Measurement Library

Natural Gas Sampling Technology Conference Publications (2018)

BLM Update and PMT News
Author(s): Stormy Phillips
Abstract/Introduction:
What goes to the PMT Operators and manufacturers may only pursue BLM approval of equipment, new technology, or methods by applying through PMT. The BLM will not accept requests for a variance under 43 CFR 3170.6 for approving equipment, new technology, or methods.
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Document ID: FA0E5D96

ECONOMICS OF HYDROCARBON COMPOSITIONAL AND QUALITY DETERMINATION THE DOLLARS AND SENSE OF HYDROCARBON SAMPLING
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
Since we last attended NGSTech Conference in January 2016, the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) price for crude oil has ranged from 29 to 57 per barrel. The Henry Hub natural gas spot price has ranged from 1.73 to 3.59 MMBTU. Propane has ranged from 0.343 to 0.997 per gallon. Other natural gas liquids (NGLs) have seen similar price trends. Why does the commodity value of these hydrocarbon products continue to vary? Well, there is certainly no shortage of high-minded insight into the intricacies of U.S. and global petroleum economics, and (heaven forbid) political punditry to enhance the discussion. However, the bottom line is the most viable and simple explanation - supply and demand. The world, and certainly the United States, is experiencing significant over supply of petroleum products versus the associated demand for such. Large consumers of petroleum, such as the U.S. and China, are seeing decreased demand, while production and available supply have continued to grow. At some point, the lines cross on the curve, the gap widens, and the laws of economics take over.
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Document ID: E10AB51A

Wet gas Sampling at High-Pressure
Author(s): Flavia Viana
Abstract/Introduction:
Wet Gas Definition *Gas dominated flow *Liquid Volumne Fraction 10% *Liquid drop out: saturated gas
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Document ID: AA2CD832

SAMPLE SYSTEMS FOR TRACE MOISTURE MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Jake Tivey
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of trace components of natural gas (mercury, moisture, hydrogen sulfide, and alike) often entails considerable delays in response before representative data are generated. This delay can be so severe, in fact, that the true composition may never actually be output by the analyzer. With regards to all elements of the natural gas supply chain, knowing what is in the gas stream at a given time is key to a safe and efficient process. If certain regulatory limits need to be adhered to that restrict the amount of certain components in the gas, not confidently knowing the composition both precisely and quickly can have potentially dangerous consequences, not to mention serious financial implications.
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Document ID: 339D551C

SAMPLING REALITIES WHEN DEALING WITH THE BLM
Author(s): Dave Curtis
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate, representative, and defensible compositional measurements are critical to natural gas operations. They are key to equitable allocation and accounting, as they not only are used to determine the energy of a product, but they are also needed to determine accurate volumes. Additionally, accurate compositions are important for proper equipment design, reservoir management, plant and facility operations, and environmental reporting. Obtaining a representative sample can be difficult under the best of circumstances. However, the new United States Bureau of Land Management (BLM) measurement rules place additional burdens.
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Document ID: C20BE3A5

Liquid Sampling
Author(s): Michael Royce Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Collecting a liquid sample in the field can be challenging. Maintaining the pressure and temperature at near-line conditions during the sampling event and controlling the sample collection rate are critical factors for obtaining representative spot samples. The liquids in the newer shale plays differ from traditional liquids, with increased NGL content. These liquids present a challenge to personnel responsible for sampling pressurized hydrocarbon liquids. GPA 2174 and API MPMS Chapter 8 are industry standards for sampling liquid hydrocarbons. GPA 2174 is the method used for sampling high pressurize hydrocarbon liquids.
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Document ID: 14418B2C

EXPLORING THE VARIABILITY BETWEEN METHODS FOR CHARACTERIZING FLASH GAS EMISSIONS FROM OIL STORAGE TANKS
Author(s): Andrew O. Parker Preston Blackburn
Abstract/Introduction:
Flash gas emissions from storage tanks represent one of the largest single-point sources of fugitive emissions to the atmosphere from the oil and gas industry. Accurate measurement of these flashing emissions is critical to government agencies tasked with monitoring and regulating air quality, yet emissions from the industry are thought to be grossly underestimated. Traditional methods of estimating flash emissions rely on complex equation sets to simulate these vapors after measuring the composition of a hydrocarbon product via a gas chromatograph (GC). New methods that directly measure the flash emissions, either on site or in a laboratory, have been established however, their performance relative to process simulators has not been evaluated directly. To test their performance, a laboratory flash liberation technique has been used to directly measure gas-to-oil ratios (GOR) and the results have been compared to GOR flash emissions calculated using VMG process simulation software across three types of pressurized liquid hydrocarbon test standards: a light-, a mid-, and a heavy-grade condensate. GOR values obtained from the process simulation software underestimated the flashing emissions by 10-50% when compared to the GORs measured from the flash liberation technique for the same sample. The GOR variability from the process simulators may be attributed to the challenges of measuring light-end hydrocarbon components (i.e., C1-C4) due to early vaporization within the heated GC environment, which can lead to larger standard deviations per component between repeat GC injections.
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Document ID: 96D66C4C

LNG SAMPLING AT LOW PRESSURE
Author(s): Hans-Peter Visser
Abstract/Introduction:
A typical LNG mixture start to boil at -260F (-162C) at atmospheric pressure. For an application like Ship-to-Ship (StS) transfer of LNG, the typical pressures in the cross over manifolds are below 1 barg. This means that the LNG nearly start to reach its boiling point prior entering the sample probe. ISO 8943: 2007 stated Quote 6.2 Sample probe 6.2.1 Sample probes shall be located at points in the pipeline where the LNG is in a sub-cooled condition. The degree of sub-cooling at a sampling point shall be ascertained by observation of the temperature and pressure of the LNG at that point and comparing the temperature with the boiling point of the LNG at the same pressure as calculated from the composition of the LNG (see Annex A). In the case of multiple transfer lines, the sample probe shall be located downstream of the manifold, if one exists. Otherwise, each line shall be provided with a sampling point.
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Document ID: C00DD6AB

INTERNATIONAL LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS RESEARCH & CALIBRATION FACILITY
Author(s): Ken Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides an update as of January 2018 on the progress of the Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) Research & Calibration Facility being built at the Port of Rotterdam. This facility was designed by the Van Swinden Laboratory (VSL) - the Dutch National Metrology Institute - and the IMS Group. The results described in this paper have been obtained with funding received from the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The EMRP is jointly funded by the European Commission and participating countries within Euramet and the European Union. Many pieces of the equipment have been supplied by various manufacturers.
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Document ID: C0CD7E41

INTERNATIONAL LNG CUSTODY TRANSFER STANDARDS ADN THEIR IMPACT ON NORTH AMERICAN EXPORT REQUIREMENTS
Author(s): Kevin Warner Ken Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
Mustang Sampling is dedicated to providing Analytical Accurate solutions, products, systems, and services to all areas of the natural gas industry
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Document ID: DC6D575A


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