Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (2018)

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Proper Handling & Maintenance of Natural Gas Calibration Cylinders
Author(s): Richard Rayon
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays market with accounting and other regulations being tougher and higher restrictions dealing with safety knowing how and when Calibration Standards and the cylinders they come in should be and need to be handed. The equipment being used in the field, Plant, Laboratory and on the pipeline or more advanced than even 10 years ago, there are DOT regulations and company policies that need to be followed to ensure accurate use of the standard and safety in the use and transportation of all cylinders. The results of the analytical measurement, the use of the calibration cylinders go hand in hand with each other. Calibration Standards should be made with the highest quality of products and with the most accurate of measurements. Not knowing about the calibration cylinders could affect the Calibration Standard. There are many considerations which need to be given in choosing and use of Calibration Gases. What is the Calibration Standard going to be used for? What accuracy is need in the Calibration Standard? Where the Calibration Gas is going to be used?
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Document ID: 0F221EE1

CAUSES AND CURES OF REGULATOR INSTABILITY
Author(s): Paul Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the gas pressure reducing regulator installation and the issue of erratic control of the downstream pressure. A gas pressure reducing regulators job is to manipulate flow in order to control pressure. When the downstream pressure is not properly controlled, the term unstable control is applied. Figure 1 is a list of other terms used for various forms of downstream pressure instability. This paper will not address the mathematical methods of describing the automatic control system of the pressure reducing station, but will deal with more of the components and their effect on the system stability.
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Document ID: 90B7504B

CONTROLLING SURGES IN LIQUID PIPELINES
Author(s): Dave Seiler
Abstract/Introduction:
Controlling transient surges in liquid hydrocarbon applications is a complex task that requires experienced engineers to dissect every section of the system. They must take into account every what if scenario and design a system that will protect piping, equipment and personnel. This paper provides a basic understanding of transient pressures, how they can occur and how they can be controlled.
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Document ID: 8082855D

BASICS OF HIGH-PRESSURE MEASURING AND REGULATING STATION DESIGN
Author(s): James N. Witte
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents a review of the criteria necessary for designing high-pressure natural gas measuring and regulating stations. For the purpose of this discussion, high pressure is assumed to be gauge pressure values above typical distribution mainline pressures (greater than 60 psig). Therefore, it is most applicable to station designs with gathering, midstream, and transmission operations. The design engineer has many factors to consider when designing a metering facility. These factors must include considerations for their impact on measurement accuracy, facility capital cost, environmental stewardship, public stewardship, and long-term maintenance cost. The successful designer will seek to achieve high accuracy at an appropriate capital cost, while minimizing the risks of environmental hazards, public nuisance, such as noise, and maintenance requirements.
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Document ID: 0CBE6219

Auditing Electronic Gas Measurement per API chapter 21.1
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
API 21.1 is recognized as an international industry standard documenting the Electronic Gas Measurement (EGM) system audit and record requirements for differential and linear meter measurement. This standard is used by the measurement community to reduce the overall EGM system uncertainty and improve measurement data integrity. Measurement data integrity plays a critical part in overall measurement accuracy for all organizations and has a direct impact to the financial bottom line. Measurement integrity is also vital for ensuring compliance with regulatory and industry standard requirements. On August 1st, 1993 the first edition of the American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) Chapter 21.1 Flow Measurement Using Electronic Metering Systems-Electronic Gas Measurement was released following a four year collaborative effort. This document provided the industry with a much needed standard to use as a reference for several key areas related to custody transfer gas measurement when performed with flow computers.
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Document ID: EDCBE013

AUDITING GAS MEASUREMENT AND ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS
Author(s): Debbie Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement practices related to gas volume production from the field to volumetric calculations in the office play a crucial role in accurately recording revenue and have a direct effect on the financial results. The measurement environment has experienced a rapid and revolutionary change, with evolving measurement technology, the enactment of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX), in 2002, and the new federal regulations (CFR 43, subparts 3173, 3174, 3175) published January 17th, 2017. There is a heightened demand for corporate accountability, measurement accuracy, and increased regulatory scrutiny. In such a climate, there is tremendous need for good internal controls and audit processes. What is an Internal Audit? The institute of Internal Auditors (IIA) defines Internal Audit as: Internal auditing is an independent, objective assurance and consulting activity designed to add value and improve an organizations operations. It helps an organization accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, discipline approach to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance processes. In other words, auditing is a repeatable methodology used to evaluate risk, internal controls, and compliance with regulatory, state, and contractual requirements.
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Document ID: 003A58A5

FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS MEASUREMENT III
Author(s): Joseph J. Bauer
Abstract/Introduction:
To become proficient in all phases of gas measurement, one must fully understand what natural gas is and the theory of its properties. The theories about natural gas properties are the gas laws, and their application is essential to gas measurement. Quantities of natural gas for custody transfer are stated in terms of standard cubic feet. To arrive at standard cubic feet from actual flowing conditions requires application of correction factors that are defined by the gas laws.
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Document ID: 38488330

AUDITING LIQUID MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Don Sextro
Abstract/Introduction:
The thought of an audit often conjures up images of the IRS examining personal tax records or perhaps creates a thought of a financial auditor reviewing the books and records of an organization. Meriam-Webster defines an audit in two ways, the first being a formal examination of an organizations or an individuals accounts or financial situation which matches the image one might typically associate with the word audit. The second defines an audit as a methodical examination and review. This class focuses on the second definition to provide procedures for performing an effective liquid measurement audit. This paper presents the concepts involved in performing a liquid measurement audit from the perspective of a measurement person. If the situation requires a formal audit, enlist the help of a trained auditor to follow the specific auditing methods and protocols that the audit community and regulators expect.
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Document ID: 9AEB3A9C

OVERALL MEASUREMENT ACCURACY
Author(s): Adam Hawley
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement accuracy is an important concept for anyone who deals with measurement on a regular basis. In fact, a measurement is not truly complete until the accuracy has been assessed and is understood. This paper will introduce multiple concepts regarding measurement accuracy and how they apply to flow measurement. The examples in this paper will focus on natural gas measurement, but the concepts discussed could also be applied to other measurement systems.
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Document ID: 89074FB0

API MPMS CHAPTER 22.2 - TESTING PROTOCOL FOR DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE FLOW MEASUREMENT DEVICES
Author(s): Philip A. Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents a base overview of the API MPMS Chapter 22.2, including its history and changes to the next published edition. This paper highlights the required tests mandated under the standard, the information required from the manufacturer, test facility requirements, and requirements for uncertainty and statistical significance determination. American Petroleum Institute (API) Manuals of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) are produced for the application of devices and systems installed primarily for the measurement of oil, gas, and petrochemical products in the oil and gas industry. Historically API flowmeter standards are developed for devices that are accepted and installed by the industry to achieve a precise and repeatable flow measurement for fiscal, material balance, and process control applications.
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Document ID: 25527A1C

OVERVIEW OF GPA 2172/API 14.5 REVISION
Author(s): Don Sextro
Abstract/Introduction:
GPA Standard 2172-09 / API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards Chapter 14, Section 5, Calculating Gross Heating Value, Relative Density, Compressibility and Theoretical Hydrocarbon Liquid Content for Natural Gas Mixtures for Custody Transfer, Third Edition, January 2009 finds wide application in the natural gas gathering and processing business as well as related natural gas handling activities because it provides methods to calculate these often-used parameters from a gas analysis. Several important changes occurred in the recent revision of this standard that became effective January 1, 2009. The main changes comprised in this revision provide methods for incorporating water vapor into the analysis calculations, include theoretical hydrocarbon liquid content (GPM) calculations on a real gas basis in this standard, discuss characterizing heavy ends in the gas analysis as well as other analysis cautions and present a number of detailed example calculations. Refer to the standard itself for requirements, procedures, details and further explanation.
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Document ID: C01721F8

Revision of AGA 9 Gas Ultrasonic Meter Standard
Author(s): David Crandall
Abstract/Introduction:
AGA Report No. 9 is a performance based specification for multipath ultrasonic flow meters typically used in custody transfer applications for natural gas. In July 2017, AGA Report No. 9 Third Edition was published as an update to the previous second edition dated April 2007. The document provides complete information on ultrasonic meters terminology, operating conditions, meter requirements, installation, calibration, and commissioning. There are also five Appendices describing Calibration, Electronics design testing, flow meter package and/or flow conditioner performance verification tests, uncertainty calculation examples, and USM commissioning and verification tests. First and foremost, these are performance based specifications, meaning the equipment has flexibility in terms of design but it must meet certain performance and design criteria defined in the standard. This paper highlights the significant changes incorporated in the third edition because of advances in technology and the practical applications experience gained since the prior edition.
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Document ID: AD1CCF6D

MEASUREMENT STATION INSPECTION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM AND GUIDE
Author(s): Joe Sena
Abstract/Introduction:
Having a formalized maintenance and inspection program is important to ensure measurement metering accuracy and that custody related activities are documented to show compliance with regulatory and contractual requirements. Oil and gas companies must operate within many constraints such as Regulations, (Federal, State, BIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs), FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission), PHMSA-DOT (Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration - Department of Transportation) & BSEE (Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement), Contractual obligations (tariff, gather, buy/sell, & measurement agreements) and Industry standards (API ((American Petroleum Institute), AGA (American Gas Association), & GPA (Gas Processors Association)).
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Document ID: 46963FF1

DOT QUALIFICATION TRAINING FOR MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL TECHNICIANS
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement and control technicians must possess certain knowledge and skills in order to effectively and safely perform their required tasks. These knowledge and skill sets are obtained through education and experience. While these requirements are common to all personnel working within these areas of technical discipline, those performing safety sensitive functions on facilities regulated under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Transportation (US DOT) are additionally required to be evaluated for these qualifications as defined within applicable regulation.
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Document ID: 428F2EF3

PREPARING A PROVER FOR A WATER DRAW CALIBRATION
Author(s): Herb Garland
Abstract/Introduction:
The key to a successful calibration of a prover by the water draw method is thorough planning and organization followed by good execution of the plan. The primary goal is to get the prover as clean as possible and perform any replacements and maintenance needed prior to the arrival of the Calibration Company. This paper is intended to assist you attain an accurate calibration by presenting some things to consider for the planning, organization and execution phases. A more detailed Procedure for prover preparation is provided in API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards, Chapter 4-Proving Systems, Section 9, Part 2.
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Document ID: 35440D3F

EFFECTS OF ADDITIVES ON METERING OF LIQUIDS IN PIPELINES
Author(s): Zaki Husain
Abstract/Introduction:
Most refined fuels and hydrocarbon products are formulated using different chemical blending and complex processing at the plants. Blending of the fuel and chemical products is necessary to conform to the required product quality and performance, but that can introduce problems and challenges for the quantitative and qualitative measurement of these products. Refined products may be altered or degraded prior to their use by environment and additives that are blended to reduce pressure loss while transporting the products through pipeline. A wide range of additives is blended to enhance performance enhancement, frictional loss during transportation, enhance refining processes, and/or retard product degradation. The effect of the additives on liquid metering often depends on the composition and concentration of the additives. Hence, pipeline and terminal metering systems must be adjusted to offset the influences for varying liquid properties and quantities of the blended additives. This paper highlights the effects some of the common and not so common fuel additives on liquid metering systems.
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Document ID: A162BA03

INTERFACE DETECTION IN LIQUID PIPELINES
Author(s): Craig McWhorter
Abstract/Introduction:
The basic concept of interface detection is simple: detect and direct the flow of different fluids, or batches, through pipelines. The implementation, however, can be very complicated. The goal of interface detection is to time the switching or cut of the product in such a way that delivers the maximum quantity of product to customers without downgrading the quality of the product. In the case of transmix, the goal is to minimize the quantity of fluid requiring re-refining. In order to avoid the potential contamination of any product by the interface, operators tend to be conservative in cutting batches, but this can result in increased product downgrade or sending some on-spec product to the slop tank. With the large mix and high cost of todays specialty fuels, accurate interface detection is key to maximizing profits. Historically interfaces were detected using time-based displacement with manual sampling. Time-based displacement requires an educated guess on interface arrival times and sizes at switching locations based on metering for a predetermined displacement of volume. The actual cut is based upon manual sampling and observation of the physical properties of the fluid. Operators must begin sampling prior to the arrival of the interface and then throughout its duration. Obviously this is an expensive option based on man hours and potential inaccuracies.
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Document ID: 71C2BE76

THE UNCERTAINTY OF A WATERDRAW CALIBRATION vs. GRAVIMETRIC CALIBRATION ON SMALL VOLUME PROVERS
Author(s): James E. Gallagher
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents the Base Prover Volume (BPV) uncertainty using the waterdraw volumetric method versus the waterdraw gravimetric method for small volume provers.
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Document ID: C5D13727

Roles and Responsibilities of Witnessing a Prover Calibration
Author(s): Ken Lancy
Abstract/Introduction:
Welcome to the 93rd International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement. This document addresses paper preparation instructions and suggestions, and is the template that is to be used for writing and submitting your paper for this years school. This template is being offered to assist you in achieving the desired formatting and uniformity for the submission and inclusion of your paper in the Proceedings, as well as several suggestions that may be considered while authoring your paper and presenting your class at the school. Please note that all papers are to be submitted electronically. The published Proceedings will be provided to all registered ISHM participants
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Document ID: AF1D15EF

ODORIZATION IN NATURAL GAS
Author(s): Kris Kimmel
Abstract/Introduction:
It is generally accepted that natural gas has become a critically important energy source for the future. The abundance of natural gas, its favorable impact on the environment and its use across all sectors of the economy means natural gas will play an increasingly important role in meeting the global demand for energy. It is important to note a key driver for demand of natural gas has been and will continue to be public safety. Since natural gas has no color and rarely has a detectable odor, a mission critical process in delivering natural gas safely is a robust odorant injection program. In order to give this complex and challenging task some perspective, the United States has approximately 1200 Distribution companies with 1.2M miles of pipeline networks. The purpose of this paper will be to provide basic information regarding characteristics of chemical odorant, accepted methods of injecting odorant into natural gas pipelines, and detecting odorant in natural gas.
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Document ID: A77F86AC

METHODS FOR CERTIFYING MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT
Author(s): Jeff Gartner
Abstract/Introduction:
Like any other piece of equipment, a measurement artifact must be maintained. Obviously, it has to be in working order in general. However, what is more important is that it be operating within specified parameters and providing measurements that are traceable to a known source or sources. This paper provides a general overview of calibration and certification. It also discusses some key terminology and methods.
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Document ID: 3D721794

Turbine Meter Diagnostics
Author(s): Nicholas Thurlby
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine Meters have been utilized in the petroleum industry for over 50 years. They are recognized as a versatile meter to use in many liquid applications. Turbine meters are inference meters, determining flow rate by measuring the speed of a bladed rotor suspended on a shaft, inserted into in the flow stream. The speed of the turbine rotor rotation is proportional to the flow rate. The Turbine meter takes the known cross-sectional area multiplied by the turbine rotors velocity to get a flowing volume. Turbine meters have proven to be highly efficient when the fluids properties are consistent, as in the fluids flow rates, temperature, pressure, density and viscosity. Turbine meters also prove efficient when the profile of the fluid in the pipe, is straight and smooth.
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Document ID: AE077C63

UNDERSTANDING LIQUID METER PROVINGS AND PROVING REPORTS
Author(s): Lance McCombs
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will examine and discuss liquid meter proving reports for both mass and volume applications. Computing power has drastically affected hydrocarbon measurement in the last 15 years. The reporting and audit trail capabilities of todays measurement systems far surpasses yesterdays basic proving report. This discussion will point out key elements and differences in common proving reports.
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Document ID: 9A757A82

AUDITING GAS LABORATORIES
Author(s): Carl Alleman
Abstract/Introduction:
The data produced by Gas Chromatograph (GC) laboratories is used for many purposes, including product specification, accounting, safety and environmental compliance issues. The accuracy of this data has direct impact on all of these areas. Auditing laboratories responsible for producing this data is prudent business practice. The audit will provide a means of process improvement, through proper identification of deficiencies and a precise plan for corrective action. The level of confidence in analytical results will increase when the appropriate corrective actions are implemented. The amount of financial and legal exposure can be reduced from a properly executed audit program.
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Document ID: DBE1725A

Natural Gas Analysis by Gas Chromatograph
Author(s): Seth Nease
Abstract/Introduction:
The most equitable means of exchange of Natural Gas and Natural Gas Liquid products is by the measure of their energy. In order to determine the energy of the product, the individual components within the product must be measured. The most common and accepted means of measuring the amounts of each component with a Natural Gas or Natural Gas Liquid sample is by the use of a gas chromatograph (GC). The following is a description of basic GC operation for energy determination.
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Document ID: 78DF660B

BTU DETERMINATION OF NATURAL GAS USING A PORTABLE CHROMATOGRAPH
Author(s): Merle Bell
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is written with the intention of promoting collaboration in standardizing a methodology for collecting and handling natural gas samples when using portable chromatography to determine calorific value. It is important to reinforce established collection techniques, and to apply theory described in accepted industry standards. Dynamic field conditions, mechanical constraints, and human intervention are all factors that impact the quality of samples collected and the ensuing analysis. Proper sample conditioning and transport are fundamental requirements to ensuring quality analysis is obtained from the data acquisition process.
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Document ID: 449F04B8

PROGRAM FOR TRAINING A GAS MEASUREMENT TECHNICIAN
Author(s): Carter Stokeld
Abstract/Introduction:
Retirement, attrition, loss of internal training and the lack of adequate external training have created the need for a common training program, developed, owned and managed by natural gas industry operating companies. This need is supported in a recent study by the INGAA Foundation, entitled Securing Our Future: Developing the Next Workforce, which concluded that technical skill development is inadequate, while the need for training new-hires will increase in the coming few years. Furthermore, it is well-established among engineers and technicians working in the field that the technician shortage has arrived and will likely get worse, increasing the need for high-quality, standardized training.
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Document ID: 964867FA

Chromatograph Applications and Problems from a Users Standpoint
Author(s): Daniel Tiller
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas is sold as Energy. Gas Chromatographs calculate the Energy value of the Gas (as well as other calculated values used in Flow Calculations). When there is only a single Gas Chromatograph (GC) on a Custody Metering station, the downtime for a GC must not only be at a minimum but it should be planned for ahead of time, rather than addressing issues as they arise. It is necessary to create a preventative maintenance program and oversee that it is taking place so that analysis problems are identified before they cause measurement errors. It is necessary to perform maintenance on a predictive basis, rather than being triggered by a measurement issue. This paper will describe the routine preventative maintenance that should be performed on a Gas Chromatograph System, the predictive diagnostics tools that should be used, and finally outline the steps taken to perform an overhaul of the analysis system.
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Document ID: 10674D60

FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS TURBINE METERS
Author(s): Paul Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of all gas measurement used in the world today is performed by two basic types of meters, positive displacement and inferential. Positive displacement meters, consisting mainly of diaphragm and rotary style devices, generally account for lower volume measurement. Orifice, ultrasonic and turbine meters are the three main inferential class meters used for large volume measurement today. Turbines are typically considered to be a repeatable device used for accurate measurement over large and varying pressures and flow rates. They are found in a wide array of elevated pressure applications ranging from atmospheric conditions to 1440 psig. Turbine meters have also become established as master or reference meters used in secondary calibration systems such as transfer provers. A significant number of both mechanical and electrical outputs and configurations have become available over the past 60 years of production.
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Document ID: E3CB51D4

GAS METER SELECTION
Author(s): Robert Fritz
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to provide general guidelines & criteria for the evaluation & selection of a high pressure gas meter, including a discussion of the basic operating principles and installation and maintenance considerations. This paper will concentrate primarily on four high pressure/high volume custody transfer flow meters, Orifice, Ultrasonic, Coriolis and Turbine. A short discussion will be provided for other alternative types of flow meters and different gas stream conditions. When selecting a gas flow meter for particular application remember that there is no one Panacea for flow measurement. No one meter is the right choice for all applications. The following general criteria needs to be considered in evaluating which type of meter to select:
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Document ID: 591E3F01

CHROMATOGRAPH MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLESHOOTING
Author(s): Fred Ryel
Abstract/Introduction:
Welcome to the 93rd International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement. This class is going to cover several points that are not necessarily what is called the Chromatograph. This paper is mostly referring to the online Chromatographs but can apply towards a lab or portable analyzer as well. As with the use of any analyzer, the analysis is going to be only as accurate as the sample that is supplied. This is how I start just about all the classes or training I present. It really isnt the Chromatograph but is just as important as any component on the chromatograph. Please feel free to interject with relevant ideas or examples pertaining to what is being discussed at that time. I most always learn something new or different with each presentation or training I do. Most of my experience with chromatographs is with the Daniel and ABB NGC. Although I have worked with other makes on a limited basis. Chromatograph components vary a little with each application and manufacturer. We are going to try and cover the most common components of TCD (thermal conductivity detector) chromatographs. This is the most common type of online gas chromatograph being used in the natural gas pipeline industry.
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Document ID: 6B708DB2

Cone Meters for Liquid and Gas Measurement
Author(s): Philip A Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will describe how cone meters differ from other differential pressure type meters as well as how they are used for the measurement of liquid and gas. The cone meter has become synonymous with specialist metering applications over the years due to the special traits that are inherent of this type of meter design. The original Venturi concept will be mentioned in the paper for first principle overview purposes. The Venturi original design was developed in 1791 by Hershel and other variants followed like the Burton Dunlingson Inverse Venturi (Patented in 1935). A cone meter can be described similarly as an inverse Venturi. Wet gas applications, Natural Gas Allocation Measurement, Liquids Measurement that have trash, ashphaltenes and wax in pipes, meter runs with short lengths off-shore, steam measurement, custody transfer with end user contractual agreement all these applications have been quite successful in the implementation of this technology. Brand names will not be mentioned in this paper as per ISHM guidelines.
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Document ID: D6567CFF

CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS
Author(s): Joe Landes
Abstract/Introduction:
Chromatographic Analysis is: An integral part of the natural gas liquid measurement process Used for product quality control Necessary for planning pipeline operations Required for safe handling and transportation of natural gas liquids This paper discusses basic components of the gas chromatograph. It directs the student to Gas Processors Midstream (GPA) analytical methods 2177 Method for the Analysis of Demethanized Hydrocarbon Liquid Mixtures Containing Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide by Gas Chromatography and 2186 Tentative Method for the Extended Analysis of Hydrocarbon Liquid Mixtures Containing Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide by Temperature Programmed Gas Chromatography. This paper lists the critical steps to obtain accurate results.
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Document ID: 486AF3D0

An Optical Hydrocarbon Analyzer for Real-Time Hydrocarbon Gas Speciation and Measurement
Author(s): Roberto Bosco
Abstract/Introduction:
A unique all-optical, real-time, unattended sensor platform has been developed for hydrocarbon gas composition analysis enabling speciation and quantification of the individual light hydrocarbon components such as C1 - nC6 of alkanes, high- range hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide. This all-optical sensor performs real-time speciation without requiring physical separation of the compounds as performed in traditional chromatography. Moreover the ability to offer fast, accurate and repeatable C1 - C6 total BTU/HHV for natural gas pipeline energy content monitoring can be proven side-by-side with traditional gas chromatograph methods.
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Document ID: A7E7CA86

Crude Oil Quality-What Is It and Why Its Important
Author(s): Paul Furman
Abstract/Introduction:
Crude oil quality is critical to the custody transfer process of delivering Crude oil to market. The actual process of determining the quality of crude oil is pretty well documented, but can have different meanings depending on the oils location in its life cycle of delivery. In this part of the delivery process, an entire market of 3rd party independent laboratories, Production Companies, Pipeline Companies and Refineries are responsible for the Quality determination at these points of Custody transfer in the delivery life cycle of crude oil. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and American Petroleum Institute (API) have multiple standards that guide each effected group on how to perform the requested tests in a uniform manner. The standards assure individuals in industry are consistently producing repeatable results within an accepted and documented set of rules that all parties must follow. Now, lets talk for a minute about what these test mean to you and each group that handles the crude oil in its delivery life cycle.
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Document ID: 9E746878

Determination of H2S and Total Sulfur in Natural Gas
Author(s): Jonathan Althaus
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is a gas composed of one Sulfur atom and two Hydrogen atoms. H2S is formed by the decomposition of organic matter and is therefore found naturally in crude oil and natural gas deposits. H2S is a highly toxic, transparent, colorless, and corrosive gas. Due to the toxic and caustic properties of this gas and its natural presence within natural gas, it is imperative to measure and control the concentration levels of H2S within natural gas pipelines. This paper will discuss the properties, purpose of measurement, and measurement technologies for H2S and discuss how these technologies can be adapted for the measurement of Total Sulfur.
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Document ID: 665EED16

Determination of H2S and Total Sulfur in Natural Gas
Author(s): Jonathan Althaus
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is a gas composed of one Sulfur atom and two Hydrogen atoms. H2S is formed by the decomposition of organic matter and is therefore found naturally in crude oil and natural gas deposits. H2S is a highly toxic, transparent, colorless, and corrosive gas. Due to the toxic and caustic properties of this gas and its natural presence within natural gas, it is imperative to measure and control the concentration levels of H2S within natural gas pipelines. This paper will discuss the properties, purpose of measurement, and measurement technologies for H2S and discuss how these technologies can be adapted for the measurement of Total Sulfur.
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Document ID: F8273F9C

DETERMINATION OF WATER VAPOR CONTENT IN NATURAL GAS
Author(s): Sam miller
Abstract/Introduction:
This is an overview of the main approaches to moisture measurements for natural gas. Natural gas presents a situation where the stream may have high levels of solid and liquid contaminants as well as corrosive gases present in varying concentrations. Additionally, the stream composition may change gradually or rapidly over time. This unique situation is a challenge for the measurement of moisture.
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Document ID: C36F0DE6

Hydrocarbon Dew Point Effects on Gas Flow Measurement
Author(s): Martin Schlebach
Abstract/Introduction:
In this paper we will discuss the effects of Hydro Carbon Dew Point (HCDP) on measurement accuracy. We will look at multiple factors that affect uncertainty such as proper meter operation, maintaining fluid in a gaseous state, gas sampling and handling of samples after they are obtained. All of these factors and more contribute to increased uncertainty when measuring gas close or in the critical area.
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Document ID: 41F3EA58

D.O.T. REQUIREMENTS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF SAMPLE CYLINDERS
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The United States Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) is a department of the U.S. Federal Government which oversees all issues regarding transportation within the United States of America and U.S. Territories. Its influence around the world is great and widely respected, but its jurisdiction and power of enforcement is limited to the USA and its territories. As regards this paper, we will discuss the D.O.T. and its involvement surrounding sample cylinders for the hydrocarbon industry and the rules regarding the movement of these cylinders from point to point in the United States.
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Document ID: 88B9817C

ENERGY MEASUREMENT USING FLOW COMPUTERS AND CHROMATOGRAPHY
Author(s): Catrena Cutler
Abstract/Introduction:
The transactional environment of todays energy business often necessitates the on-site facilitation of total energy measurement to accomplish the timely settlement of measured fluid quantities between parties. In the natural gas industry, this is most commonly accomplished with the use of electronic gas measurement (EGM) system including the primary, secondary and tertiary elements and gas chromatographs (GC). These technologies enable the operator to determine total measured volume and energy quantities at the time that individual measurements of key parameters are taken with little or no need for subsequent data processing.
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Document ID: 7650DA89

INSTALLATION AND OPERATION ERRORS IN GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr Jacob L. Thorson Dr. Thomas B. Morrow
Abstract/Introduction:
Installation errors may occur when an instrument is used in a manner different from how it was calibrated. For example, suppose that a temperature sensor is calibrated in a stirred, constant temperature bath. During calibration, the sensor is in thermal equilibrium with the circulating fluid, and the fluid and sensor temperatures are the same. Next, let the same sensor be used to measure the temperature of natural gas flowing through a pipe at low velocity. If the pipe wall temperature is different from the flowing gas temperature, convection heat transfer will occur between the gas and the pipe wall, conduction heat transfer will occur between the pipe wall and the sensor, and convection heat transfer will occur between the sensor and the flowing gas. In this example, the sensor would not be in thermal equilibrium with the flowing gas and the sensor temperature would be different from the flowing gas temperature.
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Document ID: 0A9F8E1D

ENERGY MEASUREMENT USING ULTRASONIC FLOW MEASUREMENT AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY
Author(s): Martin Schlebach
Abstract/Introduction:
The demand for global energy increases with time as surely as the world population of users of gas energy has increased each year. Energy will ALWAYS be in demand. Good Systems for measuring it accurately and reliably are a Must. This paper will put some of the realities of assembling and operating an Energy Measurement Station for natural gas into perspective into A Technicians perspective!
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Document ID: 6C6A19AA

FIELD AND LABORATORY TESTING OF SEDIMENT AND WATER IN CRUDE OIL
Author(s): Jane Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
The quantity of sediment and water in crude oil must be accurately established as part of the custody transfer process. Purchasers only pay for the crude oil received, and want to minimize the quantity of sediment and water they must transport and dispose of. Consequently, monitoring of the sediment and water content is performed at the production site to prevent excessive sediment and water from entering the pipeline system. The quantity of sediment and water a pipeline is willing to accept into their system depends on geographic location, market competitiveness and their ability to handle the sediment and water in the system. Each pipeline publishes the quantity of sediment and water it will accept. States also may have sediment and water limits as well.
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Document ID: 40CCCB82

FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY
Author(s): Ulrich Gokeler
Abstract/Introduction:
Chromatography is an analytical technique to physically separate constituents in multi component mixtures with the purpose of quantification. Quantification of specific constituents is the actual objective of chromatography. Unlike other analytical techniques such as spectroscopy, chromatography physically separates targeted constituents from each other or interferences prior to actual quantification. Chromatography is one of the most widely used analytical techniques. It is applied in the laboratory environment, as portable devices or for on-line and automatic measurement. This paper discusses gas chromatography, particularly automatic on-line or process gas chromatography. Although it is important to understand that a gas chromatograph is a part of an on-line and automatic separation system which includes sample extraction, sample transport to and from analytical system, sample preparation and data communication, this paper concentrates on the gas chromatograph only. Described here are the fundamental aspects of gas chromatography, from the actual separation to column switching configurations and from carrier gas to detectors. The fundamentals are particularly focused on the separation and quantification of natural gas constituents and the determination of its physical properties.
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Document ID: 9A356353

WATER VAPOR EFFECTS ON NATURAL GAS QUALITY AND NATURAL GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): James N. Witte
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is produced from underground formations in which the gas is at an equilibrium condition with water typically in the formation. Since the gas has been in the formation for a sufficiently long period, full saturation at the pressure and temperature conditions that exist in the production formation is a good assumption. This paper will discuss the effects of water vapor content on natural gas quality and the effect of water vapor on gas measurement.
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Document ID: BA4F85EE

Laboratory Gas Analysis Validation Methods
Author(s): Dave Curtis
Abstract/Introduction:
Most everyone understands the importance of accurate volumetric measurement. However, accurate compositional data is equally as important, but often far more difficult to obtain. Accurate, representative, and defensible compositions are critical for proper allocation and accounting of products, equipment design, reservoir management, plant optimization, and environmental reporting. Most users only receive a gas analysis report from the analytical laboratory. Nevertheless, there is a great deal of information within the report which can indicate if there are potential errors with the values provided, as well as the potential source of those errors. Once the potential source of the errors are identified, they can be audited and validated accordingly.
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Document ID: 612E24A0

ON LINE WATER MEASUREMENT DEVICES IN LIQUID SERVICE
Author(s): Craig McWhorter
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays uncertain energy market there is a tremendous emphasis on cost saving and productivity at all levels of the industry. Online water detection - continuous measurement of free and entrained water quantities in petroleum and petroleum products - provides vital real-time information regarding water concentrations in hydrocarbons in a wide variety of applications, empowering the user with the knowledge necessary to maximize efficiencies and cost savings while increasing many safety factors at the same time. There are several important considerations regarding the usage of on-line water detectors or OWDs (also called water cut meters or BS&W monitors). There are multiple technologies and form factors offered for these units, each with differing pros and cons dependent upon user requirements, applications, process conditions, suitable installation, and budget.
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Document ID: 06F80273

SAMPLING AND CONDITIONING OF NATURAL GAS CONTAINING ENTRAINED LIQUIDS
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
The monetary value of natural gas is based on its energy content and volume. The energy content and physical constants utilized in determining its volume are computed from analysis. Therefore correct assessment of the value of natural gas is dependent to a large extent on overall analytical accuracy. The largest source of analytical error in natural gas is distortion of the composition during sampling. Sampling clean, dry natural gas, which is well above its Hydrocarbon Dew Point (HCDP) temperature, is a relatively simple task. However, sampling natural gas that is at, near, or below its HCDP temperature is challenging. For these reasons, much attention is being focused on proper methods for sampling natural gas which have a high HCDP temperature. This presentation will address problems associated with sampling natural gas which is at, near, or below its HCDP temperature. Various approaches for solving these problems will also be discussed.
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Document ID: AF3B0F8F

SAMPLE CONDITIONING AND CONTAMINANT REMOVAL FOR WATER VAPOR CONTENT DETERMINATION IN NATURAL GAS
Author(s): Brad Massey
Abstract/Introduction:
The Natural Gas Industry experiences numerous operational problems associated with high water vapor content in the natural gas stream. As a result several problems are experienced such as, equipment freezes, dilution of physical properties reducing heating value, volume measurement interference, and pipeline corrosion. Contracts and Tariffs usually limit the amount of water vapor content allowed at the custody transfer point. For these and other reasons, accurate Water Vapor Dewpoint measurements are critical measurements for all companies involved in natural gas production, gathering, transmission and delivery. The industry continues to experience problems in obtaining accurate water vapor dewpoint measurements, primarily due to interference problems associated with contaminants and poor sampling techniques. Various types of analytical equipment are being used to determine Water Vapor Dewpoint Measurements. All are susceptible to contaminate interference or poor sampling techniques being utilized. Proper design and utilization of the correct type of sample conditioning devices or improved sampling techniques will provide much more reliable results, regardless of the equipment being utilized.
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Document ID: B7699DE6

TECHNIQUES OF GAS COMPOSITE SAMPLING
Author(s): Matthew S. Parrott
Abstract/Introduction:
While inaccuracies in measurement can be costly and common, they are also avoidable in many cases. Technicians willing to study the experiences and best practices of industry leaders can make a world of difference by applying what theyve learned and sharing this knowledge with others. Composite sampling is a straightforward method. When managed correctly, samplers are able to take small bites of a flowing gas or liquid in such a way that the complete sample accurately represents what was in the pipeline for a given sample period. Composite sampling continues to be a widely used method for economically and accurately collecting a representative sample for a prolonged sample period, so it is important for technicians in the field to develop an understanding of the best practices.
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Document ID: B6D01A6A

Low Pressure Metering of Natural Gas
Author(s): Philip A. Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
Many regions of the USA have many natural gas wells that are declining in both flow and pressure due to extensive exploitation and production over many years, horizontal drilling has brought new life to these regions however some regional production sites may not be capable to be rejuvenated which leaves them in a state of low output. These traditional wells which are showing symptoms of reduced pressure and flow-rates, may need to implement a change in scope and design criteria of the metering station or central receipt point (CRP) these are usually designed around the API 14.3 - AGA 3 measurement standard for pipeline quality gas.
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Document ID: 6A92F5F5

Techniques of Gas Spot Samples
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to be able to take a representative sample of a hydrocarbon product is necessary to ensure proper accounting for transactions and efficient product processing. Sampling can be accomplished by primarily three techniques spot, continuous composite or continuous on-line sampling systems. The various spot sampling methods that are available and the implementation of these methods are briefly investigated in this paper, as well as the most appropriate equipment to use.
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Document ID: FA12F228

FUNDAMENTALS OF SAMPLING NATURAL GAS FOR BTU DETERMINATION
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
It has long been recognized that the largest source of error in the analysis of natural gas is the sample conditioning system (SCS). The sample conditioning systems consist of all components through which the sample gas travels from its source, typically a pipeline, to the gas chromatograph (GC) inject valve. The purpose of the sample conditioning system is to extract a natural gas sample that is representative of the source, transport it to an on line gas chromatograph, and in the process condition it so that it is compatible with the analyzer. Conditioning consist mainly of excluding unwanted liquids and solids, regulating the pressure and flow, and heating to maintain the sample gas well above its hydrocarbon dew point temperature(1). During the entire sample conditioning process the sample gas must not undergo any changes in its composition.
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Document ID: F41D3A3C

PRINCIPLES OF MULTI-DIMENSIONAL GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY
Author(s): Gregg Meidl
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past 45+ years, multi-dimensional gas chromatography has made a tremendous impact in the HPI and CPI markets. Process GCs play an important role in the areas of safety, process control, process monitoring and environmental monitoring. Modern analyzer systems have sophisticated PC based electronic controllers with LCD man-machine interface suitable for hazardous area classifications. Despite the fact that there have been considerable strides in process gas chromatographic technologies and practices, the same basic principals hold true today. This paper will cover the basic structure of a typical process gas chromatograph from the sample probe, through the sample system, GC sample valves, columns and column valves and through the detector.
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Document ID: 4FF5F427

SAMPLING CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH UNCONVENTIONAL GAS SOURCES
Author(s): Mark Firmin
Abstract/Introduction:
Advances in exploration, drilling and production technologies make it feasible to extract natural gas from sources that in the past have been regarded as unconventional and so, such sources are becoming a larger percentage of the gas supply. The feasibility of producing gas from a source is the primary factor in determining whether that source should be categorized as conventional or unconventional. What has been unconventional in the past may be considered conventional in the future. This paper will discuss gas sampling system design fundamentals and highlight key aspects of current industry standards. It will also explore the challenges associated with sampling gas from unconventional sources such as shale formations, deep-water offshore wells and enhanced recovery systems. Proper sampling of natural gas from unconventional sources usually requires equipment and techniques that are more sophisticated than those that have performed well for conventional gas sources. Methods for the continuous sampling of natural gas that is wet, at high pressure or even supercritical will be presented. The primary focus of this paper is on minimizing the error associated with sampling for compositional analysis. Sampling considerations associated with the measurement of single components will however also be discussed.
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Document ID: D904A60A

CHALLENGES IN ALLOCATION MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Bill Theriot
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary goal of the allocator is to provide a fair and equitable allocation to all parties. In order to provide an equitable allocation, produced volumes will need to be corrected for any biases, uses, and known losses. All of these happen between the allocation point and the sales point. The second critical goal of the allocator is to minimize any differences between the allocation volumes and the sales volumes to be allocated. By dividing one by the other, the result is commonly referred to as the system factor. In a perfect world, the allocation factor will be 1.00000. However, we do not live in a perfect world. Due to the potential uncertainties and bias (uniformly distributed) related to allocation measurement, allocated quantities may be higher or lower than the custody sales quantity, but still provide fair and equitable measurement. The uncertainties and bias in allocation measurement may come from the metering, sampling, production equipment, and/or the phase quality of the fluid.
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Document ID: 2420AF48

CONSIDERATIONS FOR SAMPLING WET, HIGH PRESSURE, AND SUPERCRITICAL NATURAL GAS
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux Shannon M. Bromley
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the problems encountered when sampling wet, high pressure and supercritical natural gas for on-line BTU analysis, and provides solutions and comments on how they relate to the API and GPA industry standards for natural gas sampling. It also discusses the use of phase diagrams in the design and operation of a natural gas sampling system.
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Document ID: A8299520

Introduction to Uncertainty in Measurement
Author(s): Sohrab Zarrabian
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement Uncertainty is an important concept anywhere measurements are done. In principle, there are no measurements that are exact and do not have any uncertainty associated with them. In this paper, we discuss the concept of uncertainty as well as associated concepts such as error and bias. Although these concepts apply to all fields where measurements are done, we focus on measurements on gas measurements. We will also discuss the concept of first principle measurements and its implications in measurement in the gas industry. We try to use minimum amount of mathematics and equation, rather concentrating on concepts. However, some level of mathematics and statistics is necessary to better understand the underlying concepts.
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Document ID: 71B0D48F

FLARE MEASUREMENT PRACTICES
Author(s): Eric Estrada
Abstract/Introduction:
With the recent release of the Green House Gas Regulations, the increased visibility of flaring natural gas and increased awareness of royalty owners, the ability to accurately measure and account for the amount of product flared from a facility has become increasingly important to regulators, royalty owners and operators. In the past, flare gas was not considered a necessary measurement, so the measurement of flared product has often been overlooked or not given the same attention as custody transfer measurement. This paper reviews data obtained during flow calibration of several meters at an internationally accredited flow laboratory. The types and technologies of flare gas meters tested include optical scintillation, tracer methods, and ultrasonic meters designed specifically for flare measurement. Meters were tested in both straight-run and elbow configurations. The data shows the importance of flow calibrating flare meters prior to installation to reduce bias, and define both the range of linearity and range of operation. The data presented also shows the effects that upstream piping geometry has on these flare meters.
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Document ID: F56C0BE3

DETERMINATION OF TRACE OXYGEN IN NATURAL GAS
Author(s): Sam Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
The necessity for trace oxygen measurements is increasing with requirements below 100 or 10ppmv. An understanding of the considerations when choosing technology for measuring Oxygen is useful especially for remote locations or locations with high levels of corrosive contaminants such as CO2 and H2S. This paper discusses a variety of measurement methods used in natural gas such as Galvanic Cell method, the Quench Florescence method and the Gas Chromatograph method. Oxygen can be found in various types of natural gas streams. These streams include vacuum systems and traditional pipeline systems. Vacuum systems include landfills, vacuum oil recovery systems, and coal mine methane, all of which can contain percent-level oxygen whereas interstate transmission pipelines typically contain only 100 ppm of oxygen.
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Document ID: 7B550035

UNCERTAINTIES WITHIN CENTRIFUGE METHODS AND MITIGATIONS
Author(s): Matthew R. Loveley
Abstract/Introduction:
Basic sediment and water, commonly notated as BS&W, is a critical piece of information utilized by many producers in industry. The accurate and precise monitoring of BS&W content in crude oil (i.e. crude oil quality) is necessary for both pipelines and custody-transfers. This test is commonly conducted on-site, however, this test can also be measured under a laboratory setting. Although both the field and lab employ the use of a centrifuge to determine BS&W content there are inherent uncertainties in its quantification. The purpose of this paper is to discuss and examine potential sources of error for the estimation of BS&W in crude oil by both field and lab centrifuge methods. In addition, this paper will also discuss best practice techniques to manage the inherent uncertainties in centrifuge methods.
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Document ID: 0E07FCB5

MASS METERS FOR GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Marc Buttler
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early 1977, Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in gas, liquid, and slurry applications with an installed base of well over a million units. Since the early 1990s Coriolis meters have rapidly gained acceptance in gas applications with over 100,000 meters installed worldwide. Principal gas applications for Coriolis meters include fiscal transfer of valuable process gases such as ethylene, oxygen, and hydrogen, utility gases such as natural gas, and reactor feed gases such as hydrogen, ethylene, ammonia, and chlorine. Coriolis meters offer improved measurement accuracy over wide turndowns and with less installed uncertainty due to swirl and flow profile effects.
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Document ID: ECE46EEE

Measurement Policies and Procedures - Development and Implementation Considerations
Author(s): Bruce Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
With proper consideration and with buy-in from stakeholders, well designed and documented measurement practices help reduce company costs. Cost reductions include those associated with Lost-and-Unaccounted-for (L&U), asset maintenance, and labor. Furthermore, good measurement procedures help employees perform safely and effectively and help support stable, predictable measurement processes.
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Document ID: 8801658F

BENEFITS AROUND TIMELY ANALYSIS OF MEASUREMENT DATA
Author(s): Ryan McCarthy
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to have timely measurement data has grown considerably over the years due to the age of electronic flow measurement, contracts, and competition. Timely data allows companies to more effectively and efficiently operate their systems, determine shortfalls, and meet the needs of their customers. Electronic flow measurement reviewed on an hourly granularity has 744 records per month on a 31 day calendar. If you process approximately 10,000 measurement sites, you could potentially review some 7,444,000 records. We will discuss various processes to identify potentially invalid or incorrect transactional data and push that data to those analyzing and reviewing the information. This will reduce the time is takes to analyze the data, thus enabling internal and external customers downstream of measurement to use the data. We will also review the benefits in receiving electronic information from field technicians -- such as meter test calibrations, plate changes, and well status changes to name a few.
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Document ID: A9763B89

CONTRIBUTORS TO HISTORICAL ADVANCES IN NATURAL GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Bruce Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas was discovered as seeps, in what is now known as Iran, between 6000 and 2000 bce. When ignited, these seeps produced eternal flames having religious importance. The first known natural gas well was drilled in China in 211 bce. It was drilled using bamboo poles and primitive percussion bits to a depth of 500 feet, and having the purpose of producing brine and natural gas trapped in limestone formations. By 1900 these wells numbered in the thousands, with depths greater than one-half mile. Produced brine and gas were transported via bamboo tubes to a processing site where the brine was emptied into cast iron evaporation pans. The gas was delivered to underground wooden facilities where it was mixed with air for use as fuel to evaporate the brine and produce salt. Natural gas was unknown in Europe until its 1659 discovery in England and was not used in North America until 1821.
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Document ID: C1EC567C

ORIFICE FITTINGS AND METER TUBES
Author(s): Steve Ecklund
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays presentation is appropriately titled ORIFICE METERS - operation and maintenance As most of you are aware the orifice fitting has been around for many decades and is still today the industrys leading method of accurately and cost effectively measuring natural gas. Now we have seen some dimensional changes, tolerance changes, and things of that nature but overall, we are still able to use the same technology today as we did decades ago, and with great accuracy. Orifice Fitting and Meter Tube manufacturers have come up with a few cool ideas that they have incorporated into their designs. Today we would like to run you through the proper operation of both the standard Dual Chamber (DC) unit as well as the newest offering of orifice meter to hit the industry, the Double Block and Bleed orifice fitting or (DBB). Most of these design changes have come from years of complaints and frustrations from the field level with regards to the entry level products in use. Hearing and understanding these frustrations have allowed manufacturers to make changes that add value, and ease of use. After all, when it comes to industry preference on what works and what does not, its at the field level where the bar is set for pass or fail!
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Document ID: 0F293269

CYBER SECURITY
Author(s): Asim Farooq
Abstract/Introduction:
Advancement in technology has no doubt given us an edge in making our lives better and more productive. We can preempt health related concerns by providing diagnoses before they become an issue. We are able to extract natural resources with much more efficiency and with less impact to the environment. We are even able to access conferences and lecture materials remotely in the comfort of our homes. With the push to get these advancements in to our daily lives and even in to an industrial plant, a very important side effect of being connected is being over looked: security. Many have not thoroughly considered the effects of bringing the industrial data, from its current isolation, to our finger tips. Not only is that data easily accessible for the right user, it also is accessible to the wrong user.
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Document ID: 43BFC214

UNDERSTANDING HAZARDOUS AREA CLASSIFICATIONS
Author(s): Irvin Schwartzenburg
Abstract/Introduction:
The intent of this paper is to provide a high level understanding of hazardous area classifications and common protection methods used in the oil and gas industry. This paper is informational only and is in no way meant to be a substitute for the readers own responsibility to research and correctly follow their applicable governmental, industry and company standards.
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Document ID: E7F40C8C

MEASURING NATURAL GAS AT NATURAL GAS VEHICLE (NGV) REFUELING STATIONS
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
With the discovery and development of vast domestic gas shales in the United States over the past decade, the country now has to decide how best to use a resource that will provide a tremendous amount of energy in the decades ahead. One appealing opportunity is broader utilization of natural-gas-fueled vehicles (a.k.a., NGVs). Vehicle manufacturers are increasing the number of their NGV offerings and the natural gas refueling infrastructure in the U.S. continues to expand. These are two key elements to broader utilization of NGVs in the future. This paper examines the future prospects for NGVs in the U.S. and discusses the measurement challenges associated with refueling NGVs. Please note that any references to trade names or specific commercial products in this presentation are for illustrative purposes only and do not represent or constitute endorsements, recommendations, or favoring by SwRI, ISHM, or the author of the specific commercial products.
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Document ID: 2A393BD5

MEASUREMENT ECONOMICS
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
Before we get waist deep into science and technology and economics and variability in return rates based upon the intransient effects of Federal Reserve interest rate and debt management policy on petroleum commodity markets and related no-fault based derivative securities: A neutron walks into a bar and orders a drink. What do I owe you? the neutron asks the bartender. For you? No charge! An electron sitting at the other end of the bar jumps up with outrage and yells at the bartender . Why does he drink for free and I have to pay? Because youre always so negative! barks the bartender. The electron turns to the attractive proton sitting next to him and asks . Am I really negative? Yes said the proton. Are you sure? Im absolutely positive! So what does this little parable teach us? First of all, a bad attitude at the bar is not endearing to good service and making friends. Secondly, chemistry jokes are only funny to a narrowly targeted audience. But more appropriate to the topic of discussion, products are valued differently based upon their phases, uses, behaviors and applications so the precise sampling and measurement of hydrocarbons are critical to optimizing economic value.
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Document ID: 5769E3F3

CREATING A QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM FOR MEASUREMENT PACKAGE CONSTRUCTION
Author(s): Stormy Phillips
Abstract/Introduction:
The industry as a whole is operating in a much different environment today, then in years past. The new widespread availability of information and the role of social media, has led to a more informed public. This is not a negative for the industry as a whole, but it has increased the importance of accountability for every member of an organization. The idea that anything could happen in a vacuum is no longer acceptable. So now more than ever organizations must insure that the products that reach the field and are put in service are both functional and safe. It is important to be confident that these products comply with all current industry standards, and that compliance can be traced. This must also be accomplished in the realities of budgets and project time lines. A quality assurance program is one of the most effect ways to accomplish all of these goals. This paper will review some considerations for developing such a program, specifically dealing with the fabrication of measurement packages.
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Document ID: 65C61724

CONVENTIONAL MEASUREMENT IN UNCONVENTIONAL PLAYS
Author(s): Stephen C. Anson
Abstract/Introduction:
Advances in hydraulic fracturing technology have allowed access to, and the development of, shale formations previously considered to be uneconomical (API, 2014). This access and development has led to increased production of oil and natural gas within the United States. As these discoveries and developments grow, so does the need to rethink how this production is harvested, gathered and transported. Several factors are changing the way we have conventionally produced, measured and sold our crude oil and natural gas in these unconventional plays which is why we must begin to evaluate the need for changes to our conventional tactics.
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Document ID: 5814B2FD

ESTABLISHING A DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM FOR HYDROCARBON MEASUREMENT STAFF
Author(s): Richard L. Britton
Abstract/Introduction:
With the downsizing of many energy companies in the 1990s, the impending retirement of many of the energy industrys expertise, the rapid advancement of technologies, and increased world demand for energy, the development of technical talent within the energy industry has become paramount. Nowhere is the need to develop talent more apparent than in the area of hydrocarbon custody measurement. Given the quantities involved, inaccurate measurement of hydrocarbon transfers between suppliers and customers, and owners and transporters poses a relatively high financial risk to all affected parties. Addressing this need is substantially more complex than in many disciplines, as many of the skills needed in this field must be acquired in the work place rather than in a university or technical school. This paper discusses a process for creating a development program for hydrocarbon measurement staff, a possible program structure and its application. It provides examples of skills that may be required by measurement staff, competencies for a number of these skills and information on the types of activities which may be undertaken to acquire the required competencies.
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Document ID: 01652356

Engineering Ethics
Author(s): Casey Hodges
Abstract/Introduction:
An engineer represents many different ENTITIES. Obviously, an engineer represents themselves, but they also represent their families, their employers, their universities, their hometowns, and their entire profession. This is a great responsibility, and is one that engineers should take very seriously. To understand that your actions reflect not only on your personal reputation, but the reputation of all the other engineers before you is paramount when making engineering judgements and decisions. This paper discusses the guidelines for Professional Engineers when it comes to making ethical decisions. Just like Medical Doctors take the Hippocratic oath of Do No Harm, Professional Engineers take a similar pledge.
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Document ID: B3930A3C

ORIFICE METER MAINTENANCE AND OPERATION
Author(s): Clay Mol
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry has seen many changes lately. The world population is increasing and with this the energy demands in the world are also increasing. Producers and pipeline companies have seen tremendous growth and reorganization through these increased demands for energy. The advances in technology in the last decade have literally put a computer and cellular phone at everyones fingertips and increased the need for electricity, thus the need for natural gas to generate this electricity. With this increased demand for natural gas, the logistics involved in acquiring it, and the profit differential between demand and logistics, the need for proper maintenance is more important than ever.
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Document ID: 77115275

THERMOMETRY IN GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Jorge A. Delgado
Abstract/Introduction:
The temperature in natural gas is dynamic, when gas molecules are compressed they heat up, and as they expand after flowing through a restriction it cools down. Gas temperature it is also affected by external elements such as the temperature of the pipe. It is also good to note that the greater the temperature measurement error, the higher the measurement uncertainty becomes.
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Document ID: 293B4DE2

WET GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Demand for wet gas flow measurement technologies has been increasing steadily for many years. As natural gas wells age the once dry natural gas production flow becomes wet natural gas as the dynamics of the reservoir change. Furthermore, with the value of hydrocarbon products rising steadily, reservoirs that were once considered not profitable, or marginal, are being produced. These marginal fields often produce wet gas flows from the outset. It is essential that these wet gas flows are metered as accurately as possible. The traditional method of metering wet gas or multiphase flows is to separate the fluids in a dedicated separator vessel. The inlet of these vessels receives the unprocessed flow of natural gas and liquids (which may be both hydrocarbon liquids and water). The vessel is designed to separate the component fluids and allow the flow to exit separately as natural gas and single component liquid flows where single phase flow measurement technologies can be utilized. This is the original wet gas and multiphase meter technology.
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Document ID: E93709D2

COMPRESSIBILITY OF NATURAL GAS
Author(s): Jeffrey L. Savidge
Abstract/Introduction:
The accurate measurement of natural gas and natural gas related fluids is difficult. It requires care, experience, and insight to achieve consistently accurate measurements that can meet stringent fiscal requirements. It is particularly difficult to measure complex fluid mixtures that are exposed to: (1) a range of operating conditions, (2) dynamic flow and fluid property behavior, and (3) changing equipment conditions. The compressibility factor is a ubiquitous concept in fluid measurement. It is used throughout many measurement practices and standards. At its most practical level, the compressibility factor is another fluid measurement correction factor. Unfortunately the mathematical methods, tools, descriptions and data associated with the compressibility factor obscure much of its simplicity. The purpose of this paper is to provide background on the development of the compressibility factor and related methods. It discusses its use in natural gas measurement and provides examples of the behavior of the compressibility factor. Lastly it illustrates the level of uncertainty that current compressibility factor data, methods and related property standards provide.
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Document ID: AD9BD475

FLOW CONDITIONING FOR FLUID FLOW MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Blaine Sawchuk
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association (AGA) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) provide metering guidelines for orifice, ultrasonic, turbine, and other gas and liquid phase meters. In all of the metering recommendations, flow conditioning (FC) devices are recommended for a meter run. The function of the FC is to prepare the pipe flow to allow the flow meter to work as intended. Fundamentally, the function of a FC is to minimize metering facility life cycle costs: capital, operating, error costs. This is why FCs are always a popular topic of discussion, they establish those capital and operating costs for the metering facility right from the meter station design stage. Not all FCs are created equal and measurement error due to a poor design or installation could even be an additional unforeseen measurement error legal cost not included in this analysis.
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Document ID: 629DDEBF

Measurement and Regulation Operation of a LDC
Author(s): Philip A Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow measurement has evolved over the years in response to demands to measure new products, old products under new conditions of flow, or to meet tightened accuracy requirements as the value of a fluid has increased in value, this is a normal evolution for any hydrocarbon product as taken to the consumer marketplace. Over 4,000 years ago, the Romans under the supervision of Frontinus measured water flow from aqueducts to each household via pipelines to control the water allocation, based on the diameter of pipes only, and did not take in to account pressure effects. The Chinese around the same time measured salt water to control flow to evaporative brine pots to produce salt used in cooking.
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Document ID: 2D694FA0

NEW DIFFERENTIALMETERS IN NATURAL GAS
Author(s): Philip A. Lawrence.
Abstract/Introduction:
There are several new genres of differential pressure flow meters that are now available for both oil and gas applications. Many manufacturers claim that their new flow meter has advantages over other meter types, specifically over orifice meters. Each meter type claims to have advantages over other meter types, specifically standardized meters such as the orifice plate. Meter types discussed within this document include Cone meters, Spring loaded Cone type meters, Venturi meters, Multi-ported averaging Pitot tubes, Multi-holed orifice plates, Venturi and dP meters utilizing diagnostic differential pressure methodologies.
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Document ID: 5EAD40DB

EFFECTS OF ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE ON GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Jane Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the effects of atmospheric pressure on natural gas measurement. Atmospheric pressure is the force per unit area, pressure, created by the atmosphere, (air and water vapor) in a column directly above a one square inch area on the ground all the way to the edge of outer space. We are not aware of the pressure from the weight of the air on us as we have always felt it A pioneering scientist in the 1800s named Evangelista Torricelli discovered that air actually has weight, which he called atmospheric pressure. Torricelli stated, We live submerged at the bottom of an ocean of elemental air. The earths gravitational field is pulling on air, and this pull, or pressure of air is called atmospheric pressure. Torricelli went on to develop an instrument to measure the atmospheric pressure, the mercury barometer. 1
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Document ID: 152CDC08

BASICS OF GAS ULTRASONIC DIAGNOSTICS
Author(s): Martin Schlebach
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses basic diagnostics, this term is somewhat misleading as what was once thought to be the basics have now been expanded to include several additional values which are based on simple calculation but are very powerful indicators of overall measurement uncertainty. We will review the basics plus advanced diagnostics that are part of the latest rewrite of AGA-9 which will be release later this year and includes a USM Commissioning and Verification Checklist which has been include in the appendixes as an informative guideline.
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Document ID: 9C65A437

THERMAL MASS FLOW FOR GREENHOUSE GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Thomas Kemme
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many well documented flow meter technologies that are essentially trying to accomplish the same thing: measure fluid flow rate. Some of the technologies that are entrenched in the market, such as flow meters that utilize differential pressure as the measurement principle, are well understood due to the present installed base. However, an evolving technology such as thermal mass flow is often overcomplicated or not well understood. Instead of measuring flow rate by pressure drop, rotor rotation, or a number of conventional methods, thermal mass flow meters measure flow rate by convection heat transfer. Some of the key advantages are direct mass flow measurement, high sensitivity at low pressures and high turndown.
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Document ID: 92E9EFDA

METER FACTOR TRACEABILITY FOR CORIOLIS MASS FLOW METERS
Author(s): Michael Keilty
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis mass flowmeters that are gravimetrically calibrated on water have been proven to be capable to satisfy the specifications and requirements of national and international standards for the measurement of natural gas in custody transfer applications.
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Document ID: 8FF389C8

Application of Densitometers to Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Dean Minehart
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) Chapter 9 Section 4 provides guidance for online density meter selection/operation, sampling system design and calibration methods. Continuous density measurement may be accomplished with a device located in the main flowing stream or located in a slipstream representative of the main stream. Density measurement is utilized in both volume and mass measurement systems. Volumetric measurement requires the use of density measurement in order to determine correction factors for temperature and pressure on a flowing liquid. Inferred mass measurement systems require density measurement at meter conditions in order to determine mass flow. Direct mass measurement systems require on line density measurement at a meter prover to determine prover mass.
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Document ID: FC91D001

APPLICATION OF TURBINE METERS IN LIQUID MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Dan Zoller
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine meters have been used for the custody transfer of refined petroleum products and light crude oils for over 47 years. When correctly applied, they offer high accuracy and long service life over a wide range of products and operating conditions. Traditionally, turbine meters were used for the measurement of low viscosity liquids and PD meters for higher viscosities. However, recent developments in turbine meter technology are pushing these application limits while increasing reliability and accuracy. This paper will examine the application of conventional and helical turbine meters for liquid petroleum measurement.
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Document ID: AD0D6FD7

Automated Truck Loading Systems
Author(s): John C. Meade
Abstract/Introduction:
Over many years Automated Truck Loading Systems have increasingly evolved into more sophisticated and complex process control and information systems. The design of these ATLSs has brought together emerging technologies in process control and information technology to serve the petrochemical industry. These emerging technologies have included electronic presets, card and fingerprint readers, programmable logic controllers (PLC), broadband communications, tank-gauging systems, SCADA systems and terminal management software. Terminal management systems or terminal automation systems (TAS) as they are often called, have evolved to become the backbone of the ATLS. More and more bulk liquid storage and pipeline companies have come to rely on TAS systems to tightly integrate their ATLSs with their business model and company wide information systems.
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Document ID: 46DCF057

COPING WITH CHANGING FLOW REQUIREMENTS AT EXSISTING METERING STATIONS
Author(s): Ronald Sisk
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays competitive gas market, utility companies must meet aggressive market strategies or suffer the consequences. All industries have cash registers, and gas distribution is no exception. Our measuring stations are our cash register. The problem is, these stations were designed 10, 20, 30 or even 50 years ago, and are now performing tasks they were not designed for. Therefore, changes must be made. Measurement personnel today must be trained and taught to cope with changing flow requirements. But, modifying a station to meet todays aggressive market can be very expensive. Equipment, such as regulators and the primary element (the meter tube, the orifice plate holder, and the orifice plate), must meet A.G.A. 3 requirements. The secondary element (the recording device) can raise expenditures significantly. Sometimes modifications cannot be made to deliver the specified volume of product needed, and replacement of a complete station is even more expensive. Companies today must watch money closely, and work to reduce operating and maintenance costs. To handle these situations effectively, technicians must be trained and taught to cope with changing flow requirements. Knowing your stations and their characteristics are an absolute. Technicians must become familiar with the kind of equipment their station has, and its proper use. The goal here is to detail the appropriate methods and equipment required to handle these tasks.
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Document ID: C0EDE520

CALCULATION OF LIQUID PETROLEUM QUANTITIES
Author(s): Peter W Kosewicz
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Petroleum industry as hydrocarbons are purchased, sold or transferred there are two key elements that must be determined. These elements are the quantity and quality of the hydrocarbon in question. This paper will address one of those elements, the determination of the quantity of the hydrocarbon in the transaction. The determination of the quantity of hydrocarbon can be further subdivided into: Static quantity determination and Dynamic quantity determination Static quantity is determined when the hydrocarbon is measured under non-flowing conditions, such as when contained in a tank, rail car, truck or vessel. Conversely Dynamic quantity determination occurs when the hydrocarbon is measured under flowing conditions.
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Document ID: 5D54FE2C

CRUDE OIL GATHERING BY TRUCK - METERING VERSUS MANUAL GAUGING
Author(s): John W. Brackett
Abstract/Introduction:
Forty years ago, Americans were entranced with a song that seemed to sum up the hopes and fears of the nations citizens. The lyrics carry the un-dying truth that the times they are a-changing. Mr. Dylans words remind us that things come and go and are at the heart of the debate regarding Manual Gauging versus Metering. The source of this change stems from the need to limit or eliminate the release of toxins and other noxious gasses into the air from lease tanks. The debate must now focus on this new trend and find a method to enable crude gathering in a manner that is cost effective and workable for the producer and the buyer. New methods spurred by new technologies in the production of oil have enabled a renaissance in American energy production and thus have re-opened old wells and created new production sites closer to our nations ever expanding metros. While this is in no way bad for the industry, it does draw attention to the need to reform our gathering methods in a manner that is more suited to a sensitive modern society. Yet, as this society becomes more advanced, so too will its ability to interact with the systems that control our industrys automated functions. The times have brought on a need to address all aspects of oil production that affect health, safety, and the environment. These issues are already spurring action. A high-ranking executive in the industry recently stated, The HSE (Health Safety & Environment) issuesare (and will) precluding operators from allowing truck drivers to open storage tank hatches to perform custody transfers measurements (including temperatures) & sampling due to H2S (a safety concern) and to reduce emissions (an environmental concern) in general.
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Document ID: 6446486D

DESIGN, OPERATION, AND MAINTENANCE OF L.A.C.T. UNITS
Author(s): Bob Petty
Abstract/Introduction:
The two most common methods of measuring the volume of petroleum liquids are tank gauging and liquid metering. The problems associated with tank gauging are (1) it requires that an operator make an accurate liquid level determination by climbing to the top of the tank to be gauged, (2) that an operator make an accurate average liquid temperature determination, (3) that an operator make an accurate sediment and water content analysis and (4) that the tank be static, which means that no liquid can enter or leave the tank during gauging. Once the contents of the tank are removed, it is necessary to regauge the tank. Since crude oil is sold on the basis of temperature, API Gravity and the amount of Basic Sediment and Waste (BS&W), it is very important to make accurate measurements. The greatest effect on volume is temperature - typical crude oil will expand and contract at the rate of 2% per 40 F temperature change. The accumulation of errors present in the tank gauging may be as high as 1%. The potential annual losses in revenue, based on daily lease production and on 90.00 per barrel oil, would be as follows:
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Document ID: E5A979B2

MEASUREMENT OF DENSE PHASE FLUIDS
Author(s): Fred G. Van Orsdol
Abstract/Introduction:
Many people in the industry, including probably most measurement specialists, have no experience with the measurement of Dense Phase Fluids (if you dont count water). When the un-initiated are asked to engineer or operate such a system, they tend to repeat the same mistakes others have made over and over again by trying to treat the streams like natural gas liquids or liquefied petroleum gases (NGLs or LPGs). Hopefully, this paper will assist the un-initiated reader in avoidance of some of those mistakes. Although definitions can be boring, a few should be covered that will help the student be sure they understand the fluid properties unique to Dense Phase Fluids and eventually clarify the reasons for the special handling requirements for these fluids. Dense Phase Fluids, often referred to as Supercritical Fluids, are simply those fluids that are above the Critical Point on their phase diagram at operating conditions.
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Document ID: B25C9F8B

EVAPORATION LOSS MEASUREMENT FROM STORAGE TANKS
Author(s): George L. Morovich
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: FAD74EBB

Fundamentals of Liquid Measurement
Author(s): David Beitel
Abstract/Introduction:
Correct measurement practices are established to minimize uncertainty in the determination of the custody transfer volume (or mass) of products. Understanding and evaluation of the fundamental cause and effect relationships with the liquid to be measured will lead to a volume determination that most closely matches the true volume at the referenced standard pressure and temperature. When designing a new measurement station it is up to us as measurement people, to understand the product to be measured, apply the correct equipment, and implement the appropriate correction equations.
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Document ID: 3C68B2F6

FUNDAMENTALS OF LIQUID MEASUREMENT II
Author(s): ANNE WALKER BRACKETT
Abstract/Introduction:
Dynamic measurement occurs when a liquid is flowing. This paper discusses the measurement of fluids that are not moving, i.e. in a static condition. Static measurement uses various pieces of equipment (tools) to accomplish its mission and involves science and craft. Technicians must know not only the sequence in which to perform the prescribed measurements but also the proper toll to use, to make an accurate measurement for the custody transfer of hydrocarbons. This paper will discuss the API and ASTM standards that apply to those steps required to calibrate, gauge and sample tanks.
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Document ID: 53D57904

FUNDAMENTALS OF LIQUID MEASUREMENT II
Author(s): ANNE WALKER BRACKETT
Abstract/Introduction:
Dynamic measurement occurs when a liquid is flowing. This paper discusses the measurement of fluids that are not moving, i.e. in a static condition. Static measurement uses various pieces of equipment (tools) to accomplish its mission and involves science and craft. Technicians must know not only the sequence in which to perform the prescribed measurements but also the proper toll to use, to make an accurate measurement for the custody transfer of hydrocarbons. This paper will discuss the API and ASTM standards that apply to those steps required to calibrate, gauge and sample tanks.
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Document ID: 58074591

FUNDAMENTALS OF LIQUID TURBINE METERS A REVIEW OF THE DESIGN, SELECTION AND OPERATION OF LIQUID TURNBINE METERS
Author(s): Jason Strawn
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine meters have been used for the measurement of petroleum liquids since the 1950s. In March 1970 with the publication of API Standard 2534 Measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbons by Turbine Meter Systems turbine meters gained custody transfer acceptance in oil and gas industry of liquids such as light crude oils, LPGs, and light distillates. Nearly 50 years later, turbine meter technology continues to be used globally for a variety of applications: custody transfer, allocation, leak detection, and other loss gain control applications. New developments in liquid turbine technology have not only expanded the range of installation applications, but have also improved the reliability and accuracy of the method of interpreting the produced data. This paper will examine the fundamentals of liquid turbine meter technology as well as new mechanical and technological developments which are expanding the turbine meter installation base.
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Document ID: 74601D40

FUNDAMENTALS OF LIQUID MEASUREMENT III - DYNAMIC
Author(s): Peter W Kosewicz
Abstract/Introduction:
Weve learned when measuring crude oil or any hydrocarbon that liquids expand and contract with increases and decreases in temperature. The liquid volume also decreases when pressure is applied. All these effects are part of the physical properties of liquid petroleum fluids. In addition to the effects of temperature and pressure on the liquid and their indicated volume, the container in which the liquid is measured also changes the volume it contains at different temperature and pressures. These changes must also be accounted for in determining the true volume being transferred. We learned in Fundamentals of Liquid Measurement I how these physical properties effect the measurement of liquid hydrocarbons. The objective of either static measurement or dynamic measurements is to determine the quantity and quality of hydrocarbons transferred. However these measurements are rarely performed at the standard conditions discussed in Fundamentals I, therefore not only must temperature be measured, but also density, sediment and water, vapor pressure, flowing pressure and viscosity must be measured. With these measurements correction factors such as Volume Correction Factors (VCF) can be determined to allow volumes determined at operating conditions to be expressed at standard reference conditions.
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Document ID: 98E56C45

DESIGN OF DISTRIBUTION METERING AND REGULATING STATIONS
Author(s): Edgar (Eddy) Wallace Collins
Abstract/Introduction:
The design of natural gas distribution metering and/or regulating stations is a mixture of science and art, of knowledge and judgment. The process requires four areas of knowledge: product, application, components, and communication. The goal in design is to use judgment to select and combine compatible components to create a safe, effective, and economical unit.
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Document ID: 369E7537

GAUGING, TESTING AND RUNNING OF LEASE TANKS
Author(s): Anne Walker Brackett
Abstract/Introduction:
A large majority of the oil gathered in this nation is collected from small lease sites that populate the oil rich regions that many of us call home. These lease tanks are a common site, and we often overlook their importance. While our industry has raced forward by adding technology and electronic systems, this one sector has remained steadfast. It should be noted that the modern technologies are seriously being looked at by many companies due to a new API standard written and published last year. The new standard is Chapter 18.2 of the American Petroleum Institutes Manual of Petroleum Measurement. The title is Custody Transfer of Crude Oil from Lease Tanks Using Alternate Measurement Methods. The aim to remove the gauger from the top of a tank when hazardous conditions exist, such as H2S (hydrogen sulfide), which is a deadly natural nerve agent.
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Document ID: 3820B4E8

HELICAL TURBINE METERS FOR LIQUID MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Dan Zoller
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine meters have been used for the custody transfer of refined petroleum products and light crude oils for over 47 years. When correctly applied, they offer high accuracy and long service life over a wide range of products and operating conditions. Traditionally, turbine meters were used for the measurement of low viscosity liquids and positive displacement meters for higher viscosity fluids. However, new developments in turbine meter technology are pushing these application limits while increasing reliability and accuracy. This paper will examine the fundamental differences between conventional and helical turbine meter measurement. It will also discuss flow conditioning, helical meter proving and viscosity compensation to extend turbine meter application limits.
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Document ID: 20546657

Installation and Operation of Densitometers
Author(s): Paul A. Mullen
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will mostly cover the recommended installation and operation of densitometers for custody transfer applications. Densitometers are used to determine various specifics of the transmitted product in pipelines. We will be reviewing some of the standards for density measurement found in API Standards Chapter 9.4 Continuous Density Measurement Under Dynamic (Flowing) Conditions.
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Document ID: 3446F072

LIQUID MEASUREMENT FIELD SURVEYS
Author(s): Christopher Levy
Abstract/Introduction:
A successful hydrocarbon measurement program is composed of many dynamic components. At the core, accurate measurement system performance is critically dependent upon measurement tasks being performed consistently in accordance with established operational processes and procedures. Routine training and assessments ensure equipment is operated and measurement tasks are performed as intended. As shown in Figure 1, assessments provide a feedback loop that measures the performance so that adjustments can be made to address deficiencies and achieve desired results.
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Document ID: F00CE5F7

LIQUID MEASUREMENT STATION DESIGN
Author(s): Todd Meador
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid measurement stations are installed where petroleum products are transferred from seller to buyer under terms outlined by a contract and/or government authorities. These terms dictate how the liquid will be measured, and because money is changing hands and authorities are involved, the design of the station is crucial to ensure the accuracy and quality of the measurement. This paper outlines design considerations and other factors that should be considered when designing and constructing a measurement station for hydrocarbon liquids. Applications Liquid measurement stations are used in a variety of applications including crude oil, refined products, NGL, LNG, and chemicals. Meter stations may be single meter runs or multiple meter runs. Meter stations may also include a spare meter run that can be put into operation when another meter run is under maintenance. Liquid meter stations can be built in the field where they will be installed, or built in a facility that specializes in measurement stations. If the measurement station is built at a facility, it can be tested prior to shipment to ensure integration at site is as seamless as possible.
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Document ID: 69ABFDFD

MASS MEASUREMENT OF NATURAL GAS LIQUID MIXTURES
Author(s): Eric Estrada
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to review methods for directly or indirectly determining the mass of Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) streams. NGLs by definition are hydrocarbons liquefied by gas processing plants containing ethane, propane, butane, and natural gasoline. Mass and Weight People tend to confuse the terms mass and weight and use them interchangeably. However, they are not the same. Mass is defined as the amount of matter (stuff) in a particle or object. Since the amount of matter in an object or particle cannot change without a change in structure of the object or particle, it is absolute. Weight is defined as The force exerted on an objects mass compared with a reference standard.1 By equation:
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Document ID: F4D1D778

MEASUREMENT ACCURACY AND SOURCES OF ERROR IN TANK GAUGING
Author(s): Dan Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
Upright cylindrical storage tanks are used not only to store liquid petroleum between custody transfers for inventory purposes, but to measure the quantities of those transfers. As in all measurements for custody transfer, it is essential to identify the sources of error in the measurement processes and to keep the impact of those sources to a minimum.
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Document ID: 6CA4850A

SHRINKAGE LOSSES RESULTING FROM LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXING
Author(s): J. H. (Harry) James T. Brett Cameron
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline and terminal balancing has been a focus of measurement specialists since early in the development stages of oil and gas production. It was quickly recognized that even with the best volumetric measurement equipment, unaccounted for discrepancies still occurred that exceeded the accuracy and uncertainty ranges associated with the custody transfer and inventory accounting systems. Conventionally we have been taught to understand that one plus one equals two. In an ideal world of integers this is the case but in the world of volumetric hydrocarbon measurement one plus one is usually less than two. In rare circumstances it can also be greater than two. As stated in the Dec. 1967 edition of API Publication 2509C regarding the result of blending two different hydrocarbons, If the nature of the molecules of the components differ appreciably, then deviation from ideal behavior may be expected. This deviation may either be positive or negative that is, the total volume may increase or decrease when components are blended. .. Inasmuch as petroleum components contain molecules of various sizes and weights, solutions of two separate components are seldom ideal. Consequently it is to be expected there may be a change in volume associated with the mixing or blending of petroleum components of varying gravities and molecular structure.
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Document ID: 99E6AA46

MEASUREMENT OF CRYOGENIC LNG
Author(s): Alastair McLachlan
Abstract/Introduction:
With depletion of conventional oil reserves, natural gas is becoming an increasingly important source of energy for many countries. While some of the demand for natural gas can be met by domestic production or pipeline imports, many countries are becoming increasingly dependent on natural gas imports in the form of LNG. In 2014 the global production capacity of LNG was around 240 MT (Million Tonnes) and although this has remained essentially flat year on year for the last 3 years the production capacity currently under construction will deliver a 36% growth over the next 5 years.
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Document ID: C6188AD9

Measurement Methods for Liquid Storage Tanks
Author(s): Daniel Baldwin
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to provide, in general terms, an overview of the different technologies available to measure volumes in atmospheric storage tanks. There are typically four (4) volumes that are of interest to be calculated for atmospheric storage tanks: Total Observed, Gross Observed, Gross Standard, and Net Standard (see Fig 20 page 9). The basic measurements required for these volumes are: product level, observed temperature, water level, and the observed density of the product.
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Document ID: 9D245558

DETERMINATION OF LEAKAGE AND UNACCOUNTED FOR GAS
Author(s): Allison Bentley
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas producers, gathers, treaters, processors, transporters, and distributors are all exposed to the potential safety hazards and costs associated with lost and unaccounted for gas. Safety hazards include leaks and theft, and costs may be incurred due to incorrectly measured gas or line pack. Costs can also be associated with imbalances or contractual caps.
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Document ID: 96D38554

MEASUREMENT OF PETROLEUM ON BOARD MARINE VESSELS
Author(s): Juri Koern
Abstract/Introduction:
The process that calculates the volume of liquid petroleum loaded onto, or received from, a ship or barge is known as Custody Transfer Measurement. It is important to note that the custody transfer measurement is not determined by a single measurement. A series of measurements are taken, tests are performed and calculations are made before, during and after the transfer takes place in order to reach a Custody Transfer Measurement. The transferred volume is usually determined by calculating the difference between the volume measured before and after the transfer. After gauging, sampling and temperature readings are taken ashore, on the vessel(s) or by a combination of the two, volume quantities may be calculated. Shore volumes are the quantities measured on shore. The quantities measured on the vessel are ship, barge or vessel volumes.
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Document ID: B5BC9E3F

ORIFICE METERS FOR LIQUID MEAUREMENT
Author(s): Stephen T. (Steve) Stark
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice meters remain very popular today despite the evolution of newer and much more fascinating measurement technologies. Traditionally commonly used to measure natural gas in the oil and gas industry, orifice meters perform very well in many liquid measurement applications and can produce excellent results well within acceptable uncertainty tolerances when they are carefully designed, properly installed, well maintained - and when calculations are performed correctly. Of course, these same requirements exist for all flow meter types. Experience teaches us that any flow meter that is poorly designed, improperly installed, and imprecisely operated is doomed to failure either immediately or in the not too distant future.
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Document ID: 511AC608

PYCNOMETER INSTALLATION, OPERATION AND CALIBRATION
Author(s): Corky Atchison
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss pycnometers used to calibrate densitometers. In using a pycnometer, you must have the correct scales, pressure gauges and thermometers. You will learn the steps necessary to install, operate and calibrate the instrument.
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Document ID: 8B283135

Resolving Liquid Measurement Differences
Author(s): Deanne Strothers
Abstract/Introduction:
To measure is to estimate the relative amount of something by comparison with some standard. For measurement of liquid petroleum products in the US, the comparisons are set by a standard issued by the APIs Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS). These measurement techniques should be implemented along with any company standards that further enhance the industrys guidelines. Measurement is the cash register of the energy industry. The value of a liquid is determined by the parties involved in any transaction. Most of these values are determined through contractual means, with volumes, calibrations and tolerance levels for variances set forth before any product is moved. Its these variances that are the basis of much time and effort spent by technicians and analysts alike to track down, document and repair anything in the process that causes a discrepancy on a gain/loss sheet. Since the limits for these variances are predetermined, care and oversight must be used to control any aspect of the measurement process that can create values outside the tolerable levels. Some will say that no variance is the ultimate goal, but this isnt achievable due to limitations on all the equipment, technology and people that come into contact with the product or data somewhere in the process.
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Document ID: 5A5B7AA5

STATISTICAL CONTROL OF METER FACTORS - A SIMPLIFIED APPROACH
Author(s): Dan Comstock Pete Jakubenas
Abstract/Introduction:
Statistical control is a tool for discernment and communication. This paper will give a brief overview description of a simplified method for monitoring the performance of a flow meter and performing the same exercise on each meter in the system. The idea is to provide graphical assistance, through the use of meter factor control charts in: (a) developing preventive maintenance programs (b) heightening awareness of alarm situations and, (c) reducing risk to the financial bottom line. Meter factor control charts and logs make it easier to prepare reports to maintenance, operations, financial and executive managers from time to time and furthermore, they make it easier for the target audience to digest the points being made.
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Document ID: 4AEFA1B9

TROUBLESHOOTING LIQUID PIPELINE LOSSES AND GAIN
Author(s): Joseph T. Rasmussen Michael R. Plasczyk
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid pipelines are integrated transportation networks providing multiple services for many shippers and customers. These systems may connect to multiple origins and destinations, and carry various products across long distances with changing elevation profiles, pipe dimensions and directions. Expectations are that the volumes received in the system are equivalent to the volumes delivered, with the exception of inventory changes. But in reality, every pipeline system will experience a loss or gain over time. Monitoring pipeline losses and gains employs tools and analysis methods developed specifically to troubleshoot pipeline variances. Evaluation of pipeline losses and gains uses basic statistical tools as well as intuitive and creative insight into what controls losses and gains.
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Document ID: 494EFE60

VISCOSITY AND ITS APPLICATION IN LIQUID HYDROCARBON MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Terrence Cousins Dr. Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
The effect of viscosity takes a variety of forms in its relationship to flow measurement. As a general rule low viscosity has less effect on the performance of flowmeters, although this is not totally true, for example, with positive displacement meters. For most meters, as viscosity increases it has greater effects on meter performance, both in the operation and in the effect of the fluid passing through the meter. So, for example, as the viscosity of the fluid increases the chances of the fluid in the pipe being in a transition region, or going into laminar gets greater. This can lead to measurement issues due to the variations in flow profile and turbulent noise affecting the meter performance. This paper discusses the phenomenon of viscosity, how it is measured, the effect on the flow in pipes, and the concept of Reynolds number. The paper then goes on goes on to look in some detail at the effect the viscosity on different types of flowmeters, in particular turbine, positive displacement, ultrasonic and Coriolis meters.
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Document ID: A4EF2F96

PROVING LIQUID METERS WITH MICROPROCESSOR BASED PULSE OUTPUTS
Author(s): Galen Cotton
Abstract/Introduction:
The advent of microprocessor driven flow meters in the late 1960s and early 1970s was heralded as a new frontier in flow measurement. Little did we anticipate the unintended consequence of adopting these new technologies, or how our conventional verification techniques would be challenged? We are still playing catch-up in the realm of flow meter verification where manufactured or, computationally derived flow meter pulse outputs, are concerned.
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Document ID: A05F3A66

OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE WITH LIQUID CORIOLIS METERS
Author(s): Joseph Crews
Abstract/Introduction:
Widely utilized in the petroleum industry, coriolis meters are have become prolific in applications involving liquid hydrocarbon custody transfer. Coriolis meters ability to measure a vast array of process fluids, multiple process variables, process insights, and wide turndown have driven the increase in use. While their use is wide spread, coriolis meters are still considered a relatively new and in some cases unknown technology. Unfamiliarity with operational principles coupled with everchanging software packages and diagnostics can make these mass and density meters seem truly inaccessible.
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Document ID: 484D3740

VOLUMETRIC MEASUREMENT OF LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES (LPGS)
Author(s): Paul Mullen
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is defined as butane, propane or other light ends separated from natural gas or crude oil by fractionation or other processes. At atmospheric pressure, LPGs revert to the gaseous state. Included in this paper will be information for turbine, coriolis and positive displacement meters used in volumetric measurement systems. The basic calculations and industry standards covering volumetric measurement will also be covered.
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Document ID: C8882F26

EFFECTS AND CONTROL OF PULSATION IN GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the more common measurement errors and the most difficult to identify in natural gas metering systems is that caused by pulsating flow. It is important to understand the effects that pulsations have on the common types of flow meters used in the gas industry so that potential error-producing mechanisms can be identified and avoided. It is also essential to understand pulsation control techniques for mitigating pulsation effects. This paper describes the effects of pulsation on orifice, turbine, ultrasonic, and other flow meter types. It also presents basic methods for mitigating pulsation effects at meter installations, including a specific procedure for designing acoustic filters that can isolate a flow meter from the source of pulsation.
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Document ID: 8A5926EB

LPG TERMINAL OPERATIONS AND MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Zaki Husain
Abstract/Introduction:
In the oil and gas industry, the commercial viability of a product depends on economic considerations of marketability of the product. The marketable products can be naturally occurring or is often a byproduct of refining and/or chemical process. Marketability of a product is impacted by cost of processing, handing, transportation, dispensing, safety precautions, storage, quality control, etc. If a product is deemed commercially unmarketable, it is often disposed, internally used for heat generation, or flared. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is one of those hydrocarbon liquids that pose very complex difficulties in storage, handling, and measurement accuracy. Hence, historically LPG byproduct was treated as a nuisance by many companies in the petroleum industry and was disposed, burned as plants internal heating fuel, or flared. With increasing production of natural gas and demand and cost of energy resources, the marketability of LPG has become an economically viable commodity. With increasing cost versus profitability of the petroleum industry and expanding demand for energy, there are consorted efforts to market LPG and overcome the known difficulties of storage, transportation, safety issues, handling, and accurately measure the LPG products.
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Document ID: 888CF943

MASTER METER PROVER CERTIFICATIONS PER API MPMS 4.9.3
Author(s): Kevin Fields
Abstract/Introduction:
When discussions about prover calibrations occur, they normally end with a disagreement about the accuracies of the different approved methods. This paper will discuss the procedures and advantages of the master meter method. This method was developed over 20 years ago to minimize difficulties in calibrating very large volume provers. In the fast pace world of today, where downtime means money, many companies use the master meter method to save time and money on a variety of prover sizes. Accurate calibrations require good technique from a knowledgeable technician. Having the proper knowledge and equipment to perform the master meter method will improve the accuracy and minimize time to complete the calibration. This paper will discuss the master meter method of prover calibration as described in API MPMS Chapter 4.9.3.
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Document ID: 572AE693

Equipment and Techniques Used in Real Time Component Volume Calculations For Natural Gas Liquid Measurement
Author(s): David Beitel
Abstract/Introduction:
Correct measurement practices are established to minimize uncertainty in the determination of the custody transfer volume (or mass) of products. Understanding and evaluation of the fundamental cause and effect relationships with the liquid to be measured will lead to a volume determination that most closely matches the true volume at the referenced standard pressure and temperature. When designing a new measurement station it is up to us as measurement people, to understand the product to be measured, apply the correct equipment, and implement the appropriate correction equations. Crucial to the proper selection of measurement equipment and the proper calculation technique is an understanding of the product that is being measured.
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Document ID: 4AD3C702

Vision Technology for Analyzing Crude and Produced Water: Advancements and Results From the Field
Author(s): Thomas M. Canty
Abstract/Introduction:
Vision technology is providing the answer for crude and produced water measurements that are currently skewed by the uncertainty of traditional, non visual instrumentation to know what kinds of particles are being measured. For instance, ultrasonic meters can be affected by the solid particles they are measuring. Air bubbles can also affect the accuracy and calibration of the instrument. Particle counters are likewise affected by the presence of non solid constituents in the mixture such as air or water. In any event, there is no direct, or immediate, method to confirm that the measurement shown is actually a true measurement or a skewed reading caused by some of these process factors. Visual technology, or Imaging, captures a process feature that is invaluable in detecting water (and gas) and properly reporting its presence without distorting the measurement of the solids present. Additionally, the visual component of the technology allows for classification of solids which is important in the analysis of fuel systems and lubricating oil systems. This paper will review applications where imaging technology is being applied to create improved efficiency and precision in the measurement of crude oil properties.
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Document ID: 9919938E

USING CONTROL CHARTS TO PREDICT FAILURES OF MEASUREMENT DEVICES
Author(s): ZAKI HUSAIN
Abstract/Introduction:
Control Chart of a monitoring device is historical documentation of the performance of the device. For flowmeters, Control Chart is the Meter Factor (MF) of the flowmeter plotted or tabulated as a function of time. Figure 1 is an example of control chart of a flowmeter that was installed to monitor flowrate for a process control application, where flowing fluid did not change, but the flowrate and temperature of the fluid may have changed when the flowmeter was calibrated each week. The flowrate during proving of the meter varied over the range of 62 to 85 percent of the maximum flow rate range of the meter, while the fluid temperature varied between 55 and 83 degrees Fahrenheit. The desired measurement uncertainty for the process control was +/-0.05%. The baseline calibration of the flowmeter indicated that the meter performance was acceptable for the application.
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Document ID: 20EA27A8

ULTRASONIC METERS AND MEASUREMENT ACCURACY IN LEAK DETECTION
Author(s): Tony Petitto
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline operators are committed to safely transporting petroleum and refined products in an error-free and spill-free manner. To achieve this safety goal, pipeline integrity management programs are developed and maintained. These programs are primarily designed to prevent the unintended releases of liquid hydrocarbons, but when such releases happen, quickly detecting them, and activating response plans to mitigate their effects, is very important. Leak Detection Systems (LDS) are deployed to promptly alert pipeline operators that a release has potentially occurred, and to determine the size and location of the leak. Different methods, often used in combination, are used by LDS to accomplish this. Some of these methods use algorithms to detect hydraulic anomalies in pipelines, and are described by API RP 1130 as Computational Pipeline Monitoring (CPM) systems. The majority of CPMs use pipeline operational variables to perform their calculations, and flow rate is one of the most important of them. Liquid ultrasonic meters, because of their non-intrusive design, negligible pressure drop, high accuracy, and diagnostics capabilities, have demonstrated to be one of the best choices when it comes to providing flow to CPM algorithms. This paper describes the important relationship between the accuracy of the ultrasonic meters and the sensitivity, reliability, robustness, and accuracy of the Leak Detection Systems.
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Document ID: EF765AF0

APPLICATION OF FLOW COMPUTERS FOR GAS MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL
Author(s): Al Majek
Abstract/Introduction:
While still in use today, the technology has moved increasingly to microprocessor based flow computers. Such electronic measurement allows for greater accuracy and is readily integrated into a companys enterprise computer networks.
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Document ID: 3753A306

BASIC APPLICATIONS FOR FLOW COMPUTERS AND TELEMETRY SYSTEMS
Author(s): Denis Rutherford
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discuss the basics of Flow Computers and Telemetry Systems. Electronic gas flow computers are microprocessor-based computing devices used to measure and control natural gas streams. There are a variety of configurations available from dedicated (integrated) single board computers to PLC-based multi-run (hybrid) systems.
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Document ID: E2E95FEA

BASIC ELECTRONICS FOR THE FIELD TECHNICIAN
Author(s): Jonathan Dye
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronics are common in everyday life. Even in the Oil and Gas Industry, they are now common place. So, in order to operate and diagnose problems with measurement equipment, you will need to have a basic understanding of electricity and electronic circuits. This article will include discussing some of the common electronic devices used in measurement and how they operate.
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Document ID: 7390CA76

SCADA Systems
Author(s): Nick Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems are described as being an industrial computer scheme for measuring, controlling, and interfacing with a manufacturing process. SCADA systems exist in nearly all types of manufacturing of products, be it oil and gas, power, automotive, water systems. It is a technology that can be deployed to improve a process. That help may be defined as speeding up or increasing the yield of a process, improving safety, acquiring data for accounting purposes, controlling a process with minimal to no human interaction among other things.
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Document ID: 673CD3B3

EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL CONDITIONS ON ACCURACY OF ORIFICE MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Dean Graves
Abstract/Introduction:
Whenever one focuses on gas or fluid measurement, he or she will eventually discover an abnormal condition at a measurement station. Invariably someone will ask, What effect will it have on measurement? A student of measurement may spend years answering this question. This and similar questions have generated many research studies. This research has enabled us to better understand measurement abnormalities and to improve measurement procedures and standards. Even though we have made great strides in measurement, we will continue to ask this question.
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Document ID: 66F086AB

PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT EFFECTS ON ORIFICE GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Stormy Phillips
Abstract/Introduction:
The condition of gas as it presents itself in the pipeline is often not ideal for accurate measurement, by an orifice flow meter. It is the requirement of the American Gas Association (AGA) that the natural gas be in a single phase and with a swirl-free fully developed profile as it passes across the orifice plate to meet the standard of measurement to provide acceptable uncertainty for the flow calculation. Thus it is often necessary to condition the gas prior to measurement. Using the basic laws of gases we can control these conditions by altering the temperature, pressure, or component makeup of the gas. Neglecting these conditions will create a poor measurement environment and inaccurate measurement. It is therefore necessary for measurement personnel to be familiar with common production equipment, how that equipment is utilized and what effect it can have on the overall ability for a system to provide accurate measurement.
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Document ID: E777BE43

IDENTIFYING AND ELIMINATING EFFECTS OF INDUCED SIGNALS ON MEASUREMENT SYSTEM ELECTRONICS
Author(s): Peter P. Jakubenas
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement errors and other effects of induced signals on measurement system electronic equipment can be quite profound. This paper will explore the sources and effects of induced signals and other phenomena including effects of cathodic protection systems, high voltage power lines, faulty grounds, lightning, RFI, and intermittent events. Information to prevent and eliminate undesirable signals is provided as well technical references.
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Document ID: BE96B527

DATA VALIDATION - REQUIREMENTS OF AN EGM EDITOR
Author(s): Kandi Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement is a time-critical function in which an Electronic Gas Measurement (EGM) Editor is necessary in order to conduct good business and practice sound measurement. The Natural Gas and Liquids industry of today is technology-driven with an adherence to industry standards and government regulation as a premise for the structure and foundation of the EGM Editor application. Contractual requirements based on industry standards provide further incentive and direction for a platform that can meet the needs of its customers through a multi-faceted approach that incorporates necessary attributes for effective and thorough data validation, compliance, and reporting.
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Document ID: CE82D6DC

ETHERNET FOR SCADA SYSTEMS
Author(s): Asim Farooq
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will cover the implementation of Ethernet applications in SCADA system communications and architecture. Supervisory Control and Data acquisition (SCADA) systems provide a superior base for better controlled facilities in the upstream, midstream and pipelines for oil and gas facilities. Computerized handling of remote installations is integrated with communications and provides means for reducing the operating cost, cost of maintenance and effective handling of the Oil and Gas network. System parameters communicated via wireless data network must present true conditions related to the status of the field equipment including the Custody Transfer Measurement Systems. In likewise manner, commands sent to remote sites must be promptly executed and the back indication is to be sent to the control center.
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Document ID: 7BB586B4

Real Time Electronic Flow Measurement
Author(s): Colby Waldo
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow measurement is an extremely important part of the overall workings of the oil and gas industry. Gas measurement had a humble start as a non-electric, pneumatic device. As technology has changed and improved, the flow measurement devices have become electronic and extremely fast. Electronic measurement devices that are significantly more precise and contain manageable flow file databases, are replacing mechanical dry-flow meters. This is commonly referred to as electronic flow measurement or EFM. In addition, these devices can communicate remotely utilizing radios, landline or cellular telephones, hard wire and/or satellite links. This type of communication is called telemetry
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Document ID: 4C446E97

Spread Spectrum Radio Technology for Gas Measurement
Author(s): Ben Hamilton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper focuses on the Spread Spectrum Radio applications in the 902-928 MHz ISM band for unlicensed radio. It is suggested that the reader do a Google search for FCC OET Bulletin 63 and read the FCC bulleting for a description of the service. Another good source of information can be found with a Google search for FCCPart15regulationsSemtech.pdf. Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS), is becoming the preferred communications technology for the EFM gas measurement systems. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) allocated spectrums in several bands for unlicensed use (CFR 47, part 15 - the FCC rules). Equipment manufacturers developed high quality, low cost equipment with robust features. The end users of this technology have accepted the innovations and quickly deployed it. The demand for more information and the ability to remotely manage well site automation equipment has accelerated the use of this technology.
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Document ID: 9C98BB30

The Evolution of Data Collection for Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jackson Kyle Bates
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief snapshot on the current state of measurement data collection now being utilized by the Natural Gas Measurement Industry. Although the industry is now in a significant downturn, over the last five years there has been a large increase of individuals entering the industry for the first time. The employees new to the industry, specifically measurement, are not always familiar with the various types of remote measurement data collection methods and often request training specific to this very topic. There is great benefit in providing a current state summary of measurement data collection as it is today and discuss how technology and metrics are continuously being utilized to help shape the future of remote measurement data collection in the Natural Gas industry.
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Document ID: 8AEBDFE1

SMART TRANSMITTER SELECTION, CALIBRATION AND INSTALLATION
Author(s): Emily Saopraseuth
Abstract/Introduction:
Smart pressure and temperature transmitters emerged in the 1980s and have continued to evolve over the past 30 years. They evolved from simple analog process variable generators to increasingly sophisticated microprocessor-based Smart transmitters. Modern devices are full of new technology including: ? Improved performance and stability ? New transmitter capabilities ? Process, power and transmitter diagnostics This paper will provide a guideline for selecting, installing and maintaining modern pressure and temperature transmitters.
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Document ID: 812338E1

TESTING, MAINTENANCE AND OPERATION OF ELECTRONIC FLOW COMPUTERS FOR THE GAS INDUSTRY
Author(s): Nick Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Say goodbye to obsolete chart recorder technology and bulky multi-component flow computers with the Electronic Flow Computer (EFM). The EFM is a solar-powered single to multi run flow computer, an evolution in gas measurement technology. Designed for use in remote locations where solar is the only power and technician access is less than ideal, the EFM incorporates a dedicated single run flow computer, solar/battery power supply and communication system within an all-in-one, compact, easy-to install package. The EFM requires a Man-Machine Interface (MMI) to configure the EFM. The MMI or Configuration Software allows editing of the flow computer configuration parameters with configuration dialogs for process inputs, contract specifications, compressibility calculations, and flow calculations for each meter run. The operator may write configuration data to the flow computer or read it back. Parameter checking is provided on user entries.
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Document ID: D69FAB6B

TRANSIENT LIGHTNING PROTECTION FOR ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENT DEVICES
Author(s): Laura Gonzalez Tony Holliman
Abstract/Introduction:
Transients are momentary changes in voltage that occur over a short period of time in a system. Transients negatively affect electrical equipment and are introduced into a system in a variety of ways. Transient occurrences cannot be completely avoided but there are ways to minimize their effects. Common threats include electrostatic discharge (ESD), cable discharge (CDE), electrical fast transients (EFT) and lightning surges in the environment. It is important to protect equipment from transients because prolonged exposure can lead to damaged equipment, loss of or incorrect data, operating failures and other safety concerns. Lightning surges are the easiest type of transient exposure to trace but lower energy transients are more frequent and harder to spot.
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Document ID: 646632B3

FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS MEASUREMENT I
Author(s): Douglas Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
To truly understand gas measurement, a person must understand gas measurement fundamentals. This includes the units of measurement, the behavior of the gas molecule, the property of gases, the gas laws, and the methods and means of measuring gas. Since the quality of gas is often the responsibility of the gas measurement staff, it is important that they have an understanding of natural gas chemistry.
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Document ID: BC42768F

MANUFACTURED METER PULSES - AN EXPLANATION
Author(s): Robert Fritz
Abstract/Introduction:
The electronic interface between flow meters and flow computers takes a couple of different forms (i.e. a current loop proportional to flow rate, a voltage loop proportional flow rate, or electronic pulses representing a volume). For the remainder of this paper we are going consider only the electronic pulse interface. These electronic pulses are typically generated by a change in voltage and take the form of a square wave similar to those shown in Figure 1.
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Document ID: 8F591C24

OPC FUNDAMENTALS
Author(s): Stephen Sponseller
Abstract/Introduction:
In the mid-1990s, a group of vendors convened to address the growing concern regarding connectivity to the plant floor referred to as the Device Driver Problem. At that time, HMI and SCADA vendors were responsible for building their own driver libraries. This approach created great solutions when it included all the connectivity requirements that their end users would need, but incomplete solutions when it did not. The vendors were faced with a decision: they either needed to invest resource application-level functionality or extend connectivity. Some vendors decided to create their own Application Programming Interfaces (API) or Driver Toolkits. Although this solved their own connectivity needs, it limited end users to how they could approach purchasing additional solutions. Luckily, it was not too long before the market persuaded the vendors to collaborate and make changes that were in the end users best interests.
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Document ID: B3767451

RECENT INNOVATIONS IN LICENSED ETHERNET INDUSTRIAL DATA RADIO TECHNOLOGY FOR GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Nicholas Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Licensed industrial data radios have been successfully used for gas measurement applications for over 25 years. In the past, these systems typically provided serial communication to a few critical devices that required less than 5 kbps of bandwidth (often as low as 1200 bps) and were used to achieve long distance and highly reliable communication. These Licensed radios have proven to be extremely valuable, and allow for the automation of forward-deployed devices in diverse applications.
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Document ID: 6C7760E9

WIRELESS ECONOMICS 101 DISCUSSION OF THE UTILIZATION OF REMOTE MONITORING OF EQUIPEMENT TO REDUCE OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE COSTS, INCREASE PRODUCTION AND IMPROVE SAFETY
Author(s): Randall Messman
Abstract/Introduction:
Oil and Gas Industries are continually being driven by cost cutting measures, the need to gain more operational information, and increased efficiencies. Wireless instruments can be a significant option towards cutting cost and can lead to better efficiencies. Rapid deployment, paired with other conventional equipment, can lead to advanced well optimization. These are the steps production companies now recognize as a method of increasing production and decreasing cost. With a rugged design and area classification meeting Class I Div. I hazardous location requirements, wireless instrumentation is designed for the majority of Oil and Gas applications. Operating in extreme temperature and humidity ranges, todays wireless designs provide easy to install alternatives to traditional hardwired sensors. True wireless instrumentation is comprised of self contained, self-powered field units providing process data to a centralized base radio through an unlicensed band, spread-spectrum, and frequency hopping wireless connections. Networks of up to 100 field units (900MHz version) can be created and polled by a single base radio using a secure, proprietary Industrial Wireless protocol, with a typical range between field unit and base radio of up to 5000ft (-1500m). With the capability to scale up to as many as 256 wireless instrumentation LANs, Wireless Instrumentation networks easily accommodate future expansion plans.
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Document ID: 4BF03103

RF FUNDAMENTALS FOR IoT
Author(s): Brent McAdams
Abstract/Introduction:
With the Internet of Things (IoT) and the emergence of the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), a surge of innovation is occurring across the industry that connects an ecosystem of sensors, devices and equipment to a network that promises to improve asset utilization, enhance process efficiency and boost productivity. With the estimated number of connected things expected to reach over 25 billion by 2020i, this provides an opportunity to change the way business is done.
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Document ID: D17F174B

CALIBRATION OF LIQUID PROVERS
Author(s): Nathan Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
A meter prover is installed in series with a meter and used to establish a meter factor. The volume that passes through the meter is compared to the prover volume during the time a sphere or piston passes between two detector switches. The prover volume is accurately determined by a calibration procedure known as the Water Draw method.
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Document ID: 6E500F2C

EFFECTIVE USE OF DEADWEIGHT TESTERS
Author(s): Jeff Gartner
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most difficult problems facing the instrument engineer is the accurate calibration of pressure or differential pressure measuring instruments. The deadweight tester or gauge is the economic answer to many of these problems. The instrument engineer will typically specify the deadweight tester and the technician will use the standard. For both parties, it is essential to understand certain aspects of deadweight tester operation, concepts related to the design and operation, and the best use practices for the instruments. This paper describes concepts related to and methods to select deadweight testers and gauges. Also included are procedures for using pneumatic and hydraulic deadweight testers.
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Document ID: F2AE20A1

FLOW CALIBRATING ULTRASONIC GAS METERS
Author(s): Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary method for custody transfer measurement has traditionally been orifice metering. While this method has been a good form of measurement, technology has driven the demand for a new, more effective form of fiscal measurement. Ultrasonic flowmeters have gained popularity in recent years and have become the standard for large volume custody transfer applications for a variety of reasons. Most users require flow calibrations to improve meter performance and overall measurement uncertainty. The latest revision of AGA Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters, Second Addition Ref 1, now requires flow calibration for ultrasonic flow meters when being used for custody transfer applications.
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Document ID: 05623FD0

GUIDE TO TROUBLESHOOTING PROBLEMS WITH LIQUID MTERS AND PROVERS
Author(s): Jerry Upton
Abstract/Introduction:
As one of my true and trusted friends says, Counting is easy, but measuring is not so easy. What he means by this is, without establishing any rules you and I could agree on how many tanks there are in a tank farm. The difficulty comes in when we start to try and agree upon how many barrels or cubic meters are in the tanks. Measurement becomes more difficult when the things that we rely on to do the measuring, meters and provers, are not predictable in their performance. When this happens, quite often the reason for the unpredictability is not apparent. However, because of the value of todays liquid hydrocarbons, the problem must be corrected in a timely manner. Therefore someone must analyze the situation and eliminate each possible contributor to the problem until only one remains. This process is called troubleshooting. Thats what we will be talking about in this paper. Because of space constraints and knowledge limitations, especially the later, this paper is not an exhaustive list of problems and solutions. But, hopefully we will discuss something that might be of some help to some people. We will start with the different type of provers in use today.
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Document ID: CFD2DD34

IN-SITU (ON-SITE) GAS METER PROVING
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr. James N. Witte Adam Hawley
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas flow rate measurement errors at field meter stations can result from the installation configuration, the calibration of the meter at conditions other than the actual operating conditions, or the degradation of meter performance over time. The best method for eliminating these or other sources of error is with in-situ (on-site) calibration of the meter. That is, the measurement accuracy of the field meter station should be verified under actual operating conditions by comparing to a master meter or prover. Comparisons of flow meters in the field have been performed for nearly as long as flow meters have been in existence. For example, Figure 1 shows an orifice meter being compared to three 60-A tin meters (a.k.a., diaphragm meters) in Rosedale, Kansas in 1921.1 Each tin meter had the flow capacity of 1,800 standard cubic feet per hour. In this particular test, a 1.6% difference in reading was discovered between the orifice meter and the tin meters.
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Document ID: DE2B997B

FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS MEASUREMENT II
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
A knowledge of the Fundamentals of Gas Measurement is essential for all technicians and engineers that are called upon to perform gas volume calculations. These same people should have at least a working knowledge of the fundamentals to perform their everyday jobs including equipment calibrations, specific gravity tests, collecting gas samples, etc. To understand the fundamentals, one must be familiar with the definitions of the terms that are used in day-to-day gas measurement operations. They also must know how to convert some values from one quantity as measured to another quantity that is called for in the various custody transfer agreements.
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Document ID: 44606966

LACT Unit Proving - The Role of the Witness
Author(s): C. BYNUM VINCENT
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid hydrocarbons removed from the ground must get to market via one of two ways. They are transported via pipeline or tanker truck from production facilities to pipeline systems, which transport the product to the refinery for processing. Once processed, the liquids are once again sent via tanker truck or pipeline to the distribution points downstream. Whether these fluids are purchased or consigned to common carriers, there is transaction called a custody transfer conducted to transfer ownership of the product for transportation or distribution. In each of these instances, a representative from each party involved in the custody transfer transaction is generally present to observe or witness the events of each transaction.
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Document ID: 0D1EED0A

LIQUID METER PROVING TECHNIQUES
Author(s): Jerry Upton
Abstract/Introduction:
A meter is only an indication of flow unless it is proved. That sounds like a bold statement. But, it is true. A lot of people think that a meter always gives you the right answer. They are ignorant of the facts. A meters ability to be right is a function of its traceability to a National Metrology Institute or NMI. You are probably thinking what in the world is that and what does it have to do with a meter. Well, the oil industry has agreed to make all Custody Transfer measurements directly traceable to something that everyone has faith in. And, that is an NMI. The NMI in the United States is the National Institute of Standards and Technology or NIST. That is where all the standards for the United States are kept.
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Document ID: 09A79B2C

OPERATION & PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH PROVER DETECTOR SWITCHES
Author(s): Nicholas Thurlby
Abstract/Introduction:
In many parts of the petroleum industry, sphere provers are used to dynamically calibrate volumetric meters. In order to accomplish this, sphere provers are required to be accurate and repeatable. This accuracy and repeatability is largely dependent on performance of the prover sphere detector. Any operational or design problems associated with the prover detector will affect the provers performance. This paper will review critical parts of a prover sphere detector that must be checked in order to obtain accuracy reliability and repeatability. The areas that will be covered are:
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Document ID: 376560FC

OPERATION & PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH PROVER DETECTOR SWITCHES
Author(s): Nicholas Thurlby
Abstract/Introduction:
In many parts of the petroleum industry, sphere provers are used to dynamically calibrate volumetric meters. In order to accomplish this, sphere provers are required to be accurate and repeatable. This accuracy and repeatability is largely dependent on performance of the prover sphere detector. Any operational or design problems associated with the prover detector will affect the provers performance. This paper will review critical parts of a prover sphere detector that must be checked in order to obtain accuracy reliability and repeatability.
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Document ID: F27C78F4

PROVING LIQUID ULTRASONIC METERS
Author(s): Dave Seiler
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of liquid ultrasonic meters for liquid petroleum applications such as custody transfer or allocation measurement is gaining worldwide acceptance by the oil industry. Ultrasonic technology is well-established, but the use of this technology for custody transfer and allocation measurement is relatively new, and users often try to employ the same measurement practices that apply to turbine technology. There are some similarities between the two approaches, such as the need for flow conditioning and upstream and downstream piping requirements, but there are also differences, like the proving technique or field validation procedure. This paper will discuss the various in-situ proving methods that can be used for successful field calibration of a liquid ultrasonic meter.
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Document ID: 715C7A96

OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE WITH SMALL VOLUME PROVERS
Author(s): Billy Burton
Abstract/Introduction:
Over several decades, the Small Volume Prover (SVP) has become a common and vital piece of equipment throughout the pipeline industry. There are many available publications that explore the functionality and method of operation for the SVP. The primary focus of this document is to highlight the authors experience with the SVP. The majority of the document will address the technical operations and advancements made to the SVP over time, as well as the calibration methods and proper maintenance of the devices.
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Document ID: 4EA0B544

THEORY AND APPLICATION OF PULSE INTERPOLATION TO PROVER SYSTEMS
Author(s): David J. Seiler
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulse interpolation, by definition, is the ability to estimate values of (a function) between two known values. Therefore, pulse interpolation enables pulse counts to be made to a fraction of a pulse, thus greatly reducing the rounding - off errors that occur when pulse counts are made to the nearest whole number which always happens in the absence of Pulse Interpolation.
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Document ID: 913C7706

VERIFICATION/CERTIFICATION OF DEVICES USED IN LIQUID MEASUREMENT and IMPLICATIONS OF HOW MERCURY ISSUES WILL IMPACT THESE PROCESSES
Author(s): Anne Walker Brackett
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past the standards from the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the American Society for Testing and Measurement (ASTM) provided specifications for instruments and equipment. Simple compliance with these standards was not enough. Therefore, a system of verification and/or certification of equipment used in measurement of liquids was instituted. These requirements were written into the standards as they came up for review. An excellent example of such a standard is Chapter 3.1.A. Standard Practice for the Manual Gauging of Petroleum and Petroleum Products of the APIs Manual of Petroleum Measurement. 3.1.A. calls for field verification of working tapes against against a National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable master tape when it is new and every year thereafter. This is an example of the requirements to insure the instrument and the equipment meets the specifications of each standard. It is important to understand the definitions of traceability, verification, and certification before discussing the specifications for equipment used in liquid measurement.
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Document ID: EDEAF7FE

Witnessing Orifice Meter Verification/Calibrations
Author(s): Justin Richardson
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the inception of custody transfer of natural gas there has been a need for the witnessing of orifice meter verifications and/or calibrations. Witnessing these verifications are traditional requirements found in most, if not all, gas transaction contracts. Witnessing a purchasers technicians test and verification process of measurement equipment is vital and should be deemed as high priority to both the purchaser and the seller. Witnessing requirements can also exceed a purchasing agreement and can be federally mandated or deemed as necessary by a state in which the custody transfer occurs, so please adhere to your company standards as well as the state and federal requirements that may present themselves in a witnessing situation.
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Document ID: 3F1E9028

IMPROVING FLOW MEASUREMENTS WITH IMPROVED CALIBRATION AND DATA HANDLING PROCEDURES
Author(s): Duane Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas measurement analyst requires a completely different set of skills to interpret and understand the information documented by the field regarding testing and calibration procedures. The task for the measurement analyst is to absorb the wealth of information presented, and utilize their extensive knowledge base in determining when a current month adjustment or even a prior month adjustment is warranted. Each time an analyst reviews data from the field, a question should be asked, Did the technician follow the correct procedures in performing the calibration?
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Document ID: D10BCB9A


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