Measurement Library

Western Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (2017)

Western Gas Measurement Short Courses

Gas ODORANTS-SAFEHANDLING, HEALTH,AND Environment
Author(s): Daniele. Arrieta Davidc. Miller Eric Vantol
Abstract/Introduction:
Thiols (i.e. mercaptans), sulfides, and tetrahydrothiophene (THT) have been widely used in the odorization of natural and liquefied petroleum gas due to the fact that natural gas does not possess an odor. M ercaptans , for example , have proven to be very effective in odorizing because of their low odor threshold and therefore, immediate impact on the olfactory system (Roberts, 1993) . Although, g as o dorants are characterized as having a low hazard potential regarding health effects, their unique physical chemical properties such as , high flammability , require th at they be handled safely.
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Document ID: 26B538A8

Considerations For M2M Hybrid Wireless Network S
Author(s): Dan Steele
Abstract/Introduction:
Organizations with geographically dispersed assets, such as those in the energy and utility industries, are continuously developing and implementing new ways to monitor and control all aspects of their business, especially for operations in remote location s. With company personnel and automated machinery constantly in motion, businesses have had to create smarter communication networks out of necessity. A key indicator of enterprise organizations expanding their networking infrastructures ties directly to r ecent industry reports showing that the number of embedded wireless sensors installed across the world will reach billions and maybe even trillions over the next decade. This means these organizations must also leverage communication technologies to connec t everything together - from the corporate office to the field site to the individual sensor - and everything in between.
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Document ID: 0E9BE149

Impact Of Temperatu Re, Pressure, And Other Factors On Metering Accuracy
Author(s): Paul W. Tang
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents a n overview of the impact of temperature, pressure, and other factors on natural gas metering accuracy . Metering accuracy is a vast topic . Although some of the general measurement principles described here are applicable to most gas metering installations , the focus of this paper is on high volume devices such as turbine , ultr asonic , and C oriolis meter s
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Document ID: 97335BA7

Preventative Vs. Reactive Valve Maintenance
Author(s): Michael T. Legittino
Abstract/Introduction:
Preventative and reactive valve maintenance plays a key role in the safe and legal operations of natural gas distribution and transmission systems. Despite the requirements by federal regulatory agencies, routine valve maintenance is often a n important part of the business that becomes neglected. Reactive valve maintenance can often be defined as the maintenance performed when the reliability or usefulness of system valves have depreciated or failed. On the other hand, preventative valve maintenance suggests that we as pipeline operat ors take a proactive approach in mitigating valve issues before they occur.
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Document ID: 0663C328

Introduction To Gas Regulators
Author(s): Kevin Shaw
Abstract/Introduction:
A gas regulator is a device designed to reduce inlet pressure, which may vary, to a constant lower outlet pressure. It controls the flow of gas to meet downstream demand. The regulator will shut off bubble tight between the inlet pressure side and the outl et pressure side when there is no downstream demand. Safeguards against downstream over pressurization, such as an internal relief valve or internal monitor orifice, are built into many regulators.
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Document ID: 033E2B4D

Introduction To Overpressure Protection
Author(s): Robbie Swigert
Abstract/Introduction:
he scope of this paper is to cover methods available to prevent over - pressurization of downstream piping including 49 CFR Part 192 code requirements. Three Primary Modes of Regulator Failure Blocked orifice: Debris becomes lodged between the orifice and valve seat not allowing the regulator to lock up. Lever disconnect: The regulators lever becomes disconnected from the sensing element (diaphragm) taking away the regulators ability to regulate. Cut valve seat/nicked orifice: Usually caused by particles in the gas hitting the valve seat or orifice and actually cutting the material.
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Document ID: A56EAD00

Introduction To Regulator And Relief Valve Sizing
Author(s): Mark Dykoff
Abstract/Introduction:
Regulators used in natural gas applications are devices made up of a valve and actuator , in combination , that use the motive force generated by an imbalance be t ween the process pressure and a loading element to throttle a valve, maintaining the process pressure at a set value under varying demand. Through this paper the term regulator will be used for any device that is sensing and controlling a downstream pressure (P 2 ) and a relief valve is any device sensing an upstream pressure (P 1 ), particularly with the intent of providing overpressure protection.
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Document ID: EE0E9EBA

Flexible Element Regulators
Author(s): Reese m. Dawes
Abstract/Introduction:
Flexible Element Regulators, also referred to as Unloading Design Regulators, utilize a rubber element that functions as both the actuator and valve of a self contained pressure regulator. This is in contrast to the more traditional style of regulators where a separate actuator , throttlin g valve and seat are used to regulate the pressure and provide shutoff .
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Document ID: 37369FF0

Ndustrial Pressure Control A Regulator Station Design For Natural Gas Pressure Control To Simple Cycle And Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine Engine Power Plants
Author(s): Jim Green
Abstract/Introduction:
Regulator station designs for pressure control to large Power Plants have always presented unique challenges that differ from standard pipeline pressure control applications. A large Combustion Turbine Power Plant load with little buffering between the regulators and the Turbine Engines requires a differe nt approach to station design. The design approach becomes even more complicated if the Power Plant also has additional small auxiliary requirements such as duct burners, waste heat recovery boilers, building heat requirements, etc. In this paper, the focus will be on a regulator station design philosophy for Simple Cycle and Advanced Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine (CT) Power Plants that meet the load requirements for power plant operation as well as for ancillary equipment.
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Document ID: 7104736D

Managing Noise In Natural Gas Facilities
Author(s): James L. Robertson Robert C. Becken
Abstract/Introduction:
Webster defines noise as a sound, especially one that lacks agreeable musical quality or is noticeably unpleasant. In the gas industry, objectionable sounds can come from relief valve discharges, gas blowdowns, compression equipment running, control valves throttling, and normal (and abnormal) pipeline flows . Noise emanating from pipelines can be caused by reasons other than gas flowing. Debris left in a pipeline after construction can cause metallic noises. Noise can also be generated by liquids moving in the gas flow stream.
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Document ID: EE38D1B0

Regulator Freeze Protection
Author(s): John Tomich
Abstract/Introduction:
F reezing is a common problem in the natural gas pipeline industry , caused by the combined effects of ambient temperature, pressure drop, and the presence of water and hydrates in the gas stream. The ef fects of freezing can include inaccurate measurement , loss of system control, equipment damage , and complete interrup tion of the gas supply. Fortunately, many methods are available to help minimize th is problem.
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Document ID: 1B24B005

Odorant Transfer Systems And Safe Efficient Deliveries
Author(s): Michael E. Leathers Adam Coffee
Abstract/Introduction:
Odorant transfers are necessary to move odorant into storage tanks to await injection into gas lines. Odorant s are used as a s afety device to warn the public of a possible gas release. This procedure must be done with due diligence . T he public has been conditioned to go into a sense of heightened awareness when the smell of odorized natural gas is present. So naturally, the smell of pure odorant would trigger the same response.
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Document ID: 0DA34E3A

Troubleshooting Regulators : Causes And Cure S Of Regulator Instability
Author(s): Paul R. Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the gas pressure reducing regulator installation and the issue of erratic control of the downstream pressure. A gas pressure reducing regulators job is to manipulate flow in order to control pressure. When the downstream pressure is not properly controlled, the term unstable control is applied. Figure 1 is a list of other terms used for various forms of downstream pressure instability. This paper will not address the mathematical methods of describing the automatic control sys tem of the pressure reducing station, but will deal with more of the components and their e ffect on the system stability
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Document ID: AD66EBF0

Troubleshooting Control Valves
Author(s): Jim Green
Abstract/Introduction:
Troubleshooting Control Valves is a very broad subject to cover given the vast array of Valves, Actuators, and Control Instrumentation available in the market today. We have Ball Valves, Globe Valves, Plug Valves, Butterfly Valves, and Segmented Ball Valves just to name a few. A ll of these Control Valves can be outfitted with various types of Valve Trim, Actuators, and Control Instrumentati on to characterize and fine-tune the performance of the valve to achieve a desired control effect. The possible pr oblems that can arise can be as simple as an external leak to a total loss of Process Control.
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Document ID: 1842F133

Three Mode Controller Pid() Tuning
Author(s): Ed Austin
Abstract/Introduction:
A PID Controller is a proportional-integral- derivative controller. It has been relatively unchanged since its inception in 1939. In some applications, maybe only Proportional control is needed. In other applications, PI (Proportional and Integral) are best used. Still in other applications, all three modes, PID is your best performing loop control.
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Document ID: 7820D0A9

Monitor Strategies And Implementation
Author(s): Claude Transue Jim Green
Abstract/Introduction:
There are three basic methods of providing overpressure protection in a gas pipeline system Pressure Relief Valve, Pressure Limiting (Monitor) R egulators, and Automatic Shutoff Valves. Of thes e three methods, one vents overpressure to atmosphere and the other two will capture and control overpressure in the pipeline. In this paper, we will cover the two methods that capture and control overpres sure conditions in the pipeline Pressure Limiting Monitors and Automatic Shutoff Valves (Slam Shut Devices).
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Document ID: B85BBA49

Introduction To Basic Gas Laws
Author(s): Nronjie Blamoh
Abstract/Introduction:
On a microscopic level the three states of matter solids, liquids, and gasses , show different particle behaviors. The particles of solids have little space between the m and are arranged in a uniform pattern and shape . Liquid particles are also close in proximity to one another but do not share the same rigid pattern of solids allowing them to conform to the lowest part of their containment unit.
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Document ID: 1A652320

Introduction To Gas Metering
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
Science interprets nature in terms of matter and energy. Energy is defined as the capacity to do work. There are many types of energy such as heat energy, electrical energy, chemical energy, kinetic energy (energy of motion), and potential energy (intrinsic energy of an object due to the position of the object). Matter is the ma terial of which the universe is composed and is defined as anything that occupies space and has mass. There are three normal states of matter - solid, liquid, and gas. Under certain conditions, most substances can be made to exist in any of the three sta tes, i.e. water as steam, liquid, or ice
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Document ID: 375D0307

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Paul Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of all gas measurement used in the world today is performed by two basic types of meters, positive displacement and inferential. Positive displacement meters, consisting mainly of diaphragm and rotary style devices, generally account for lower volume measur ement. Orifice, ultrasonic and turbine meters are the three main inferential class meters used for large volume measurement today. Turbines are typically considered to be a repeatable device used for accurate measurement over large and varying pressures and flow rates. They are found in a wide array of elevated pressure applications ranging from atmospheric conditions to 1440 psig.
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Document ID: 40D2E66F

Fundamentals Of Flow Computers
Author(s): Fundamentals Of Flow Computers Tushar Shah
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to give a high level overview of flow computers and their place in electronic gas measurement in the American Petroleum Institute ( API ) 21.1 standard for those who are new to the industry or a looking for a refresher of the basic app lication usage of flow computers. As natural gas and various hydrocarbons move from the well head to the burner tip, there are several electronic devices in the field used for measurement and control. The electronic flow computer is referred to in API 21.1 as a secondary device. Many contracts between companies either buying and/or selling gas often stipulate that measurement falls into compliance of API 21.1. Thi s paper will focus primarily on the electronic flow computer
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Document ID: E1F5C39B

Introduction To Gas Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is an overview gas ultrasonic meters , which are also known as USMs. Discussion topics include principles of operation, different path configurations, basic diagnostic features , AGA Report No. 9, flow calibration issues, flow conditioning, basic piping design, routine maintenance considerations, control valve noise m itigation and a variety of other aspects to consider when using gas ultrasonic meters (USM s ) . It primarily discusses fiscal - quality, multi - path USMs and does not cover issues that may be different with non - fiscal meters .
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Document ID: AC10E42B

Introduction To Ultrasonic Meter Station Design
Author(s): Thomas Kegel
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter station design is a topic that is not addressed by industry standards but is very important in day - to - day operations of many gas companies . This paper discusses a number of topics that pertain to pipe layout aspects of meter station design. Topics from a companion paper 1 that describes run switching are included in the discus sion.
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Document ID: A230EB39

Principles Of Odorization
Author(s): Stephen West
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas has no innate odor, color, or taste therefore, odorization is one of the most important aspects to safely transporting natural gas to customers in a distribution system. As demand for natural gas rises as does the technology involved in odorization. The first odorization occurred in Germany in the 1880s by a German scientist as a means of detecting leaking blue water gas. Fragmented and unregulated odorization of natural gas continued in the United States throughout the early 20th century until tragedy struck in in 1937 in New London, TX.
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Document ID: 51A41C5C

Practical Selection And Usage Of Coriolis Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Tonya Wyatt
Abstract/Introduction:
oriolis meters have been commercially produced and gaining in popularity since the late 1970s. While Coriolis meters were more commonly used for liquid applications initially, they measure liquids, slurries and gases very precisely. Use of Coriolis meters for gas applications ha s become increasingly popular since 2003 when American Gas Association (AGA) Report No. 11/American Petroleum Institute Manual of Petroleum Measurement (API MPMS) Standards Chapter 14.9 , Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis Meter was published. The seco nd edition of AGA Report No. 11/API MPMS Chapter 14.9 was published in 2013 and expanded the guidelines for the use of Coriolis meters for natural gas measurement
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Document ID: A5E5146D

Regulator & Industrial Meter Station Design
Author(s): Josh Fort
Abstract/Introduction:
fittings, valves, pressure regulators, and other appurtenances designed to maintain a set outlet pressure while matching the flow requirements of a varying downstream demand . An industrial meter set shares many of the same features with the addition of a measurement device. This document refers to both types of facilities collec tively as stations
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Document ID: 0AADAF07

Meter Run Switching
Author(s): Thomas Kegel
Abstract/Introduction:
Run switching is a flow computer algorithm that improves the flow measurement capability of a multiple meter station. This is a topic that is not addressed by industry standards but can be very important in day - to - day operations. This paper begins with the fundamental concepts that contribute to meter rangeability. Four examples based on three meter types (ultrasonic, turbi ne and orifice) are presented and discussed.
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Document ID: AE8FB26B

Distribution Gas Meter Proving: The Equipment And Methodology Used Today In The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): Gregory A. Germ
Abstract/Introduction:
To determine the accuracy of a natural gas meter, a known volume of air is passed through the meter, and the meter registration is compared against this known volume. The known volume of air originates from the meter prover. In earlier times, the gas meter prover was a stand - alone device (usually a bell - type prover), manually operated without any electronics or automation. Today, the majority of gas meter provers are fully automated computer controlled and operated, and responsible for other job functions besides the proving of gas meters.
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Document ID: 8729AC28

Differential Testing Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): Craig Lam
Abstract/Introduction:
A Differential Rate Test is an accurate and convenient method of comparing a meters performance to previous or original performance records. It is widely recognized that many State Utility Commissions or other regulator y agencies accept it as a means of periodically substantiating that the original accuracy of a meter has remained unchanged. A change in internal resistance can affect the accuracy of a rotary meter. Any significant increase on the meters internal resistance to flow will increase the pressure drop between the inlet and outlet of the meter
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Document ID: 8CDFB317

Combined Accuracy
Author(s): Rex C. Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
We use the term Combined Accuracy to define the error in both the meter and the instrument in a single figure. This figure also helps us stay within rules/policies requiring us to measure within a preset tolerance. I believe we all want to provide our cust omers with the most accurate bill, according to their usage, as we can possibly obtain
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Document ID: 3703B475

Understanding Gas Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics
Author(s): Irvin Schwartzenburg
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses both basic and advanced diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USM), and how capabilities built into todays electronics can identify problems that often may not have been identified in the past. It primarily discusses fiscal - quality, multi - path USMs and does not cover issues that may be different with non - fiscal meters as they are often single path designs . Alt hough USMs basically work the same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in AGA 9 Ref 1. However, some provide advanced features that can be used to help identify issues such as blocked flow co nditioners and gas compositional errors. This paper is based upon the Westinghouse configuration (also knows as a chordal design ) and the information presented here may or may not be applicable to other manufacturers.
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Document ID: EC0EC611

Measurement Standards Update
Author(s): Terrence A. Grimley Edgar B. Bowles, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
Standardization of the methods used to measure natural gas flowing through a pipeline is valuable for many reasons. It provides a framework for designing , constructing, operating, and maintaining the measurement equipment in a consistent manner, which hel ps minimize cost and ensures consistent performance of the metering systems. Those metering technologies that receive consensus recognition as a standard method typically are selected for custody transfer measurement applications. Written standards for the metering technologies used at custody transfer points can be referenced in sales contracts and pipeline tariffs, which helps minimize the likelihood of custody disputes and possible litigation.
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Document ID: 40A91912

Introduction To Gas Quality
Author(s): May Lew
Abstract/Introduction:
W hen you think of natural gas measurement you most likely think of meter s or volume measurement . However , flow rate or billing rates (BTU) re quire the measure ments of other parameters like hydrocarbon composition, carbon dioxide , oxygen, and nitrogen . But i s that all that need s to be measure d by a gas distribution company ? In order to transport gas through pipelines and supply customers, other measurement devices may be needed to ensure an acceptable gas quality. Acceptable gas quality is specified in Tariffs or in contractual agreement between the utility and its gas suppliers. In this presentation we will go over typical natural gas parameter s that should be specified .
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Document ID: 03D8AEF9

Measuring Hydrocarbon Dew Point Accurately And Its Financial Impact
Author(s): Joe Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
Measuring Hydrocarbon Dew Point (HCDP) accurately is critical to the profitability of producing/processing natural gas. End users want a quality product and for good reason. When HCDP limits are written into the gas contract the producer/processors and pipeline operators each play a role in delivering that quality product. Accurately measuring HCDP in order to satisfy the customer touches every link in this vital supply chain.
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Document ID: 5A962CC9

Gas Chromatograph Maintenance And Troubleshooting
Author(s): Bonnie Crossland
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas is sold as Energy. Gas Chromatographs calculate the Energy value of the Gas (as well as other calculated values used in the Flow Calculation). When there is only a single Gas Chromatograph (GC) on a Custody Metering station, the downtime for a GC must not only be at a minimum but it should be planned ahead of time, rather than occurring only when a failure has occurred.
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Document ID: BE306EF7

Meter Set Design
Author(s): Michael T. Legittino
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter and regulator sets, particularly residential, are often seen as the resume of a gas utility. They are what the general consumer sees and recognizes as the face of the gas company. Despite our best efforts, the ma jority of the public is clueless in regards to all of the work that it takes to bring gas from the well to the burner tip. The public simply knows what they can see, and what th ey can see is typically what is stationed right outside their front door
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Document ID: FE849E5E

Effects And Control Of Pulsation In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Ray G. Durke Edgar B. Bowles, Jr Terrence A. Grimley Robert J. Mckee,
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most common measurement errors and the most difficult to identify in natural gas metering systems is that caused by pulsating flow. It is important to understand the effects that pulsation s ha ve on the common types of flow meters used in the gas industry so that potential error - producing mechanisms can be identified and avoided. It is also essential to understand pulsation control techniques for mitigat ing pulsation effects. This paper describes the effects of pulsation on orifice, turbine, ultrasonic, and other flow meter types . It also presents basic methods for mitigating pulsation effects at meter installations, including a specific procedure for designing acoustic filters th at can isolate a flow meter from the source of pulsation.
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Document ID: 3E98F1E2

Hazardous Area Classification
Author(s): Alex Hicks
Abstract/Introduction:
Hazardous (classified) a rea s are defined and categorized by the N ational F ire P rotection A ssociation (NFPA) 70, t he National Electric Code (NEC). In particular, Articles 500, 501, 504, and 505 cover hazardous areas that are created by common gas utility processes. Although the NEC provides a general definition of h azardous a rea s and the installation requirements of electrical equipment loc ated within them , it does not classify specific n atural g as and p etroleum industry processes that can create a h azardous a rea , nor the extent of the h azardous a rea s created by such processes . Instead NFPA technical committees and the American Petroleum Institute (API), among other industry - recognized organizations, determine the specifics of hazardous areas created by gas and petroleum industry processes.
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Document ID: 2FBE1B93


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