Measurement Library

International Symposium on Fluid Flow Measurement Publications (2018)

North American Fluid Flow Measurement Council

Use of Refprop 9.1 DLL and R statistical software to compute uncertainty in fluid flow measurements by Monte Carlo Method.
Author(s): Roberto Arias
Abstract/Introduction:
Evaluation of thermodynamic properties of fluids, single elements or mixtures, is performed by using the NIST Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Database (REFPROP), Version 9.1 in addition, this informatics tool is executed through the Statistical Computing Software R. The beauties of R for generating random numbers makes possible the implementation of the GUM Supplement 1 to produce coverage intervals for the measurand. Examples are included to estimate density, expansibility coefficients and flow rate through orifice plates.
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Document ID: 5167C7FD

Comparison results for gas flow rate between Measurement Canada and CENAM
Author(s): C. Lachance R Arias
Abstract/Introduction:
Results of a gas flow rate bilateral comparison between Measurement Canada (MC) and CENAM are discussed. A rotary meter, G40 was calibrated from 1.4 m3/h up to 65 m3/h both laboratories used bell provers to calibrate the meter. An average dij/% 0.12 along the calibration curve was determined. Measurement Canada initiated a research to determine the origin of the measurement differences. MC implemented a change in the bell prover calibration procedure results of the findings are documented in this paper.
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Document ID: 4D5F9974

Traceable Response Time Characterization in Fast Changing Flow Rates
Author(s): Hugo Bissig Martin Tschannen Marc de Huu
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow calibrations are important in several areas of pharmaceutical, flow chemistry and health care applications where volumetric dosage or delivery at given flow rates are crucial for the process. Not only a calibrated steady flow rate is important, but also a changing flow rate should be measured accurately as the final delivered volume will depend on these accurate flow measurements. Therefore, the Microflow and Milliflow facilities at METAS have been updated to cover these requirements from the microfluidic industry. So far, calibrations for steady flow rates and pulsating flow in the range from 100 nl/min up to 400 ml/min with uncertainties from 0.7 % to 0.07 % respective from 3 % to 0.2 % can be realized. As the METAS flow generators are homemade syringe pumps with linear measuring systems to determine the position of the plunger of the syringe, any fast flow rate change can be measured by the change of the moving speed of the plunger. Therefore, fast changing flow rates within 1 s can be produced and either detected by means of the traceable dynamic gravimetric method or determined from the converted speed from the linear measuring system into flow rate. This allows determining the response time of any flow meter or flow generator for fast changing flow rates. Moreover, the METAS syringe pump allows generating flow rates even lower than 100 nl/min. The measurement uncertainty of the fast changing flow rate measurement is still under investigations.
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Document ID: 739ACCE4

Ensayo de aptitud, buenas prcticas y anlisis en calibraciones de Flujo Msico y Volumetrico de liquidos.
Author(s): Jesus Botello Ivan Cadena
Abstract/Introduction:
El texto plasmando en este documento es una sinopsis de nuestro trabajo en el desempeo de calibraciones de flujo en las subreas de flujo msico y volumetrico para liquidos como el agua, liquidos diferentes al agua e hidrocarburos. En el Ensayo de Aptitud 1 a 1 con el Centro Nacional de Metrologia de Mexico (CENAM), el cual en voz de expertos tecnicos que realizaron nuestra evaluacion de acreditacion inicial, externan que los resultados del ensayo, existe una desviacion no tan comn que se logre obtener valores del factor del medidor en comparacion a los resultados que reporto el CENAM. Estos resultados se lograron a traves de tres factores fundamentales, como punto de partida:
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Document ID: 5D067348

Development and validation of traceable methods for the measurement of hydrogen absorbed in metal hydride tanks
Author(s): O. Bker1 B. Delobelle O. Gillia R. Perez V. Gil F. Haloua
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen is the most efficient energy carrier with the highest energy content per unit mass compared to any known fuels. Furthermore, hydrogen is the cleanest fuel and contributes significantly to the reduction of greenhouse gases since the only by-product during hydrogen consumption or combustion is water. The high energy density and the clean consumption and combustion, free from pollutants that threaten the climate, makes hydrogen as fuel source very attractive for the automobile industry. For practical reasons low temperature metal hydrides are of interest. In this context cost-effective storage of hydrogen in reliable tank systems is a key element for the utilization of hydrogen as an alternative fuel. Due to the high volumetric storage capacity, reversible metal hydride technique is the most interesting way to store hydrogen. These materials have a high gravimetric capacity, are kinetically fast and tolerate several hundreds of recharge cycles (life-cycles). The long-term cycling stability of a metal hydride is defined as ability to keep the reversible storage capacity during repeated hydrogen charge and discharge cycles.
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Document ID: 26DCC015

Measuring flowrate of fans by embedded sensors
Author(s): Isabelle CARE Alain GUEDEL
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of the flow rate of fans installed in systems or equipment with sensors on the fan itself allows better knowing or/and controlling the flow if it varies with time. This paper presents experimental results on a double-inlet forward-curved centrifugal fan equipped with static pressure taps flush-mounted in the inlet bells. Tests are performed on a test rig using orifice plates to establish the relationship between the measured pressure at the fan inlet and the known flow rate. The model is built using a Generalized Gauss Markov Regression. An uncertainty analysis is then made to evaluate the impact of the different uncertainty components on the calculated flow rate.
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Document ID: 49F538F9

Vortex flowmeters: Transferability of water-based calibration results to liquids, gases and steam applications
Author(s): Jess Aguilera, Rainer Hcker
Abstract/Introduction:
A vortex flowmeter, like other flowmeter types, must be calibrated to determine its measurement accuracy and to ensure metrological traceability. Most vortex flowmeters are calibrated using water, since the physical properties of this fluid are well known, easy to handle (i.e. safe) and have a good transferability to other process fluids. Such an approach is typically accepted by the end users as long as the calibration covers the entire flow range of the intended application or at least most of it. For some particular liquids and flow conditions, such requirement can be met. However, for gases this is basically not achievable, due to the significant difference between liquids and gases in terms of density and viscosity. This situation raises one recurring question: How can one be sure that the results of an ostensibly incompatible or incomplete water-based calibration are valid for other process fluids1? The aim of this document is to answer that question by recalling the basic vortex flowmeter principle of operation, some essential concepts of fluid mechanics that influence the measuring range of the flowmeter, and by using the Reynolds number as a means to transfer water-based calibration data to any other process fluid. The latter has been experimentally demonstrated with vortex flowmeters calibrated with water, and subsequently verified with air and high-pressure natural gas for assessing the level of agreement. Although the Reynolds number is a known and accepted concept for transferring water-based calibration results to other fluids, it is still not fully understood and even overlooked in some industry sectors. Therefore, this manuscript can serve as a guideline for vortex flowmeter users to address the topic properly. For quantifying the effects of two-phase flow on the induced-measurement errors of vortex flowmeters, testing has been conducted in an experimental steam facility enabling the generation of wet steam of different dryness fractions. The results of these experiments deliver insight into analogous applications involving wet natural gas.
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Document ID: 7CB1EFC1

CCM.FF-K3.2011 Intercomparison for airspeed
Author(s): Isabelle Care Harald Mller Peter Lucas Dietmar Pachinger Noboru Kurihara Cui Lishui Chun-Min Su Iosif Shinder Pier Giorgio Spazzini
Abstract/Introduction:
The CCM.FF-K3.2011 comparison was organized for the purpose of determination of the degree of equivalence of the national standards for air speed over the range 0.5 m/s to 40 m/s. An ultrasonic anemometer and a Laser Doppler anemometer were used as transfer standards. Nine laboratories from three RMOs participated between July 2013 and July 2015 - EURAMET: PTB, Germany LNE-CETIAT, France INRIM, Italy VSL, The Netherlands E+E, Austria SIM: NIST, USA APMP: NMIJ/AIST, Japan NIM, China CMS/ITRI, Chinese Taipei. The measurements were provided at ambient conditions. All results of independent participants were used in the determination of the key comparison reference value (KCRV) and the uncertainty of the KCRV. The reference value was determined at each air speed separately following procedure A presented by M. G. Cox. The degree of equivalence with the KCRV was calculated for each air speed and laboratory. Almost all reported results were consistent with the KCRV.
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Document ID: A444DC59

Characterization of Five-Hole Probes used for Flow Measurement in Stack Emission Testing
Author(s): Iosif Shinder1, Aaron Johnson, Michael Moldover, James Filla, Vladimir Khromchenko
Abstract/Introduction:
We report progress towards the goal of reducing the errors in industrial smokestack flow measurements to 1 % by replacing S-probes with calibrated 3-D probes (i.e., probes that measure 3 components of velocity). NIST calibrated a commercially-manufactured spherical probe and a prism probe at air speeds (5 m/s to 30 m/s) and pitch angles (?20 to 20) using a yaw-nulling method similartoEPAsMethod 2F. Theexpandeduncertaintyfor3-Dairspeedmeasurementsofbothprobes was near 1 % at a 95 % confidence level. Most of this uncertainty is attributed to the reproducibility of the calibration measurements and the uncertainty of the NISTs laser doppler anemometer air- speed standard. Thus, the 1 % goal might be possible however, to obtain this low uncertainty, two significant uncertainties consistent with EPA Method 2F must be avoided. First, the Reynolds number dependence of the prism probe must be accounted for during probe calibration, and second, more stringent uncertainty requirements are needed for the yaw-pressure measurement at low flows.
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Document ID: CAC19191

Static Gravimetric Method with Flying Start-and-Finish using High Speed Switching Valves for Calibration of Low Liquid Flow
Author(s): Kar-Hooi Cheong Ryouji Doihara Takashi Shimada Yoshiya Terao
Abstract/Introduction:
Static gravimetric (weighing) method with flying start-and-finish is widely used for calibration of large and medium liquid flow for its advantage of maintaining a continuous flow through the flowmeter. However one needs to take careful measures in implementing this method in low flow systems to obtain good accuracy. We adopted this calibration method using a pair of high speed switching valves as a diverter for flow range below 1 L/h at NMIJs small liquid hydrocarbon facility. This paper describes the design features and characteristics of the gravimetric system, and also discusses the timing error of the diverting valves as well as the evaporation rate of the weighing vessel. Performance tests show that, in terms of contribution to the overall uncertainty of standard flow rate, the gravimetric system is capable of measuring the time of liquid collection with a relative timing error within 0.002%, and the mass of liquid collection with a relative mass loss error (due to evaporation) below 0.015 % (tested under the most evaporative condition: both liquid (kerosene) and ambient temperatures set at 35 oC).
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Document ID: 801A8B38

The installation issues affect Coriolis mass flow meter measure accuracy
Author(s): Chung-Lin Chiang Che-Wei Yeh
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis flow meter is widely used to measure the mass flow rate in many fields of research and industry because of its highly accurate measurement performance and superbly repeatable characteristic.
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Document ID: B7DF7177

Design of Characterization System For Differential Pressure Flow Meters
Author(s): J. David De La Torre C. Miguel Aguilar C. L. Rolando Mendez M. L. Enrique Hernndez O J. De Jess Casillas M. Manuel A. Chvez G
Abstract/Introduction:
The paper describes the development of a characterization system for differential pressure flow meters (orifice plate), considering the effects associated with the installation, physical-chemical properties, correction of variables such as pressure, temperature and fluid type. This characterization system, could provide traceability in the measurements of systems with Orifice Plate, Venturi and Cone flow meter, under the particular conditions of the installation, even if the measurement system does not work according to any of the design parameters mentioned in the applicable regulations (ISO 5167, AGA Report no. 3).
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Document ID: DB009261

Ultrasonic Gas Measurement Technologies
Author(s): Na
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic metering solutions minimize uncertainty, maximize reliability and boost efficiency to meet the challenges of a tough business environment. They provide the accuracy and insight that is required to deal with low prices, energy market volatility, a broad hydrocarbon mix, and increasing numbers of pipelines, some with contaminated natural gas measurement issues.
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Document ID: 8B17907D

Performance testing of hydrometric current meters in a wind tunnel - feasibility tests
Author(s): Marc de Huu Manuel Aeschbacher
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrometric mechanical current meters are usually calibrated by towing them through still water in a tow tank. A typical length for such a tank ranges from 50 m up to several hundred meters. This means that large and dedicated infrastructures are needed for calibrating or doing performance tests of such instruments. Alternative testing methods would be welcome. At METAS, we have performed comparative tests between calibrations of mechanical current meters in a tow tank, where the medium is water, and calibrations in a wind tunnel, where the medium is air. One then has to take bearing friction into account, as well fluid dynamical effects. Similar work has already been performed by NIST 1 for liquids with various density and viscosity and by PTB 2 for gases under various pressures and temperatures. Comparing calibration data between air and water, for which density and viscosity vary by orders of magnitude, would, at first sight, seem to yield unreliable results. Even given the large difference in Reynolds number from water to air, it could be shown that a comparison, especially at higher Reynolds number, is indeed possible and usable for performance testing of mechanical current meters in a wind tunnel.
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Document ID: CF4C626D

The European Research Project on Metrology for Hydrogen Vehicles - MetroHyVe
Author(s): Marc de Huu Oliver Bker Rune Christensen Marc MacDonald Remy Maury Matthias Schrade Harm Tido Petter Patrick Stadelmann
Abstract/Introduction:
A large hydrogen infrastructure is currently in development across Europe. However, the industry faces the dilemma that they are required to meet certain measurement requirements set by European legislation that cannot currently be followed due to the lack of available methods and standards. The EMPIR Metrology for Hydrogen Vehicles project will be the first large scale project of its kind that will tackle the four measurement challenges that currently prevent the industry from meeting requirements set by International Standards such as flow metering, quality control, quality assurance and sampling. This paper presents a brief overview of the specific objectives of the project and focuses on the flow metering work package and the presentation of its planned tasks, which comprise laboratory and measurements in the field. Laboratory work will assess the use of substitute fluids to hydrogen to provide a safer and more cost effective method for the type approval of Hydrogen Refuelling Stations (HRS). To be able to link laboratory work to field testing, mobile primary standards will be developed and the design of a field testing primary standard will be addressed. The aim is to inform what the European national metrology institutes are currently developing in the field of hydrogen flow metering and quality control of HRS.
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Document ID: 3C182794

Flow and energy quantification impacts using a method out of recommended interval for determining physicochemical properties of the Gas
Author(s): Maria Yaneth Diaz Garcia Fernando Eliseo Solares Zaval Gerardo Ortega Montiel Wendy Rodriguez Muiz Juan Francisco de la Cruz Castro
Abstract/Introduction:
The present study pretends to highlight the influence of physicochemical parameters such as compressibility and heat power in the volume and energy quantification, considering cases when the variable (Z) is calculated from a method outside the intervals (composition) recommended for its application (Gross method), for the study of this presented case, the flow conditions have a compressibility factor of 0.89928 with the Gross 1 method and 0.90702 with the Detailed method, these values have an influence on the determination of the adjusted heat value (ratio heat value and compressibility), obtaining a real net heat value of 39,150 MJ/m3 @ Z (Gross 1) and 38,816 MJ/m3 @ Z (Detail). It is possible to analyze how compressibility directly influences the flow determination, which can be considered when theres changes in the composition aand the necessary controls are not analyzed or established to monitor if changes are required in the models used in the computer flow.
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Document ID: 1B9736CF

The influence of dynamic process conditions to the uncertainty of the PTBs water flow facility
Author(s): Enrico Frahm Natalia Petrusha
Abstract/Introduction:
For the PTBs water flow facility, which is the national flow standard of Germany, the most important parameters of the uncertainty budget are the diverter timing error, the density measurements and the influence of the meter under test. For an accurate calculation of the uncertainty budget it is essential to consider the impact of facility induced dynamic effects to flow calibration results. Current investigations are focused on the analysis of temperature measurements, which are an import driving factor of the uncertainty budget. The objective of the presented study was to evaluate maximum accepted values of uncertainty sources caused by dynamic process conditions to temperature measurements. All investigated dynamic processes do affect the measurements temperature within the maximum accepted ranges, given by a revised uncertainty budget: 0.07 K for temporal stability as the maximum observed range of temperature fluctuation, 0.20 K for spatial stability as the maximum observed temperature difference between in- and outflow of calibration line and 0.25 K for a maximum temperature gradient within the investigated pipe cross section of 400 mm diameter. Only at low flow rates the maximum values for temporal and spatial stabilities were slightly exceeded. Currently several technical improvements will be implemented to reduce these deviations.
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Document ID: 4A00914A

In Vito calibrated Venturi Tube for precise Air Mass Flow Measurement
Author(s): Rolf Groe-Laxzen Daniel Grates Dr.Ing. P. Jeschke
Abstract/Introduction:
Industrial praxis needs flow measurement for determining the plant operation status and of course production. In the past few years the idea of condition based maintenance is becoming increasingly widespread and here a precise status determination and especially performance change assessment is vital for planning maintenance activities with sufficient time in advance. Boundary conditions needed for precise absolute flow measurement are often in contrast to the industrial reality with lack of space for sufficient inlet and exit piping length and the demand for low pressure losses during operation and low costs for measurement devices. In case of pipe diameter equal or bigger 250mm (10) fulfilling the demands according the standard 1 DIN EN ISO 5167-1, 1995 for undisturbed pipe-length in front of the measuring device becomes a challenge which is even harder for the current version 2 DIN EN ISO 5167-4, 2003 which explicitly requests for an undisturbed exit pipe length.
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Document ID: 541B5108

Field Verification of Ultrasonic Gas Meter Stations
Author(s): Jeremy Fernandez Geoff Hager Thomas Kegel
Abstract/Introduction:
Many tools are available to assure consistent measurement gas measurement. Ultrasonic meters offer several diagnostic parameters, some designs include extra acoustic paths. Meter stations are being designed with integral check meters. A remote monitoring service1 brings a higher level of experience to the evaluation of diagnostic and check meter data. This paper discusses a new service based on bringing an independent check meter to a meter location.
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Document ID: 4F9AC37E

Wiping out PUP (Premature Unchoking Phenomenon) in CFVNs
Author(s): Masahiro Ishibashi
Abstract/Introduction:
It is shown that a small and simple ring attached on the inlet plane of a CFVN wipes out premature unchoking phenomenon (PUP) almost completely and let the CFVN choke up to higher pressure ratio near the theoretical critical back pressure ratio, although it is not effective at very low Reynolds number in the order of 1E3. The ring lowered the discharge coefficient slightly, but the discharge coefficient with the ring and its Reynolds number dependence are stable as the normal CFVNs, therefore, it may be possible to design a new shape of CFVN that can avoid PUP for a certain range of the Reynolds number. Choking patterns of various rings are presented. Effect of the backside geometry on PUP as well as super-fine structure of the critical flowrate (SFS) are also discussed.
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Document ID: A1CE2259

Effect of a cylindrical throat occasionally produced in a CFVN designed to have a toroidal throat
Author(s): Masahiro Ishibashi
Abstract/Introduction:
Effect of a cylindrical throat occasionally machined in a R2D toroidal throat CFVN was investigate by hybrid CFVNs, in which a normally machined cylindrical throat of length L together with a diffuser of 3 degree are attached on a quadrant HPN that simulated a CFVN with the machining error. 10 cylindrical throats of various length L from 1 mm to 15 mm were machined. Effect of the premature inlet contraction was also investigated by using one-piece HPNs that have a shorter inlet toroid. They were calibrated by a constant volume tank system using air at the upstream pressures of 100 kPa840 kPa. It is shown that extreme Reynolds number dependence of discharge coefficient such as b 4 or b 3 will never happen if the CFVN has a toroidal throat with an ordinary curvature and such strange behaviors are resulted in by a cylindrical throat or a premature inlet contraction occasionally machined at the throat by machining error. It is also demonstrated that DCM (diameter correction method) that enables users to use a single curve for many CFVNs with a toroidal throat by modifying its throat diameter works fine.
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Document ID: E0450DAA

DP Flowmeter Calibration Performance and Flow Coefficient/Density Effects Study
Author(s): Akio Ito
Abstract/Introduction:
We performed a DP flow meter calibration to determine the combined system accuracy of a Yokogawa EJX Series multivariable transmitter EJX910 H range (2000inH2O) and M range (400inH2O) combined with VERIS Accelabar flow primary element 4 based on averaging pitot tube technology at the CEESI NIST traceable air laboratory located at Nunn, Colorado, USA. One of the observations of this is that the linearity of VERIS Accelabar calibrated flow coefficient indicates excellent performance. Another observation is that EJX910 DP measurement indicates excellent performance. Then we performed flow coefficient and fluid physical property effects analysis for above DP flow meter calibration result. In conclusion, to improve the accuracy of the mass flow rate, not only flow coefficient variance but also the density of the fluid must be accurately managed using the most up-to-date and current fluid properties and by calculating changing densities in real time.
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Document ID: 646B726A

Progress Towards Accurate Monitoring of Flue Gas Emissions
Author(s): Aaron Johnson Iosif Shinder Michael Moldover Joey Boyd James Filla
Abstract/Introduction:
The amounts of CO2 and other pollutants emitted by a coal-fired power plant are measured using a continuous emissions monitoring system (CEMS) permanently installed in the exhaust smokestack. The pollutant flux is the product of the pollutants concentration and the flow in the stack. The concentration measurements are traceable to certified reference standards however, the complex velocity fields (i.e., swirling flow with a skewed velocity profile) in stacks make accurate flow measurements difficult. Therefore, the CEMS flow monitor, which commonly consists of a single-path ultrasonic flow meter, must be calibrated at least once a year by a procedure called a relative accuracy test audit (RATA). This calibration is generally performed using a differential pressure probe called an S-type pitot probe. However, S-probes are not accurate when used in complex velocity fields. NIST developed a 1/10th scale-model smokestack simulator (SMSS) to quantify the uncertainty of diverse stack flow measurement techniques. The SMSS generates complex, stack-like flows, but with an expanded uncertainty (95 % confidence level) in the average velocity of 0.7 %. Using the SMSS, we assessed S-probe-based RATAs and both single and two-crossing-path (X-pattern) CEMS ultrasonic flow monitors. Remarkably, the X-pattern ultrasonic CEMS deviated by only 0.5 % from the NISTs flow standard. In contrast, a single-path ultrasonic CEMS deviated from NIST standards by 14 % to 17 % in a highly distorted flow. Deviations for the S-probe RATAs ranged from 5 % to 6 %.
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Document ID: 06A07E9A

Experimental Investigation on Geometric Parameters of S-type Pitot tube for Greenhouse Gas Emission Monitoring
Author(s): Woong KANG NGUYEN Doan Trang Yong Moon CHOI Sang Hee LEE
Abstract/Introduction:
In greenhouse gas emission monitoring from industrial smoke-stacks in South Korea, the most common device used to measure stack gas velocity is the S-type Pitot tube for estimating volumetric flow rate in the stack by a Continuous Emission Measurement (CEM). The S-type Pitot tube installed at the stack is inevitably affected in the velocity measurement by the velocity change, yaw and pitch angle misalignment. However, the flow velocity in the stack is determined by the S-type Pitot tube coefficient which does not take into account the effect of the velocity change, yaw and pitch angle change on the S-type Pitot tube. The geometric parameters of Stype Pitot tube such as an external diameter, the distance between impact and wake orifices and the bending angle of orifices are described differently in several international documents which are ISO, ASTM and EPA. Various geometries of S-type Pitot tube can affect the characteristics of S-type Pitot tube coefficients including the sensitivity to velocity change, the pitch and yaw angle misalignment. However, there is no detailed guidelines of S-type Pitot tube geometry considering the accurate and reliable measuring characteristics in the international standards. In the present study, S-type Pitot tubes with various geometric parameters, in this case the distance (L1.05, 1.6 and 3D) between impact and wake orifices and the bending angle (a15, 30 and 45) of orifices were manufactured by a 3D printer. Wind tunnel experiments were conducted in Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science air speed standard system to determine the effect of geometric parameters on S-type Pitot tube coefficients with the change of velocity, yaw and pitch angle.
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Document ID: 823B73AB

Experimental and numerical investigations on several parameters of clamp-on ultrasonic flowmeter
Author(s): Hamidreza Karalaian Alireza Araee Moosa Ayati Amin Ghoshouni
Abstract/Introduction:
Clamp-on ultrasonic flowmeter based on differential transit time method is widely used due to absence of moving parts, which cause no pressure drop, simplicity in installation and low cost of maintenance. In comparison with other types of flowmeters, ultrasonic transit time has higher accuracy. The accuracy of ultrasonic flowmeters severely depends on characteristics of piezoelectric transducers, which transmit and receive signals. Numerous parameters that affect signals should be carefully considered, investigated and optimized in order to improve the transducer performance. In this paper effect of several parameters on amplitude of received signal voltage were investigated based on finite element analysis with COMSOL multiphysics software. These parameters were amplitude of transmitted voltage signal, shape of piezoelectric crystal, temperature, diameter of pipe, material of pipe, beam angle and excitation frequency. In addition, some experiments were conducted to verify simulation results on the amplitude of transmitted signal and material of pipe in practice. Results of experimental and numerical study have shown linear relation between transmitted voltage amplitude and received voltage amplitude. In addition, it was observed that circular crystal achieve 18 percent larger voltage amplitude and also optimum beam angle is 33 degree.
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Document ID: 62A6B87B

Anticipated LNG Flowmeter Calibration Requirements
Author(s): Thomas Kegel
Abstract/Introduction:
Industrial use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) has a surprisingly long history. The first practical refrigeration system was built in 1873 the first commercial liquefaction plant was built in 1917. Over time two applications have been developed that are relevant to the current paper. The first involves storage of LNG to handle peak demand in pipeline systems, the process is identified as peak shaving. A second application is the transport of hydrocarbon fuel where gas pipelines are unavailable. More recently LNG playing an important role in the storage and transport of energy. This paper considers LNG measurement traceability from the perspective of a flow calibration facility. The paper is divided into four main sections: The first is a brief case study of marine bunkering, the second discusses other LNG flow measurement applications. The third section describes the NIST cryogenic flow standard. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of uncertainty components
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Document ID: 9255E06B

Coriolis Mass Flowmeters: What makes it Tick What makes it Sick
Author(s): Michael Keilty
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis mass flowmeters are high accurate and repeatable electronic multivariable devices. The inherent design of the Coriolis flowmeter also incorporates internal measurements which can be used to diagnose the health of the flowmeter. Continuous monitoring of these diagnostic measures can verify the integrity of the flow and density measurements. Diagnostics is now used in other regulatory applications where verification periods are described as part of the requirements.
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Document ID: 3A201206

Finding an optimal solution in the combination of inline and clamp-on ultrasonic flowmeters
Author(s): Ruben Schol Govert Copier
Abstract/Introduction:
The combination of inline and clamp-on ultrasonic flowmeters The acoustic path Clamp-on The refraction angles in the pipe will change depending on the density difference between the pipe material and the liquid density The liquid density depends on the composition and the temperature The path length is affected by this In-line No refraction, a metal window between the piezo and the fluid is perpendicular with the path direction. Standard path length 3 vMedium TAB TBA
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Document ID: 4F89F46D

Error Analysis on Measuring Fish-and-water Mixture using Electromagnetic Flowmeter
Author(s): Mengna Li
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increasing demand of aquatic products, seeking for a safe and efficient technology of transfering commercial fish has become a focus. Pipeline transportation has characteristics of high efficiency, low cost, and resistance to environmental pollution, which satisfies the demand of fast and safe transfer of aquatic products. To ensure the freshness of aquatic products and decrease their external lesions, electromagnetic flowmeter is used as a common equipment to measure the flow of mixture. However, the measurement of flow of fish-and-water mixture is different from that of the traditional solid-liquid mixture, such as mud, because fish is subjected to the stress in the transportation process. Its unpredictable movement causes pulsation to the measurement by electromagnetic flowmeter, which leads to an inaccurate result. This paper studies the error of the electromagnetic flowmeter in measuring the mixture of fish and water. Using three groups of fish-and-water mixture, with a flow velocity of 2.181 m/s, 2.698 m/s, and 3.178 m/s, the experiment analyzes the response of the electromagnetic flowmeter to mixtures at different flow and the effect of mixture at different flow on the measurement accuracy. The result shows that the relative variation amplitude of the results decreases with the increase of flow velocity. Meanwhile, the cause of error is analyzed from the perspective of working principle of electromagnetic flowmeter. The paper provides a reference for the flow measurement of solid-liquid mixture, especially living animal transportation.
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Document ID: D2625B5E

LNG research and calibration facility - update
Author(s): P. Lucas O. Bker K. Rasmussen K. Stolt M.P. van der Beek1
Abstract/Introduction:
A Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) flowmeter research and calibration facility is being built in Rotterdam by the Dutch metrology institute VSL. This cryogenic test loop will also be used to test and develop LNG analysers, new technologies and devices for measurement of LNG physical properties. The facility will consist of a Primary Standard Loop (PSL) that can measure the mass of LNG flows traceable to the International Kilogram standard. The primary standard is capable of flow measurements up to 25 m3/hr. A Midscale Standard Loop (MSL) will measure volumetric flow rate of up to 200 m3/h, expandable to at least 400 m3/h in the future. The Midscale standard is traceable to the PSL and scales the flowrate up using bootstrapping techniques. This paper describes the combined PSL and MSL facility, its objectives, and accomplishments to date.
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Document ID: FF8A1BF9

NEW LIQUID HYDROCARBON FLOW STANDARD FOR METER ACCURACY VERIFICATION OF CORIOLIS FLOWMETERS USED IN OIL AND GAS APPLICATION
Author(s): Heinz Luchsingerr Jrg Zacheres Marcel Braun Ton Leenhoven
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis flow meters have long been recognized to be largely immune to variable process and installation conditions when compared to other metering technologies. High viscosity fluids however do not directly follow the oscillating motion of the measuring tubes at low Re numbers. Nevertheless, some Coriolis flowmeters provide an integrated Reynolds number correction, based on its size, mass and viscosity measurement, which makes them more independent to the differences in fluid properties. The Endress+Hauser Coriolis meter has the capability to output the Reynolds number as a parameter, which enables Reynolds number based proving 1. Users are often unsure on how much Coriolis meters are influenced by the properties of the measured liquids such as viscosity. To provide performance evaluation of Coriolis meters under different viscosities, Endress+Hauser developed two high accurate calibration rigs, for two different viscosity ranges, using piston provers as reference- and Coriolis meters as working standards. Flow rates of up to 1 700 m3/h for the low and 800 m3/h for the high viscosity calibration rig are achievable. The calibration fluid is not changed, so its thermodynamic properties remain very stable. Viscosities can be set over temperature from 15 to 32 cSt (12 - 27 cP) and from 100 to 300 cSt (84 - 260 cP) respectively. This allows the evaluation of DN50 to DN400 Coriolis meters throughout the critical range of Reynolds number. This paper presents the key points of the concept.
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Document ID: 437DDF16

Numerical and Experimental Investigations on the Shape and Roughness of Cylindrical Critical Flow Venturi Nozzles (CFVN)
Author(s): Marc Antoine Lambert Remy Maury Alain Strzelecki Jean Christophe Valire Eric Foucault Guillaume Lehnasch Bodo Mickan Ernst von Lavante
Abstract/Introduction:
As natural gas is a rapidly growing resource in the global energy supply (considering its thermal efficiency and as a clean energy), the accuracy of energy transfer measurements becomes essential. For decades all over the world, gas flow meters have been calibrated by means of CFVNs. The calibrating method of gas flow meters with CFVNs is well established for low and medium pressures, as the corresponding Reynolds number is well within the scope of the ISO 9300 standard 1, and it delivers a CD (discharge coefficient) curve for each CFVN.
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Document ID: 81F59880

Cryogenic flow metering calibration: Improved Laser Doppler Velocimetry standard
Author(s): R. Maury C. Auclercq H. Foulon1
Abstract/Introduction:
A very promising alternative to the state-of-the-art static volume measurements for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) custody transfer processes is the dynamic principle of flow metering. As the Designated Institute (DI) of the LNE (being the French National Metrology Institute) for high pressure gas flow metering, Cesame-Exadebit is involved in various Research & Development programs. Within the framework of tree EURAMET Joint Research Project (JRP - 2011/2020) named Metrological support for LNG custody transfer and transport fuel applications, Cesame-Exadebit explored a novel cryogenic flow metering technology using Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) as an alternative to ultrasonic and Coriolis flow metering. Cesame-Exadebit is trying to develop this technique as a primary standard for cryogenic flow meters. Currently, cryogenic flow meters are calibrated at ambient temperatures with water. Results are then extrapolated to be in the Reynolds number range of real applications. The LDV standard offers a unique capability to perform online calibration of cryogenic flow meters in real conditions (temperature, pressure, piping and real flow disturbances). This standard has been tested on an industrial process in a LNG terminal during truck refuelling. The reference can calibrate Coriolis flow meters being used daily with all the real environmental constraints and its utilisation is transparent for LNG terminal operators. The standard is traceable to Standard International units and the combined extended uncertainties have been determined and estimated to be lower than 0.6% (an on-going improvement to reducing the correlation function uncertainty which has a major impact in the uncertainty estimation).
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Document ID: CA1E4EBA

Systematic investigations of cylindrical nozzles acc. ISO 9300 down to throat diameters of 125 m
Author(s): Bodo Mickan Ching-Yi Kuo Min Xu
Abstract/Introduction:
In the recent years, several papers have been published dealing with toroidial nozzles according to the definitions of the ISO 9300. Compared to this, publications about cylindrical nozzles of this standard are quite rare. This paper presents the discharge coefficients cD of 103 cylindrical nozzles covering a range of throat diameters from 10 mm down to 125 m and Reynolds numbers from Re 1250 to Re 7.7?105, extending the actual ISO9300 (Re 3.5?105 to Re 1.1?107) to much lower Reynolds numbers. The nozzles origin from 10 different batches and have been effectively analyzed regarding the dependency of cD versus Re. This analysis is supported by numerical determinations of cD derived from the shape using a numerical integral solution of the momentum equation of the boundary layer 1. The numerical determinations are linked to the real nozzles via dimensional shape measurements using a profile scanner 2 for two examples.
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Document ID: 22C6C62F

RESULTS OF TESTING AN ORIFICE METER DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM AT A MEXICAN GOVERNMENT WATER FLOW FACILITY
Author(s): M.C. Diego Moncada M.C. Ivan Juarez M.C. Jose de Jess Casillas Richard Steven Kim Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
CIATEQ tested a new DP meter diagnostic system (called Prognosis) on 4, 0.5 beta ratio, flange tapped orifice meters. These comprehensive tests, at the CIATEQ water flow laboratory at Aguascalientes, Mexico, were the first third party organized liquid flow tests of this technology. CIATEQ considers this DP meter diagnostic system potentially compliant with new Mexican government flow metering regulations. Official authorities were present to witness these tests. In this paper, the latest developments of the working principles of the diagnostic system are described. The operators interface with the diagnostics is also described.
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Document ID: FA3DF0D7

FIRST STEPS TOWARD DYNAMIC REFERENCE CALIBRATION METHODS FOR LIQUID FLOW METERS AT LNE-CETIAT
Author(s): Florestan Ogheard
Abstract/Introduction:
According to its mission of national reference laboratory, LNE-CETIAT maintains and develops the French standard for liquid water flow meters calibration from 1g.h-1 to 36 t.h-1. The reference calibration facilities at CETIAT are historically based on the flying start and stop gravimetric method. Because of the specificity of micro-flow rates, two separated and dedicated calibration benches are used for flow rates from 1 g.h-1 to 10 kg.h-1 on one side, and from 8 kg.h-1 to 36 t.h-1 on the other side. Continuous improvement of the calibration capabilities pushes LNE-CETIAT to upgrade the existing methods toward a dynamic measurement of the reference flow rate. Among others, dynamic calibrations of flow meters have the advantage of reducing calibration time, and to allow the characterization of complementary metrological performances such as the response time of the flow meter, and its accuracy against rapidly fluctuating flow. Moreover, the measurement of a dynamic reference flow rate with associated uncertainties as low as possible, requires tackling a number of technical challenges and new uncertainty sources. In particular, the measurement model needs to be sufficiently robust to ensure that no additional errors or unwanted uncertainty appears in response to different dynamic flow patterns. Thus, dedicated signal processing and data acquisition algorithm needs to be developed. Furthermore, traceability and representability of the calibration process needs to be ensured at all times.
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Document ID: 49F5CBB0

Guarantee in the natural gas custody transfer system
Author(s): Vladimir Osorio Nez
Abstract/Introduction:
The guarantee of the measurements in custody transfer systems is conceived from three approaches: design, maintenance and operation, metrology being constituted as the fundamental basis to generate confidence in the transaction of interest between two or more parties Promigas S.A E.S.P is the oldest company dedicated to the natural gas transmission in Colombia, understanding the legal and regulatory requirements applicable to the sector of resources and activities for the guarantee of the measurements at the custody transfer systems, having as pillars the activities of metrological control in the field and the facilities calibration for natural gas meters.
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Document ID: F649C64D

Characterizing Gas-Collection Volumes with Acoustic and Microwave Resonances
Author(s): Jodie G. Popea Keith A. Gillisa Michael R Moldovera James B. Mehlb Eric Harmanc
Abstract/Introduction:
We characterized a 1.8 m3, nearly-spherical, steel shell at pressures up to 7 MPa for use as a gas flow standard. For pressure, volume, temperature, and time measurements, the shells cavity will collect gas for blow-down measure-ments, the shell will be a gas source. We measured the cavitys microwave resonance frequencies fmicro to determine its pressure- and temperature-dependent volume: Vmicro(P, T) 1.84740 m3 1 + a(T-295 K) + ?P with a frac-tional uncertainty of 0.011 % at a 68 % confidence level. The coefficients a and ? were consistent with the dimen-sions and properties of the steel shell. The microwave-determined volume Vmicro was consistent, within combined uncertainties, with Vgas the volume determined by a gas expansion method: Vmicro/Vgas - 1 (2 14)10-5. When the shell was filled with gas, measurements of its acoustic resonance frequencies facoust and of the pressure quickly and accurately determined the mass of the gas in the shell, even when temperature gradients persisted. K. A. Gillis et al. Metrologia, 52, 337 (2015) After raising the nitrogen pressure in the shell from 0.1 MPa to 7.0 MPa in 45 minutes, the top of the shell was 20 C warmer than the bottom of the shell. Despite this large thermal gradient, the mass Macoust of gas determined from acoustic resonance frequencies settled to within 0.01 % of its final value after 5 hours. Following a smaller pressure change of 0.3 MPa, the top-to-bottom temperature difference was 1.5 C and Macoust settled to its final value in just 0.5 hours.
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Document ID: 5F6BAB98

Performance of a Compact Cyclone System
Author(s): Bentley Scott Roman Ramirez Santiago Ramirez Ramon Marquez William Scott
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides a review of the performance of Compact Cyclone Multiphase (CCM) Systems installed in various sites along with their operational challenges. The Compact Cyclone advantages and unique design will be discussed with the benefits of using Coriolis meters in the liquid and gas sections. Real time data demonstrating actual well performance and estimates of uncertainties will be shown. Liquid rates range from 500 to 4,000 BBLS per day and gas rates from 0.01 to 6 MMSCFD were seen in the various installations with water cut ranging from zero to 100%. Oil densities ranged from 860 to 928 kg/m3. Photographs of several sites will be included as the discussion explores the various design and installation requirements.
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Document ID: 20711D29

Hybrid Meter for Marginal Wet Natural Gas Producing Fields
Author(s): Eric Sanford Koichi Igarashi Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas onshore production is often from marginal wells. Such wells, or groups of wells, often produce wet natural gas through small pipes and therefore wet gas meters are desirable. However, most wet gas meter products are sophisticated, complex, and expensive systems largely aimed at offshore high productivity flows. They tend to be cost prohibitive for marginal well small pipe wet gas flows. Marginal field operation requires simpler, more cost effective, wet gas meter designs. One simple wet gas meter design concept is use of two dissimilar gas meters in series. The two meters different responses to wet gas flow are cross-referenced to produce a gas flow rate and liquid loading prediction. Such designs exist on the market, but they tend to use at least one specially designed meter and be expensive. This paper discusses a simple low cost two meters in series wet gas meter design. It pairs a vortex meter and a cone DP meter. It is developed from a single phase mass meter design.
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Document ID: F08074D3

Using Cavitation Metrologically
Author(s): Daniel Schumann Corinna Kroner
Abstract/Introduction:
Cavitation is a commonly known phenomenon in the world of fluid mechanics, mostly associated with negative impact. A novel application of cavitation is as a flow meter. PTBs Department Liquid Flow started research with so-called cavitating nozzles, because of longterm excellent experience with critical nozzles in the area of gas flow measurements. The first prototype of a cavitating nozzle was close to the corresponding ISO standard 9300 for gas measurements. Using a dedicated prototype of a test rig the nozzle was tested under different conditions e. g. different fluid temperatures and operating pressures. First tests show a remarkable flow stability of 0.003 %. In a cooperation with the University of Duisburg-Essen the nozzle geometry was numerically analyzed and optimized for liquid flow. Furthermore, first experiments demonstrate the capability to generate a rapid change of flow rates, e. g. an increase from 0.001 m/h to 5 m/h within one second, by switching multiple nozzles on and off. The generation of rapidly varying flow profiles is one important potential application of cavitating nozzles as water meters or fuel meters could then be tested and evaluated under realistic flow profiles which is not possible so far. Cavitating nozzles could thus pave the way towards test procedures which are as close as possible to real-world conditions in fluid flow measurements
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Document ID: 265FDDC3

Development of Micro-Scale Anemometer
Author(s): Sheng-Cyuan Fan Jiann-Hua Jeng Ying-Chun Lin Jiunn-Haur Shaw
Abstract/Introduction:
The objective of this research is to design a low speed micro anemometer with wind speed ranging from 0.01 m/s to 1 m/s and the resolution is 0.01 m/s. This paddle-type cantilever structure is made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), with the upper cantilever layer coated with a layer of resistive nickel-chromium alloys. As the force induced by the air motion applies to the cantilever structure, deformation of it results in change in the resistance of the nickel-chromium alloy. Based on this principle, authors developed a micro anemometer modeled with theoretical analysis and wind tunnel verification. In this paper, a mathematical model, starting from a stress-strain relationship, for variations of resistance of the upper Ni-Cr alloy against deformation of the micro cantilever is presented. A formulation for parameter of geometric dimensions and material, in associate with the resistance variation, is further developed. A prototype was then made based on the analysis and tested in a standard wind tunnel at wind speeds ranging from 0 m/s to 5 m/s. The test results will be used for further study in order to improve for revision of the low speed micro anemometer.
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Document ID: 9FA05474

Numerical Simulation and Analysis of the Measurement Performance for Sonic Nozzle under High Pressure Real Gas
Author(s): Han Ke, Luo Dong Shen Yuming Tao Chaojian
Abstract/Introduction:
Firstly, the flow field in two kinds of sonic nozzles with throat diameters of 10mm and 0.96mm and downstream pipeline are numerically simulated by CFD. The simulation results show that the static pressure in the downstream pipeline will fluctuate sharply when the back pressure ratio is small. Then, based on the real gas equation of Redlieh-Kwong, the contrastive equation for compressibility coefficient of high pressure natural gas is derived. Finally, the Mach number characteristics of high pressure natural gas in the sonic nozzle are obtained by numerical simulation.
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Document ID: E4E9608E

Calibration Uncertainty of a Bell Prover
Author(s): Pier Giorgio Spazzini Gaetano La Piana Aline Piccato
Abstract/Introduction:
INRIM owns a bell piston prover for small/medium gas flow rates (BELLGAS) which provides flow rates up to about 100 L/min with uncertainties of the order of 0.12% due to several construction improvements which include the accurate balancing of the counterweights system, the reduction of the movement friction and the accurate measurement of the bell movement through a high-resolution encoder. The most important uncertainty contributions in the overall uncertainty estimate for this test rig are the associated to the volume variation measurement and to the dead volume (Par. 2.1). The BELLGAS dimensions were initially measured at the then-IMGC using the strapping method, which provided encouraging results, and later with the same method described here, whose results were compatible to the ones obtained with the other method. The procedure used during this first bottling calibration, although accurate, was quite cumbersome due to the fact that the oil vessel used was quite small and required to be filled twice for a complete calibration a larger vessel was then built in order to simplify the procedure and avoid possible errors. In the present paper, the complete calibration procedure is described, including the secondary corrections performed on the raw data results are presented together with the uncertainty budget of the calibration and of the test rig as a whole, describing therefore in detail the derivation process of the CMC claimed for this test rig.
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Document ID: F2727A64

Reduction of a Gas Prover Uncertainty
Author(s): Pier Giorgio Spazzini Aline Piccato
Abstract/Introduction:
INRIM owns a gas piston prover for small gas flow rates (MICROGAS) which can provide flow rates lower than 0.1 SCCM with uncertainties of the order of 0.05% due to several technological features which include the two-sides temperature control of the gas chamber and the interferometric measurement of the piston displacement. The most important uncertainty contribution in the overall uncertainty estimate for this test rig is the dimensional uncertainty of the piston. The MICROGAS piston was initially measured in the length section of the then-IMGC at three cross-sections. Due to the relatively low number of measured cross sections, the diameter uncertainty was conservatively estimated by considering the piston diameter as nominally constant. When the piston was measured again, improvements in the methodology at the length section of INRIM allowed to reduce the measurement uncertainty and to increase the number of cross sections where the diameter was measured. This allows to provide a more detailed description of the section evolution along the piston, and therefore a smaller uncertainty of the diameter at the various sections. This improvement can be used to improve the overall uncertainty of the test rig by associating a different diameter, together with an associated uncertainty, to the various vertical positions measured for the piston. The paper describes the measurements performed on the piston diameter and a possible method for describing the volume displacement evolution along the piston run with its effect on the uncertainty estimate of the gas flow rate measurement. The actual implementation of the method is planned for the near future.
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Document ID: D2DECCC3

The Not So Small Small Volume Prover: Exploring a New Generation of Meter Proving Technology
Author(s): Steve Stewart
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will overview the most recent advancements in prover technology. Since their introduction to the liquid petroleum custody transfer market twenty years ago, Small Volume Provers (SVP), aka Unidirectional Captive Displacement Provers (UCDP), have been making continuous improvements regarding technology upgrades, expanded performance capabilities, and breadth of services and benefits offered. Information will be presented that demonstrates the ability to prove large bore meters with Not So Small Small Volume Provers. Also provided is a technology comparison of SVP versus conventional (older) prover technologies. This data shows that todays newer technology is not only an acceptable choice for proving large bore meters, but offers performance enhancements and economic advantages. Industry myths surrounding SVPs will be addressed and dispelled.
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Document ID: BB8680EE

CONFIABILIDAD DE LOS SISTEMAS DE GESTIN DE LA MEDICIONES E IMPACTO ECONMICO EN LA TRANSFERENCIA DE CUSTODIA
Author(s): Yadira I. Toledo Rodriguez
Abstract/Introduction:
A traves del tiempo los sistemas de medicion de hidrocarburos han evolucionado dado el impacto economico de las operaciones de transferencia de custodia en la economia global. Teniendo como base el concepto de calidad, que representa en si el grado de cumplimiento de especificaciones de un producto o servicio, se hace indispensable la medicion de las variables que permitan corroborar el grado de cumplimiento de estos requisitos y con ello, asegurar la fiabilidad de los instrumentos que constituyen el sistema de medicion. Mediante la implantacion de un Sistema de Gestion de las mediciones se puede asegurar que el equipo y el proceso de medicion son los adecuados para su uso previsto e intencionado adems de administrar el riesgo de obtener resultados de medicion incorrectos.
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Document ID: 252351E3

Calibracion de un medidor de flujo de liquidos utilizando como patron dos medidores msicos conectados en paralelo aplicado a la industria del hidrocarburo
Author(s): Victor Hugo Vzquez Morales J. Manuel Maldonado Razo
Abstract/Introduction:
Las pruebas descritas en este resumen es el resultado de la calibracion de un medidor de flujo de liquidos usado para la medicion de hidrocarburos, la tecnica que se describe se logro usando dos medidores de flujo msico tipo Coriolis, conectados en paralelo, con este arreglo podemos alcanzar un intervalo de medida de 2 000 kg/min a 18 000 kg/min, con trazabilidad metrologica al Patron Nacional para Flujo de Liquidos (PNFL) que es nuestra mxima referencia en mediciones de flujo de liquidos en nuestro pais, para analizar los resultados de las pruebas se hizo uso del factor Z-score (?-score).
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Document ID: 4879D060

Experiences with Permanent Series Connection of Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meters (USM) in the German Gas Market
Author(s): Daniel Heinig Toralf Dietz Jrg Wenzel Claus Girschik
Abstract/Introduction:
The design of metering stations in Germany varies greatly. However, in recent decades, connecting two gas flow meters in series has become established as best practice for many metering stations. The design was first described in the German verification law Mess- und Eichverordnung (Appendix 7, 5.6.7)1, where two meters with different metering principles were intended to be used. Connecting them in series allows an annual extension of the recalibration period as long as: 1) Both meters have a certified design (type approval), 2) Both meters are calibrated initially, 3) The change of the flow deviation between the two gas meters during operation is less than 0.5%. In recent years, the benefits of ultrasonic flow meter technology, especially the low pressure drop and diagnostic capabilities, were the driving force to allow series connections of two USM. The series connection of two independent USMs is now the favored solution in many metering stations in Germany. In 2013, the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) consolidated end users experience with connecting USMs in series into the technical guidelines TR-G 18 Requirement for permanent series connection of two ultrasonic gas flow meters. This paper offers an overview of typical USM-USM setups and discusses experiences of recent years.
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Document ID: E76B7AF4

Errors in Rate-of-Rise Gas Flow Measurements from Flow Work
Author(s): John D. Wright Aaron N. Johnson Michael R. Moldover Gina M. Kline
Abstract/Introduction:
The rate-of-rise (RoR) method determines flow by measuring the time rate of change of the amount of gas in a collection tank of known volume as it is filled via a flow meter under test. The mass of gas is calculated from time-stamped pressure and temperature data and accurate RoR measurements require reliable gas pressure and temperature values while the collection tank is filling with gas. We present a thermodynamic model and experimental measurements of gas temperature errors that are a function of a dimensionless ratio related to: the heat transfer from the gas to its surroundings / the heat generated by flow work. The uncertainty of RoR flow measurements made using the NIST 34 L collection tank is 0.12 % for flows between 1 sccm? and 200 sccm. At lower and higher flows, the RoR uncertainty rises to approximately 1 % due to leaks and temperature errors induced by flow work.
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Document ID: 7573DE2B

Comparative Analysis on the Thin-plate Weir Standards for Water Flow Measurement in Open Channels at Home and Abroad
Author(s): Hong XU Chunhua SHENG Xiaoyan SONG Lin LI Yu LIU
Abstract/Introduction:
The thin-plate weir is one of the most important hydraulic structures to measure the water flow in open channels. Based on the collected current and latest thin-plate weir standards at home and abroad, this paper gives a comparative analysis of the technical parameters of thin-plate weirs, including product parameters, measurement parameters and metrological parameters, classified by product, measurement and metrological standards. The results show that there are some differences among the technical parameters of these standards at home and abroad. It provides helpful and reference value for understanding the requirements of revising thin-plate weir standards.
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Document ID: 454897D3

Application of the Magnetic Resonance Multiphase Flowmeter to Challenging Field Conditions
Author(s): Mark van der Zande Jankees Hogendoorn
Abstract/Introduction:
As presented at the previous ISFFM conference, magnetic resonance is a suitable measurement principle to measure multiphase flow. An industrialized multiphase flowmeter based on the magnetic resonance measurement principle has been introduced to the market. In the past couple of years, experience on the operation of the flowmeter has been gained from field applications as well as from laboratory tests. These experiences are described in this paper a few examples are shown where the flowmeter is applied in challenging conditions such as high viscosity oil, water cuts close to the inversion point of oil-water emulsions and wells producing at very high water cuts
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Document ID: 2FC6D5F3

Performance Testing of NIMs Smokestack Simulator
Author(s): Liang Zhang Chi Wang1 Jin Song Ruixiang Xu Delin Li Lishui Cui Haiyang Li
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to improve Chinas point source pollutant emission and greenhouse gas emission monitoring capabilities, National Institute of Metrology (NIM) China build a laboratory smoke stack simulator and on-site flue gas flowrate calibration facility, improve Chinas stack gas flowrate calibration capability. On the one hand, the Smoke Stack Simulator can study the measurement method and evaluate the accuracy level of flue gas flowmeters. On the other hand, the Smoke Stack Simulator can calibrate 3D pitot tubes which are used as transfer standards of on-site flue gas flowrate calibration facility. This paper introduces the preliminary test results of the Smoke Stack Simulator of NIM, the system flow stability was tested, and the main reason for causing high flow stability and the improvement plan were analyzed. The Smoke Stack Simulator uses LDV as the primary standard for flowrate. The LDV is used to calibrate the 8-path ultrasonic flowmeter working standard. The calibration results and existing problems are analyzed.
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Document ID: 82029AC5

Flow States of Critical-Flow Venturi Nozzles
Author(s): Blent nsal Esra Ko
Abstract/Introduction:
Extensive numerical investigations were carried out to characterize critical back pressure ratio (CBPR), instability and boundary layer transition features of Critical Flow Venturi Nozzles (CFVN). For the investigations nozzle diameters were varied from 0.1 to 30 mm and two dimensional, axisymmetric, steady and unsteady calculations were performed over a broad range of back pressure ratios (BPR) which covers Reynolds number (Re) range of 103 to 107. Experiments were also carried out to determine CBPR of five nozzles. The results were summarized in terms of nozzle diameter, boundary layer thickness, Re and BPR. It was also possible to summarize the results in terms of flow maps to show various flow states of CFVNs
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Document ID: 88097C0F

Bilateral Comparison between NIM and NMIA for Air Flowrates from 2 m/h to 128 m/h
Author(s): Dr Chunhui Li, Dr Khaled Chahine, Mr Zhe Wang
Abstract/Introduction:
A bilateral comparison was conducted between NIM and NMIA using three critical flow Venturi nozzles (or sonic nozzles) with nominal diameters of 1.919 mm, 7.453 mm and 15.071 mm. The comparison was conducted using stagnation pressures ranging from 70 kPa to 600 kPa equating to a flow range from 2 m/h to 128 m/h at atmospheric pressures. All nozzles were measured firstly using the pVTt facility at NIM and then compared to the measurements by NMIA obtained by their standards consisting of a bell prover and arrays of sonic nozzles. Using the En ratio to evaluate the results, it was found that 21 out of 22 sets of measurements were in agreement with En ratio values less than unity. Further investigations are continuing to evaluate the measurement set with En ratio greater than unity.
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Document ID: FCF69970

The domestic comparison in China for high pressure gas flow
Author(s): Chunhui Li, Mingchang Guo, Lei Zhou
Abstract/Introduction:
With 3 sonic nozzles as the transfer meters, the first domestic comparison for high pressure gas flow between NIM and Nanjing natural gas station was held in 2016. The pVTt facility was used to make the comparison in NIM, while the MT facility was used in Nanjing station. The flowrate was within (832) m3/h, while the stagnation pressure is within (0.16.5) MPa. The En value is used to evaluate the consistence of the results. Except for the result for the smallest nozzle, all the other results were consistent.
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Document ID: E897A35F

NMIA facility for calibration of flowmeters in liquid propane and butane
Author(s): Simon Dignan, Mark Ballico
Abstract/Introduction:
The dynamic viscosity of the fluids used for the calibration of flow meters is typically at or above that of water (1 cP, or 1 mPas), however that of low molecular weight hydrocarbons is substantially lower (e.g. propane has 0.1 cP). It is well known that viscosity can have a significant influence on flowmeter performance. NMIA has established a unique facility for the calibration of flowmeters in either propane or butane to enable custody transfer meters to be calibrated under their conditions of use. This paper will discuss the technical details of the facility: comprising a 40 L piston prover, 4000 L tanks containing each product, and 4 diameter flow loops with a capacity of 1700 L/min at up to 2000 kPa pressure drops. We also discuss the unique approach to automation of the facility: enabling up to 100 fully automated, user-programmable pressure and flow calibration points per day with meter-factor uncertainties U95 below 0.09%. The paper presents the results of measurement of the meter calibration factor for several different types of common flowmeters as a function of flow-rate for both the two low-viscosity fluids propane and butane and the other test fluids available at the NMI facility: water, gasoline and diesel. The results provide interesting insights into the practical performance of these flowmeters: for example they show that although Reynolds-number scaling can be useful in reducing calibration-fluid effects for turbine- and gear- meters, significant metering errors occur for all but positivedisplacement-type meters. The potential of the facility to support the design and calibration of flowmeters used with other commercially important low-viscosity fluids close to their boiling points, such as liquefied natural gas (LNG 0.1 cP) and anhydrous ammonia (NH3 0.3 cP), is also discussed.
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Document ID: B3DC4C50

COMPARISON OF VERTICAL TANK CALIBRATION METHODS USING TOTAL STATIONS AND 3D SCANNER
Author(s): Gustavo Lopez, Jose Fuentes O., Henry Abril B.
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurements quality is relevant in commercialization and balance sheet processes in oil pipeline networks of oil companies. Many of these industries use vertical tanks for custody transfer of liquid hydrocarbon, in this regard, the current study presents the results of comparison between two methods of tanks calibration (volumetric capacity and their uncertainties): Optical method of calibration (most used in Ecuador) with total stations and new alternative method using 3D scanner with nominal capacity of 800,000 barrels. Second method gives an ease record of a data series (point cloud) than allows obtaining more information about tanks shape, geometry and its deformation. Also, an additional analysis is made on the contribution of uncertainty associated with the assumption that the tank is perfectly cylindrical for conventional methods. The final result seeks to provide technical support for the calibration alternative using a 3D scanner, to be accepted by the regulatory bodies of the South American countries
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Document ID: C5175CA2

Ultrasonic Meter Re-calibration Study
Author(s): Thomas Kegel, Juan Acosta
Abstract/Introduction:
An ongoing research project relates ultrasonic meter re-calibration shift, meter size, velocity, and re-calibration time interval. The results can be applied as a tool to assist in determining an appropriate re-calibration interval for an ultrasonic meter. The database supporting this project is a result of 19 years of history in the operation of an ultrasonic gas ?ow calibration facility. This paper represents an update on the project. Fifty-five re-calibration events have been added to existing database of ninety-five events. The new results are brie?y compared to the conclusions from the previous work.
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Document ID: DA59E3C8

Microfluidics in a channel with rough surface
Author(s): Rosendahl, M., Siqueira, J.G.S.A., Garcia, D.A., Henrique, J.S., Castro, C.S., Gouveia, J.M.G. and Farias, M.H.
Abstract/Introduction:
This work discusses influence of the surface roughness on the behavior of liquids flowing inside microchannels. By measuring the flow profile using the microPIV technique, the flow of water inside two rectangular microchannels of different wall roughness and in a circular smooth microchannel was studied. Comparisons were made between the experimental results, showing that a metrological approach concerning surface characteristics of microdevices is required to ensure reliability of the measurements for flow analyses in microfluidic processes.
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Document ID: 1A17DF6B


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