Measurement Library

Canadian School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (2018)

Canadian School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Differential Meters Design and Operating Considerations
Author(s): Phil Barg
Abstract/Introduction:
Most of the meters used in gas measurement in Canada are orifice meters, a type of differential meter. There are also other differential meters available, such as cone meters, Venturi tubes, and various nozzles, as well as pitot tubes and their derivatives such as the Annubar. Given the range of meters available, how do we choose between them? What are the different characteristics that we can exploit as we design and operate our facilities? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each type?
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Document ID: 9B4927F9

Installation Considerations and Handling of Entrained Gas in Coriolis Flowmeters
Author(s): Steffen Baecker
Abstract/Introduction:
Temperature effects include Stiffness Expansion and contraction Stresses Coriolis meter offers Thin wall tubes enclosed in an outer case RTD is bonded to the outside of measuring tube Temperature data is made available to the user Concentration Measurement
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Document ID: 3229C6CF

Basics of Ultrasonic Flow Meters
Author(s): David Crandall
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to explain the measurement of natural gas and petroleum liquids for through the use of ultrasonic meters. Specifically, this paper explains the operation of ultrasonic meters, issues surrounding their performance, calibration procedures, and proper installation considerations. Additionally, the electronics making the measurements generate calculated values relating to the operation of the meter and as a result a database is available to provide analysis of the meters ongoing performance. Meter health parameters can be evaluated to verify the meters operation and these principles are explained.
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Document ID: A954F1B0

Technically Secure: How Technical Controls Create Security for Industrial Control Systems
Author(s): David Blanco
Abstract/Introduction:
PLC Blaster Targeting Field equipment Spread directly between PLCs Exploits features of equipment NOT exploiting a vulnerability
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Document ID: C05EB53E

Forthcoming Methane Regulations - A starting Introduction
Author(s): Pascal Bonnet Jonathon Wasylik
Abstract/Introduction:
In 2016 Federal (ECCC) and Provincial Governments announced a 40-45% Methane emissions reduction for the Upstream Oil & Gas Sector by 2025 ECCC using a 2012 NIR baseline GOA using a 2014 AER baseline Extensive federal & provincial consultations since April 2016 and on-going The aim is to balance the cost of reduction abatement solutions against the most material reductions
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Document ID: CEACAEB0

Gas Analysis 101: Reading & Interpreting Gas Analysis
Author(s): Pascal Bonnet
Abstract/Introduction:
Why is it important to review gas analyses before use? OR Gas Analyses are critical in 2 key steps for producers: 1.Revenue - Actual compositions help determine the amounts of each hydrocarbon and energy delivered to be paid on. 2.Volumetric - Two factors: Gas density and supercompressability from the analysis are used in the actual flow rate calculation across an orifice plate.
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Document ID: 363B2288

Importance of Meter Tube and Orifice Fitting Inspections Hands-on Learning
Author(s): Joey Clarke Peter Harder
Abstract/Introduction:
Advantages: Orifice Measurement Flow can be accurately determined without the need for calibration Orifices Meters are simple to operate and troubleshoot Extensive research and operational knowledge Requires minimum service Orifice meters and their standards are widely accepted Low cost of ownership Unlimited turndown
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Document ID: D7E2A15F

Combustion Gas Measurement: Safety with Reference to API Recommended Practice 556
Author(s): Robert Campbell
Abstract/Introduction:
Coil outlet temperature is controlled by burner fuel pressure adjustment (Natural draft) No active air flow measurement & control. (Forced / Balanced draft) Air flow control but no air to fuel ratio control which is passive through mechanical design. Flue gas measurement is often oxygen only and made in the stack.
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Document ID: 00A5513D

Improving Measurement Integrity Through Measurement Data Validation
Author(s): Duane Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Characteristics Un-Integrated One-Way No History Real Time /Operational Data Islands Complex Slow/Monthly
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Document ID: 248F9F63

What You Need to Know About Accurate Gas Measurement
Author(s): Andrew Rau
Abstract/Introduction:
The source of almost all of the production and revenue calculations. With accurate and reputable measurement of the quantity and quality of natural gas, economic gains can be recognized through the reduction of operating costs in sales of material and time. Accurate and reputable orifice measurement and volume determination is the combined responsibility of Field Operators, PAs and your chart reading service and can be achieved through good working practices and open communication between these departments.
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Document ID: 142B2638

Bitumen and Diluent Quality Best Practices for Blending and Measurement Consideration
Author(s): Randy Segato
Abstract/Introduction:
Key Bitumen Qualities will be reviewed from the point of view of marketing and custody transfer needs, as well for key valuation measures. We will be covering principles of required accurate bitumen density measurements including sensitivity impacts of residual solids and water (and solvents). There will be discussions on best practices for bitumen quality sampling leveraging learnings from the Canadian Crude Quality Technical Association (CCQTA) and other external publications. In addition we will covering recent developments in light end retention and analysis in diluent streams. We will be reviewing the developments of more accurate measurement/modeling standards for using shrinkage equations across diluent blends for marketing or Royalty purposes.
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Document ID: 3F250405

Measurement Schematics Facility Delineation
Author(s): Bill Cheung
Abstract/Introduction:
?Wells and the associated equipment are only linked to and reported under batteries or injection facilities for the same type of product, such as: ?Gas wells are linked to and reported under gas batteries ?Disposal wells are linked to and reported under disposal facilities ?Injection wells are linked and reported under injection facilities ?Any fluids moving from one facility to another will require measurement ?More measurement points allow for delineation flexibility
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Document ID: D35ED58A

Determining of Oxygen in Natural Gas
Author(s): Nick Cosentino
Abstract/Introduction:
Introducing the OXY5500 oImmune to H2S! oNo H2S Scrubbers required oNo Interferences in Natural Gas oLower Cost to Operate (Long Sensor Life) oReliable - Minimal Maintenance oFaster Response Time versus other O2 analyzers oWide ranges available:
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Document ID: A1A6409C

Measurement Canada Regulations and Implications for the Hydrocarbon Measurement Industry
Author(s): Dave Coone
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid Loading and Unloading Applications Focus on Bulk Racks and Truck & Railcar Loading Measurement Canada also covers: Natural Gas Measurement Weigh Scales Electricity Scales (Grocery Stores, Airports, etc.)
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Document ID: DA442A5F

Whats New in AGA Report #9
Abstract/Introduction:
Whats New in AGA Report #9 Whats New in AGA Report #9 Whats New in AGA Report #9 Whats New in AGA Report #9 Whats New in AGA Report #9 Whats New in AGA Report #9 Whats New in AGA Report #9 Whats New in AGA Report #9 Whats New in AGA Report #9 Whats New in AGA Report #9 Whats New in AGA Report #9 Whats New in AGA Report #9 Whats New in AGA Report #9 Whats New in AGA Report #9 Whats New in AGA Report #9 Whats New in AGA Report #9 Whats New in AGA Report #9 Whats New in AGA Report #9 Whats New in AGA Report #9 Whats New in AGA Report #9 Whats New in AGA Report #9 Whats New in AGA Report #9 Whats New in AGA Report #9 Whats New in AGA Report #9 Whats New in AGA Report #9 Whats New in AGA Report #9 Whats New in AGA Report #9 Whats New in AGA Report #9 - Third Edition July 2017Third Edition July 2017Third Edition July 2017Third Edition July 2017Third Edition July 2017Third Edition July 2017Third Edition July 2017Third Edition July 2017Third Edition July 2017Third Edition July 2017Third Edition July 2017Third Edition July 2017Third Edition July 2017Third Edition July 2017Third Edition July 2017Third Edition July 2017Third Edition July 2017Third Edition July 2017Third Edition July 2017Third Edition July 2017Third Edition July 2017Third Edition July 2017Third Edition July 2017 Over 40 pages shorter than the 2007 2 Over 40 pages shorter than the 2007 2 Over 40 pages shorter than the 2007 2 Over 40 pages shorter than the 2007 2 Over 40 pages shorter than the 2007 2 Over 40 pages shorter than the 2007 2 Over 40 pages shorter than the 2007 2 Over 40 pages shorter than the 2007 2 nd Edition Edition Edition - Thats a good thing! 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Document ID: 4BE38CDB

Real Life Case Studies - Gas & Liquid Metering
Author(s): Wayne Dunnington
Abstract/Introduction:
AER installed according to applicable procedures accepted by an appropriate industry technical standards association or the manufacturers recommendations. uncertainty requirements of Section 1
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Document ID: 0E3491B0

Common Velocity Diagnostics for Ultrasonic Meters with Three or More Chords
Author(s): Rick Rans Warren Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic meter chord locations, path types, path angles, meter body inlet bevel angles and non-axial flow cancelation designs are manufacturer-specific. Manufacturers have adopted similar-diagnostic terminology such as profile factor, asymmetry and cross flow, that requires meter specific interpretations. These common terms can have very different meanings when trying to compare diagnostics from one meter manufacturer to another. This paper describes how to create velocity diagnostics that are common to all ultrasonic meters with three or more chord velocity measurements. The technique is based on Gaussian quadrature geometric characteristics and measuring or calculating chord average velocities at fixed chord locations.
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Document ID: C22B0657

Pipeline Control And Leak Detection Performance Improvement Using Inferred Signals
Author(s): Noman Rasool Bobbie Griffith
Abstract/Introduction:
Evaluates data and recognizes the importance of accuracy within the metering equipment utilized Identifies upstream instrumentation anomalies Illustrates the abilities liquid Ultrasonic meter diagnostics Improve current leak detection real time transient models (RTTM) Improve pipeline operational procedures Addresses benefits of the meters capabilities and the importance of inferred signals to improve pipeline operations and leak detection systems Cost efficient solution - case by case basis
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Document ID: 4A860083

TECHNICALLY SECURE HOW TECHNICAL CONTROLS CREATE SECURITY FOR INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
Author(s): David Blanco
Abstract/Introduction:
Every word we hear reminds us of its opposite.1 For example, the word safety finds meaning from an abstract context of danger. The safe way of doing something is a reminder of the dangers of the task. For industrial control systems (ICS) professionals, the concept of danger isnt abstract because the word safety is actionable. Safety is embedded into every process of industrial companies. As the CEO of Exxon, Darren Woods, put it, safety is ultimately found in a companys culture-the unwritten standards and norms that shape mindsets, attitudes, and behaviors.2 Safety, like culture, is a cumulative experience of proactive policies often created in reaction to past events. For example, a fire in a packed theater killed 575 people because the exit doors opened inward, preventing customers from opening the doors when crowds rushed at them. After the fire, safety standards were adopted stating that all exits must open outward from the inside.3 In much the same way, ICS created processes and procedures to avoid dangerous outcomes.
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Document ID: 20CE8804

NGL Fundamentals and Challenges for Custody Transfer
Author(s): Joey Clarke
Abstract/Introduction:
NGL stands for Natural Gas Liquid Typically refers to a mixture of ethane, propane, butane and natural gasoline (pentanes) NGLs are hydrocarbons that are condensed as a liquid from a gaseous state
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Document ID: 3793534C

Testing of EFM Algorithms - What Do You Do When Directive 17 Test Cases Dont Apply?
Author(s): Mark Flynn
Abstract/Introduction:
The History of EFM validation What is EFM? What it is not? Why are All EFM different? Is paying for EFM validation software outdated? What is Free Auto Validation for EFM? What are problematic areas for EFM?
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Document ID: 62FF6C1E

Using the Right Meter for the Job
Author(s): Maureen Evers-Dakers
Abstract/Introduction:
Accepted Standards API - gas and liquid metering AGA - gas metering ASTM - sampling and analysis Standards set the rules for equipment, installations and procedures
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Document ID: 0ECDB9F0

Installation Effects on Gas Flow Measurement Metering
Author(s): Steve Moores
Abstract/Introduction:
Steve Moores Flow Application Specialist Endress+Hauser Canada 25 years in Process Measurement 10 Years Field Service UK & EU 12 Years Field Service Western Canada 5+ Years Flow Application Specialist / Support
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Document ID: 5B614351

Directive 42 - MARP and Thermal Production Measurement
Author(s): Mike Robley
Abstract/Introduction:
Viscosity: 8 million centipoise (cold production not possible) Oil Density: 1015 kg/m3 at standard conditions, 890 kg/m3 actual conditions (similar density to water in both conditions)
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Document ID: 62402A15

How to Validate Your Gas Sales An Introduction to Gas Allocations for Production Accountants
Author(s): Ken Brinkac
Abstract/Introduction:
The Volumetric Reporting Value Chain Production accountants enter all this data into their accounting software (Metrix, PAS, Petronet, etc) and generate gas splits monthly. How often do we check to see if the gas allocation is giving us accurate results?
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Document ID: 25222758

White Paper: Measurement Canada Regulations and the Implications for the Hydrocarbon Measurement Industry
Author(s): Dave Coone
Abstract/Introduction:
This white paper will address many of the common questions and pitfalls associated with engineering, installing, and testing a measurement Canada Approved Custody Transfer loading system. It will also address where and why Measurement Canada regulations should be applied and followed by the industry. Measurement Canada covers a variety of industries and trade sectors, all with their own unique requirements. These trade sectors range from electricity measurement to weigh scales at grocery store check-out counters. Due to the nature of this school and paper, only the Petroleum Liquid Bulk Sector will be covered.
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Document ID: 999D6B04

Defining Insanity
Author(s): Wayne Dunnington
Abstract/Introduction:
Step 1 - Calibrate Meters o(find nothing) Step 2 - Wait Until Month End o(still have metering difference) Step 3 - Start at Step 1 AGAIN
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Document ID: 390FD8BF

API MPMS Production Measurement and Allocation Standards
Author(s): Arun Kurian
Abstract/Introduction:
The responsibility of the MPMS Chapter 20.1 standard transferred: from the Committee on Liquid Measurement (COLM) to the CPMA committee Strategy: Develop the other new standards first Revise the current 20.1 to fit in with the new standards. Multiple changes to the scope definition Title changed to: Production Measurement and Allocation Systems
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Document ID: 1327C5F0

OMNI 3000/6000 Flow Computer Hands-On Training
Author(s): Jeffery MacMillan
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow computer: An electronic computational device that implements algorithms to process raw data received from various flow and measurement devices into volumes at standard or base conditions. The flow computer is the Cash Register.
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Document ID: 59C56BC2

Improving process sampling with automation. Reducing human interaction, well reducing operating costs.
Author(s): Matthew P. Pylychaty Tyson L. Bergheim
Abstract/Introduction:
With operation and device performance normally being referenced to a sample of sorts, great improvements can be made to installations, to reduce cost. With the ability to induce an error in a sample by simply being human, the ability to automate these systems is present. With automation, a samples repeatability and reproducibility can be greatly improved, well at the same time removing human interaction and greatly reduce ones exposure to the process. Automation also allows for more hazardous samples to be taken as the human exposure is no longer present, well at the same time improve the device performance, as the device is now compared to a method that is completed the same way, every time via automation.
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Document ID: A71266E7

Improved leak detection on Gathering Pipelines for the Upstream Oil and Gas Industry
Author(s): Jonathan Fiedler
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to the complexity and continuously evolving nature of gathering pipelines in the upstream oil and gas industry, reliable and timely leak detection can be difficult to achieve. Many times wells are being retired while new wells are coming online meaning the pipeline network to be monitored for leaks is continuously changing. To utilize the optimum solution for leak detection, Real Time Transient Modelling (RTTM) extended with leak signature analysis (E-RTTM), as is used by the vast majority of Midstream Companies, excessively high costs for re-modelling and re-tuning would be necessary. The cost to maintain such a system on Gathering Lines is not justified and as a result, most of these complex piping networks rely on the simplest form of leak detection, basic volume or mass balance.
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Document ID: CA7167C6

Accurate Viscosity Measurement at Reference Temperatures
Author(s): Kevin Boehm
Abstract/Introduction:
Viscosity & Measurement Applications Terminals & Pipelines Refineries EOR Fluids analysis Technologies and measurement methods Common Lab methods On-line Analyzers vs sensors Methods & precision Common measurement hardware designs/strategies and results Form factors Limits of precision Effects and Measurement hardware strategies/techniques
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Document ID: D9DA1CEB

H2S Analysis Fundamentals
Author(s): Don Ford
Abstract/Introduction:
H2S, Hydrogen Sulfide, Sour Gas A colorless gas with the characteristic odor of rotten eggs. Very poisonous, corrosive, and flammable Commonly Found in: Oil and gas production Wastewater treatment H2S is produced as a result of microbial breakdown of organic materials in the absence of oxygen.
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Document ID: CEB2A2C9

Royalty 101, An Introduction to Royalty Concepts
Author(s): David Isaac
Abstract/Introduction:
Royalties are the payment to the owner of a resource for the right to develop the resource. Royalties are a balance between the owner receiving a share of the profits from the resource, while encouraging the development of the resource. Royalties are subject to the competitive and economic circumstances of the resource and jurisdiction Royalties form part of the economic fiscal return to the owner, (other parts taxes, bonus bids, fees & leases, etc.)
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Document ID: 440CCA3F

Best Practices for Liquid Hydrocarbon Sampling and Analysis
Author(s): Derek Fraser
Abstract/Introduction:
Crude oil, pressurized and stabilized liquid hydrocarbons (condensates) are extremely complex mixtures. They defy the ability to conduct full characteristic description in many ways. The value of crude oil products are commonly determined by a combination of their physical and chemical characteristics. In general, the value of a crude petroleum product is determined by both the average properties and the consistency or variability of these properties. Measurement professionals are frequently required to support sampling and analytical programs in conjunction with volumetric measurements. There are a wide variety of measurement options and analytical techniques to choose from when determining the physical and chemical properties. To complicate this further, there are many sampling methodologies used in the industry to obtain representative samples.
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Document ID: DEAC4872

MEASUREMENT VALIDATION AND RESOLUTION PROCESSING FOR TODAYS MEASUREMENT GROUP Overview of a Comprehensive Validation Program
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement data integrity is critical in overall measurement accuracy for an organization due to its direct impact on the bottom line. In addition, measurement data integrity ensures compliance with both regulatory and industry requirements. The integrity of measurement data must relate directly to the validation of all data received and processed by the measurement group.
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Document ID: AFBFFD84

Implications of the Upcoming Methane Reduction and Reporting Regulations on Measurement and Production Accounting
Author(s): Ted Hart
Abstract/Introduction:
Both the Alberta and Federal Governments have announced their policy positions on implementing a carbon tax as part of their joint action on climate change. Additionally, both governments are targeting substantial reductions in methane emissions from the oil and gas industry. These methane reductions will be achieved through regulations that will target sources of both intentional venting and fugitive equipment leaks. Methane emitted by the oil and gas industry is largely from unmetered sources that, to date, have not been rigorously managed or inventoried. Historically, sources of unmetered fuel, flared and vented gas have not gained much attention since, individually, the volumes are deemed to be small and of not much concern. While this is true on an individual component or event basis, it takes on a different perspective when one considers the cumulative impact of literally hundreds of thousands of emission points within the oil and gas industry.
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Document ID: C361CA04

Frequency and Antenna Selection Effects on Accuracy of Free Space Radar
Author(s): Gerhard Jansson
Abstract/Introduction:
Microwave radar for level measurement has become a preferred and one of the most trusted technologies in many of todays industrial applications, both Guided Wave and Free-space. Four different frequency bands are used for Free-space level measurement: the C-band (6 GHz), the X-band (10 GHz), the K-band (26 GHz) and lately the W-band (80 GHz) and these are either based on the Pulse principle or Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) technology. Recently there has been a lot of hype concerning high frequency 80 GHz radar transmitters, where some manufactures claim: the higher the frequency the better the performance. This is not necessarily true. Instead, accuracy is dependent upon a combination of frequency, beam angle, antenna configuration, but more importantly on installation and dielectric constant (DC) of the product itself.
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Document ID: FD8AAEA3

Improving Process Sampling with Automation. Reducing Human Interaction, Improving Repeatability, and Reproducibility Well Reducing Operating Costs.
Author(s): Matthew P. Pylychaty Tyson L. Bergheim
Abstract/Introduction:
With operation and device performance normally being referenced to a sample of sorts, great improvements can be made to installations, to reduce cost. With the ability to induce an error in a sample by simply being human, the ability to automate these systems is present. With automation, a samples repeatability and reproducibility can be greatly improved, well at the same time removing human interaction and greatly reduce ones exposure to the process. Automation also allows for more hazardous samples to be taken as the human exposure is no longer present, well at the same time improve the device performance, as the device is now compared to a method that is completed the same way, every time via automation.
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Document ID: 8F10A0A3

Measurement of NGL with Coriolis Meters
Author(s): na
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) Volume of Component Mixtures Mass Measurement of NGL Mass/Volume/Density Relationships Coriolis meter Principle of Operation & Installation Best Practices Mass Measurement Direct Mass Measurement Inferred Mass Measurement Density Measurement and Product Sampling Conversion of Total Measured Mass to Component Standard Volumes
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Document ID: 6E7B84F7

Detecting Corrosion and Erosion - Testing In-situ Coriolis Verification Technology
Author(s): Eric Harman Kerry Checkwitch
Abstract/Introduction:
Spectra Energy (now Enbridge) had a need to identify potential integrity concerns with Coriolis meters Meters were being used to account for acid gas injected downhole and leak detection on an NPS 6 connected pipeline operating at 14600 kPa (2120 psi) Pipeline fluid was 80% H2S and 20% CO2 in liquid phase Micro Motion CMF300 Hastelloy 3 sensor PRCI sponsored a testing project to evaluate the effectiveness of meter diagnostics
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Document ID: 3FE89524

EPAP -What Was, What Is and What Can Be
Author(s): Justin Dolan
Abstract/Introduction:
EPAP is the Alberta Energy Regulators (AER) and the Saskatchewan Ministry of Economys (ECON) Enhanced Production Audit Program implemented through Directive 076: Operator Declaration Regarding Measurement and Reporting Requirementsand Directive PNG076 Enhanced Production Audit Program
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Document ID: DE09614A

OPTIMIZING NATURAL GAS LIQUID PRODUCTION USING NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY
Author(s): Phil Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The Montney Shale Formation Gas, Oil and Natural Gas Liquids (NGLs) Fractionation Towers and Optimization Engineering Economics Online Process Analysis Conventional / Historical Spectroscopic Decision Rationale Results
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Document ID: 822718AE

Identifying and Avoiding Meter Installation Issues
Author(s): Jody Kutschera
Abstract/Introduction:
Metering - Why Do It? Maintain process control Monitor production or performance Transfer of custody Allocation or fee collection Volumetric reporting - regulatory Check on other metering - Etc.
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Document ID: 925FDB03

ERRORS IN SAMPLE COLLECTION - WHAT DO THEY COST AND HOW TO PREVENT THEM?
Author(s): SENIA MCPHERSON
Abstract/Introduction:
Error prevention is essential in providing accurate analytical data for application in the measurement industry. For the laboratory, adhering to quality programs and adopting quality systems are fundamental. When inaccuracies are discovered during quality review, the determination of root cause and implementation of corrective actions are necessary to eliminate errors. However, root cause findings may reveal problems with sample collection that extend beyond the laboratorys control and prevention of these errors must be emphasized.
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Document ID: A167D019

Saskatchewan Ministry of Energy & Resources Measurement & Compliance Update
Author(s): Alison Dolter Scott Lenz Blake Linke
Abstract/Introduction:
Flare Gas: Gas that is combusted in a flare or incinerator at upstream oil and gas operations. Examples of gas usage scenarios that must be reported as flare gas include the following: waste gas pilot gas dilution and make-up gas added to a flare gas stream before flaring or incineration acid gas (routine and non-routine)upset) blanket gas, purge gas, and sweep gas gas used to operate pneumatic devices (instruments, pumps, and compressor starters) gas from dehydrator still columns gas produced during well completions gas gas produced during well unloading operations volumes equipment failures or plant upsets that result in gas being flared or incinerate
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Document ID: 627CE94E

Liquid Meter Prover Calibration - Water Draws - What really goes on and Why?
Author(s): Robert Fallwell
Abstract/Introduction:
What is the Purpose of a Meter Prover? Prove or Calibrate Meters Accounts for variation in: Flow conditions (rate, T, P, Density, viscosity) Meter conditions - wear Meter Factor Volume Through Prover Volume Through Meter
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Document ID: 79B15D8E

Sampling and Analysis - What Impacts? Best Practices to Liquid Hydrocarbon Sampling and Analysis
Author(s): Derek Fraser
Abstract/Introduction:
Product quality An important component of petroleum valuation and custody transfer. The value of crude petroleum products are determined by: Physical characteristics (density, viscosity and boiling point profile) Chemical characteristics (such as sulfur content, nitrogen content, total acid number (TAN) and metal content). Contaminants (sediment, water, organo halides & phosphorous) Consistency or variability of these properties Wide variety of measurement options and analytical technique to choose from. Typically, quality parameters are part of custody transfer agreements or product specifications.
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Document ID: E16FC397

Accurate Real-Time Process Measurement for Viscosity, Density, & Water cut in Custody Transfer Applications
Author(s): Tyson L. Bergheim Matthew P. Pylychaty
Abstract/Introduction:
Lower commodity prices have resulted in tighter profit margins in the Oilsands, therefore facility performance is under great scrutiny. Optimization of custody transfer blending ratios has enormous cost savings potential for bitumen processing operations. Accurate and reliable control of your final product is paramount in reducing energy input and quantity of purchased product used for blending. Flexibility of your facility to handle alternative products and respond to dynamic process conditions expands your potential for improvement.
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Document ID: E44841E1

AGA-3 Basics
Author(s): Phil Barg
Abstract/Introduction:
The AGA started work on orifice metering in the 1920s The first report, AGA Report No. 1 was published in 1927 Additional research was conducted and in 1935, Report no. 2 was issued Report No. 3 was first issued in 1955 Updated in 1969, 1975, and 1983. All of these versions used essentially the same data, and the Buckingham equation for discharge coefficient.
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Document ID: 0DE50DAF

Custody Transfer Measurement and Calibration Options for Natural Gas with Coriolis Meters
Author(s): na
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis Meter Principle of OperationMain Meter Components Process fluid enters the sensor and flow is split with half the flow through each tube Drive coil vibrates tubes at natural frequency Pick-off coils on inlet and outlet sides generate raw measurement signals
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Document ID: F7438FA9

Leveraging Digital Communication to get Additional Process Variables
Author(s): Dirk Steyn
Abstract/Introduction:
Analog control signals were established early in the 1950s to be able to get reliable process information over a distance to a control room. Digital communication protocols were introduced to the market in the mid 1980s starting with HART communication which is where digital information is superimposed on top of the 4-20mA analog control signal and was followed by an whole assortment of Protocols
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Document ID: 7AAA2486

Financial Implications of Test Method Selection and Sampling for Condensate
Author(s): Duncan Unrau
Abstract/Introduction:
Typically most people will be talking about lease condensate. Liquid mixture consisting mainly of light hydrocarbons (C4-15) API usually 50 API (den. 0.779) depending on who you ask Some people will consider condensate a light crude oil
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Document ID: A2E65A1D

Errors in Calculating Hydrocarbon Dewpoints
Author(s): Nick Cosentino
Abstract/Introduction:
The temperature at which a gas undergoes phase transition to form liquid. ? Depends on the pressure of the gas ? Depends on the nature of the gas Single components or multi-component gas
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Document ID: 03AC6195

Improved Leak Detection on Gathering Lines for the Upstream Oil & Gas Industry
Author(s): Jonathan Fiedler
Abstract/Introduction:
Improved Leak Detection on Gathering Lines Some wells are being retired while new wells are coming online Use of Real Time Transient Modelling Solutions becomes too expensive The cost to maintain such a system on Gathering Lines is not justified Settle for simple solutions with long detection times and correspondingly large leak thresholds
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Document ID: EFD2FD83

IMG Industry Recommended Practice for Intelligent Transmitter Verification Phase III Routine Transmitter Checks
Author(s): Rick Rans
Abstract/Introduction:
Phase I Have we really been incorrectly adjusting these devices by always calibrating them to zero? Intelligent Transmitter Commissioning and Verification IRP Implementation Findings
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Document ID: 5C23E16E

The Challenge & Solution -Inventory Inventory Inventory Inventory Inventory Inventory Management of NGLs in 1.3m x 500m Horizontal Vessels
Author(s): Gord Bill Jason Riegert
Abstract/Introduction:
MeasurementProcess MeasurementProcess Each of the five tubes have: GWR level transmitters Pressure transmitters on the vapour equalization line Pressure transmitters on the vapour equalization line Temperature transmitters at the outlet end The outer two tubes have: Extra GWR transmitters along the tube spaced 125m apart Density measurement at the outlet end
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Document ID: BC86B8E3

Accounting for Lift Gas Wells on Effluent Metered Wells
Author(s): Kevin Boyce
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Lift Defined Gas lift is a method of artificial lift that uses an external source of high-pressure gas for supplementing formation gas to lift the well fluids. The principle of gas lift is that gas injected into the tubing reduces the density of the fluids in the tubing, and the bubbles have a scrubbing action on the liquids.
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Document ID: 38862A3D

HUMAN ERRORS IN CRUDE TESTING - HOW TO MEASURE THEM AND WHAT THEY MEAN FOR OPERATIONS
Author(s): Ian Burgess - Validere
Abstract/Introduction:
Errors that are difficult to asses can be very large Human errors are very big, usually bigger than instrument errors, often much bigger Operator processes should be looked at with at least as much scrutiny as instrument purchase and maintenance Human errors can be quantified in a systematic way
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Document ID: 99249131

Basics of Ultrasonic Flow Meters
Author(s): David Crandall
Abstract/Introduction:
Why Use Ultrasonic Meters? High flow rates compared to other metering options (4 inch to 30 inch+) Ultra Low Pressure Loss Non-Intrusive Measurement Wide operating temperature range High turndown compared to other meter options (10:1+) Electronic Based, no moving parts Minimal maintenance
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Document ID: 0029FE73

Implications of the Upcoming Methane Implications of the Upcoming Methane Reduction and Reporting Regulations on Reduction and Reporting Regulations on Measurement and Production Accounting
Author(s): Ted Hart
Abstract/Introduction:
What is it? Colorless, odorless, flammable gas Primary component of natural gas Global warming potential 25 times greater than CO than CO2 over a 100over year period Short-lived climate pollutant lived relatively short lifetime in the atmosphere and with a warming influence on climate 15% Canadas 2012 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were methaneme
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Document ID: F2D40E6F

Frequency and Antenna Selection Effects on Accuracy of Free Space Radar
Author(s): Gerhard Jansson
Abstract/Introduction:
Goal: Understand what will influence the Accuracy of Free Space Radar so you can better specify the best devise for your application. Topics: Operating principles Evolution of operating frequencies Antenna considerations Measuring range Installation conditions
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Document ID: E8101F07

Uncertainties Within The Centrifuge Method
Author(s): Allen Wong Lance Parkes
Abstract/Introduction:
What is accuracy meant? What are the assumption on sample collected Improvement in equipment Centrifuge Tubes Need to understand the centrifuge process Temperature stability for the test sample Type of solvent used Type of demulsifier
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Document ID: A46D5241

Factors effecting Accuracy and Precision in H2S Measurements.
Author(s): Tim Giesbrecht
Abstract/Introduction:
?Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is a reactive molecule, which presents challenges for sampling and analysis of gas mixtures containing it. ?H2S is lost during sampling (and analysis), resulting in underreporting of H2S concentrations. ?Factors that effect representative sampling and analysis accuracy are: ?Presence of air, water, and other sulphur-containing molecules ?Presence of reactive or absorptive sampling container surfaces ?Presence of a liquid phase, which can absorb H2S ?H2S concentration ?Analysis method ?Time lapse between sampling and analysis ?Sample pressure and temperature
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Document ID: EF5BC1FD

Coriolis Measurement with Entrained Gas
Author(s): Kyle Kergen
Abstract/Introduction:
Multiphase: represents a combination of oil, water, and gas With the increase of GVF contained in liquid accurate flow measurement can become increasingly difficult Possible to use Coriolis flowmeters in this regime to provide adequate flow measurement?
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Document ID: 448371BF

Best Practices for Ensuring Data Integrity for Measurement Compliance
Author(s): John Olyslager Richard Bourqe
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow measurement record Volumetric data Gas, Liquids, Solids Pressures, temperatures Meter configuration Orifice size, Pipe material and diameter etc. Production Fluid characteristics Gas Analysis, density, water cut etc. Measurement Alarms and Events
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Document ID: C32A51C8

IMG Proposed Revisions to AER Directive 017
Author(s): Colby Ruff
Abstract/Introduction:
Purpose: Meet with the AER to discuss opportunities for revisions to Directive 017 Industry representation: Measurement, production accounting, production operations Large, medium and small licensees, consultants Portfolio coverage - all facility sub-types Meeting frequency: Semiannually or as required
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Document ID: F0F5F597

Understanding Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Jonathon Wasylik
Abstract/Introduction:
Accuracy - according to D17: The ability of a measuring instrument to indicate values closely approximating the true value of the quantity measured. Uncertainty - according to D17: Relates to the limits applicable to equipment and/or procedures used to determine a specific volume Uncertainty is the absolute value of the Accuracy
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Document ID: 3890964B


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