Measurement Library

North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop Publications (2018)

North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop 22 - 24 October 2018
Author(s): Ron Cramer
Abstract/Introduction:
Installing Multiphase Flow Meters ( MPFM ) on all oil wells in a given field has potential to radically improve production operations - the purpose of this paper is to outline some significant opportunities for improvement, assuming cost effective and adequate MPFM technology will evolve to fulfi ll this operational aspiration. The following topics are described and substantiated: MPFM on all wells can result in increased safety in that operators will make less trips to hazardous locations in hazardous vehicles. MPFM on all wells can also result in increased well and surface production facility integrity due to improved flow assurance , leak detection , chemical injection and unconventional well start - up efficiencies .
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Document ID: EAED4F56

Identification of fault patterns in turbine meters of the statistical analysis by means of the statistical analysis of the pulse ratio
Author(s): Jose Luis Garcia Montejo Manuel Antonio Ortiz Montuy Uriel Inocencio Alegria Rodriguez
Abstract/Introduction:
This research is focused on a flow measurement syst em that uses a turbine flow meter as a primary element, in normal operation con ditions turbine flow meter frequently present interrupts and causes can not be detected in a timely manner. Flow volumes losses not established during a period of failure , normally they are reconciled between the seller and his client throug h agreements that sometimes do not satisfy one of the parties in such a situat ion both parties require valid methods to apply for all failure events. The objective is to present a failure detection met hod by means of pulse registers generated by the turbine meters. in the first insta nce, the moment in which the failure occurs is determined secondly an estimated volume of the unaccounted period is determined. Measurement system used in this research is compose d of three measuring train of ten inches installed in parallel. Each flow elem ent is calibrated yearly.
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Document ID: 8DF1B0A0

Metering Skid Life - Extension Challenges Njord Field Rejuvenation
Author(s): Christine Kristoffersen, Jrn Heib Mohammad Hajiarab
Abstract/Introduction:
Njord field is located in the Norwegian Continental Shelf and it was in pr oduction from 1997 to 2016. The Njord Licence consists of DEA Norge AS, Equinor Energy AS, Neptune Energy Nor ge AS, Faroe Petroleum Norge AS and VNG Norge AS . The field was developed with Njord Alpha as the Floating Production Unit (FPU) and Njord Bravo as the Floating Storage Unit (FSU). The FPU is an integrated floating steel platform with drilling and processing facilities as well as living quarters. The stabilised crude oil is transferred from FPU to FSU and exported to market via shuttle tanker from Njord Bravo FSU. Refurbishment and life extension of the existing Njord facilities is selected as the most cost - effective solution for continuation of production from Njord field from 2020 to 2040. In this regard , design life of the Njord Bravo FSU includ ing the onboard Fiscal Metering Skid is required to be extended for additional 20 years from the original design life.
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Document ID: 2573C542

Pressure Drop of Wet Gas Flow through DP Flowmeters and New Measurement Model
Author(s): Xuebo Zheng Denghui He Bofeng Bai
Abstract/Introduction:
Wet gas is a s ub - set of gas - liquid two - phase flow, which widely exists in industrial processes, especially in the natural gas industry. The accurate flow rate measurement of wet gas is of great importance. Differential pressure (DP) flow meters, such as orifice plate flo w meters, Venturi flow meters and V - Cone flow meters, are the most commonly used meters in wet gas flows due to their low capital expenditure and robust performance. The mostly common approach to realize two - parameter measurement is the so - called dual - DP met hod, which can be subdivided into dual - throttle - device method and single - throttle - device method. The metering principles of dual - DP method is on the basis of over - reading correlations. The gas and liquid flow rates are obtained by solving the combined cor relations. The drawback of such method is error propagation, which results in the prediction error of the liquid phase flow rate being much larger than that of the gas phase. Besides, the method may fail in particular cases (the equations have no solution) . The other alternative approach is to utilize the fluctuation of DP signals. However, the prediction accuracy is not satisfied.
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Document ID: D01AC371

Real-Time Networks Project with SGN
Author(s): Sarah Kimpton Hazel Richardson Angus McIntosh
Abstract/Introduction:
This is a Network Innovation Competition (NIC) 1 project that is currently being delivered by SGN in partnership with DNV GL. The project aims to create a real - time gas network for the future that is flexible, secure, cost effective and safe. The objective is to optimise gas network design and netw ork operation assumptions. The project is us ing a pilot trial methodology with the procurement and installation of different sensor technologies across pressure tiers in a gas distribution system. These technologies, combined with novel power and communications and a cloud - based data system , are be ing used to develop a novel real - time energy demand model. Innovative technology solutions and design s were encouraged from suppliers to meet the project brief.
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Document ID: 1618A7A1

A field comparison of a fiscal USM gas metering station with a conventional orifice metering station
Author(s): Steinar Fosse Martin Lillo
Abstract/Introduction:
Norway and UK has a long common bor derline which separates the two continental shelfs . During the first 35 years of petroleum activity the interaction between the activity on the two sides of the borderline was limited to the Ekofisk - Teesside oil line , Heimdal condensate to Brae and the act ivity naturally generated from trans - median developments, Frigg, Statfjord and Murchison. In 2005, however, a new momentum in the cross border cooperation came up. A Frame Agreement between Norway and UK was signed. Framework Agreement between the Gov ernment of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland concerning Cross - Boundary Petroleum Co - operation. As a consequence also the Memorandum of Understanding between Norway and UK related to measurement issues (dated 23.6.1998) was updated w ith a new Supplement document (dated september 2006).
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Document ID: 62230878

Implementation of Regression Equation on Crude Net Calculation
Author(s): Gan Denson Audri Moritz Sipin Deverapalli Vijay Kumar
Abstract/Introduction:
Most offshore platform s in Sabah, Malaysia d id not consists of free - water knockout (FWKO) facilities onboard. With this, all liqui d production ha d to be sent to onshore t erminal for further processing and knock out of the produced water. To make things complicated, different operators shar ing the same pipeline in export ing to onshore terminal s . Thus, net oil measurement became more crucial for each platform as each operator would want to secure their own production.
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Document ID: 89E29641

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE PERFORMANCE AND DIAGNOSTICS FROM DIFFERENT CHORDAL INTEGRATION SCHEMES IN ASYMMETRIC FLOW
Author(s): Patrick Arnould
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the findings from the 2012 NSFMW paper Limits of Achieving Improved Performance from Gas Ultrasonic Meters and Possible Solutions 1 was that increasing the number of paths beyond 4 has little effect on the integration. In the paper, the power law profile was used to make this assertion and a specific type of Gaussian quadratur e. It appears that the original intent may have been to illustrate whether more chords offer much improvement in the integration . It was therefore decided to model the effect of mor e chords on the integration in the presence of axial asymmetry and no swirl for two different methods of Gaussian quadrature and see if this conclusion still holds true .
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Document ID: 890EFAE0

Advances in Flow Measurement Using a Frictional Pressure Drop
Author(s): Craig Marshall
Abstract/Introduction:
n recent years, the oil and gas industry has sought to improve measu rement technology to help reduce costs and increase operational efficiency . In terms of measurement accuracy, inline flowmeters are approaching the level of uncertainty of national standards so it is unlikely that there will be step change in measurement performance. The improvement therefore must come from a reduction in cost of ownership of measurement technology. This can be achieved through a mixture of reduction in capital costs (cost of sale and installation) and r eduction in operational costs (on going calibration and maintenance). The former is typically decided through market demand and with many manufacturers using similar materials there should not be any major differences in prices for similarly performing sy stems.
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Document ID: C1FE49B1

Blind testing of non -radioactive multiphase metering systems by the Joint Operator User Group on MPFM
Author(s): Vanessa Richon Eirik bro Rick de Leeuw Jean-Paul Coupu
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the initiatives from the JOUG is the organization of joint testing project to assess the operability and understanding the performance of MPFMs. In November 2017, the first joint testing project was ran at DNV - GL flow loop in Groningen. Three non - gamma multiphase flow or water cut meters have been tested during a period of two weeks. The following paragraphs will describe the philosophy, the organization and the conclusions from this project. From the operator point of view, we see that impartial testing under suitable conditions run by operators is required in order to improve the confidence to flow loop testing and subsequent metering behavior and to avoid having to rely on testing performed by vendors, test labs, or non - operators.
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Document ID: 65274DCF

Measuring Flow Without A Meter
Author(s): Phil Stockton Ken Stott
Abstract/Introduction:
Measuring Flow Without A Meter Phil Stockton , Accord Energy Solutions Limited Ken Stott, Apache North Sea Limited 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Overview T his paper concerns maximising the use of available data to reduce measurement costs. Consider the following processing scenario depicted in the schematic , Figure 1 : Figure 1 - System Configuration A wellstream is being produced through two stages of separation. A knowledge of the flow and composition of the wellstream is required for allocation purposes. The 1 st stage gas and 2 nd stage oil mass flow rates are metered but the flow of gas from the 2 nd stage is not. Hence, at first sight there appears to be insufficient information to calculate the wellstream mass flow and composition , since only two out of the three stream discharge streams are known. However, sample points are available on both separ ators gas and oil discharge streams and hence their compositions can be determined. With a knowledge of these compositions and only two out of three flow measurements , is it possible to determine the wellstream flow and composition and consequently save t he cost of installing a meter on the 2 nd stage gas stream?
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Document ID: 09E6A33D

Pairing Small Volume Provers with High -Precision, High-Flowrate Meters
Author(s): Marc Buttler
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper sizing and pairing of a meter prover to the meter(s) can result in greater proving efficiency, minimum prover size and cost for stationary provers , and reduced wear and tear on the prover. This selection and pairing process is exceptionally important when using small volume provers to prove high -precision, high -flowrate meters. Data collected to validate Coriolis meter performance with small volume provers in lab testing and field proving has been analyzed to determine which procedural and design factors yield the best results. This analysis has resulted in the development of the concept called Total Prove Time ( TPT). The TPT concept is a useful tool for pairing a small volume prover with a high -precision, high -flowrate meter to achieve maximum freedom of choice between prover size selection an d operational trade -offs including wear and tear.
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Document ID: BC830933

An innovative approach to increase diagnostic sensitivity in ultrasonic flow meters
Author(s): Daniel Heinig Jrg Wenzel Dr. Alexander Nerowski Toralf Dietz
Abstract/Introduction:
Operators for custody transfer of natural gas require a fiscal meter that measures with highest reliability within the required accuracy limits throughout the lifetim e. Whenever this requirement is not fulfilled due to changed process/flow conditions or changes to the meter, the user needs to be warned in real - time. For instance, inner pipe wall corrosion and contamination can in many field situations not be excluded. To ensure such warning, the analysi s of diagnostic parameters offered by modern ultrasonic flow meter is essential. Another approach is adding metering redundancy. In the first approach it is very important to have a long - term history of these diagnostics or applied fingerprint concept wher e current status is compared with initial/ideal data. Both support a properly determination if a meter is still operating within the appropriate limits.
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Document ID: 2B6557E2

CALIBRATING AND OPERATING CORIOLIS FLOW METER S WITH RESPECT TO PROCESS EFFECTS
Author(s): Chris Mills
Abstract/Introduction:
The oil & gas industry appear to be favouring a move towards using new er and more advanced flow measurement technologies such as ultrasonic and Coriolis devices as an alternative to turbine and positive displacement meters. In terms of Coriolis flow meters, they offer the distinct advantage of a direct mass flow and d ensity measurement of the fluid as well as inferred volumetric flow. They also offer diagnostic capabilities and have little installation requirements 1 2 3 . Though th e adoption of Coriolis flow meter s is a logical move, the measurement uncertainty of the devices is not relatively well understood for elevated conditions . Indeed, several factors affecting the performance of Coriolis devices must be highlighted to end use rs. These include temperature, pressure , fluid viscosity and Reynolds number.
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Document ID: A4CB64DB

A Gran Chimera? Flowrate Prediction Biases of a Malfunctioning Orifice Meter Calculated in Real Time via Internal Meter Diagnostics
Author(s): Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the development of the capabilities of an orifice meter verification system. The DP Diagnostics verification system uses a downstream pressure tap (e.g. see Figure 1) to access the information contained within the meters entire pressure field. An automated system has been developed to state in real time when the meter has a problem, and then by use of pattern recognition to state what that problem is, or short list the possible problems. For many common orifice meter malfunctions, the system is now developed to also estimate the associated flow prediction bias in real time. The benefit of such additional information to flow meter terotechnology, i.e. the optimization of flow meter maintenance and operation, as well as supporting audits, and lost and unaccounted for product calculations etc., are self evident.
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Document ID: 22B14511

Laboratory & Field Test Results for an Adjustable DP Cone Meter
Author(s): Gavin Munro Victor Gawski
Abstract/Introduction:
Th is paper describes the development, laboratory and field testing of an a djustable, differential pressure cone flow meter , for accurate gas measurement . Adjustability is achieved using a n internal sliding sleeve , which moves in relation to a fixed position cone. The 4 model most recently tested, ha d two sleeve positions (or ope ra ting flow ranges), having a ratio of 0.7 and 0.45 respectively. A close - coupled flow computer , with integral multi - variable transmitter and Resistance Temperature Device ( RTD ) , mo nitor s the differential pressure, flowing pressure and flowing temperature.
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Document ID: B5CBFCFE

Formation water detection and the effect of MEG
Author(s): Kenneth Gundersen Richard Streeton Prashant Bajpayee
Abstract/Introduction:
Detection of formation water breakthrough for high GVF wetgas wells is important for flow assurance purposes, including scale, hydrate, and corrosion management. The small amount of water present makes this distinction between fresh condensed water and saline formation water a very challenging task. In some applications, this is further c omplicated by the fact that hydrate inhibitoers, e.g. MEG , is injected upstream the point of measurement and might influence the detection. Traditionally, formation water detection uses the fact that formation water is saline (i.e. electrically conductiv e). Low salinity and temperature will however reduce the sensitivity of such methods. TechnipFMC has therefore, for the MPM meter, developed and qualified two methods for formation water detection (FWD), handling both high and low water salinities. These a re presented in chapter 2 . Methods for evaluating the sensitivity of both methods have been developed and are presente d , and these methods allow one to choose the most sensitive method for a given application.
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Document ID: 019F08F3

Orifice Meter Multiphase Wet Gas Flow Performance - The Pressure Loss Ratio Solution to the Ill-Posed Problem
Author(s): Richard Steven Clyde Shugart Ray Kutty
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice meters are extensively used as an economically attractive option for upstream unprocessed natural gas flow metering applications. Unprocessed flows are often wet gas flows. Wet gas flow is an extremely adverse flow condition for all gas meter designs. However, in recent years it has been shown that the orifice meter has a relatively good wet gas performance (e.g. Steven et al 1). ISOs TR 12748 2 gives a comprehensive 2 to 4 orifice meter multiphase wet gas flow correction. Of all the gas meter designs available the orifice meter is the only one to have a multiphase wet gas flow correction published by a standards board. Also, the DP Diagnostics orifice meter verification system has been shown to be capable of monitoring both the health of the DP readings and changes in a wet gas flows liquid loading (e.g. Rabone 3).
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Document ID: 73708406

Disruptive clamp - on technology to reduce cost
Author(s): Remi Andre Kippersund Magne K. Huseb
Abstract/Introduction:
Clamp - on flow meters will reduce flow meter total installed cost significantly . However, acceptance in the oil industry is low, due to low accuracy achievements and long - term reliability issues. Xsens AS, a Christian Michelsen Research AS spin - off company, is in the position of releas ing new ultrasound clamp - on flow meters, changing the game with respect to accuracy, functionality and flow meter robustness. Xsens new clamp - on ultrasound transmission concept, enables off - cent re beam transmission, forming the functionality of a multi - beam inline transit time flow meter, with respect to flow profile compensat ion, hence accuracy improvements . The patented Xsens technology achieve this through disruptive acoustic guided wave transmission technology where the pipe wall is used as an adva nced transm itting gateway between sensors and signals propagated helically as well as axially in the pipe (patent pending).
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Document ID: 0D1F7FC3

Sensor system for detecting gas hydrate formation and deposition in multiphase flow
Author(s): Kjetil Folger, Kjetil Haukalid Jan Kocbach Kjell Magne Askvik Matthew R. Walsh
Abstract/Introduction:
Long mu ltiphase transport distances and development of deepwater reservoirs call for flow assurance technologies that expand the current operational envelope into the hydrate regime. Operators and research groups are developing better risk assessment tools that e nable operation with lower thermodynamic safety margins and less use of chemicals without risk for hydrate plugging. However, there is currently a lack of metering technologies that can monitor the multiphase transport and provide early warning of hydrate formation and deposition. In this paper, we present a sensor system that detects and characterizes hydrate formation and deposition by measuring and analyzing the permittivity spectrum of the multiphase flow. The sensor system has been adapted to hydrate monitoring in multiphase flow by CMR in close cooperation with Equinor in project s funded by Norwegian Deepwater Programme, and verified in high pressure flow loop studies with support from DeepStar and Chevron . Example results from a high pressure multiphase flow loop experiment is presented in this paper.
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Document ID: 830A49F9

Calibrating and Testing Custody Transfer Hydrocarbon Liquid Meters.
Author(s): Terry Cousins
Abstract/Introduction:
Before discussing calibration and testing meters we should first att empt to define these activities: Calibration is formally defined by BIPM as an Op eration that, under specified conditions, in a first step, establishes a relation between the quantity values with measurement uncertainties provided by measurement standards and corresponding indications with associated measurement uncertainties (of the c alibrated instrument or secondary standard) and, in a second step, uses this information to establish a relation for obtaining a measurement result from an indication. 1 In reality this implies that calibration is really a comparison of two methods, one o f which is an accepted standard , using measurement uncertainty of the methods to define that comparison.
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Document ID: 1F19A3D9


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