Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (2018)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

FIELD INSPECTION AND CALIBRATION OF VOLUME CORRECTING D E V I C E S
Author(s): George E. Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
Timely, diligent field testing and calibration of gas volume recording and correcting instruments ensure that measurement information fairly represents actual volumes. The instruments save a company capital and operating costs because they can record or integrate volumes at pressures and temperatures above the normal pressure base conditions specified in contracts for volume calculation. This allows the company to use smaller and fewer meters. Recording and correcting instruments normally are connected to positive displacement, rotary and turbine meters in lieu of direct reading/compensating index. The compensating instruments include:
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Document ID: B6A15F7E

GAS ODORANTS - SAFE HANDLING, HEALTH, AND ENVIRONMENT
Author(s): Daniel E. Arrieta, David C. Miller Eric Van Tol
Abstract/Introduction:
Thiols (i.e. mercaptans), sulfides, and tetrahydrothiophene (THT) have been widely used in the odorization of natural and liquefied petroleum gas due to the fact that natural gas does not possess an odor. Mercaptans, for example, have proven to be very effective in odorizing because of their low odor threshold and therefore, immediate impact on the olfactory system (Roberts, 1993). Although, gas odorants are characterized as having a low hazard potential regarding health effects, their unique physical chemical properties such as, high flammability, require that they be handled safely. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the human health and environmental concerns associated with gas odorants, to recommend safe handling and personal monitoring, and to discuss the impact of regulatory changes associated with the chemical management of these chemicals.
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Document ID: 7A4AF6DF

METER SELECTION FOR VARIOUS LOAD REQUIREMENTS
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr. Adam G. Hawley
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to provide meter station designers with a basic methodology for selection of an appropriate flow meter (or meters) for a given application. Since many applications require that a meter station operate over a broad range of flow rates or loads, an example is provided on how to address system rangeability while maintaining accurate flow measurement. Detailed technical descriptions of the functionality of the various available gas metering technologies is beyond the scope of this paper, but information of that type can be found in other papers in these Proceedings.
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Document ID: 4741DEB8

METER SELECTION FOR VARIOUS LOAD REQUIREMENTS
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr. Adam G. Hawley
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to provide meter station designers with a basic methodology for selection of an appropriate flow meter (or meters) for a given application. Since many applications require that a meter station operate over a broad range of flow rates or loads, an example is provided on how to address system rangeability while maintaining accurate flow measurement. Detailed technical descriptions of the functionality of the various available gas metering technologies is beyond the scope of this paper, but information of that type can be found in other papers in these Proceedings.
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Document ID: 5790F32F

AMI FOR GAS UTILITIES
Author(s): DAVID ANGLIN
Abstract/Introduction:
There was once a time when you could get a car in any coloras long as it was black. They had frames, running boards and 15 horsepower engines. Who could ever need more? Just like the auto industry has adapted from this original approach to meet the demands of consumers, regulators and shareholders, the gas industry must do the same. Automated meter reading - also known as AMR or AMI - provides that opportunity. This paper will compare and contrast AMR and AMI for gas utilities and provide important areas for gas utilities to consider when adopting or upgrading wireless meter technology.
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Document ID: AC7610F8

ULTRASONIC METERS FOR COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Author(s): Paul Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
An ultrasonic meter falls into the classification of inferential meters. Unlike positive displacement meters that capture volume to totalize volume, inferential meters measure flowing gas velocity to totalize volume. Ultrasonic meters use sound waves to measure flowing gas velocity to infer volume. Ultrasonic meters have been around for many years, primarily in liquid measurement. However, we are seeing more and more applications in the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: F0F871E6

VERIFYING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHS AT CUSTODY TRANSFER LOCATIONS
Author(s): Steve Lakey
Abstract/Introduction:
Chromatography is one of the most widely used means of performing chemical analyses in the world. Russian botanist Mikhail Tswett is credited with discovering the technique of chromatography. Using alcohol as a mobile phase and chalk as a stationary phase, Tswett was able to separate various plant extracts.
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Document ID: BC519B46

APPLICATION IN LIQUID MEASUREMENT USING CLAMP-ON ULTRASONIC TECHNOLOGY
Author(s): Ron McCarthy
Abstract/Introduction:
Clamp on ultrasonic flow meter technology (COUSMT) offers the advantage of providing a non-custody transfer, non-intrusive method to obtain the pipe flow rate. The distinct advantage of the technology is there is no need to present access to the fluid flowing in the pipe. The method is quite robust and simple to implement. More and more measurement practitioners are looking to this technology to fulfill that aspect of the metering requirements in their company.
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Document ID: B6AACDAF

Basics of Ascertaining Effective Pressure and Temperature Measurement
Author(s): Brian Cleary
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurements of pressure and temperature are made for many reasons and by several methods. This paper will focus on measurements made during gas production and transportation and suggests criteria to be used in the selection and installation of the instruments used to measure these physical properties. In this industry, pressure and temperature measurements are primarily being made for three (3) reasons: Safety Control Compensation
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Document ID: 77723715

FUNDAMENTALS OF CORIOLIS METERS AGA REPORT NO. 11 ASGMT 2018
Author(s): Marc Buttler Kyle Barry
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early 1980s, Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in gas, liquid, and slurry applications with an installed base of more than one million units. Through significant design, enhancements in the early 1990s Coriolis meters have rapidly gained worldwide acceptance in gas phase applications with over 100,000 meters installed worldwide and most notably the publication of the second edition of AGA Report Number 11, Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis Meter.
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Document ID: 41E9B70F

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF DIAPHRAGM DISPLACEMENT METERS
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the U.S., The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat rate basis. Its growth was slow with the charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority. By comparison, the New York Gas Light Company, founded in 1823, prospered and expanded. They had built their system on the use of gas meters to measure the supply of gas to customers, and a large one to register the quantity made at the station before it is conveyed to the gasometers. The pattern of operation used by this New York company was quickly copied by other companies throughout the East Coast, including the Baltimore company. Seeing the success, New York businessmen formed new gas companies in Albany, Boston, Philadelphia, New York, etc. and the new U.S. gas distribution industry began to flourish. Since this early beginning, meters have been an important, integral element in every phase of gas industry operations. Various types of meters are used diaphragm, rotary, turbine, and orifice each serving a definite purpose and meeting specific requirements.
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Document ID: FBCCEEFA

FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONIC FLOW METER DESIGN, APPLICATION & IMPLEMENTATION
Author(s): Martin Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic flow measurement as applied to the natural gas industry has advanced considerably over the last 30 years. Applications to address Upstream, Midstream and Downstream gas measurement technologies have become more complex. Over time it has become necessary to understand the fundaments that make up this ever-changing environment. This paper will discuss the important fundamental parameters to consider when designing an Electronic Flow Measurement (EFM) system. Please be aware of the many variances to each specific design and understand this is only a fundamental paper to give new gas industry members a first look at the technologies that are required when considering an EFM design.
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Document ID: 6E0617B9

FUNDAMENTALS OF ENERGY DETERMINATION
Author(s): J. David Hailey
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents fundamental information necessary to understand and appreciate the concept of total gas energy in a natural gas pipeline. That is, to be able to converse with peers within the natural gas industry and understand basic concepts and terminology. Discussed is the historical transition from volumetric measurement to total gas energy including some of the basic terminology, physics, measurement, as well as the reasons for changes in methodologies. Included is industry acceptance of new concepts and regulations involving custody transfer as well as the instrumentation and systems involved in traditional and newer, more progressive forms of gas measurement.
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Document ID: C02AF4A2

FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS LAWS
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters. A standard cubic foot is defined as one cubic foot of gas at a pressure and temperature agreed upon by the buyer and seller. Common standard conditions are 14.73 psia and 60 Fahrenheit. The gas passing through a meter is rarely at standard conditions. It is necessary to convert the gas in the meter from the metered conditions to standard cubic feet. The tools we have for relating volume to pressure and temperature are Equations of State or, simply, the Gas Laws. The Gas Laws serve two purposes. They allow the conversion of a gas stream from metered conditions to standard conditions. They also provide an understanding of what the gas is doing and why. This paper will briefly present the Gas Laws and the physical properties of gas that the Gas Laws describe.
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Document ID: 58C08353

FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS TURBINE METERS
Author(s): Paul Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of all gas measurement used in the world today is performed by two basic types of meters, positive displacement and inferential. Positive displacement meters, consisting mainly of diaphragm and rotary style devices, generally account for lower volume measurement. Orifice, ultrasonic and turbine meters are the three main inferential class meters used for large volume measurement today. Turbines are typically considered to be a repeatable device used for accurate measurement over large and varying pressures and flow rates. They are found in a wide array of elevated pressure applications ranging from atmospheric conditions to 1440 psig. Turbine meters have also become established as master or reference meters used in secondary calibration systems such as transfer provers. A significant number of both mechanical and electrical outputs and configurations have become available over the past 60 years of production. This paper will focus on the basic theory, operating principles, performance characteristics and installation requirements used in turbine meter applications. A discussion of fundamental turbine meter terminology is also included.
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Document ID: 5382ED53

FUNDAMENTALS OF ULTRASONIC FLOWMETERS FOR NATURAL GAS
Author(s): JONATHAN FIEDLER
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of ultrasound in flow measurement began in the last century when, in 1928, Oskar Rtten patented this method and apparatus for measuring the volume of flowing liquids, gas, and steam. The first ultrasonic flowmeters were introduced in the 1950s, and in the 1960s different companies developed the first ultrasonic flowmeters using the differential transit time method. Around this same time the first clamp-on ultrasonic flowmeters were also launched onto the market. The first multipath ultrasonic flowmeters for measuring gases were finally introduced at the start of the 1980s. However the main breakthrough in ultrasonic flow measurement has come in the last 10 to 20 years, which has seen the breakthrough of digital signal processing. With this highly precise method, exact recording and analysis of transit times has become increasingly accurate, which of course has made the measuring device extremely interesting to industry.
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Document ID: 153E6084

FUNDAMENTALS OF MULTIPATH ULTRASONIC FLOW METERS FOR LIQUID MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Dan Hackett
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of Liquid Ultrasonic Meters for liquid petroleum applications such as custody transfer or allocation measurement is gaining world wide acceptance by the Oil Industry. Ultrasonic technology is well established but the use of this technology for custody transfer and allocation measurement is relatively new. Often users try to employ the same measurement practices that apply to turbine technology to the Liquid Ultrasonic. There are some similarities such as: the need for flow conditioning, upstream and downstream piping requirements but there can also be differences such as the proving technique. This paper will discuss the basics of liquid ultrasonic meter operation and performance. While proving liquid ultrasonic meters is not specifically discussed, diagnostic information available to troubleshoot meter performance in general will be presented.
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Document ID: BA2BC632

FUNDAMENTALS OF NATURAL GAS CHEMISTRY
Author(s): Steve Whitman
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to understand the chemistry of natural gas, it is important to be familiar with some basic concepts of general chemistry. Here are some definitions you should know: Matter - anything that has mass and occupies space. Energy - the capacity to do work or transfer heat. Elements - substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical changes. There are approximately 112 known elements. Examples: carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. Atom - the smallest unit in which an element can exist. Atoms are composed of electrons, protons, and neutrons. Compounds - pure substances consisting of two or more different elements in a fixed ratio. Examples: water and methane. Molecule - the smallest unit in which a compound can exist or the normal form in which an element exists. Example: One molecule of water consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. One molecule of nitrogen consists of two atoms of nitrogen. Mixture - combination of two or more pure substances in which each substance maintains its own composition and properties. Examples: natural gas, gasoline, and air.
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Document ID: 97DD87B0

Fundamentals of Orifice Metering
Author(s): David Courtney
Abstract/Introduction:
The history of orifice metering began in the early 1900s. The first test data was done by the U.S. Geological Survey and in 1913 the first Handbook of Natural Gas was published. So, as you can tell, orifice metering has been around for over 100 years and in that time, much has been learned and improved on. Orifice metering flow equations have been derived from test data where an orifice plate, a plate with a hole in the middle of it, was placed in the flow line causing a restriction in flow. This differential was then compared to the actual amount that passed by the orifice and from that information engineers can then ascertain by mathematical algorithms what equations to use to duplicate those results. Below is a schematic of an orifice differential being compared to a known prover volume.
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Document ID: 55BD7DA1

FUNDAMENTALS OF PRESSURE REGULATORS
Author(s): Jim Mueller
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry, there are two basic types of regulators used for both pressure reducing and back pressure (relief) control. The two types are: ? Self Operated Regulators (Sometimes referred to as spring loaded regulators) ? Pilot Operated Regulators (Loading and Unloading style pilot regulators) This paper will discuss the basic principle of Self Operated and Pilot Operated Regulators including components of the system, principles of operation, advantages and disadvantages, and some maintenance and inspection procedures.
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Document ID: D9D2CF12

Relief Valves and Overpressure Protection Methods
Author(s): Ken Ludvigsen
Abstract/Introduction:
Overpressure protective devices are of vital concern to the natural gas industry. Safety codes and current laws require their installation each time a pressure reducing station is installed that supplies gas from any system to another system with a lower maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP). The purpose of this article is to provide a basic understanding of overpressure protection and in particular a review of the pressure relief valve as stand alone or in combination with other methods of overpressure protection.
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Document ID: 11E73E2F

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF ROTARY DISPLACEMENT METERS
Author(s): Cristina A. Lancelot
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classifications of gas meters. The first consists of inferential type meters, including, orifice, ultra-sonic and turbine meters, and the second is the positive displacement meters, which consist of diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferential type meters are so-called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas flow and calculating the volume based on the measurements. The positive displacement type meters are so-called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them. The reliability of the rotary positive displacement meter, rangeability, long-term accuracy, and ease of installation, maintenance and testing have made this meter a favorite among gas utilities for billing purposes in industrial and commercial applications. Rotary meters have continue to gain popularity in the production and transmission markets. This document briefly discusses the concepts of rotary positive displacement meters and the related operating principles, sizing practices, accuracy and rangeability, along with the installation, start-up and maintenance of the meters.
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Document ID: 36B6CCBB

NATURAL GAS SAMPLING For CUSTODY TRANSFER
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The necessity to be able to take a representative sample of the hydrocarbon product known as natural gas is to ensure proper accounting for transactions and efficient product processing. The various sampling methods that are available and the most widely known options and limitations of these methods are discussed here. The appropriate equipment to use and the reasons for their use and correct installation of the equipment are also addressed.
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Document ID: 3392D2B2

AN OVERVIEW OF THE AGA GAS QUALITY MANAGEMENT MANUAL
Author(s): Terrence A. Grimley
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides an overview of the recently released Gas Quality Management Manual 1 that was developed by the American Gas Association Transmission Measurement Committee over a period of roughly seven years. The manual pulls together a wide range of information and provides context that allows both the expert and the novice to understand the why, how and what needed to develop a plan for managing gas quality.
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Document ID: AA1A19D3

A REVIEW OF API MPMS CHAPTER 14.3/AGA REPORT NO. 3 - PART 2
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr. Jacob L. Thorson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the current contents of the United States (U.S.) orifice flow metering standard - American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) Chapter 14.3, Orifice Metering of Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbon Fluids, Part 2, Specification and Installation Requirements.1 This document is also known as American Gas Association Report No. 3, Part 2.2 As of the writing of this paper (i.e., May 2017), this standard was in its fifth edition and was last revised in March 2016.
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Document ID: 2E830457

ADVANCED COMMUNICATION DESIGNS
Author(s): Bob Halford Glenn Longley
Abstract/Introduction:
We say Advanced Wireless Data Radio Communication Systems Design Process not because this is a more in- depth and more technical process, but because the systems involved are complex in nature and must be carefully designed and programmed. If anything, what I want to do is teach you a more simplified approach and technique to design a SCADA or Telemetry project, but one which you do the same whether the system is large or small. By design, I mean we take this specified approach, or Process, which is consistent every time to show us geographically where the sites are and what the terrain challenges are for each site. We think more about one site at a time than the whole forest of sites. We need to visit the area and know the foliage conditions, man made structures and any other issue that may inhibit a good communication path. What is a path? I am sure you most likely know this, but a path is the line of site from the end device back to a collection point, whether a master receiver or a repeater or repeaters between each end point and the master collection point. There must be as clear of a straight line path as possible between key points of collection or repeating or no data is consistently transmitted in those com systems which are line of sites technologies.
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Document ID: 8AB0F055

AN OVERVIEW AND UPDATE OF AGA 9
Author(s): Jim Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association published Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters 2nd Edition Ref 1 in April 2007. Report 9 details recommended practice for using multipath gas ultrasonic meters (USMs) in fiscal (custody) measurement applications. This paper reviews some of history behind the development of AGA Report No. 9 (often referred to as AGA 9), key Report contents, which includes information on meter performance requirements, design features, testing procedures, and installation criteria. This paper also discusses changes that will be incorporated in the next revision. Rev3 of AGA TMC Report 9 was published in July of 2017.
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Document ID: A7CCD8E9

An Overview of Industry Standards Related to Natural Gas Measurement
Author(s): Barry Balzer
Abstract/Introduction:
What is a standard? Why are standards important? Merriam-Webster dictionary defines standard as: 1) a conspicuous object (as a banner) formerly carried at the top of a pole and used to mark a rallying point especially in battle or to serve as an emblem 2) something established by authority, custom, or general consent as a model or example 3) something set up and established by authority as a rule for the measure of quantity, weight, extent, value, or quality 4) the fineness and legally fixed weight of the metal used in coins 5) the basis of value in a monetary system 6) a structure built for or serving as a base or support From these definitions, it appears that one could conclude that a standard should have value be established by general consent or by an organization be a yardstick to measure quantity, quality, and value and be a base or support upon which one can built procedures and policies.
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Document ID: AB0D0381

APPLICATION OF FLOW COMPUTERS FOR MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL
Author(s): Al Majek
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of oil & gas production has progressed considerably since the days of paper charts and manual integration. While still in use today, the technology has moved increasingly to microprocessor based flow computers. Such devices allow for greater measurement accuracy, increased control functionality, and are readily integrated into a companys enterprise computer networks.
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Document ID: 956F34B3

AUDITING ELECTRONIC GAS MEASUREMENT PER API MPMS, CHAPTER 21.1
Author(s): Keith Fry
Abstract/Introduction:
Auditing evolved as a business practice as owners began to realize a standardized form of accounting must exist to prevent fraud. Financial audits made their way into businesses during the late 1700s. The industrial revolution brought about the separation of job duties beyond what a sole proprietor or family could oversee. Managers were hired to supervise the employees and the business processes. Businesses began to expand geographically where previously they were all local. Owners, who could not be in more than one place at a time or chose to be absent, found an increasing need to monitor the accuracy of the financial activities of their growing businesses. Owners responded by hiring people to check their financial results for accuracy, resulting in the process of financial auditing. In the early 1900s and at the request of the Securities and Exchange Commission, the auditors reports of duties and findings were standardized. Financial auditors developed methods of reporting on selected key business cases as an affordable alternative to examining every detailed transaction. It was found with auditing that the evaluation of both financial risk and financial opportunity was improved.
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Document ID: 022E5F75

AUTOMATING GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Richard L. Cline
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address concepts of SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) Systems and their application to the measurement industry. An important focus of the paper is to provide the reader with an understanding of the technology and with guidelines to be used to evaluate this equipment as part of an automation project.
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Document ID: D891A1A4

BASIC ELECTRONICS FOR FIELD MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Mike Taccino John Culp
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement technicians deal with electronic flow computing and field devices daily. Most of the field instrumentation are tightly integrated in a complete system with interdependencies on several different electronic products. The larger the metering station, the more complex the system. Basic field duties related to electronic instrumentation would include: ? installation ? calibration ? data collection ? configuration ? orifice plate changes ? communication checks ? maintenance Some of the basic types of connections and measurements include power as well as analog signals and digital signals going into and out of the device. Each of these play unique circuitry roles and require different knowledge of their intended operation.
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Document ID: FF923E74

CALCULATING THE SPEED OF SOUND IN NATURAL GAS -- AGA REPORT NO. 10 TO AGA REPORT NO. 8
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
The speed of sound in natural gas is the velocity a sound wave travels in the gas. There are a number of gas properties that affect the speed of sound and they include the composition of the gas, the pressure of the gas, and the temperature of the gas. The American Gas Association (AGA) Report No. 10, Speed of Sound in Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbon Gases, first published in 2003 provided an accurate method for calculating the speed of sound in natural gas and other related hydrocarbon fluids.
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Document ID: EF1FCB04

CALCULATION OF NATURAL GAS LIQUID QUANTITIES
Author(s): Keith Fry
Abstract/Introduction:
There is no substitute for well maintained, properly installed, and properly performing measurement equipment. Industrystandard measurement equipment installation, operation, and maintenance provide the raw data necessary for those dealing with natural gas liquids (NGLs) to transact business. Then, this raw data can be adjusted or converted to values suitable for transactions to take place and for proper accounting. To determining which adjustments or conversions to use, begin by understanding the desired results. Some measurement processes and accounting software applications require volumetric quantities. Others require mass quantities. For many NGL applications, the preferred outcomes are liquid volumes of pure components. This is because most NGLs are eventually fractionated into pure products and market prices for these are readily available. Sometimes, the gas equivalent values of liquids are useful for operations. Knowing the starting point is equally important. The starting point can vary depending on the type of measurement. Different resources and applications provide for different means of measuring NGLs. Quantity measurements can be made on a mass basis or a volumetric basis.
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Document ID: 27A4500B

CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF ULTRASONIC METERS
Author(s): Randy Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
improvements in gas measurement in the past twenty years. It is my opinion that the immense improvement in gas measurement is not so much the ultrasonic meter itself. Instead, I believe it is the meters ability to detect conditions that would compromise its own accuracy and ability to communicate those conditions to the user. It is in the area of communicating those conditions, that we often under-utilize the meters capabilities. The natural gas pipeline industry has seen tremendous changes in the past twenty years, including a smaller multi- skilled workforce. The reality of todays pipeline workforce is fewer technicians performing a wider range of tasks. Much of their measurement work is performed with less frequency, and on more complex equipment than ever before. Gaining the proficiency needed to recognize and troubleshoot ultrasonic meter problems, requires time and experience to learn. By bringing the meters diagnostic data into our SCADA system, we can provide alarms and trending capabilities that are not dependent on the frequency at which a Technician can visit a measurement facility. Furthermore, it is not dependent on whether a Technician has the necessary expertise to recognize potential meter problems.
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Document ID: E6853917

COPING WITH CHANGING FLOW REQUIREMENTS AT EXSISTING METERING STATIONS
Author(s): James M. Doyle
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays competitive gas market, utility companies must meet aggressive market strategies or suffer the consequences. All industries have cash registers, and gas distribution is no exception. Our measuring stations are our cash register. The problem is, these stations were designed 10, 20, 30 or even 50 years ago, and are now performing tasks they were not designed for. Therefore, changes must be made. Measurement personnel today must be trained and taught to cope with changing flow requirements. But, modifying a station to meet todays aggressive market can be very expensive. Equipment, such as regulators and the primary element (the meter tube, the orifice plate holder, and the orifice plate), must meet A.G.A. 3 requirements. The secondary element (the recording device) can raise expenditures significantly. Sometimes modifications cannot be made to deliver the specified volume of product needed, and replacement of a complete station is even more expensive. Companies today must watch money closely, and work to reduce operating and maintenance costs. To handle these situations effectively, technicians must be trained and taught to cope with changing flow requirements. Knowing your stations and their characteristics are an absolute. Technicians must become familiar with the kind of equipment their station has, and its proper use. The goal here is to detail the appropriate methods and equipment required to handle these tasks.
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Document ID: DE9C3C5A

CORIOLIS MASS FLOW METERS FOR GAS AND LIQUID MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Thomas Koczynski
Abstract/Introduction:
A Coriolis mass flow meter is a meter that can be used to measure liquids and gases. It directly measures mass and density and these can be used to calculate actual volume flow in liquids. With gas applications the mass can be converted back to standard conditions with some simple math and a verification of the gas composition. Coriolis meters have been around for over 30 years and as time passes are becoming more accepted in industry where a more precise measurement is needed. This paper will review Coriolis mass flowmeter technology and applications with reference to measurement of liquids and gases, as well as challenges and best practices.
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Document ID: 163413A2

INTRODUCTION TO DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE PRODUCING PRIMARY FLOW ELEMENTS
Author(s): Richard L. Wakeland Cheryl D. Wakeland
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow is one of the four major physical measurements in processes. Flow meters may be classified in four categories: differential pressure, velocity, mass and positive displacement or volumetric. Each category has advantages and disadvantages however, the focus of this paper will be the differential pressure flow meters. Differential pressure (dP) flow meters include flow elements such as the orifice plate, venturi, flow nozzle, wedge meter, cone meter and proprietary devices. The elbow flow meter, pitot and annubar are also differential type flow meters, but have a different operating principle than the others and are outside of the scope of this paper. These meters may be referred to as flow elements (FE) or primary flow elements. These flow elements are called primary because an additional or secondary device must be attached to indicate the measured differential pressure. This secondary device may be an electronic transmitter, manometer, standpipe or gage.
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Document ID: 8ACC4927

EFFECTS AND CONTROL OF PULSATION IN GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most common measurement errors and the most difficult to identify in natural gas metering systems is that caused by pulsating flow. It is important to understand the effects that pulsations have on the common types of flow meters used in the gas industry so that potential error-producing mechanisms can be identified and avoided. It is also essential to understand pulsation control techniques for mitigating pulsation effects. This paper describes the effects of pulsation on orifice, turbine, ultrasonic, and other flow meter types. It also presents basic methods for mitigating pulsation effects at meter installations, including a specific procedure for designing acoustic filters that can isolate a flow meter from the source of pulsation.
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Document ID: 8AEBA5D6

PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS IN MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Terry Jackson
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of electronics is evolving in the measurement industry. The technology of measurement and control has evolved over the past few decades. Systems have moved from mechanical devices that were read on site to early versions of electronic systems that were polled infrequently. Current systems can control several devices such as pumps, meters or injectors simultaneously using advanced electronics to measure, control and communicate at greater frequency than ever. The need for technicians to understand basic electrical troubleshooting is greater than ever before. Due to the increased reliance on advanced electronic systems throughout the industry Due to greater regulatory requirements for analysis and reporting Due to the increased complexity of the electronics that are used in oil & gas industry
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Document ID: 08D1F826

ETHICS
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement requires the highest level of ethical integrity in an industry that relies on ethical integrity at every level. A measurement professional is the provider of data to all the other professionals involved in the petroleum industry. If the measurement professional fails at their assigned duties, all the other branches of this industry make decisions based on poor data, or, in the worst case, false data.
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Document ID: 73F57A3F

FACTORS AFFECTING DIGITAL PRESSURE CALIBRATION ASSOCIATED TECHNIQUES, USES, TRACEABILITY, AND PROBLEMS
Author(s): Scott A. Crone
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure calibration is as important today as it has been for a very long time, but the way calibration is performed and the equipment used to do it has changed drastically. In the past it was a standard practice to use a primary standard for pressure calibration. That standard was normally a dead weight tester or a manometer. Today with more accurate secondary standards available there is a larger choice in what can be used for pressure calibration. What is used normally will depend on the requirements that have to be met and the equipment that is available.
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Document ID: 97798CF9

Flare Measurement According to API 14.10
Author(s): Eric Estrada
Abstract/Introduction:
With the recent release of the Green House Gas Regulations, the increased visibility of flaring natural gas and increased awareness of royalty owners, the ability to accurately measure and account for the amount of product flared from a facility has become increasingly important to regulators, royalty owners and operators. In the past, flare gas was not considered a necessary measurement, so the measurement of flared product has often been overlooked or not given the same attention as custody transfer measurement. As such API published API MPMS Chapter 14.10, Measurement of Flow to Flares, in June of 2007. This paper will provide a quick overview of the contents of API MPMS 14.10 but is encouraged to obtain 14.10 if more detailed information is desired. In addition, a brief discussion on the importance of calibrating flare flow meters is also discussed.
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Document ID: A342F6C3

FLUID FLOW CONDITIONING FOR METER ACCURACY AND REPEATABILITY
Author(s): Danny Sawchuk
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow conditioning is one of the most critical aspects dealing with any type of volumetric flow metering. Flow conditioning is the final buffer between the flow meter and the upstream piping layout and is responsible for eliminating swirl, restoring flow symmetry and generating a repeatable, fully developed velocity flow profile. Even though modern advancements have resulted in low uncertainty, high repeatability devices that are effective across a range of flow rates, proper utilization of flow conditioner is still required to maximize the meters performance, diagnostics and ensure the most stable long term flow measurement. All flow conditioner technologies are not made equal, as commonly used designs such as AGA tube bundles and straightening vanes can actually cause more measurement problems than they resolve. This paper will focus on two main types of flow conditioners perforated plate systems and tube bundles.
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Document ID: D0993624

How Not to Measure Gas - Orifice Measurement
Author(s): Dee Hummel
Abstract/Introduction:
Measuring natural gas is both a science and an art. Guidelines and industry practices explain how to accurately measure natural gas. The art comes in trying to minimize errors and prevent measurement problems. However, sometime its easier to explain how not to measure gas when reviewing measurement errors. Measurement errors can be caused through poor installation practices, poor measurement practices, operational changes, and human error. The purpose of this paper is to address some real life cases of measurement errors.
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Document ID: 1B702E9D

HOW TO PERFORM A LOST & UNACCOUNTED-FOR GAS PROGRAM
Author(s): John McDaniel
Abstract/Introduction:
Many (likely most) gas pipeline companies struggle with lost-and-unaccounted-for-gas (L&U) and it can be a significant cost to their bottom line as shown below. As shown in this inset, by reducing L&U from 0.6 percent to .25 percent, a typical company with a 2 BCF daily throughput could save Over 7.6 million dollars annually based on 3.00 gas prices, which is a daily loss of 21,000.
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Document ID: 2ADA7278

IMPROVING FLOW MEASUREMENTS WITH IMPROVED CALIBRATION AND DATA HANDLING PROCEDURES
Author(s): Duane Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The knowledge base and continual flow of information from a field measurement technician to the measurement analyst located in the corporate office is extremely demanding. Every field technician is tested in both knowledge and skills on a daily basis regarding: ? Electronic controls to pneumatic controls ? Communication system support ? Multiple technical disciplines ? Support of measurement equipment - Primary Device, Secondary Device, and Tertiary Device ? Support of verification equipment ? Adhering to the Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) ? Regulatory requirements governing the facilities ? Ongoing training These factors and many more create a tremendous and constant challenge for every organization. The measurement analyst requires a completely different set of skills to interpret and understand the information received from the field regarding testing and calibration of the meter. The task for the measurement analyst is to absorb the wealth of information presented and utilize their extensive knowledge base in determining when a current month adjustment or even a prior month adjustment is warranted. Each time an analyst reviews data from the field, a question should be asked, Did the technician and analyst follow the correct procedures in performing the calibration and performing the adjustment?
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Document ID: 93290786

LIGHTNING-FREE AUTOMATION
Author(s): Glenn Longley Jim Gardner
Abstract/Introduction:
What if you could install lightning-free automation? Well, now you can. Wireless automation has changed the paradigm associated with lightning damage to oilfield automation equipment. Background Historically, oil & gas automation has relied heavily on the direct burial of cable for signal communication from remote devices back to a central controller. This cable acts as a copper conductor for power transients (indirect lightning strikes). A majority of all automation damage is caused by indirect lightning strikes. Copper cable buried on a location acts like an antenna picking up all inducted power surges from the surrounding area.
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Document ID: E615099F

LIQUID MEASUREMENT STATION DESIGN with NGL CONSIDERATIONS
Author(s): Michael P. Frey
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many factors that must be considered in order to properly design a liquid measurement station. While many of the components of measurement stations are similar, the criterion that determines the equipment to utilize for a given application or product can vary significantly from project to project. This paper will address the most common applications in the liquid hydrocarbon industry for large volume product measurement as it pertains to custody transfer applications. Custody transfer measurement includes accurate quantity measurement through the use of metering, though equally important is accurate quality measurement through the use of quality and sampling equipment. These custody transfer and/or fiscal metering stations consist of mechanical components and instrumentation on a skidded system along with simple to complex supervisory control systems with flow computers, programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and a human machine interface (HMI) with customized programming to achieve the required measurement goal.
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Document ID: 633C65D8

ASGMT 2018 LNG CUSTODY TRANSFER MEASUREMENT
Abstract/Introduction:
SOME GAS HISTORY 1850 SOME GAS HISTORY 1850 -Present ? 500 BTU/CF Manufactured Coal Gas was being Utilized in Europe and especially UK in the early to mid early to mid -1800s 1800s ? Manufactured Coal Gas was being Utilized in Major US Cities by the Civil War as Numerous Municipal Gas Lighting and then Heavy Industrial Applications. ? Natural Gas Transmission arrived in NE the early 1950s. ? Complete Appliance Conversion was Required because of the new 1000 Complete Appliance Conversion was Required because of the new 1000 BTU/CF Fuel. ? Propane Air was quickly identified as a peak shaving Fuel. ? LNG and NY/PA Midstream Gas Storage was Developed in Parallel.
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Document ID: 76DDE48C

MEASUREMENT ERROR AND ASSOCIATED LOST AND UNACCOUNTED FOR
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Given volatile natural gas prices and increased regulation by federal and state governments, the natural gas measurement industry has assumed an every drop counts approach to operations. As a result, issues such as measurement error and unaccounted-for (UAF) gas are under much closer scrutiny. Production, gathering, midstream, pipeline, and distribution companies are all responsible for managing UAF. Long gone are the days when the cost and impact of UAF was passed directly to the customer, with virtually no requirements for managing and reducing costs associated with the loss. Historically, UAF has resulted from a combination of factors, but current industry trends have introduced new complexities to the issue. For instance, growing interest in shale plays has given rise to many company mergers and acquisitions, which have resulted in diversified oil and gas operations. An increasing number of producers and midstream companies must now track and balance multiple fluids in their systems, including natural gas, natural gas liquids (NGLs), and heavier hydrocarbons (i.e., longer-chain hydrocarbon molecules). At the same time, measurement departments are faced with increasingly ambitious UAF loss targets. In light of these industry dynamics, reviewing the latest concerns with measurement errors and UAF issues, and the processes for identifying and mitigating them, has become imperative.
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Document ID: 63411354

MEASUREMENT DATA CAPTURE, PROCESSING, AND RETENTION
Author(s): Duane Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
practices use flow computers located near the primary measuring device to capture, calculate, and store measurement data. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems or polling engines (PEs) are used to collect measurement information on a scheduled frequency using microwave, fiber, satellite, or cellular communication channels. After the SCADA/PE system collects the measurement data, the information is made available to the measurement system. The measurement system provides a processing layer that validates data to ensure integrity and compliance with regulatory and industry requirements. Data retention policies are then determined by organizational standard operating procedures (SOPs) and regulatory and/or contractual requirements.
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Document ID: EF1DE897

METHODS FOR CERTIFYING MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT
Author(s): Scott A. Crone
Abstract/Introduction:
Like any other piece of equipment, a measurement artifact must be maintained. Obviously, it has to be in working order in general. However, what is more important is that it be operating within specified parameters and providing measurements that are traceable to a known source or sources. This paper provides a general overview of calibration and certification. It also discusses some key terminology and methods.
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Document ID: 62FDF03B

ONSITE PROVING OF GAS METERS
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increased use of Natural Gas as a fuel, and higher natural gas prices buyers and sellers of natural gas are seriously looking at ways to improve their natural gas measurement and reduce the error in natural gas measurement. A 6 Turbine or Ultrasonic meter operating at 1,000 Psi will move 100 MMSCF/Day. An error in measurement of only one tenth of one percent (0.1%) on 100 Million Standard Cubic Feet (MMSCF) of Natural Gas selling at 4.00 per Thousand Standard Cubic Feet (MSCF) will cause an over or under billing of 400.00. Therefore the error in a year is (400 X 365) 146,000.00 This will more than pay for a proving or verifying system. The Btu in one barrel of oil is equivalent to the Btu in approximately 5,600 cubic feet of natural gas. At 4.00 per thousand cubic feet, the natural gas equivalent of one barrel of oil is 22.40 which is much less than a barrel of oil so natural gas is becoming the fuel of choice. In the petroleum liquid industry, no custody transfer liquid measurement system would be complete without a method to prove the meter, either as part of the equipment, or through connections provided to connect a portable prover.
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Document ID: 5E25680B

OVERALL MEASUREMENT ACCURACY
Author(s): Paul J. La Nasa
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents methods for determining the uncertainty of both differential and positive metering stations. It takes into account the type of meter, number of meters in parallel, type of secondary instruments, and the determination of physical properties. The paper then relates this information to potential influence on system balance Introduction Gas measurement uncertainty is a function of the following items: ? Selection of the appropriate metering device. ? Correct Installation of the metering device. ? Proper meter operation and processing of the metering information. ? Proper maintenance of the metering device. Understanding how measurement uncertainty applies to metering requires a basic knowledge of the terminology and assumptions used in the calculation of measurement uncertainty.
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Document ID: 05B4DDAB

OVERVIEW OF AGA REPORT 7 REVISION - MEASUREMENT BY TURBINE METERS
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is to provide an overview of the AGA Report No. 7 - Measurement of Natural Gas by Turbine Meters.
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Document ID: 4114731D

Pressure, Temperature, and Other Effects on Turbine Meter Gas Flow Measurement
Author(s): Paul W. Tang
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper explains the general working principle of gas turbine meters and the common causes for turbine metering errors. Field observations and laboratory test examples are presented in this paper. The author also suggests methods to optimize the measurement performance of turbine meter installations.
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Document ID: AD1CF482

PROBLEMS UNIQUE TO OFFSHORE GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Royce Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Some major problems and unique solutions will be addressed with gas measurement on offshore platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. This presentation will show the major roll safety, transportation, and weather play in the technicians ability to verify the accuracy of the gas measurement facility. Proper operation, design, and installation will ensure accurate measurement.
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Document ID: 5DBDEC4F

PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT EFFECTS ON GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): John McDaniel Tom Cleveland
Abstract/Introduction:
The drill bit penetrates a rock formation thousands of feet below the surface of the earth, a steel casing is slid into the hole, and perforations are made to the casing that reach into the surrounding rock. At that point, an escape route is created for anything in the formation that can be released to the surface, which has lower pressure, or that can be lifted by that process. The producer must be able to obtain enough of what comes up to the surface and conditioned to a marketable state to make it worthwhile. Obviously, the natural gas, natural gas liquids (NGLs), crude oil and condensates are the valuable commodities that are produced and sold. Unfortunately, other materials are included in what surfaces from inside the earth. Many of these require production equipment to remove the material or condition the product for sale, and the effects of some types of production equipment used can have an effect on measurement.
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Document ID: 8A25E1F8

PROTECTION OF NATURAL GAS MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT AGAINST MOISTURE AND CORROSION
Author(s): DONALD P. MAYEAUX
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation addresses problems associated with moisture and corrosion caused by high relative humidity and airborne contaminants. By controlling moisture and corrosion long-term, many problems associated with sensitive field electronics can be avoided.
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Document ID: 9730AF9A

REAL TIME ELECTRONIC GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Al Majek
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of oil & gas production has progressed considerably since the days of paper charts and manual integration. Technology has moved increasingly to microprocessor based flow computers allowing for greater measurement accuracy, increased control functionality, and ready integration into a companys enterprise computer networks.
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Document ID: 99C46A40

BASICS OF ULTRASONIC FLOW METERS
Author(s): David Crandall
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to explain the measurement of natural gas for custody transfer applications through the use of ultrasonic meters. Specifically, this paper explains the operation of ultrasonic meters, issues surrounding their performance in natural gas, calibration procedures, and proper installation considerations. Additionally, the electronics making the measurements generate calculated values relating to the operation of the meter and as a result a database is available to provide analysis of the meters ongoing performance. Meter health parameters can be evaluated to verify the meters operation and these principles are explained.
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Document ID: 960CB5C8

TRANSIENT LIGHTNING PROTECTION FOR ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENT DEVICES
Author(s): Leon Black
Abstract/Introduction:
We have all heard of or seen the devastating effects of a direct lightning burst. Communication equipment destroyed. Transmitters and EFM devices vaporized into slag metal. Complete process and measurement systems down with extended recovery times. These effects are the most dramatic and the easiest to trace. However, these kinds of events are rare. The more prominent events are those that occur on a day-to-day basis without we, the user, even knowing. With the advent of the transistor and today when surface mount electronics is the norm and not the exception, transient suppression has become a science of necessity. Tight tolerances of voltage requirements and limited current carrying capabilities makes the new compact integrated circuits much more susceptible to many types of transients.
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Document ID: C67548EF

ULTRASONIC FLOW METER CALIBRATION - CONSIDERATIONS AND BENEFITS
Author(s): Terrence A. Grimley
Abstract/Introduction:
Since their introduction to the natural gas industry in the mid-1990s, multipath ultrasonic flow meters have developed a large installed base and have become the meters of choice for a variety of reasons. While one of the initial goals of the manufacturers was to develop a meter that did not require flow calibration, the accuracy requirements of most measurement applications dictate that ultrasonic flow meters need to be flow calibrated. This paper provides an overview of the calibration process and elements that should be considered by those responsible for the calibration.
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Document ID: 6D60960B

ULTRASONIC FLOW METERS - PART 1
Author(s): Terrence A Grimley
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is the first of a two-part series that provides an introduction to flow measurement using transit-time ultrasonic flow meters. This paper covers the essential knowledge that users should have regarding the basic operation of ultrasonic flow meters. The second paper will provide more detail on diagnostics and operational effects on ultrasonic flow meters.
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Document ID: C1344C4D

ULTRASONIC FLOW METERS - PART 2
Author(s): Terrence A. Grimley
Abstract/Introduction:
Part 1 of this paper provided basic information on the theory, application, and installation of ultrasonic flow meters to natural gas measurement. This paper covers additional information related to the interface and operation of ultrasonic meters.
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Document ID: BB060C7E

Recognition & Resolution of Problems with Gas Ultrasonic Flow Meters ASGMT Advanced Gas Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Jim Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline Operators have used Ultrasonic meters commercially for gas custody transfer applications since the late 90s. These meters combination of operating features, including superior rangeability and on-board diagnostics have made this the technology of choice for most high volume gas metering applications. As user comfort with, and capabilities of, the technology has increased and the size and cost of ultrasonic meters has decreased, Operators and Manufacturers continue to stretch the envelope of application possibilities. This includes use in upstream, corrosive and high CO2 applications, where the technology previously couldnt work or didnt make economic sense.
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Document ID: 1A19B96C

Multipath Ultrasonic Meters for Custody Transfer of Natural Gas
Author(s): Jim Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past 30 years, gas ultrasonic meters have transitioned from the engineering lab to wide commercial use as the primary device of choice to measure gas volume for fiscal accounting. Wide acceptance and use by gas pipeline companies has occurred during this time due to the devices ? Reliability ? Accuracy ? Repeatability ? Capacity (rangeability) ? Commercial availability that translates into product support, and ? Adoption of industry standards for fiscal measurement applications
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Document ID: 6B59596C

METER VALIDATION FOR DIFFERENT PRESSURE FLOW MEASUREMENT DEVICES USING ADVANCE METER DIAGNOSTICS
Author(s): H.K.NaRayan, Dr. Richard Stevens
Abstract/Introduction:
Differential Pressure (DP) Flow meters are popular for being relatively simple, reliable and inexpensive. Their principles of operation are relatively easily understood. However, traditionally there has been a misconception that no DP meter self-diagnostic capabilities exist and as such only upgrading to newer ultrasonic or Coriolis technology can help bridge this gap. In 2008 & 2009 a generic Differential Pressure (DP) meter self-diagnostic methodology 1,2 was proposed to the industry. In this paper these advanced diagnostic principles were applied towards helping provide end user a newer yet effective, methodology for DP flow meters diagnostics, field proven with experimental test results. These results form the basis of a comprehensive validation methodology designed to help meter operators achieve improved confidence on their DP measurement and thereby help lower their operational risks associated with large measurement uncertainties due to non-compliance. The paper also aims to demonstrate how such new advanced tools/methodologies can help reduce operating costs (OPEX) by moving towards a risk based predictive maintenance plan.
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Document ID: 971C8828

Liquids Measurement, Whats an Industry To Do?
Author(s): Mark V. Goloby
Abstract/Introduction:
of attention. Some are dismayed at the low level of technology used to measure liquids. Today, custody transfer of 80 to 85% of onshore crude and condensate production is still documented by a hauler climbing to the top of the tank and strapping it. That would be a fair estimate, concurs Mark Davis Staff Engineer Shell Exploration and Production. The hauler straps the tank before loading his truck and again when he finishes. The producer is paid on whatever that hauler writes on the ticket. I did not realize it was that immature, remarked Grant Farris, Vice President Producer Services, CIMA Energy.
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Document ID: 97FFA2D5

AUDITING LIQUID MEASUREMENT FACILITIES
Author(s): Galen Cotton
Abstract/Introduction:
The word Auditing is often used to imply that activities related to a review of general business practices, and procedures for an asset or business unit, are under way. The objective of those activities is to assure compliance with corporate policies and procedures, industry and government standards, and sound management principles. Additional objectives may include review of accounting and financial transactions for accuracy, completeness and timeliness. The Institute of Internal Auditing defines the process as: Internal auditing is an independent, objective assurance and consulting activity designed to add value and improve an organizations operations. It helps an organization accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance processes.
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Document ID: B715FE58

CONSIDERATIONS FOR LIQUID MEASUREMENT IN PRODUCTION APPLICATIONS
Author(s): Joey Raskie Kyle Barry
Abstract/Introduction:
With the proliferation of horizontal drilling allowing access to tight oil formations, liquid production in the U.S. has significantly increased over recent years. Consequently, there is renewed interest in accurate measurements for both custody transfer and allocation purposes. Advances in measurement automation have yielded operators savings in the millions of dollars annually. Over the last several years, the increase of shale play drilling has created a problem within the industry. Most of the shale plays have been developed in primarily natural gas production areas, where a lack of liquids measurement knowledge may exist. While there certainly are knowledgeable people in these areas, measurement personnel can be spread thin due to the many active drill sites. Both allocation measurement and custody transfer measurement occur in these areas, so measurement personnel must be well versed on both. Typical questions that come up are: What is the right technology to use in each of the areas of measurement? Should I use turbine meters, Coriolis meters, or maybe just orifice meters? What data do I need to get back to my host system? Should I just count barrels or do I want to get some real insight into the process?
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Document ID: 62913E55

FUNDAMENTALS OF PYCNOMETERS AND DENSITOMETERS
Author(s): Kevin Fields
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss the use of pycnometers for densitometer provings. The primary objective will be to provide guidance in the operation and maintenance of a densitometer and pycnometer (pyc), as well as common issues found during normal operation.
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Document ID: 5677DABD

FUNDAMENTALS OF MASS MEASUREMENT (CORIOLIS METERS)
Author(s): Marsha Yon Kyle Barry
Abstract/Introduction:
The first flow meter utilizing the Coriolis force to measure mass flow was patented in 1978. Today, hundreds of thousands of Coriolis meters are in service in the hydrocarbon industry to measure mass, volume, and density of a wide variety of fluids. The American Petroleum Institute published Chapter 5.6 entitled Measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbons by Coriolis Meters in October 2002 and reaffirmed the standard in 2013. The standard describes methods to achieve custody transfer levels of accuracy when a Coriolis meter is used to measure liquid hydrocarbons.
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Document ID: 2062B9DB

Unidirectional Captive Displacement Prover for Verification of all Metering Technologies
Author(s): Greg Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will verify the history, requirements and operation of all Provers accepted for liquid pipeline meter uncertainty verification in the Liquid Oil/Gas Industry. It will continue with an explanation and the industries wide acceptance of the Uni-directional Captive Displacement Prover (UDCDP). This document will supply the reader with information regarding meter types and the flow volumes that can be used with the UDCDP and will look at the opportunities for the use of a UDCDP as a mass prover. It will also provide the information for field verification of provers known as a water draw.
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Document ID: 1B8D0594

FUNDAMENTALS OF NATURAL GAS LIQUID MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Don Sextro Dan Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
markedly different in other aspects. The main difference in NGL measurement is the need to properly address the effects of solution mixing. Measuring NGL by mass measurement techniques will properly address solution mixing effects because the mass measurement process is not sensitive to the effect that pressure, temperature and solution mixing have on the fluid measured. Another difference is the effect of higher vapor pressures on the measurement of natural gas liquids. In static measurement methods, the liquid equivalent of the vapor space must be determined. In dynamic measurement methods, the equilibrium vapor pressure, or that pressure at which a liquid and its vapor phase is in equilibrium at a given operating temperature, must be deducted from the operating pressure when determining the compressibility effects on measured volumes. This paper will describe the basic concepts used to measure and report the quantities of NGL streams.
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Document ID: E93B0F2A

FUNDAMENTALS OF NGL METER STATION DESIGN
Author(s): Tony Lockard Doug Patel
Abstract/Introduction:
components in different ways. There are multiple considerations that influence the meter station design and all must be taken into account. Major considerations are: what product or products will be measured, what meter technology to utilize, and the process design limitations. The first thing that must be taken into account is whether the product is a purity product or a mixed compositional product. Most purity products are measured and accounted for by volume, while a mixed compositional product is measured and accounted for by mass. This influences the meter skid design, since mass product skids must be set-up to allow for the streams mass and streams composition to be measured properly.
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Document ID: EB88BF64

FUNDAMENTALS OF NGL SAMPLING SYSTEMS
Author(s): Dominic Giametta Jim Klentzman
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to discuss in depth the systems we use as a standard to sample natural gas liquids, or NGLs. Before we discuss the systems and methods used to sample these products, we must first clearly define what NGLs are. NGLs can be a combination of any fluid in liquid form that is taken from the pipeline under pressure. Typically, NGL refers mainly to ethane, propane, butanes, and natural gasolines (pentanes) & condensates. Because of the broad range of products that can be claimed as NGLs, there are many different approaches to the methods by which we sample them. The common thread among all NGLs is that these products in order to be maintained and properly sampled, require the use of specific sampling techniques unique to light liquid and NGL sampling.
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Document ID: B4B0BD7E

FUNDAMENTALS OF VOLUME MEASUREMENT (TURBINE METERS)
Author(s): Tony Petitto
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine meters have been used for the custody transfer of refined petroleum products and light crude oils for over 40 years. When correctly applied, they offer high accuracy and long service life over a wide range of products and operating conditions. Traditionally turbine metes were used for the measurement of low viscosity liquids and PD meters for higher viscosities. However, new developments in turbine meter technology are pushing these application limits while increasing reliability and accuracy. This paper will examine the fundamental principles of turbine meter measurement as well as new developments including: smart preamps for real-time diagnostics, helical flow turbine meters for higher viscosity applications, higher performance flow conditioners to increase accuracy, and viscosity compensation to extend the application limits.
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Document ID: 4BD9C7C7

Hand Calculating NGL Metering Tickets
Author(s): Don Sextro Eric Estrada
Abstract/Introduction:
How Is the Volume Determined From Mass Measurement? Determining the mass of the fluid - GPA 8182 / API MPMS 14.7 Determining the composition of the fluid - GPA 2177 Determining the volume for each component - GPA 8173 / API MPMS 14.4 (Method for converting mass of natural gas liquids and vapors to equivalent liquid volumes) Totaling the component volume to arrive at a total equivalent liquid volume
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Document ID: ADCD0E3B

INTEGRATING AND TRENDING USM, FLOW COMPUTER, AND CHROMATOGRAPH DIAGNOSTICS TO IDENTIFY MEASUREMENT PROBLEMS
Author(s): Ed Hanks
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays smart measurement devices produce significant diagnostics information. When the diagnostics from the various devices are collected, trended, and integrated, operators can remotely and continuously identify measurement problems. The vocabulary associated with this topic is evolving. In the past, the industry used terms such as SCADA and Condition Based Monitoring to describe this process. These terms are being replaced by terms such as Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and Big Data Analytics, and even AI. In either case, this paper looks at the problems associated with collecting, trending, and integrating diagnostics information. It then gives examples of how diagnostics can be used to identify measurement problems. Finally, the paper provides an example of the reduction in exposure to Lost and Unaccounted For gas (LAUF) that operators may expect through implementing comprehensive diagnostic monitoring and analysis systems.
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Document ID: 3DE4D40F

EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP AT ALL LEVELS
Author(s): Bill Stahl
Abstract/Introduction:
We study Engineering, Accounting, Business Management, Computer Science and a host of other curriculums on our way to employment. Technical schools teach us Ohms Law, Fundamental Physics, Chemistry, Electronics and Welding. Courses and complete degree programs in Leadership are available but for some reason, Effective Leadership is rarely taught in the disciplines found in our industry. While we admire sports heroes and winning coaches, how often do we admire winning CEOs or Managers? How many coaches, teachers or other people of influence have mentored us to success? How do we adapt the winning qualities we find in sports or college to Leadership in our careers? Sadly, Managers often lead or manage as they were managed. Traditions and bad habits persist as employees tolerate poor leadership and sometimes move to competition or out of the industry all together.
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Document ID: A701BA55

ELECTRONIC GAS MEASUREMENT AUDITING
Author(s): Gary P. Menzel
Abstract/Introduction:
twenty years, the natural gas industry has changed from the dry flow chart recorder to the Electronic flow Computer(EFM) as the primary method of recording the measurement data for custody transfer. These flow computers are still typically connected to an orifice meter and are subject to all of the problems in the primary device that a chart recorder was. In addition they have their own set of problems that crop up in the flow computer and transmitters, some of which had similar problems when it was a chart recorder and some of which are unique to the flow computer. Careful review of the meter data should still be (and usually is) a part of the monthly close process. Even with the review process, occasionally measurement errors make it through to the payment calculation. It is for this reason that auditing is necessary and prudent. A proper audit procedure can be cost effective and ensure that proper credit is received for any delivery. As a side benefit, it will also help ensure that internal measurement is being performed properly.
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Document ID: C0925AE6

FIELD DATA CAPTURE WITHOUT PAPER FORMS
Author(s): Bruce Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter inspections, configuration changes, calibration verification, troubleshooting, and gas sampling generate important subsets of measurement data. Automated computer systems capture, process, store, and report this data better than manual, paper-based systems minimizing effort, time, resources, and error for field and office workers.
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Document ID: 1EA42199

GAS AND LIQUID MEASUREMENT VALIDATION NEW AUDIT REQUIREMENTS EXPAND THE FOCUS ON MEASUREMENT DATA INTEGRITY
Author(s): R. Michael Squyres
Abstract/Introduction:
Fundamental to all electronic gas measurement (EGM) and electronic liquids measurement (ELM) systems is the ability to accurately measure, review, correct, and report data. Any weakness in this chain undermines the accuracy and data integrity in the system. Recent industry standards and practices have greatly expanded the emphasis on data integrity. The Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) Act of 2002 focuses on the integrity and consistency of all financial-based transactions for an organization. A SOX auditor will directly reference the American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) Chapter 21 (popularly known as API 21) as the standard for all steps in the measurement process throughout an organization. Therefore, measurement personnel must possess a thorough understanding of API 21 and put its requirements to practice in order to satisfy the audit process.
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Document ID: 51D49DCD

GAS CONTRACTS IMPACT ON MEASUREMENT ACCURACY
Author(s): T. Dean Graves
Abstract/Introduction:
Much effort is spent to achieve accurate measurement. Up to date measurement standards, modern meter station design, high quality equipment, and proper measurement operations are all necessary for measurement accuracy. Unfortunately, these processes do not assure measurement accuracy if the contract does not also support accurate measurement. The contract impacts measurement accuracy by what it addresses and what is left unaddressed. More focus needs to be applied to the measurement sections of the contracts. Hopefully this paper will help the reader better understand the relationship between the contract and accuracy.
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Document ID: 76CCB9AB

Methods of Gathering Electronic Gas Measurement (EGM) Data
Author(s): Tony Cocchiarella
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is to discuss the various methods of gathering electronic gas measurement (EGM) data. There are various options when it comes to collecting EGM data in the Natural Gas Industry. Devices such as RTUs, PLCs and EFMs are typically used to collect and store the data locally. The focus of this paper is on the various technologies used to remotely gather the information stored on these devices. Depending on each companys needs, these collection options could range from someone physically connecting to a device to collection via a satellite system. Spread spectrum networks became increasingly popular over the years, which as a result introduced realized interference due to the number of networks installed. Many companies are utilizing IP technologies versus serial in order to combine other networks and protocols. Licensed networks have been utilized for quite some time and are still used to meet reliability requirements. Cellular networks are often used when there is no infrastructure available in that area. Cellular networks will of course have a reoccurring cost associated with them. Satellite technology is required in some remote and/or saturated areas. Satellite communications can be costlier but is the only option available in some areas.
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Document ID: 7B044EE1

TRAINING FIELD PERSONNEL - Training Field Measurement Technicians
Author(s): Tom Pendleton
Abstract/Introduction:
natural gas pipeline company complained that his new measurement employees (new hires and experienced personnel that have transferred into gas measurement) are not performing required tasks and activities to his expectations. My over-pressure protection & measurement equipment supplier, two months ago, presented a free, 1-day training session on How to Test a Relief Valve Set Point. I paid for donuts and lunch! We told them exactly how to do it. My employees just dont get it. This response, a reaction created from frustration, plays out time and time again. Although this Director recognizes a performance deficiency, his statement is directed at a result (actual outcome) rather than the cause(s) that creates his concern. Many companies today are implementing proactive workforce readiness strategies. They are no longer simply paying lip service to the need for effective training programs, devising reactive measures, or creating explanations regarding why employees dont understand and cannot perform the skills expected of them.
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Document ID: D15C3BB2

BASIC IP NETWORKING FOR FIELD TECHNICIANS
Author(s): Burke P. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays oil & gas industry is facing major technology changes in the field automation and control of devices. In the past nearly all SCADA and EFM devices only had a serial port to gather the data. These devices now have Ethernet ports along with serial ports, to communicate, control, program and transmit the data back to a company central data gathering/polling host. This change from mostly serial to mostly Ethernet communications has made the job of a field automation / measurement technician more complex. Setting up the Ethernet port in a meter involves knowing a number of parameters to ensure reliable communications of the data being polled. This article will cover some of the basic things a technician will have to know to connect to your company WAN (Wide Area Network).
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Document ID: AB329336

Upstream Natural Gas Sales Verification Producer and Pipeline Perspectives
Author(s): Mark B. Fillman Jayson A. Payne
Abstract/Introduction:
Within the upstream sector of the oil and gas industry, the custody transfer of natural gas is usually determined by orifice measurement which is governed by a sales agreement between the producer and pipeline company. In most cases, the gas sales agreement references a combination of American Gas Association (AGA), American Petroleum Institute (API), and Gas Processors Association (GPA) standards which are to be incorporated into the custody measurement procedures. Verification that the physical deliveries of natural gas are accurate and accountable, for both parties, is fundamental to the business cycle that occurs each month. This paper reviews the relationships between producer and pipeline, the varying responsibilities of each party, and some useful methods to produce more accurate and accountable natural gas measurement results.
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Document ID: 350D9237

UTILIZING WIRELESS INSTRUMENTATION IN WELL OPTIMIZATION
Author(s): Denis Rutherford
Abstract/Introduction:
The Natural Gas and Oil industry is continually driven by cost cutting measures and the need to gain more operational efficiencies and visibility to regulatory requirements. This paper summarizes a solution in which wireless instruments integrate with other conventional equipment to offer a rapidly deployable advanced well optimization system. Wireless instrumentation products provide cost-effective and easy to install alternatives to traditional, hardwired sensor sites. These rugged field units are designed for the majority of Oil & Gas applications and for installations ranging from general purpose to Class I Div I hazardous locations with extreme temperature and humidity ranges. True wireless instrumentation is comprised of self contained, self-powered field units providing process data to a centralized base radio through an unlicensed band, spread-spectrum, and frequency hopping wireless connection. Networks of up to 100 field units (900MHz version) can be created and polled by a single base radio using a secure, proprietary Industrial Wireless protocol, with a typical range between field unit and base radio of up to 5000ft (-1500m). With the capability to scale up to as many as 256 wireless instrumentation LANs, Wireless Instrumentation networks easily accommodate future expansion plans.
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Document ID: 88EB423E

AUDITING GAS ANALYSIS LABS
Author(s): Carl Alleman
Abstract/Introduction:
The data produced by Gas Chromatograph (GC) laboratories is used for many purposes, including product specification, accounting, safety and environmental compliance issues. The accuracy of this data has direct impact on all of these areas. Auditing laboratories responsible for producing this data is prudent business practice. The audit will provide a means of process improvement, through proper identification of deficiencies and a precise plan for corrective action. The level of confidence in analytical results will increase when the appropriate corrective actions are implemented. The amount of financial and legal exposure can be reduced from a properly executed audit program.
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Document ID: 7D60C144

CONSIDERATIONS FOR SAMPLING WET, HIGH PRESSURE, AND SUPERCRITICAL NATURAL GAS
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux Shannon M. Bromley
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the problems encountered when sampling wet, high pressure and supercritical natural gas for on-line BTU analysis and provides solutions and comments on how they relate to the API and GPA industry standards for natural gas sampling. It also discusses the use of phase diagrams in the design and operation of a natural gas sampling system.
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Document ID: BA4F7AEF

D.O.T. REQUIREMENTS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF SAMPLE CYLINDERS
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The United States Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) is a department of the U.S. Federal Government which oversees all issues regarding transportation within the United States of America and U.S. Territories. Its influence around the world is great and widely respected, but its jurisdiction and power of enforcement is limited to the USA and its territories. As regards this paper, we will discuss the D.O.T. and its involvement surrounding sample cylinders for the hydrocarbon industry and the rules regarding the movement of these cylinders from point to point in the United States.
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Document ID: 6948F013

Determination of Hydrogen Sulfide and Total Sulfur in Natural Gas
Author(s): Kurt Webber
Abstract/Introduction:
H2S and Sulfur Compounds H2S and other sulfur compounds occur naturally with oil and gas deposits around the world. In general, sulfur compounds are considered undesirable and are removed from hydrocarbons. H2S is colorless, toxic, highly reactive and flammable. Distinctive rotten egg odor at low concentration. Amine stripping and sulfur recovery. Chemical absorbents. Sulfatreat Activated Carbon ZnO
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Document ID: B134C758

DEVICES FOR FIELD DETERMINATION OF H2O IN NATURAL GAS
Author(s): Sam Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
H2O vapor is an undesirable component of natural gas. It takes up space in the pipeline and provides no fuel value. In higher concentrations it can condense into liquid water in the pipeline and cause corrosion, especially in the presence of carbon dioxide or H2S. Liquid water can also cause damage to turbines. Because of this, most gas transfer tariffs include a limit on the acceptable concentration of H2O in the gas stream. This paper reviews the devices that can be used in the field to determine the amount of water vapor present in a natural gas stream.
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Document ID: 8B3C9C12

DEW POINT WET GAS AND ITS EFFECT ON NATURAL GAS SAMPLING SYSTEMS
Author(s): Philip A Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
Wet gas measurement is becoming widely used in the modern oil and gas market place. The effect of entrained liquid in gas and its impact on measurement systems is being researched world-wide by various laboratories and JIP working groups. The impact can be very significant financially. Hydrocarbon Dew Point can also effect the financial operation of a gas transportation company if not managed effectively amounting to hundreds of thousands of dollars per annum based on incorrect sampling and its subsequent analysis.
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Document ID: 1579B305

EFFECTS OF WET GAS FLOW ON GAS ORIFICE PLATE METERS
Author(s): Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice plate meters are one of the most widely used technologies in industry for gas flow metering. This is due to their relative simplicity, the extensive publicly available data sets that led to several orifice plate meter standards 1, 2, 3, 4 and the fact that they are a relatively inexpensive method of gas metering. However, it is common in industry for gas meters to be installed in applications where the flows are actually wet gas flows, i.e. flows where there is some liquid entrainment in a predominantly gas flow. This is usually done out of economic necessity or due to the fact that the system designers were not aware at the systems conceptual design stage that the gas flow would have entrained liquid. Therefore, with the orifice plate meter being such a popular gas flow meter it is by default the most common wet gas flow meter. The affect of wet gas flow on an orifice plate meter configured for gas flow service is complicated. There are on going research programs aimed at improving the understanding of the reaction of the orifice plate meter to wet gas flow. Whereas much of this research is published in recent conference papers it is very technical and is not always immediately relevant to the technician in the field how this information can be practically applied. This paper attempts to review the current scientific knowledge from a practical users stand point.
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Document ID: 54ED9AF4

PRINCIPALS OF ODORIZATION
Author(s): Matthew S. Parrott
Abstract/Introduction:
In the one hundred and thirty years, or so that we have known natural gas as a fuel source in the United States, the demand for natural gas has grown at an astounding rate. There is virtually no area of North America that doesnt have natural gas provided as an energy source. The methods of producing, transporting, measuring, and delivering this valuable resource have advanced, and improved in direct relation to the demand for a clean burning and efficient fuel. While todays economic climate determines the rate of growth the gas industry enjoys, in a broad sense, natural gas is certainly considered essential and a fuel of the future.
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Document ID: 5AC1C2F9

MEASURING HYDROCARBON AND WATER DEWPOINTS
Author(s): Sohrab Zarrabian
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrocarbon Dew Point (HDP) remains one of the key quality parameters of natural gas streams. Its determination is needed for operational and safety considerations, as well as to satisfy tariffs and regulations in US and overseas pipeline operations. The recent development of shale gas in US has added to the need for accurate and consistent measurement of HDP across a range of different mixtures of natural gas. Theoretical methods for prediction of natural gas have been used in the past, but have been shown to have significant errors associated with them1. In general, theoretical methods using GC component analysis and EOS models have too much error to be useful. Direct measurements, using a chilled-mirror, continue to remain the preferred method for measurement of HDP.
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Document ID: 9CF9C99F

USE OF EQUATION OF STATE (EOS) SOFTWARE
Author(s): Adam G. Hawley Darin L. George
Abstract/Introduction:
Determination of fluid properties and phase conditions of hydrocarbon mixtures is critical for accurate hydrocarbon measurement, representative sampling, and overall pipeline operation. Fluid properties such as compressibility and density are critical for flow measurement, and determination of the hydrocarbon due point is important to verify that heavier hydrocarbons will not condense out of a gas mixture in changing process conditions. In the oil and gas industry, equations of state (EOS) are typically used to determine the properties and the phase conditions of hydrocarbon mixtures. EOS are mathematical correlations that relate properties of hydrocarbons to pressure, temperature, and fluid composition. Various software packages are available that use different EOS to calculate a range of natural gas properties and phase conditions. This paper discusses the different EOS that are available, the properties that can be obtained from each EOS, and practical uses of EOS software for natural gas pipeline applications.
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Document ID: 260F7513

SAMPLING CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH UNCONVENTIONAL GAS SOURCES
Author(s): Mark Firmin
Abstract/Introduction:
Advances in exploration, drilling and production technologies make it feasible to extract natural gas from sources that in the past have been regarded as unconventional and so, such sources are becoming a larger percentage of the gas supply. The feasibility of producing gas from a source is the primary factor in determining whether that source should be categorized as conventional or unconventional. What has been unconventional in the past may be considered conventional in the future.
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Document ID: ABA73B3F

TECHNIQUES OF GAS COMPOSITE SAMPLING
Author(s): Matthew S. Parrott
Abstract/Introduction:
While inaccuracies in measurement can be costly and common, they are also avoidable in many cases. Technicians willing to study the experiences and best practices of industry leaders can make a world of difference by applying what theyve learned and sharing this knowledge with others. Composite sampling is a straightforward method. When managed correctly, samplers are able to take small bites of a flowing gas or liquid in such a way that the complete sample accurately represents what was in the pipeline for a given sample period. Composite sampling continues to be a widely used method for economically and accurately collecting a representative sample for a prolonged sample period, so it is important for technicians in the field to develop an understanding of the best practices.
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Document ID: F48E267C

TECHNIQUES FOR NATURAL GAS SAMPLING A DISCUSSION OF FIELD METHODS FOR OBTAINING SPOT SAMPLES
Author(s): Marielle Verot
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas sampling is performed for many reasons. Primarily sampling is performed to determine total gas composition, gas quality, and gas value. The three techniques normally used to obtain gas samples are continuous composite sampling, continuous online sampling, or spot sampling. This paper will discuss the various spot sampling techniques, proper sampling implementation, and equipment utilized to obtain spot samples.
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Document ID: 9F4E76CD

OVERVIEW OF PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION TECHNOLOGIES
Author(s): Jun Zhang Peter Han Michael Twomey
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipelines have transported water, oil and gas for hundreds of years, serving residential communities, industrial sites and commercial centers reliably and silently. Leak detection systems (LDS) are needed because pipeline spills occur more frequently as infrastructure ages and more hazardous products are transported. Leak detection systems cannot prevent leaks, but they can certainly help minimize the consequence of leak. Regrettably, too many leak detection systems fail to detect leaks, and other leak detection systems are ignored by the operators because they are unreliable. Thus, leaks that should have been small spills become disasters that cost pipeline owners millions of dollars.
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Document ID: CFB4773B

COMPAIRING PLUG & SEAT REGULATORS & CONTROL VALVES
Author(s): Rick Schneider
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays charging world of technology there have been may changes in controls that now allow to truly compare a plug and seat regulator to a control valve for high-pressure natural gas installations such as: power plants, city gate stations, large industrial customers, compressor stations, and storage fields. The features, benefits, capabilities, and differences of both devices will be outlined, to enable the reader to make an educated selection. In addition, acceptable design practices will be reviewed concerning sizing, gas velocities, noise levels, equipment layout, and performance. The ball valve is the most commonly used type of modulating valve for natural gas pipeline control applications, for that reason, we will limit this discussion to comparison between the plug and seat regulator and versions of a 1/4 turn ball valve.
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Document ID: 41AA13E8

US Natural Gas M&R: Overview
Author(s): Doug Early Thomas Quine
Abstract/Introduction:
A Discussion of Historical and Present Day Natural Gas, Gas Storage and LNG in US. Overview of Design of 21st Century M&R Facilities in US
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Document ID: E4E3D103

FIELD TESTING GAS METERS BY TRANSFER PROVING
Author(s): Larry K. Wunderlich
Abstract/Introduction:
Transfer proving was initially developed to provide an easier and more accurate field meter proving method. Because of the capacity capabilities of transfer provers (2000 CFH to 80,000 CFH) transfer provers are utilized in meter shops where bell prover capacity is limited and allow for shop testing of the larger capacity meters.
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Document ID: 537BCB76

PERIODIC INSPECTION OF REGULATORS AND RELIEF VALVES
Author(s): James M. Doyle
Abstract/Introduction:
Inspections and tests on regulators and relief valves is a Department of Transportation Compliance rule. The sections within the DOT manual stating the rule include 192.351 through 192.359, 192.751, 192.479, 192.481, 192.739, and 192.741. Keep in mind these rules are the minimum required tests. Your Company or Regulatory Agency may be more stringent and require more or detailed testing. You must also keep in mind that the Manufacturer of your equipment will also provide a guideline pertaining to maintenance. These tests are not only required for safe, reliable service to your Customers, but also could be used in any legal proceeding for documentation and purpose. There are many important tasks and precautionary measures to perform and inform before you actually start the actual testing. Listing these items and performing a checklist could provide to be a reminder. Some station designs and equipment installations may require more than one person to perform a safe, reliable test. Plan the procedure within your work group, be sure all safety equipment and notifications are in place, perform the task and document the results according to your Company procedures. We must also be aware of the Operator Qualifications rule. The Technician must be completely OQ qualified and have the proof of all the required OQ tests readily accessible. Most importantly, these required DOT and Regulatory Agency tests are done for the safety of the system, customers and you.
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Document ID: C45E73BE

PHMSAS RULE IMPACT ON GAS MEASUREMENT (CONTROL ROOM MANAGEMENT)
Author(s): Russel W.Treat
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper summarizes a SCADA implementers perspective regarding the intent of the Pipeline Hazardous Materials Safety Administrations (PHMSA) Control Room Management (CRM) rule. In addition, this paper provides a fresh approach to CRM, describing why companies should use the CRM process to go beyond compliance requirements and implement operating best practices that would significantly enhance operations reliability and pipeline safety.
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Document ID: 1D245340

SCADA AND TELEMETRY IN NATURAL GAS OPERATIONS
Author(s): Russel W. Treat
Abstract/Introduction:
SCADA systems are combinations of field devices, communications infrastructure, computer hardware and software integrated into a system that provides for safe, reliable, and effective operation of remote facilities. Producers, gatherers, midstream operators and pipelines use SCADA system for operations. In addition, SCADA gathers data used by advanced applications such as measurement accounting. SCADA is key for highly profitable operation. This paper provides and overview of the building blocks of the SCADA system. The SCADA host and advanced applications are discussed in detail. The paper concludes with a discussion of SCADA trends.
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Document ID: 272F0ED7


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