power plant) The City Gate station is one of the more complex designs a natural gas engineer will deal with in the course of a career. Like all projects, a properly designed and constructed gate station begins with good preliminary engineering. In preliminary engineering, all of the major project goals and hurdles are defined. If the preliminary engineering document is written properly, it will serve as the backbone for the entire project.
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Document ID: 04FA93FF

UNDERSTANDING REMOTE CONTROLLED CONTROL VALVES AND AUTOMATED VALVES FROM THE SCADA CONTROL ROOM TO THE FIELD DEVICE
Author(s): Raymond J. Schnebelen
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays modern natural gas infrastructure requires the need for natural gas utilities and pipelines to remotely control flow and pressure through control valves, regulators and actuated block valves to properly and safely control the gas flow to critical systems. For those new to the gas industry, much of this technology may seem overwhelming, and difficult to understand how commands from a gas control center are transferred to the field devices, and signals from end devices are relayed back to the control center. There are many factors that are used in the selection of these control devices so that proper operation and control is consistent, reliable and operates safely in the field. This paper outlines the basic techniques used to achieve these goals.
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Document ID: 75335E77

BASIC APPLICATION OF FLOW COMPUTERS AND TELEMETRY SYSTEMS
Author(s): Al Majek
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to flow computers being commonly used in the measurement of hydrocarbons, most telemetry systems were used to collect control information and real time data and provide control commands to Remote Terminal Units (RTU). Most of the local metering was being handled by chart recorders and local data collection by operations personnel. The collected charts were sent to the central facility where the information provided custody transfer reports and or field operations reports. Most of the commonly used chart recorders were the standard circular chart format and pneumatic devices. These were used to process the information for billing, regulatory operations, and monthly operations, but generally culminated into a cumbersome and costly task. The measurement departments often had to deal with discrepancies in data and information that was often weeks or months old. There was an urgent need for collecting real time information from metering equipment and custody transfer data. Although there were telemetry systems in place, collecting real time data and getting this information to a central office was not easily accomplished with the early types of SCADA systems in place.
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Document ID: 91548410

REAL-TIME ELECTRONIC GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Al Majek
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of oil & gas production has progressed considerably since the days of paper charts and manual integration. Technology has moved increasingly to microprocessor based flow computers allowing for greater measurement accuracy, increased control functionality, and ready integration into a companys enterprise computer networks.
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Document ID: 53F6A19F

BASICS OF USING MODBUS IN MONITORING AND CONTROL
Author(s): Tushar Shah Elias Davis
Abstract/Introduction:
The MODBUS is a common industrial communication protocol. It is widely available either as a standard or an option in an industrial control and monitoring equipment e.g. Remote Terminal units (RTUs), Programable Logic Controllers (PLCs), Flow Computers, Volume Correctors, Pressure Recorders, Ultrasonic Meters, Coriolis Meters, Chromatographs, Valve controllers, Odorizers, Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems etc.
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Document ID: 4836CB66

DESIGNING A FLAME & GAS STRATEGY-BALANCING EFFECTIVENESS AND COST
Author(s): Brian Ledeboer
Abstract/Introduction:
ASSESSING WHERE FLAME AND GAS DETECTION MAY BE BENEFICIAL Risk Assessment Process Safety Methodologies -Preliminary Hazards Analysis -Fire Protection Risk Analysis (NFPA) Flame and Gas detection should be considered when: Existing risk exceeds the facilitys risk tolerances Further analysis indicates the risk would fall to within acceptable levels if flame or gas detection is present
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Document ID: B22060BF

WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS-APPLICATIONS IN OIL
Author(s): Danny W. Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
As Machine to Machine (M2M), Internet of Things (IoT), and of course, Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) makes the transition from technology magazines to corporate strategic initiatives, companies are recognizing a significant opportunity to enhance productivity, efficiency, and profitability through Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). These Networks have emerged as a key technology for oil & gas exploration and production companies looking to gain a competitive advantage. Since initially being introduced, manufacturers have enhanced product offerings to operate in the most inhospitable of environments while fortifying the technology with more robust communications architectures, hardening security, increasing reliability, and driving down power consumption. Through the entire oil & gas value chain (upstream, midstream, and downstream) as well as other industrial markets including Electric Power, Water/Waste Water, and Manufacturing, wireless sensor networks are increasingly being deployed where hardwiring was the De facto standard.
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Document ID: 8ADBF68D

LIQUID/LEVEL INTERFACE LEVEL MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Craig M. Carroll
Abstract/Introduction:
PRESENTATION GOALS 1. Define interface 2. Review Application Considerations/Envelopes....what you need to know 3. Review common technologies used for continuous level of liquid/liquid interfaces 4. Agree (?) on a Matrix of Application Considerations per Technology 5. Discuss the use of an overview matrix of measurement technologies versus application considerations
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Document ID: C17A67F3

FROM THE WELLHEAD TO THE BURNER TIP: A SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is presented at the Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course - Fundamentals Section. The paper is designed for the first year student to understand the basic flow of natural gas and the terminology utilized from Production and Storage areas to end use by consumers. Specific focus is given to history of natural gas, gas transmission, city gate stations, and distribution systems.
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Document ID: 971D7916

WIRELESS HART NETWORK SETUP OVERVIEW
Author(s): Tony Simpkins
Abstract/Introduction:
PROCESS MONITORING & CONTROL I/O VISION IDEAL VISION FOR PROCESS CONTROL & MONITORING ARCHITECTURE WHY USE WIRELESS? WHY SMART WIRELESS? See More Do More Traditional wired solutions limit automation Automation benefits plants Wireless augments existing systems Provides critical information to prevent or solve problems WIRELESS APPLICATIONS ARENT NICHE-THEY ARE EVERYWHERE! Process/Asset Reliability Motor, pump, blower monitoring Valve monitoring Filter monitoring Efficiency/Throughput Tank level monitoring Heat exchanger monitoring Rotating kiln / moving equipment monitoring Steam trap monitoring Oil & Gas / Steam injection Personnel Productivity Manual gauge replacement Reduced operator rounds Mobile workers Health / Safety / Environment Emissions / discharge monitoring Eye Wash / Safety shower monitoring Pressure relief valve monitoring Secondary level measurements Video Mustering
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Document ID: 5F654A96

UNDERSTANDING HYDROCARBON LIQUIDS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Al Majek
Abstract/Introduction:
1. BASIC TERMS & CONCEPTS BASIC VOLUME & MASS TERMS Indicated Volume - The meter pulses divided by the K-Factor (ex: Pulses/(Pulses/Gallon) gallons Gross Volume - The Indicated Volume multiplied by the Meter Factor - This is what a truck driver is concerned with. Gross Std Volume - The Indicated Volume multiplied by Correction Factors BS&W Volume - The Gross Std. Volume multiplied by the Basic Sediment & Water percentage value. Crude oil will contain some amount of water and suspended solids from the reservoir formation. The particulate matter is known as sediment or mud. Net Std. Volume - The Gross Std. Volume minus the BS&W volume - what you get paid for. Gross Mass - Can be calculated from the Gross Volume & Density or can be a direct mass reading from mass meter
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Document ID: 4F80E793

BASIC GAS AND INSTRUMENTATION FOR GAS DETECTION
Author(s): George Lomax
Abstract/Introduction:
INTRODUCTION In this class we will review what we need to know about how natural gas, and other gases, works in order to better understand how to detect leakage and unintended releases. We will then look at the operation, maintenance and calibration of the instrumentation available for gas detection. The class will conclude with a demonstration of the Explosion Chamber. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF NATURAL GAS AND OTHER GASES Characteristics Of Natural Gas Non-toxic Colorless Odorless Specific gravity Combustible range
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Document ID: C6E32F5F

NETWORK ANALYSIS - PART 1 GAS FLOW EQUATION FUNDAMENTALS
Author(s): Tim Bickford
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past 25 years engineers in the natural gas industry have come to depend on the computer as a tool to perform complex hydraulic network analysis. Analysis, which would take weeks to perform by hand or by punchcard machines 30 years ago, can now be accomplished in mere hours or sometimes seconds. Today gas network analysis software, though complex and extremely sophisticated, has become very user friendly. Low cost PCs, inexpensive software and flexible software licensing now make it possible for almost anyone to have access to these powerful engineering tools. Today, more and more non-technical persons are using this cutting edge technology to perform analyses that were once performed by specialists.
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Document ID: 9C1F2BAB

CORROSION CONTROL CONSIDERATIONS FOR M&R STATIONS
Author(s): John Otto
Abstract/Introduction:
WHAT IS CORROSION? NACE International The deterioration of a material, usually a metal, that results from a reaction with its environment. What is Necessary for Corrosion to Occur Anode Cathode Electrolyte Metallic Path Note - Current flow must occur between the Anode and Cathode Galvanic Corrosion Occurs when two dissimilar metals are electrically connected The metal with the most negative voltage (higher potential) with reference to a copper/copper sulfate half cell will corrode
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Document ID: FD1E1ADC

PROJECT MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS
Author(s): John Jay Gamble
Abstract/Introduction:
INTRODUCTION What is a Project? A temporary, non-routine endeavor to create a unique product or service limited by time, budget, and specifications. How does it differ from Operations? Operations are on-going, permanent, and repetitive. The purpose of operations is to sustain or maintain the business.
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Document ID: 31F958AC

PRACTICAL SAMPLING CONSIDERATIONS FOR GCS & ANALYZERS LOCATED IN COLD CLIMATES
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
HOW TO SPEAK BOSTONIAN Put some BUTTAH on the COHN Put some SUGAH in the COFFEE Sit in the back YAHD Watch the CAHS go by Listen to the Red SAWKS Its Wicked PISSAH
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Document ID: 36DA6C57

LIFE OF A MODERN SHALE WELL
Author(s): Ryan Deaderick
Abstract/Introduction:
Since its discovery and use in ancient times to the beginning of the industry in the 1850s, oil and natural gas have largely influenced the reality of our modern world. Most scientists theorize that the majority of the worlds oil and natural gas were created from the transformed remains of ancient marine organisms. Today, we find deposits of oil and gas within underground formations of sedimentary rocks and continue to develop techniques and technologies to extract these resources. Unique developments involving one particular type of sedimentary rock called shale have created a renaissance in oil and gas production in the United States. Thousands of private companies in the US operate to primarily develop and produce hydrocarbons from the major and prolific shale basins. Successful shale development operations require significant financial investment, long term planning and the great work of dozens of unique, exciting professions. It is estimated that the shale gas industry supports more than 800,000 American jobs.
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Document ID: 3C6DE949

NATURAL GAS STORAGE AND THE NEW WORLD OF SHALE
Author(s): Zachary Evans
Abstract/Introduction:
ROLE OF UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE Historically Absorb seasonal demand fluctuations Absorb daily/hourly swings on pipelines Alternative to firm transport - reduce pipeline costs Emergency supply security (peaking) Over the past decade All of the above plus Summer power demand Gas futures - arbitrage opportunities
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Document ID: F85B28BC

PHMSA REGULATIONS FOR UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE
Author(s): Richard Fulcher
Abstract/Introduction:
HISTORY OF API 1171 Anticipating future regulations based on PHMSAs 2011 Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking regarding pipeline safety, the American Petroleum Institute (API) convened a group of industry experts to draft recommendations for underground storage operations. Recommended Practices specifically outline how to safely design, store, and operate natural gas in salt caverns and depleted oil and gas reservoirs, covering proper construction methods, materials, and maintenance practices. RP 1170 - Salt Caverns (July 2015) RP 1171 - Depleted Reservoirs (September 2015)
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Document ID: 8D54DBB5

FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS LAWS
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters.
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Document ID: BEF50892

COMMON EXPERIENCES IN SHALE PLAY MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Cody Edwards
Abstract/Introduction:
As with all production gas measurement, the gas being produced in the various shale plays has its own version of measurement issues. While some of the issues fall more in line with historical production measurement and general industry measurement issues, some of the issues seen on a day to day basis are unique to shale play measurement.
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Document ID: 2D4389A7

HORIZONTAL DRILLING
Author(s): Ellen Montgomery
Abstract/Introduction:
TODAYS DISCUSSION Why drill horizontally? Designing horizontal wells Horizontal drilling tools and equipment Additional drilling considerations Well planning and design
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Document ID: 94E72ADA

COMPRESSOR STATION DESIGN BASICS AND AN OVERVIEW OF THE DESIGN PROCESS
Author(s): G. Mitchell Mazaher
Abstract/Introduction:
PURPOSE OF A COMPRESSOR STATION Production - Move gas from wells into transmission pipelines Storage - Move gas in and out of storage fields to and from transmission pipelines Transmission - Move gas through a pipeline
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Document ID: E455E496

UNDERSTANDING HYDROCARBON DEW POINTS IN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES
Author(s): James N. Witte
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will present a discussion on the hydrocarbon dew point of a gas, and is intended as an introduction for operations technicians to the conditions that determine a hydrocarbon dew point value, operating concerns generated when the hydrocarbon dew point is reached, and approaches to the management of gas quality to control hydrocarbon dew point in pipeline systems. The hydrocarbon dew point is one of the most important parameters defining the quality of a natural gas mixture.
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Document ID: 4140977E

ADVANCES IN HYDROCARBON DEWPOINT MONITORING THEORY AND PRACTICE
Author(s): Sohrab Zarrabian
Abstract/Introduction:
Monitoring the hydrocarbon dewpoint of natural gas is becoming ever more important. We have collected more than 20 years worth of data from our customers who use our analyzers in a few different countries with different climates. We have analyzed this data to look for trends and other information that may be useful to the industry. Our customer base includes pipeline operators, gas processors, storage operators, as well as power plants. While these customers are from distinct segments of the gas industry, they face similar issues in controlling the hydrocarbon dewpoint of their natural gas streams.
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Document ID: 8F49D275

PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR GAS SAMPLING AND GAS SAMPLING SYSTEMS
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to be able to take a representative sample of a hydrocarbon product is necessary to ensure proper accounting for transactions and efficient product processing. The various sampling methods that are available and the options and limitations of these methods are investigated the most appropriate equipment to use the reasons for its use and correct installation of the equipment are also addressed.
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Document ID: 234989C4

WATER VAPOR EFFECTS ON NATURAL GAS QUALITY AND NATURAL GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): James N. Witte
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is produced from underground formations in which the gas is at an equilibrium condition with water typically in the formation. Since the gas has been in the formation for a sufficiently long period, full saturation at the pressure and temperature conditions that exist in the production formation is a good assumption. This paper will discuss the effects of water vapor content on natural gas quality and the effect of water vapor on gas measurement.
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Document ID: E53CD429

DETERMINATION OF H2S & TOTAL SULFUR IN NATURAL
Author(s): Byron Larson
Abstract/Introduction:
In the natural gas industry, H2S and total sulfur are monitored to validate tariff limits or to ensure process specifications are maintained at receipt, sales, and process control points throughout the system. Typical measurement ranges are 0-20 ppm for H2S and 0-100 ppm for total sulfur on transmission lines. Wellhead treating, particularly shale gas development has created the need to measure higher ranges of 1000 to 5000 ppm measurement at H2S treater skid inlet with a target treater outlet of 1 to 5 ppm. Downstream processing plant inlet applications require percentage measurement of 1-10% and sulfur plant feed or H2S re-injection ranges of 20-60%. Natural Gas gathering systems may blend off-spec gas with spec gas to maintain gas quality specifications in the 0-5% H2S range. Liquid rich shale gas presents a need to measure H2S in condensate or light oil streams. Natural gas streams used as feed stock in fertilizer production or any other sulfur sensitive catalyst bed dependent process requires sub ppm to as low as 10 ppb sulfur measurement. This paper summarizes principles of operation and points to consider when employing available technologies for various applications and concentrations encountered in the gas industry and related downstream facilities.
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Document ID: 01A315D6

FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY
Author(s): Jamie Marsden
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chromatography is one of the most widely used techniques for analyzing hydrocarbon mixtures. Some of the advantages of chromatography are the range of measurement (from ppm levels up to 100%), the detection of a wide range of components, and the repeatability of the measurements. Chromatography is used in the laboratory, in permanently installed online systems, and in the field with portable systems. No matter the location, style or brand, all gas chromatographs are composed of the same functional components that are the sample handling system, the chromatograph oven, and the controller electronics (refer Figure 1). This paper will cover the principles or sample handling, how chromatograph columns separate the components, why and how multi-port analysis valves are used, the common detector type used in the hydrocarbon applications, and the analysis processing that provides the component concentrations and the other calculated values (such as heating value and specific gravity) through physical reports or interfaces to other devices.
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Document ID: CC8E4B36

FUNDAMENTALS OF WATER VAPOR MEASUREMENT IN NATURAL GAS
Author(s): Ken Soleyn
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of moisture in natural gas is an important parameter for the processing, storage and transportation of natural gas. Natural gas is dehydrated prior to introduction into the pipeline and distribution network. For interstate custody transfer of natural gas maximum allowable levels are set by tariff, normally expressed in terms of absolute humidity in pounds per million cubic feet (lbs/ mmscf). The dew point temperature (C or F Td) is of interest to insure that liquid water or ice does condense in the system. Moisture concentration in parts per million (ppmv) is used in Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Several technologies exist for the online measurement and for spot sampling. A review of the most commonly used instruments using the following technologies: chilled mirror, impedance sensors, quartz microbalance, and tunable diode laser adsorption will be discussed. An intercomparison of those technologies with consideration to the measurement range, accuracy, long-term drift, response time, maintenance and gas sample conditioning will be provided.
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Document ID: 90D18878

FUNDAMENTALS OF PRESSURE CONTROL
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure control is the fundamental operation of all natural gas delivery systems. It provides a safe and reliable energy source for manufacturing and heating systems throughout the world. Pressure control is utilized to balance the system supply demands with safe delivery pressures. Pressure control is used in all phases of the delivery system as follows: Production Wells Up to 5,000+ psig Compressor Stations Pumping into Storage or Boosting Transmission Supply. City Gate Stations Reduce Transmission Pressures to Distribution Pressures. District Regulation Stations cutting pressures for safe delivery End User Regulation Providing a safe pressure for end user appliances.
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Document ID: 410A3D4B

INTRODUCTION TO GAS QUALITY USING SPECTROSCOPY
Author(s): Sohrab Zarrabian
Abstract/Introduction:
Optical spectroscopy is an established group of techniques. These methods all share a fundamental common feature they use the interaction of electromagnetic waves (e.g. light) with materials to deduce information about the make-up of the material under analysis. Optical spectroscopy has been around for almost 100 years. Despite this relatively long history, practical industrial applications in the industry have been somewhat of a more recent trend. Field applications (outside of laboratories) have been even more recent phenomena. In the last 20 years, advances in optical components, computing power, and display technologies have worked hand in hand to enable many new applications of fielddeployed spectroscopy in many different industries. Wide ranging applications in medical, semi- conductor, environmental, materials, pharmaceutical, food, and energy industries have emerged making significant contributions to safety and efficiency in these industries.
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Document ID: D3F41C97

SCADA COMMUNICATIONS FOR THE GAS INDUSTRY
Author(s): Joseph A. Furjanic
Abstract/Introduction:
With the growth in the Natural Gas Industry, the need for ever increasing information from the field is going to force us, as an industry to re-evaluate how we communicate with equipment at remote sites. For the next hour, we will look at some of the options available and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of them. Communications links can be broken down into two general categories: LEASED FACILITIES and OWNED FACILITIES. Most systems that need to cover a large geographic area may require a combination of the two to achieve the optimum communications efficiency.
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Document ID: C56ED4AC

CONSIDERATIONS FOR M2M HYBRID WIRELESS NETWORKS
Author(s): Dan Steele
Abstract/Introduction:
Organizations with geographically dispersed assets, such as those in the energy and utility industries, are continuously developing and implementing new ways to monitor and control all aspects of their business, especially for operations in remote locations. With company personnel and automated machinery constantly in motion, businesses have had to create smarter communication networks out of necessity. A key indicator of enterprise organizations expanding their networking infrastructures ties directly to recent industry reports showing that the number of embedded wireless sensors installed across the world will reach billions and maybe even trillions over the next decade. This means these organizations must also leverage communication technologies to connect everything together - from the corporate office to the field site to the individual sensor - and everything in between. With a greater focus on operational efficiency to both reduce overhead and increase productivity, organizations are continuously tasked with objectives to improve the bottom line.
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Document ID: A7F7A1C2

WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS: APPLICATIONS IN OIL & GAS
Author(s): Brent E. McAdams
Abstract/Introduction:
As Machine to Machine (M2M), Internet of Things (IoT), and of course, Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) makes the transition from technology magazines to corporate strategic initiatives, companies are recognizing a significant opportunity to enhance productivity, efficiency, and profitability through Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). These Networks have emerged as a key technology for oil & gas exploration and production companies looking to gain a competitive advantage. Since initially being introduced, manufactures have enhanced product offerings to operate in the most inhospitable of environments while fortifying the technology with more robust communications architectures, hardening security, increasing reliability, and driving down power consumption. Through the entire oil & gas value chain (upstream, midstream, and downstream) as well as other industrial markets including Electric Power, Water/Waste Water, and Manufacturing, wireless sensor networks are increasingly being deployed where hardwiring was the De facto standard.
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Document ID: C71EBFB1

UNDERSTANDING OPC OPEN CONNECTIVITY VIA OPEN STANDARDS THE OPC FOUNDATION
Author(s): Russel W. Treat Tony Paine
Abstract/Introduction:
In the mid-1990s, a group of vendors convened to address the growing concern regarding connectivity to the plant floor-referred to as the Device Driver Problem. At that time, HMI and SCADA vendors were responsible for building their own driver libraries. This approach created great solutions when it all the connectivity requirements were provided by a single vendor. However, often when multiple vendors were involved, solutions were incomplete or unreliable across vendors. The vendors were faced with a decision: they either needed to invest resources to develop application-level functionality or extend connectivity
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Document ID: A4933D25

DATA COMMUNICATIONS IN THE MARCELLUS & UTICA
Author(s): Brad Waldrip
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this discussion is to explore the various types of data connectivity that are available for data communications to the various points needed, in the Oil & Gas Industry. We will explore the various data connection types, pros and cons of each type and practical applications. The locations that we will be discussing are primarily in West Virginia, Pennsylvania and Ohio. While each type of data connections is feasible there are considerations that need to be observed. These considerations are cost, terrain, bandwidth, serviceability and power consumption. CONNECTION TYPES: 1. Hard Line, or Copper (Fixed Connection) 2. Fiber (Fixed Connection) 3. Cellular 4. Satellite 5. Radio
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Document ID: 3C38561F

GUIDELINES FOR EVALUATING SCADA SYSTEMS
Author(s): Shannon Schreyer
Abstract/Introduction:
SCADA has the ability to perform an immense complex number of functions. Given the sheer volume of SCADAs potential benefits, how do you ensure your organization receives the full extent of SCADAs value? The evaluation of complex systems is both difficult and risky this is especially true if you are learning the new technology while at the same time keeping up with daily responsibilities. However, while difficult, making an informed decision regarding a future SCADA solution is critical to the entire organization. The decision to implement a major SCADA system binds the company to that system for a minimum of seven to ten years. It is imperative that frontend engineering take place and that all business groups associated with operational field data are involved in order to obtain and implement business requirements. The data collected from SCADA systems should easily migrate to other business systems for engineering analysis, accounting purposes, and other technical needs.
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Document ID: B9D7DEBB

REMOTE MONITORING AND CONTROL - IMPACT OF EVOLVING COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES AND PROTOCOLS
Author(s): Vishal Prakash
Abstract/Introduction:
Monitoring of remote assets has been in practice since the 19th century. Since then, there has been many quantum changes including the type of assets that are being monitored, remote control of instruments and processes, type of media and the protocols used. There is a plethora of information available on the World Wide Web that documents and explains these changes, in detail, including a number of white papers. The focus of this white paper is look at the evolution to newer communications technologies such as high speed radio and 3G cellular and advanced protocols such as DNP3 and the advantages that this offers for remote monitoring and control applications. This paper will also discuss the emergence of IIoT (Industrial Internet of Things) as a potential new paradigm for remote monitoring and control.
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Document ID: 28BB4F53

CONSIDERATIONS FOR CHOOSING AND CONFIGURING LEVEL SENSORS IN TODAYS PRODUCTION ENVIRONMENTS AND WITH TODAYS WIRELESS RADIOS
Author(s): Todd Mathias
Abstract/Introduction:
The long-term ramifications can be long lasting when a making decisions, selecting and implementing a wireless M2M network. There are factors to consider today that did not exist or where not important several years ago. One must first consider what the level data will be used for and how does it fit with the corporate network. Then, there are other considerations that can affect the satisfaction with the sensor. Among these considerations, specifically when thinking about level sensors working with your wireless network, are production levels, power consumption, and network flexibility.
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Document ID: 6CB56886

PRINCIPLES OF ODORIZATION
Author(s): Greg Ebert
Abstract/Introduction:
Unfortunately many regulations are drafted on the heels of a disaster. Current regulation Odorization of Gas 49 CFR part 192.625 began setting roots after the deadly school explosion that claimed the lives of nearly 300 school children and teachers in New London Texas. The apparent cause of the explosion was an undetectable natural gas leak, that when concentrated above the lower explosive limit, found an ignition source. This explosion on March 18, 1937 may have been avoided if just 1 out of the 500+ occupants had the ability to recognize or detect the level of danger that existed. Today, regulations, guidelines, policies and procedures are active in the effort to prevent incidents as described above. The information provided in this article is meant to provide a snapshot of odorants, odorization equipment, odorization rates, tools and techniques, as well as general best practices when working with odorant presently in the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: 467C48B1

SELF-OPERATED REGULATOR BASICS
Author(s): Trent Decker Steve Ludtman
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application that we need to look more deeply into the fundamental of the regulators operation.
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Document ID: 9F83F4C4

COMMISSIONING OF ODORIZATION SYSTEMS
Author(s): Martin Bouska
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas has no innate odor, color, or taste therefore, odorization is one of the most important aspects to safely transporting natural gas to customers in a distribution system. As demand for natural gas rises as does the technology involved in odorization. The first odorization occurred in Germany in the 1880s by a German scientist as a means of detecting leaking blue water gas. Fragmented and unregulated odorization of natural gas continued in the United States throughout the early 20th century until tragedy struck in 1937 in New London, TX. An undetected gas leak at the New London School caused an explosion that completely leveled the school and ultimately killed over 300 people. As a result of this tragedy, the Texas legislature immediately moved to make the odorization of natural gas mandatory. Soon regulation spread across the entire United States. For this reason, it is important that we understand the tremendous responsibility of understanding and properly implementing the odorization process.
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Document ID: DC74BB0B

ODORANT LEAK MANAGEMENT
Author(s): Pierre Braud
Abstract/Introduction:
All around the world, propane, butane and natural gas must be odorized. The odorization ensures a safe transport, distribution and use of this valuable energy to residential buildings. Regulations vary from one country or state to another. The natural gas can be odorized at different points of the gas grid: in some countries (France, Spain, South Korea...), odorization takes place at the entry points of the countrys gas grid, either at the gas transmission pipes or at Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) terminals just after vaporization. In other countries (USA, Canada, Mexico, Germany, Italy, Belgium, China...), natural gas is often odorized at city gate level, where gas is depressurized to allow distribution to residential points.
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Document ID: 616EE726

GAS ODORANTS - SAFE HANDLING, HEALTH, AND ENVIRONMENT
Author(s): Daniel E. Arrieta David C. Miller Eric Van Tol
Abstract/Introduction:
Thiols (i.e. mercaptans), sulfides, and tetrahydrothiophene (THT) have been widely used in the odorization of natural and liquefied petroleum gas due to the fact that natural gas does not possess an odor. Mercaptans, for example, have proven to be very effective in odorizing because of their low odor threshold and therefore, immediate impact on the olfactory system (Roberts, 1993). Although, gas odorants are characterized as having a low hazard potential regarding health effects, their unique physical chemical properties such as, high flammability, require that they be handled safely.
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Document ID: 1153F518

NATURAL GAS ODOR LEVEL TESTING PROGRAMS
Author(s): Mark E. Gunsalus
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas odor level testing programs are an important part of delivering safe and reliable natural gas. We will review olfactory biology basics, regulations, odor fade, program development, program execution and training. As an operator and Director for 28 years responsible for this process, we have developed and refined processes and procedures that ensure proper odor levels and identify deficiencies so they can be quickly rectified.
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Document ID: C642AB44

DECOMMISSIONING OF OBSOLETE ODORIZATION EQUIPMENT
Author(s): Wesley Lucas
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas industry is a fast growing segment of our energy industry and there is a need to keep the operations safe and environmentally friendly. Obsolete odorization equipment needs to be removed and disposed of in an environmentally sound and odor-free manner in order to avoid business disruption or potential liquid/vapor odorant leaks from obsolete equipment. Drivers: Modernization due to ageing equipment Upgrade to more reliable/precise equipment Changing natural gas odorization requirements (population density, record keeping) Abandonment Maintenance of odorization equipment Undergound tanks Odorizer failures Expiration of DOT tanks
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Document ID: A6B8861E

THE BASICS OF PICKLING A NEW NATURAL GAS PIPELINE
Author(s): Shawn Jennings Wesley Lucas
Abstract/Introduction:
So, why do we odorize natural gas? Most natural gas is an odorless and colorless flammable gas Odorant is added to establish pungent odor of natural gas When odorized, undesirable or accidental fugitive natural gas will have strong odor (very distinctive and unpleasant odor) that will be easily detected by human Ensure safe transport and delivery of natural gas. Odorants ensure that the public will detect fugitive natural gas. Eliminate/reduce property damage To ensure complete public safety
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Document ID: 1C619F68

PORTABLE LNG VAPORATION
Author(s): John Tirrell
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this presentation is to explain some of the considerations that go into planning and executing a portable gas supply operation using Liquified Natural Gas (LNG). Gas utility personnel have been safely performing portable LNG operations in the United States since the 1970s. Transgas, National Grid, and many other gas utilities and pipelines that have used portable LNG for planned maintenance outages for several decades.
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Document ID: DAFE0949

IMPORTANCE OF DIGITALIZATION IN O&G - DISCOVER YOUR UNTAPPED ASSETS
Author(s): Martin Dingman
Abstract/Introduction:
The Internet of Things (IoT) is driving the rapid pace of digital adoption across multiple industries. Facing a potentially lower for longer scenario, the oil and gas industry is beginning a transformation of its own, increasingly looking toward data-driven solutions to boost performance, enhance efficiency and ultimately, to reduce costs.
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Document ID: FA3AE452

EFFECTS AND CONTROL OF PULSATION IN GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Michael Royce Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulsation created by compressors, flow control valves, regulators and some piping configurations are known to cause significant errors in gas measurement. In recent years the Pipeline-and Compressor Research Council (PCRC) now know as (GMRC) Gas Machinery Research Council, a subsidiary of the Southern Gas Association, commissioned and funded various pulsation research projects at Southwest Research Institute (SWRI) in San Antonio, Texas. This research culminated in the publication of several technical papers, including the April 1987 PCRC report 10.87-3 titled Pulsation and Transient-induced Errors at Orifice Meter Installations and a report, An Assessment of Technology for Correcting Pulsation Induced Orifice Flow Measurement dated November 1991.
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Document ID: 10D8A9BD

SAMPLING CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH UNCONVENTIONAL GAS SOURCES
Author(s): Mark Firmin Vincent Argrave
Abstract/Introduction:
Advances in exploration, drilling and production technologies make it feasible to extract natural gas from sources that in the past have been regarded as unconventional and so, such sources are becoming a larger percentage of the gas supply. The feasibility of producing gas from a source is the primary factor in determining whether that source should be categorized as conventional or unconventional. What has been unconventional in the past may be considered conventional in the future.
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Document ID: C5D30313

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF PILOT OPERATED FLEXIBLE ELEMENT REGULATORS
Author(s): Michael Garvey Steve Ludtman
Abstract/Introduction:
Pilot Operated Flexible Element Regulators are capable of providing very accurate control in natural gas transmission and distribution pipelines. The Pilot Operated Regulator provides advantages over both self-operated regulators and control valves. Primary benefits include simplicity of operation and elimination of any fugitive emissions caused by atmospheric bleed gas. However, it is important to recognize the limitations of the pilot operated flexible element regulator and apply it accordingly. The original Flexible Element Regulator, the Flexflo , was developed by the Grove Valve and Regulator Company circa World War II. The original intent for the regulator was to regulate water in submarine ballasting systems. However, Grove quickly recognized that the Flexflo regulator product was ideally suited for pressure control applications in natural gas pipelines. Many advances have been made since the original Flexible Element was created more then fifty years ago, but the same basic operational advantages and principles of operation remain unchanged.
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Document ID: 6415BE92

MITIGATING LOST AND UNACCOUNTED-FOR GAS: DETERMINATION AND CORRECTIVE ACTION IN CONTEMPORARY UPSTREAM, MIDSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM OPERATIONS
Author(s): Duane Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
In light of volatile prices, the industry has assumed an every drop counts approach to running the business. In this environment, issues such unaccounted-for (UAF) gas, with which every operation has dealt before, find themselves under new scrutiny. Production, gathering, midstream, pipeline and distribution companies are all responsible for managing UAF. Long gone are the days when the cost and impact of UAF was passed directly to the customer with virtually no requirements for managing and reducing costs associated with the loss.
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Document ID: 63B67956

LNG SAMPLING, ANALYTICALLY ACCURATE PRACTICES AND TECHNIQUES WITH INDUSTRY OVERVIEW OF LNG FLOW LAB AND LNG INDUSTRY
Author(s): Ken Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
Sampling and transportation of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) has increased as this has become a Global Market with many new liquefaction plants, export and import terminals that have been built to date and more under construction or in the planning stages due to the increase in world demand of LNG. This demand has increased due to LNG being considered by many countries as the fuel of choice based on its safe properties, availability, cost, cleanness and ease of transportation. With the increase of liquefaction, storage, blending and transportation so has the need increased for Analytically Accurate measurement of the LNG in the realm of custody transfer. This has also led to new techniques in LNG sampling to help verify the measurement results. This paper will cover these new techniques in their approach and their unique challenges for the industry
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Document ID: CAB1CFDF

WHEN DOWN TIME IS NOT AN OPTION IMPROVING RELIABILITY WITH A DC-UPS SYSTEM
Author(s): Ed Merkle
Abstract/Introduction:
Power fluctuations and outages can cause damage to control equipment as well as unexpected down time. This situation can lead to lost productivity and revenue. As the number of power faults and outages increase across the US, many users are installing back-up systems as part of their standard equipment to prevent such losses and down time. For industrial applications, uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) have become more and more important. DC-UPS systems are used for a safety shutdown, finishing processes or providing the energy for a communication system.
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Document ID: 1B387BE8

FUNDAMENTALS OF NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS (NGLS
Author(s): Ken Haynes
Abstract/Introduction:
Before discussing NGLs, it is first necessary to build some background on natural gas. Natural gas is a naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbons (compound of hydrogen and carbon) and nonhydrocarbon gases found in porous geologic formations beneath the earths surface. Natural gas is a mixture of the hydrocarbon components of methane, ethane, propane, butane, and pentanes, with the principal constituent being methane. Natural gas also can contain non-hydrocarbon gases such as carbon, dioxide, water, hydrogen sulfide, and nitrogen.
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Document ID: 6B54B955

SAFE HANDLING AND OPERATION OF LIQUID PRODUCTS
Author(s): Alex Ramsey Jay Bailey
Abstract/Introduction:
In our industry Liquid Products are becoming more and more valuable. As an industry we are converting our gases to liquids for a multitude of reasons. These reasons include easier transportation, easier means of storage, and more efficient operations. With these practices comes a different role of responsibility. Different safety measures must be taken when handling these liquids. When the correct steps are performed, this makes for much more efficient and safe operations. To understand the safe handling of liquid products, you must first understand the different types of liquid products. The three different types of liquid products that will be covered are: Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), and Natural Gas Liquids (NGL). When dealing with these different liquids you must understand the physical properties of each.
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Document ID: 4569CE6B

OVERVIEW OF AN APPALACHIAN SHALE GAS PROCESSING
Author(s): Ryan Savage Jim Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this class is to provide an overview of a typical northeast Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) processing plant. The Marcellus and Utica Shale play in the Appalachian Basin area has brought the need for new substructure, compressor stations, facilities and processing plants. The natural gas production in Appalachia has historically been lower pressure Devonian gas which is considered dry when compared to the rich Shale gas. The terms dry, wet, lean and rich are industry terms for describing the physical state and composition of the gas as it is produced from the earth. The term dry gas or lean gas refers to natural gas that has a BTU value range of approximately 900 to 1100. The terms wet gas or rich gas is used almost interchangeably, but the more accurate term for description is probably rich because wet can also refer to the gases water content. Rich gas is natural gas that has a BTU value above 1100 generally.
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Document ID: CA8D6183

WET GAS FLOW METERING
Author(s): Josh Kinney
Abstract/Introduction:
There is high demand for wet natural gas flow measurement technologies. As natural gas wells age the production flow typically becomes wetter as the dynamics of the reservoir change. Furthermore, marginal fields often produce natural gas flows with significant liquid loading from the outset. It is important that these wet gas flows are metered as accurately as possible. The traditional method of metering wet gas or multiphase flows is to separate the fluids in a dedicated separator vessel. The inlet of these vessels receives the unprocessed flow of natural gas and liquids (which may be both hydrocarbon liquids and water). The vessel is designed to separate the component fluids and allow the flow to exit separately as natural gas and single component liquid flows where single phase flow measurement technologies can be utilized. This is the original wet gas and multiphase meter technology.
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Document ID: 1253B07B

WET GAS TEST COMPARATIVE RESULTS: ORIFICE VS. USM
Author(s): John Lansing Toralf Dietz Dr. Richard Steven Jim Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
The CEESI Nunn Wet Gas facility consists of a closedloop test stand with up to 650 horsepower that permits flow rates from about 83 to 620 ACMH. This corresponds to 3 to 23 m/s in 4-inch Schedule 80 piping. Pressures can range from 1,380 kPa up to 7,500 kPa (13.8 Bar - 75 Bar). Gas flow is measured using a calibrated 6-inch turbine meter, and the injected liquid is measured using one of 2 different Coriolis meters (1/2 and 2 sizes). The liquid typically used is Exxsol D80, but water, or a mixture of both can also be used.
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Document ID: 7BFF5303

PROPER SAMPLING PROCEDURES FOR NGL AND RICH GAS
Author(s): Jason Rine
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this class is to provide a basic overview of proper sampling procedures that should be followed for any natural gas/natural gas liquid sample taken. Additionally, this class offers a more detailed review of proper sample collection per GPA 2174-14. Lastly an overview of basic analytical guidelines is discussed. COLLECTING PROPER SAMPLES For any sample to be collected the following questions should be asked before and during collection to make sure that a quality sample is collected.
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Document ID: 63897AE2

NATURAL GAS LIQUID MEASUREMENT-DIRECT & INFERRED
Author(s): Dean Minehart
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) streams consist of mixtures of hydrocarbons including ethane, propane, butane, pentane and natural gasoline. NGL is sometimes referred to as y-grade. The American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) Chapter 14 Section 7 provides guidance on the mass measurement of NGL. Mass measurement techniques are applied to NGL measurement due to solution mixing of a variable fluid composition within the NGL stream.
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Document ID: 89A1951E

FUNDAMENTALS OF CONTROL VALVES AND PNEUMATIC CONTROLLERS
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry utilizes two devices to reduce gas pressure and control gas flow. The first is the regulator and the second is a control valve. The control valve is utilized for high volumes and it can perform flow control as will as pressure control. This paper will provide the fundamentals of control valve types, sizes, and the controllers that are utilized to operate the control valves. We will also investigate the differences between the regulator and the control valve and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
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Document ID: ADC7D7FC

PROVERS FOR MEASUREMENT VERIFICATION
Author(s): Greg Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
This document will provide the reader an understanding of what a prover is, the need for proving meters for accurate measurement verification, the equipment deemed acceptable and available for use in the oil and liquefied gas market. It will also define the general terminology used in the industry, general operational aspects for verification devices, and general information utilized by the groups and agencies that govern the meter verification process.
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Document ID: 8182FBE5


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