Measurement Library

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (2017)

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course

BENEFITS AROUND TIMELY ANALYSIS OF MEASUREMENT DATA
Author(s): Brian Sowell Bruce Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
Verifying measurement data can be challenging. Challenges include processing an overwhelming amount of data, choosing meaningful data types and validation criteria, and validating the data in a timely manner. Failure to meet these challenges can lead to undesired outcomes such as inaccurate measurement results, prior period adjustments in accounting and increased costs.
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Document ID: BCBD2E17

MEASUREMENT OF NATURAL GAS BY CORIOLIS FLOW METER AGA REPORT NO. 11
Author(s): Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early 1980s, Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in gas, liquid, and slurry applications with an installed base of more than one million units. Through significant design, enhancements in the early 1990s Coriolis meters have rapidly gained worldwide acceptance in gas phase applications with over 100,000 meters installed worldwide and most notably the publication of the second edition of AGA Report Number 11, Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis Meter.
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Document ID: 176634D9

FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS TURBINE METERS
Author(s): John A. Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of all gas measurement used in the world today is performed by two basic types of meters, positive displacement and inferential. Positive displacement meters, consisting mainly of diaphragm and rotary style devices, generally account for lower volume measurement. Orifice, ultrasonic and turbine meters are the three main inferential class meters used for large volume measurement today. Turbines are typically considered to be a repeatable device used for accurate measurement over large and varying pressures and flow rates. They are found in a wide array of elevated pressure applications ranging from atmospheric conditions to 1440 psig. Turbine meters have also become established as master or reference meters used in secondary calibration systems such as transfer provers.
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Document ID: B6EFA5F4

ROTARY DISPLACEMENT METERS BASICS
Author(s): Todd Willis
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classes of gas meters. These are inferential type meters, which include orifice and turbine meters, and positive displacement meters, which include diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferential type meters are so-called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas flow and calculating the volume based on the measurements. The positive displacement type meters are so-called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them.
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Document ID: 17E8D4C0

ULTRASONIC GAS FLOW METER BASICS
Author(s): James W. Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the operating principal and application of ultrasonic gas flow metering for custody transfer. Basic principals and underlying equations are discussed, as are considerations for applying ultrasonic flow meter technology to station design, installation and operation. These applications are illustrated based on operating experience with the Instromet 3 path and 5-path Q.Sonic custody transfer flow meter, however, many of these issues may be generalized to devices manufactured by others.
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Document ID: 2CE3F479

BASICS OF DIAPHRAGM METERS
Author(s): Jerry Kamalieh
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the United States, The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat-rate basis. Its growth was slow, its charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority. By comparison, the New York Gas Light Company founded in 1823 prospered and expanded. They had built their system on the use of gas meters to measure the supply of gas to customers, and a large one to register the quantity made at the station before it is conveyed to the gasometers.
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Document ID: 804C9B7D

NON-INTRUSIVE ULTRASONIC FLOWMETERS IN LIQUID AND GAS APPLICATIONS-TECHNOLOGY AND INSTALLATION TECHNIQUES
Author(s): Ron McCarthy
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas and Oil are different in their physical, chemical, and ultrasonic properties. Nevertheless, each fluid state can use Widebeam technology that uses the pipe wall as a Sonic Waveguide, permitting accurate, repeatable and reliable non-intrusive flow metering. This paper explains non intrusive gas ultrasonic metering, providing field and laboratory test data demonstrating the ability of Clamp- On Ultrasonic meters to provide accurate Measurement. It also explains the importance of correct installation.
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Document ID: 1731A787

ADVANCED APPLICATION OF ROTARY METERS
Author(s): Ron Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will examine and explain several common characteristics of rotary meters and their use in the natural gas distribution, transmission and production markets. The selection, proper installation, start-up procedures and regular maintenance routines will be covered, as well. ROTARY METER OPERATING PRINCIPLE As gas flows through a rotary meter the impellers turn, trapping known volumes of gas. This measuring chamber and impellers are constructed of hard coated anodized aluminum to offer strength and resistance to damage from gas flow debris. For the purposes of this paper it is important to note that the impellers and cylinder do not touch each other and are separated by gaps that measure an average of .003.
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Document ID: 3E8F78F5

IN-SITU (ON-SITE) GAS METER PROVING
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr. James N. Witte Adam Hawley
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas flow rate measurement errors at field meter stations can result from the installation configuration, the calibration of the meter at conditions other than the actual operating conditions, or the degradation of meter performance over time. The best method for eliminating these or other sources of error is with in-situ (on-site) calibration of the meter. That is, the measurement accuracy of the field meter station should be verified under actual operating conditions by comparing to a master meter or prover. Comparisons of flow meters in the field have been performed for nearly as long as flow meters have been in existence. For example, Figure 1 shows an orifice meter being compared to three 60-A tin meters (a.k.a., diaphragm meters) in Rosedale, Kansas in 1921.1 Each tin meter had the flow capacity of 1,800 standard cubic feet per hour. In this particular test, a 1.6% difference in reading was discovered between the orifice meter and the tin meters.
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Document ID: C66EC70E

ULTRASONIC METERS FOR COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Author(s): Paul Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
An ultrasonic meter falls into the classification of inferential meters. Unlike positive displacement meters that capture volume to totalize volume, inferential meters measure flowing gas velocity to totalize volume. Ultrasonic meters use sound waves to measure flowing gas velocity to infer volume. Ultrasonic meters have been around for many years, primarily in liquid measurement. However, we are seeing more and more applications in the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: AB3B1C1F

AUTOMATING METER SHOP PRACTICES USING AMR/AMI TECHNOLOGY
Author(s): Scott Haldi
Abstract/Introduction:
AMR/AMI devices or endpoints have historically been used to reduce labor costs associated with meter reading. They can provide other benefits, as well, which would save meter shops additional operating costs, while simultaneously improving overall efficiencies. This paper will address those options. Meter shops perform key activities related to the preparation of meters for distribution. Facing changing technologies, many meter shops now have to deal with not only mechanical meters but also with electronic endpoints. This places even greater demands on meter shops to process meters through their systems in a smooth, costeffective manner.
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Document ID: 41CF7733

FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Pat Donnelly
Abstract/Introduction:
Samuel Clegg made the first practical gas meter in England in 1815. It was a water-sealed rotating drum meter that was improved in 1825 however, it was still very costly and very large. Thomas Glover developed the original diaphragm meter in England in 1843. It consisted of two diaphragms, sliding valves and linkage. T. S. Lacey patented the pre-payment meter in 1870. The most significant change to diaphragm meters over the years has been in the materials of construction. Brass parts have been replaced by plastic, and leather diaphragms have been replaced with synthetic rubber.
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Document ID: 289F30FF

LOW PRESSURE GAS MEASUREMENT USING ULTRASONIC TECHNOLOGY
Author(s): Dr. Volker Herrmann Toralf Dietz John Lansing Todd Willis
Abstract/Introduction:
The utilization of ultrasonic metering as a cost effective form of measurement has grown dramatically over the past 10 years. A growing portion of this market is in custody transfer applications. This growth is primarily due to growing acceptance in industry, advances in the technology, extensive self diagnostic capabilities and industry/ regulatory standards and recommendations related to their use in custody transfer applications.
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Document ID: 7F969AE0

DISTRIBUTION GAS METER PROVING: THE EQUIPMENT AND METHODOLOGY USED TODAY IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY
Author(s): Gregory A. Germ
Abstract/Introduction:
To determine the accuracy of a natural gas meter, a known volume of air is passed through the meter, and the meter registration is compared against this known volume. The known volume of air originates from the meter prover. In earlier times, the gas meter prover was a stand-alone device (usually a bell-type prover), manually operated without any electronics or automation. Today, the majority of gas meter provers are fully automated computer controlled and operated, and responsible for other job functions besides the proving of gas meters. The bell-type meter prover - though still commonly used in the industry - is not the only kind of meter prover used today. The advancements and developments in electronics and computer technology has lead to an evolution of meter proving equipment - far from the manual proving methods that were commonplace only a few decades ago. Many utilities have replaced the bell-type prover with sonic nozzle and transfer provers. Provers can now store and retrieve information from a utilitys meter management system, reduce the human error factor in the proving operation, and provide self-diagnostics to assist the prover operator in maintenance and in troubleshooting problems. With the advancements made in gas meter provers, there still exists the need to understand the basics and methodology of gas meter proving. The gas meter prover was created to determine the accuracy of a gas meter. Although there have been advancements made to the gas meter prover, the prover itself still has measurement uncertainties that can attribute to measurement errors in meter proving. The gas meter prover today may be more accurate than proving equipment in the past, but the proving room environment hasnt changed much - this proving room environment is also responsible for measurement variations and uncertainties. This discussion will focus on the proving basics and terminology commonly used today in the industry. In addition, the three most common types of gas meter provers will be discussed, as well as the means in which they are calibrated and certified. Finally, the factors that attribute to meter accuracy variation - such as prover limitations and environmental conditions - will be addressed, as well as corrective means to reduce these measurement uncertainties.
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Document ID: 329C25A7

DIFFERENTIAL TESTING OF ROTARY METERS
Author(s): Ron Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the introduction of rotary meters in the 1920s, gas distribution companies have used the differential pressure across the meter as an indication of meter condition and performance. Using manufacturers recommendations in concert with industry and regulatory standards differential testing is a cost effective method to verify the condition of a rotary meter while in service. With acceptance by many U.S. public utility commissions, differential testing has been used by gas distribution companies for many years. This paper will discuss the traditional methods used for differential testing as well as the most recent developments that improve the efficiency and effectiveness of a differential pressure testing program.
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Document ID: 7D9BCE44

LARGE VOLUME CONE DP METERS
Author(s): Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Differential Pressure (DP) meters have been used extensively since Herschel developed a commercial Venturi meter in the 1880s. Since then many different variants of DP meters have been developed. One of the most recent is the cone meter. The cone meter is a generic DP meter. It uses the same generic DP meter flow equation as all other standard DP meters. All DP meter types exist on the market as they offer some particular advantage over the others. If a meter does not have some niche, whether it be reduced flow rate prediction uncertainty, lower pressure loss, no requirement for calibration, more robust, wider range ability, resistance to flow disturbances, self-verification capable, or simply an attractive price, it would not be successful on the market. The cone meter has been steadily growing in market share for twenty-five years. Originally a patented device the patent expired in 2004 and now the meter is a generic type offered by multiple suppliers.
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Document ID: 57A417FC

EXPERT SYSTEMS IN ULTRASONIC FLOW METERS
Author(s): Jonathan Fiedler
Abstract/Introduction:
Custody transfer ultrasonic gas flowmeters are the cash registers of companies. These cash registers should measure accurately. To determine the accuracy, the change in uncertainty of the ultrasonic flow meter while in operation, is often overlooked. For example minimal fouling on the bottom of the meter can give an additional uncertainty of 0.2% or more. Other aspects like sever flow profile changes due to a partially blocked flow conditioner, damaged transducers, or high levels of ultrasonic noise can also play an important role over the operational lifetime of an ultrasonic flowmeter. The solution often used is re-calibration. Unfortunately re-calibration involves high costs (downtime, handling & transport, scheduling at facility, etc.) and still it is unclear at what moment, the observed shift occurred during the prior operational time. As such, it is unclear how to financially compensate for any discrepancies.
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Document ID: D5D4F588

BASICS OF ULTRASONIC FLOW METERS
Author(s): David Crandall
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to explain the measurement of natural gas for custody transfer applications through the use of ultrasonic meters. Specifically, this paper explains the operation of ultrasonic meters, issues surrounding their performance in natural gas, calibration procedures, and proper installation considerations. Additionally, the electronics making the measurements generate calculated values relating to the operation of the meter and as a result a database is available to provide analysis of the meters ongoing performance. Meter health parameters can be evaluated to verify the meters operation and these principles are explained.
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Document ID: 9EAA7951

FLOW CALIBRATING HIGH VOLUME ULTRASONIC FLOWMETERS- CONSIDERATIONS AND BENEFITS
Author(s): Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary method for custody transfer measurement has traditionally been orifice metering. While this method has been a good form of measurement, technology has driven the demand for a new, more effective form of fiscal measurement. Ultrasonic flowmeters have gained popularity in recent years and have become the standard for large volume custody transfer applications for a variety of reasons. Most users require flow calibrations to improve meter performance and overall measurement uncertainty. The latest revision of AGA Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters, Second Addition Ref 1, now requires flow calibration for ultrasonic flow meters when being used for custody transfer applications.
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Document ID: 2A8E3CC6

RECOGNITION & RESOLUTION OF PROBLEMS WITH GAS ULTRASONIC FLOW METERS
Author(s): Jim Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline Operators have used Ultrasonic meters commercially for gas custody transfer applications since the late 90s. These meters combination of operating features, including superior rangeability and on-board diagnostics have made this the technology of choice for most high volume gas metering applications. As user comfort with, and capabilities of, the technology has increased and the size and cost of ultrasonic meters has decreased, Operators and Manufacturers continue to stretch the envelope of application possibilities. This includes use in upstream, corrosive and high CO2 applications, where the technology previously couldnt work or didnt make economic sense.
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Document ID: 4F2E37F8

UNDERSTANDING GAS ULTRASONIC METER DIAGNOSTICS-ADVANCED
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses advanced diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USMs), and how capabilities built into todays electronics can identify problems that may have gone undetected in the past. It primarily discusses fiscalquality, multipath USMs and does not cover issues that may be different with non-fiscal meters as they are often single path designs. Although USMs basically work the same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in AGA 9 Ref 1. However, some provide more advanced features that can be used to help identify issues such as blocked flow conditioners, liquids, and gas compositional errors. This paper focuses on the Westinghouse and British Gas configurations (both being four-path chordal designs) and the information presented here may or may not be applicable to other path designs.
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Document ID: 16827AE3

UNDERSTANDING GAS ULTRASONIC METER DIAGNOSTICS-ADVANCED
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses advanced diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USMs), and how capabilities built into todays electronics can identify problems that may have gone undetected in the past. It primarily discusses fiscalquality, multipath USMs and does not cover issues that may be different with non-fiscal meters as they are often single path designs. Although USMs basically work the same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in AGA 9 Ref 1. However, some provide more advanced features that can be used to help identify issues such as blocked flow conditioners, liquids, and gas compositional errors. This paper focuses on the Westinghouse and British Gas configurations (both being four-path chordal designs) and the information presented here may or may not be applicable to other path designs.
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Document ID: A4FD9BE5

BASIC PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS
Author(s): John H. Batchelder Robert Findley
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is misunderstood by many. It is believed by some that all gas is a liquid that is pumped into automobiles or into tanks and is used as a fuel. It is thought of as a dangerous material that will blow up easily. Others do not differentiate between LP gas, natural gas, or gasoline - They are all the same thing, right? While it is true that the above mentioned materials are all made up of the same basic components, each has its own physical and chemical characteristics.
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Document ID: 4F7489BB

LARGE CORIOLIS METERS AND THE APPLICABILITY OF WATER CALIBRATIONS FOR GAS SERVICE
Author(s): Marc Butler Tonya Wyatt Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
In the late 1970s, the first Coriolis mass flow meter was introduced. By the early 1980s, the use of Coriolis meters gained popularity for liquid applications, but few were used for gas applications. In the 1990s major design enhancements were made to the technology improving its usability in gas applications. Driven by the need for a standard industry practice to guide its use in gas applications, the American Gas Association (AGA) published the first edition of AGA Report Number 11, Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis Meter in 2003. Today, with an installed population of over 100,000 Micro Motion Coriolis meters in gas applications and the 2013 publication of the second edition of AGA Report No. 11, many users are applying Coriolis meters in gas custody transfer applications.
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Document ID: 99902B0D

HIGH VOLUME MEASUREMENT USING TURBINE METERS
Author(s): John A. Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
For over one hundred years the turbine meter has been servicing large volume applications of the natural gas market. During this time the turbine has continuously evolved into a device that offers the industry new and unique features. This paper will focus on the significant advancements of this technology as well as how they are applied in the field today.
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Document ID: FD843D4A

REGULATOR/CONTROL RUN DESIGN OPTIMIZATION
Author(s): Peter Glaser
Abstract/Introduction:
Through proper piping design and equipment selection, many regulator and control valve station issues encountered in the field are preventable. This paper explores the key design considerations to assist in avoiding many of the potential regulator and/or control valve station issues and optimizing the station design to suit the operational needs of the facility. This includes exploration of the valve selection process, station control configurations, and design of the station piping to match the engineered equipment.
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Document ID: AAC347BD

GATE STATION DESIGN
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
The City Gate or, Take, Station, is the interchange of natural gas between: Two interstate pipelines An interstate pipeline and a local gas distribution company (LDC) An interstate pipeline and a large industrial end user (usually a power plant) The City Gate station is one of the more complex designs a natural gas engineer will deal with in the course of a career. Like all projects, a properly designed and constructed gate station begins with good preliminary engineering. In preliminary engineering, all of the major project goals and hurdles are defined. If the preliminary engineering document is written properly, it will serve as the backbone for the entire project.
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Document ID: 753B8C6F

BASIC APPLICATION OF FLOW COMPUTERS AND TELEMETRY SYSTEMS
Author(s): Al Majek
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to flow computers being commonly used in the measurement of hydrocarbons, most telemetry systems were used to collect control information and real time data and provide control commands to Remote Terminal Units (RTU). Most of the local metering was being handled by chart recorders and local data collection by operations personnel. The collected charts were sent to the central facility where the information provided custody transfer reports and or field operations reports. Most of the commonly used chart recorders were the standard circular chart format and pneumatic devices. These were used to process the information for billing, regulatory operations, and monthly operations, but generally culminated into a cumbersome and costly task. The measurement departments often had to deal with discrepancies in data and information that was often weeks or months old. There was an urgent need for collecting real time information from metering equipment and custody transfer data. Although there were telemetry systems in place, collecting real time data and getting this information to a central office was not easily accomplished with the early types of SCADA systems in place.
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Document ID: 78686CB1

THERMOELECTRIC GENERATORS: UNMATCHED RELIABILITY FOR THE OIL & GAS INDUSTRY
Author(s): Dan Midea
Abstract/Introduction:
What is a Thermoelectric Generator (TEG)? ThermoElectric Generator The TEG produces power through the direct conversion of heat into electrical energy The natural output power of a TEG is DC Thermoelectric Theory First thermoelectric generators, fuelled by radio-isotopes were utilized in the Apollo Space Program to power communications from the moon. Standard fuel burning TEGs utilizing lead-tin-telluride thermoelectrics were developed in the late 1960s.
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Document ID: AC0ED248

REAL-TIME ELECTRONIC GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Al Majek
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of oil & gas production has progressed considerably since the days of paper charts and manual integration. Technology has moved increasingly to microprocessor based flow computers allowing for greater measurement accuracy, increased control functionality, and ready integration into a companys enterprise computer networks.
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Document ID: 40D04615

OVERVIEW OF LIQUID LEVEL MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGIES
Author(s): Craig Carroll
Abstract/Introduction:
TAKEAWAYS Deeper understanding of why level measurement is important. Ability to identify your level needs/requirements Increased awareness of application considerations and challenges Increased knowledge of the various technologies and their pros/cons AGENDA What is level? Why measure liquid/process level? How do you measure liquid level? Important Selection Criteria Point Level Technologies Continuous Level Technologies
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Document ID: 500CB2B1

BENEFITS BEYOND DRIVE-BY METER READING
Author(s): Robb Emheiser
Abstract/Introduction:
Where is the value for gas utilities outside of normal meter reading? CURRENT STATE METER READING SYSTEMS Current Drive-By Solutions Lowest cost-to-read form of meter reading Meter reader safety Reductions in Operations & Maintenance costs Revenue assurance Attractive payback period Migration or side-by side deployment with other collection types Consolidate off-cycle reads Outage Evaluation
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Document ID: 5001B84F

WIRELESS SOLUTIONS FOR O&G PRODUCTION
Author(s): Joe Cipriani
Abstract/Introduction:
Our Challenges: Without better information for improved measurement and control, we are unable to realize improved production, maintenance cost reduction and supervisory controls cost reductions.-Production Manager Integrating our wellhead automation is time consuming, requires a high level of skill and resources are scarce. Trips to the field are expensive, increase our safety risk and add to our compliance costs. We have insufficient ability to control and optimize our wells production and to monitor and enhance our field production strategy.
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Document ID: 2E8939D5

FROM THE WELLHEAD TO THE BURNER TIP: A SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is presented at the Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course - Fundamentals Section. The paper is designed for the first year student to understand the basic flow of natural gas and the terminology utilized from Production and Storage areas to end use by consumers. Specific focus is given to history of natural gas, gas transmission, city gate stations, and distribution systems.
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Document ID: 8B043B59

UNDERSTANDING HYDROCARBON LIQUIDS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Al Majek
Abstract/Introduction:
BASIC VOLUME & MASS TERMS Indicated Volume - The meter pulses divided by the K-Factor (ex: Pulses/(Pulses/Gallon) gallons Gross Volume - The Indicated Volume multiplied by the Meter Factor - This is what a truck driver is concerned with. Gross Std Volume - The Indicated Volume multiplied by Correction Factors BS&W Volume - The Gross Std. Volume multiplied by the Basic Sediment & Water percentage value. Crude oil will contain some amount of water and suspended solids from the reservoir formation. The particulate matter is known as sediment or mud. Net Std. Volume - The Gross Std. Volume minus the BS&W volume - what you get paid for. Gross Mass - Can be calculated from the Gross Volume & Density or can be a direct mass reading from mass meter
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Document ID: 4BE335B8

BASIC GAS AND INSTRUMENTATION FOR GAS DETECTION
Author(s): George Lomax Eric Six
Abstract/Introduction:
In this class we will review what we need to know about how natural gas, and other gases, works in order to better understand how to detect leakage and unintended releases. We will then look at the operation, maintenance and calibration of the instrumentation available for gas detection. The class will conclude with a demonstration of the Explosion Chamber.
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Document ID: 4C950221

NETWORK ANALYSIS - PART 1 GAS FLOW EQUATION FUNDAMENTALS
Author(s): Tim Bickford
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past 25 years engineers in the natural gas industry have come to depend on the computer as a tool to perform complex hydraulic network analysis. Analysis, which would take weeks to perform by hand or by punchcard machines 30 years ago, can now be accomplished in mere hours or sometimes seconds. Today gas network analysis software, though complex and extremely sophisticated, has become very user friendly. Low cost PCs, inexpensive software and flexible software licensing now make it possible for almost anyone to have access to these powerful engineering tools. Today, more and more non-technical persons are using this cutting edge technology to perform analyses that were once performed by specialists.
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Document ID: FFA903B3

CORROSION CONTROL CONSIDERATIONS FOR M&R STATIONS
Author(s): John Otto
Abstract/Introduction:
WHAT IS CORROSION? NACE International The deterioration of a material, usually a metal, that results from a reaction with its environment. What is Necessary for Corrosion to Occur Anode Cathode Electrolyte Metallic Path Note - Current flow must occur between the Anode and Cathode Galvanic Corrosion Occurs when two dissimilar metals are electrically connected The metal with the most negative voltage (higher potential) with reference to a copper/copper sulfate half cell will corrode
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Document ID: F28F1A29

PROJECT MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS
Author(s): John Jay Gamble, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
What is a Project? A temporary, non-routine endeavor to create a unique product or service limited by time, budget, and specifications. How does it differ from Operations? Operations are on-going, permanent, and repetitive. The purpose of operations is to sustain or maintain the business.
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Document ID: D603064A

PRESSURE CONTROL CONSIDERATIONS FOR POWER PLANTS
Author(s): Jim Green Luke Swanson
Abstract/Introduction:
Regulator stations providing pressure control to large power plants have always presented unique design challenges that differ from standard pipeline pressure control applications. A large combustion turbine power plant load with little buffering between the regulators and the turbine engines requires a different approach to station design. The design approach becomes even more complicated if the power plant also has additional, low flow, auxiliary equipment such as duct burners, waste heat recovery boilers, building heaters, etc. This paper will focus on a regulator station design philosophies for Simple Cycle and Advanced Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine (CT) power plants that meet the load requirements for power plant operation as well as for ancillary equipment.
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Document ID: 39FF8E09

PRACTICAL SAMPLING CONSIDERATIONS FOR GCS & ANALYZERS LOCATED IN COLD CLIMATES
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
NORTHEAST DESIGNS FOR SAMPLING EQUIPMENT For the most part indoors at M&R stations Outdoors at Main Line Valve Metal buildings are not always sufficient for weather Concrete buildings are preferred by most designers who have been through an actual winter (out of state designers) In addition to buildings we need to consider proper handling of the samples stream
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Document ID: 0EA767D9

SHALE WELL 101 BASICS AND UPDATE ON TECHNOLOGIES
Author(s): Kashy Aminian
Abstract/Introduction:
The Marcellus Shale is a prolific source of natural gas which spans the majority of the Appalachian Basin from New York through Pennsylvania, West Virginia and also extends into Ohio and Maryland. It occurs at a depth ranging from 4,500 feet to 8,500 feet. Its strategic location relative to the markets in the Northeastern areas, Eastern Seaboard, and Great Lakes region of the United States makes it key contributor to the natural gas supply in the United States. The importance of shale gas production cannot be overstated, with regards to providing the United States with clean abundant energy.
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Document ID: BAC4D1C4

NATURAL GAS STORAGE AND THE NEW WORLD OF SHALE
Author(s): Zachary Evans
Abstract/Introduction:
ROLE OF UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE Historically Absorb seasonal demand fluctuations Absorb daily/hourly swings on pipelines Alternative to firm transport - reduce pipeline costs Emergency supply security (peaking) Over the past decade All of the above plus Summer power demand Gas futures - arbitrage opportunities
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Document ID: B2D7BB6D

FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS LAWS
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters. A standard cubic foot is defined as one cubic foot of gas at a pressure and temperature agreed upon by the buyer and seller. Common standard conditions are 14.73 psia and 60 Fahrenheit. The gas passing through a meter is rarely at standard conditions. It is necessary to convert the gas in the meter from the metered conditions to standard cubic feet. The tools we have for relating volume to pressure and temperature are Equations of State or, simply, the Gas Laws.
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Document ID: 67BBC4EB

COMPRESSOR STATION DESIGN BASICS AND AN OVERVIEW OF THE DESIGN PROCESS
Author(s): G. Mitchell Mazaher
Abstract/Introduction:
PURPOSE OF A COMPRESSOR STATION Production - Move gas from wells into transmission pipelines Storage - Move gas in and out of storage fields to and from transmission pipelines Transmission - Move gas through a pipeline
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Document ID: C4C3D300

EXPERIENCES IN SHALE PLAY MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Buzz Knapp
Abstract/Introduction:
As with all production gas measurement, the gas being produced in the various shale plays has its own version of measurement issues. While some of the issues fall more in line with historical production measurement and general industry measurement issues, some of the issues seen on a day to day basis are unique to shale play measurement.
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Document ID: 8F211DE9

HORIZONTAL DRILLING
Author(s): Ellen Montgomery
Abstract/Introduction:
TODAYS DISCUSSION Why drill horizontally? Designing horizontal wells Horizontal drilling tools and equipment Additional drilling considerations Well planning and design
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Document ID: 00147AFF

FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY
Author(s): William Frazier
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chromatography is one of the most widely used techniques for analyzing hydrocarbon mixtures. Some of the advantages of chromatography are the range of measurement (from ppm levels up to 100%), the detection of a wide range of components, and the repeatability of the measurements. Chromatography is used in the laboratory, in permanently installed online systems, and in the field with portable systems. No matter the location, style or brand, all gas chromatographs are composed of the same functional components that are the sample handling system, the chromatograph oven, and the controller electronics (refer Figure 1). This paper will cover the principles or sample handling, how chromatograph columns separate the components, why and how multi-port analysis valves are used, the common detector type used in the hydrocarbon applications, and the analysis processing that provides the component concentrations and the other calculated values (such as heating value and specific gravity) through physical reports or interfaces to other devices.
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Document ID: 2263160B

PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR GAS SAMPLING AND GAS SAMPLING SYSTEMS
Author(s): David J. Fish Martin Bouska
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to be able to take a representative sample of a hydrocarbon product is necessary to ensure proper accounting for transactions and efficient product processing. The various sampling methods that are available and the options and limitations of these methods are investigated the most appropriate equipment to use the reasons for its use and correct installation of the equipment are also addressed.
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Document ID: 7EBA9964

HORIZONTAL DRILLING
Author(s): Ellen Montgomery
Abstract/Introduction:
TODAYS DISCUSSION Why drill horizontally? Designing horizontal wells Horizontal drilling tools and equipment Additional drilling considerations Well planning and design
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Document ID: 9042527B

UNDERSTANDING HYDROCARBON DEW POINTS IN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES
Author(s): James N. Witte
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will present a discussion on the hydrocarbon dew point of a gas, and is intended as an introduction for operations technicians to the conditions that determine a hydrocarbon dew point value, operating concerns generated when the hydrocarbon dew point is reached, and approaches to the management of gas quality to control hydrocarbon dew point in pipeline systems. The hydrocarbon dew point is one of the most important parameters defining the quality of a natural gas mixture.
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Document ID: E561D1CC

DETERMINATION OF H2S & TOTAL SULFUR IN NATURAL GAS
Author(s): Murray Fraser
Abstract/Introduction:
In the natural gas industry, H2S and Total Sulfur concentrations are monitored online to validate gas quality specifications at receipt and delivery points in transmission or distribution systems. Typical H2S and Total Sulfur measurement ranges are 0-20 ppm for H2S and 0-100 ppm for total sulfur. In addition, large Industrial users may choose to measure Total Sulfur in their natural gas supply as an alternative to measuring SO2 as part of their CEM (Continuous Emissions Monitoring). This paper summarizes principles of operation and points to consider when employing available sensors and analyzer technologies for online analysis of trace H2S and Total Sulfur in pipeline quality natural gas.
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Document ID: 4DAC57A0

ADVANCES IN HYDROCARBON DEWPOINT MONITORING THEORY AND PRACTICE
Author(s): Sohrab Zarrabian
Abstract/Introduction:
Monitoring the hydrocarbon dewpoint of natural gas is becoming ever more important. We have collected more than 20 years worth of data from our customers who use our analyzers in a few different countries with different climates. We have analyzed this data to look for trends and other information that may be useful to the industry. Our customer base includes pipeline operators, gas processors, storage operators, as well as power plants. While these customers are from distinct segments of the gas industry, they face similar issues in controlling the hydrocarbon dewpoint of their natural gas streams.
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Document ID: 94E28307

FUNDAMENTALS OF WATER VAPOR MEASUREMENT IN NATURAL GAS
Author(s): Ken Soleyn
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of moisture in natural gas is an important parameter for the processing, storage and transportation of natural gas. Natural gas is dehydrated prior to introduction into the pipeline and distribution network. For interstate custody transfer of natural gas maximum allowable levels are set by tariff, normally expressed in terms of absolute humidity in pounds per million cubic feet (lbs/ mmscf). The dew point temperature (C or F Td) is of interest to insure that liquid water or ice does condense in the system. Moisture concentration in parts per million (ppmv) is used in Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Several technologies exist for the online measurement and for spot sampling. A review of the most commonly used instruments using the following technologies: chilled mirror, impedance sensors, quartz microbalance, and tunable diode laser adsorption will be discussed. An intercomparison of those technologies with consideration to the measurement range, accuracy, long-term drift, response time, maintenance and gas sample conditioning will be provided.
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Document ID: FF687671

FUNDAMENTALS OF PRESSURE CONTROL
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure control is the fundamental operation of all natural gas delivery systems. It provides a safe and reliable energy source for manufacturing and heating systems throughout the world. Pressure control is utilized to balance the system supply demands with safe delivery pressures. Pressure control is used in all phases of the delivery system as follows: Production Wells Up to 5,000+ psig Compressor Stations Pumping into Storage or Boosting Transmission Supply. City Gate Stations Reduce Transmission Pressures to Distribution Pressures. District Regulation Stations cutting pressures for safe delivery End User Regulation Providing a safe pressure for end user appliances.
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Document ID: 6567FA1B

WATER VAPOR EFFECTS ON NATURAL GAS QUALITY AND NATURAL GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): James N. Witte
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is produced from underground formations in which the gas is at an equilibrium condition with water typically in the formation. Since the gas has been in the formation for a sufficiently long period, full saturation at the pressure and temperature conditions that exist in the production formation is a good assumption. This paper will discuss the effects of water vapor content on natural gas quality and the effect of water vapor on gas measurement.
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Document ID: 481C05B3

INTRODUCTION TO GAS QUALITY USING SPECTROSCOPY
Author(s): Sohrab Zarrabian
Abstract/Introduction:
Optical spectroscopy is an established group of techniques. These methods all share a fundamental common feature they use the interaction of electromagnetic waves (e.g. light) with materials to deduce information about the make-up of the material under analysis. Optical spectroscopy has been around for almost 100 years. Despite this relatively long history, practical industrial applications in the industry have been somewhat of a more recent trend. Field applications (outside of laboratories) have been even more recent phenomena.
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Document ID: D12F5C02

CONSIDERATIONS FOR M2M HYBRID WIRELESS NETWORKS
Author(s): Dan Steele
Abstract/Introduction:
Organizations with geographically dispersed assets, such as those in the energy and utility industries, are continuously developing and implementing new ways to monitor and control all aspects of their business, especially for operations in remote locations. With company personnel and automated machinery constantly in motion, businesses have had to create smarter communication networks out of necessity. A key indicator of enterprise organizations expanding their networking infrastructures ties directly to recent industry reports showing that the number of embedded wireless sensors installed across the world will reach billions and maybe even trillions over the next decade. This means these organizations must also leverage communication technologies to connect everything together - from the corporate office to the field site to the individual sensor - and everything in between. With a greater focus on operational efficiency to both reduce overhead and increase productivity, organizations are continuously tasked with objectives to improve the bottom line.
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Document ID: C717250D

SCADA COMMUNICATIONS FOR THE GAS INDUSTRY
Author(s): Joseph A. Furjanic
Abstract/Introduction:
With the growth in the Natural Gas Industry, the need for ever increasing information from the field is going to force us, as an industry to re-evaluate how we communicate with equipment at remote sites. For the next hour, we will look at some of the options available and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of them. Communications links can be broken down into two general categories: LEASED FACILITIES and OWNED FACILITIES. Most systems that need to cover a large geographic area may require a combination of the two to achieve the optimum communications efficiency.
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Document ID: 71084322

UNDERSTANDING OPC OPEN CONNECTIVITY VIA OPEN STANDARDS THE OPC FOUNDATION
Author(s): Russel W. Treat Tony Paine Dan Turner
Abstract/Introduction:
In the mid-1990s, a group of vendors convened to address the growing concern regarding connectivity to the plant floor-referred to as the Device Driver Problem. At that time, HMI and SCADA vendors were responsible for building their own driver libraries. This approach created great solutions when it all the connectivity requirements were provided by a single vendor. However, often when multiple vendors were involved, solutions were incomplete or unreliable across vendors. The vendors were faced with a decision: they either needed to invest resources to develop application-level functionality or extend connectivity.
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Document ID: 616EB0AE

WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS: APPLICATIONS IN OIL & GAS
Author(s): Brent E. McAdams
Abstract/Introduction:
As Machine to Machine (M2M), Internet of Things (IoT), and of course, Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) makes the transition from technology magazines to corporate strategic initiatives, companies are recognizing a significant opportunity to enhance productivity, efficiency, and profitability through Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). These Networks have emerged as a key technology for oil & gas exploration and production companies looking to gain a competitive advantage. Since initially being introduced, manufactures have enhanced product offerings to operate in the most inhospitable of environments while fortifying the technology with more robust communications architectures, hardening security, increasing reliability, and driving down power consumption. Through the entire oil & gas value chain (upstream, midstream, and downstream) as well as other industrial markets including Electric Power, Water/Waste Water, and Manufacturing, wireless sensor networks are increasingly being deployed where hardwiring was the De facto standard.
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Document ID: 214FF492

REMOTE MONITORING AND CONTROL - IMPACT OF EVOLVING COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES AND PROTOCOLS
Author(s): Vishal Prakash
Abstract/Introduction:
Monitoring of remote assets has been in practice since the 19th century. Since then, there has been many quantum changes including the type of assets that are being monitored, remote control of instruments and processes, type of media and the protocols used. There is a plethora of information available on the World Wide Web that documents and explains these changes, in detail, including a number of white papers.
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Document ID: 54C43C38

SCADA/M2M SATELLITE FOR DUMMIES
Author(s): Chuck H. Moseley
Abstract/Introduction:
SATELLITE NETWORKS Major components and knowing what the differences are MAKEUP OF A SATELLITE NETWORK 3 Major Components Space segment - wireless portion of satellite network LEO or GEO is most common. Speeds may be an option also bi-directional? Ground segment - sends/receives signal from satellite and switches it to PSTN, Internet or private network User Terminals - Device used on the ground to connect to the satellite network. Can be receive only or transmit only, or both. May be mobile or fixed. May be a large antenna, or dish or a very small devices.
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Document ID: 262880FC

DATA COMMUNICATIONS IN THE MARCELLUS & UTICA
Author(s): Brad Waldrip
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this discussion is to explore the various types of data connectivity that are available for data communications to the various points needed, in the Oil & Gas Industry. We will explore the various data connection types, pros and cons of each type and practical applications. The locations that we will be discussing are primarily in West Virginia, Pennsylvania and Ohio. While each type of data connections is feasible there are considerations that need to be observed. These considerations are cost, terrain, bandwidth, serviceability and power consumption.
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Document ID: DEFB97E3

PRINCIPLES OF ODORIZATION
Author(s): Greg Ebert
Abstract/Introduction:
Unfortunately many regulations are drafted on the heels of a disaster. Current regulation Odorization of Gas 49 CFR part 192.625 began setting roots after the deadly school explosion that claimed the lives of nearly 300 school children and teachers in New London Texas. The apparent cause of the explosion was an undetectable natural gas leak, that when concentrated above the lower explosive limit, found an ignition source. This explosion on March 18, 1937 may have been avoided if just 1 out of the 500+ occupants had the ability to recognize or detect the level of danger that existed. Today, regulations, guidelines, policies and procedures are active in the effort to prevent incidents as described above. The information provided in this article is meant to provide a snapshot of odorants, odorization equipment, odorization rates, tools and techniques, as well as general best practices when working with odorant presently in the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: 033BEF62

SELF-OPERATED REGULATOR BASICS
Author(s): Trent Decker Steve Ludtman
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application that we need to look more deeply into the fundamental of the regulators operation.
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Document ID: 2EA982FD

COMMISSIONING OF ODORIZATION SYSTEMS
Author(s): Martin Bouska
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas has no innate odor, color, or taste therefore, odorization is one of the most important aspects to safely transporting natural gas to customers in a distribution system. As demand for natural gas rises as does the technology involved in odorization. The first odorization occurred in Germany in the 1880s by a German scientist as a means of detecting leaking blue water gas. Fragmented and unregulated odorization of natural gas continued in the United States throughout the early 20th century until tragedy struck in 1937 in New London, TX. An undetected gas leak at the New London School caused an explosion that completely leveled the school and ultimately killed over 300 people.
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Document ID: F47A9E8B

ODORANT LEAK MANAGEMENT
Author(s): Pierre Braud
Abstract/Introduction:
All around the world, propane, butane and natural gas must be odorized. The odorization ensures a safe transport, distribution and use of this valuable energy to residential buildings. Regulations vary from one country or state to another. The natural gas can be odorized at different points of the gas grid: in some countries (France, Spain, South Korea...), odorization takes place at the entry points of the countrys gas grid, either at the gas transmission pipes or at Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) terminals just after vaporization. In other countries (USA, Canada, Mexico, Germany, Italy, Belgium, China...), natural gas is often odorized at city gate level, where gas is depressurized to allow distribution to residential points.
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Document ID: 60164CE6

GAS ODORANTS - SAFE HANDLING, HEALTH, AND ENVIRONMENT
Author(s): Daniel E. Arrieta David C. Miller Eric Van Tol
Abstract/Introduction:
Thiols (i.e. mercaptans), sulfides, and tetrahydrothiophene (THT) have been widely used in the odorization of natural and liquefied petroleum gas due to the fact that natural gas does not possess an odor. Mercaptans, for example, have proven to be very effective in odorizing because of their low odor threshold and therefore, immediate impact on the olfactory system (Roberts, 1993).
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Document ID: B4CBC1C7

DECOMMISSIONING OF OBSOLETE ODORIZATION EQUIPMENT
Author(s): Wesley Lucas
Abstract/Introduction:
WHY DECOMMISSION AND DISPOSE? Natural Gas industry is a fast growing segment of our energy industry and there is a need to keep the operations safe and environmentally friendly. Obsolete odorization equipment needs to be removed and disposed of in an environmentally sound and odor-free manner in order to avoid business disruption or potential liquid/vapor odorant leaks from obsolete equipment.
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Document ID: 7AC1BCB6

NATURAL GAS ODOR LEVEL TESTING PROGRAMS
Author(s): Mark E. Gunsalus
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas odor level testing programs are an important part of delivering safe and reliable natural gas. We will review olfactory biology basics, regulations, odor fade, program development, program execution and training. As an operator and Director for 28 years responsible for this process, we have developed and refined processes and procedures that ensure proper odor levels and identify deficiencies so they can be quickly rectified.
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Document ID: 9F6D8E27

THE BASICS OF PICKLING A NEW NATURAL GAS PIPELINE
Author(s): Shawn Jennings Wesley Lucas
Abstract/Introduction:
So, why do we odorize natural gas? Most natural gas is an odorless and colorless flammable gas Odorant is added to establish pungent odor of natural gas When odorized, undesirable or accidental fugitive natural gas will have strong odor (very distinctive and unpleasant odor) that will be easily detected by human Ensure safe transport and delivery of natural gas. Odorants ensure that the public will detect fugitive natural gas. Eliminate/reduce property damage To ensure complete public safety
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Document ID: 97D1DCE8

PORTABLE LNG VAPORATION
Author(s): John Tirrell
Abstract/Introduction:
1. INTRODUCTION The purpose of this presentation is to explain some of the considerations that go into planning and executing a portable gas supply operation using Liquified Natural Gas (LNG). Gas utility personnel have been safely performing portable LNG operations in the United States since the 1970s. Transgas, National Grid, and many other gas utilities and pipelines that have used portable LNG for planned maintenance outages for several decades.
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Document ID: 14DD9B08

SAMPLING CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH UNCONVENTIONAL GAS SOURCES
Author(s): Mark Firmin Vincent Argrave
Abstract/Introduction:
INTRODUCTION Advances in exploration, drilling and production technologies make it feasible to extract natural gas from sources that in the past have been regarded as unconventional and so, such sources are becoming a larger percentage of the gas supply. The feasibility of producing gas from a source is the primary factor in determining whether that source should be categorized as conventional or unconventional. What has been unconventional in the past may be considered conventional in the future.
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Document ID: B83407EB

EFFECTS AND CONTROL OF PULSATION IN GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Michael Royce Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulsation created by compressors, flow control valves, regulators and some piping configurations are known to cause significant errors in gas measurement. In recent years the Pipeline-and Compressor Research Council (PCRC) now know as (GMRC) Gas Machinery Research Council, a subsidiary of the Southern Gas Association, commissioned and funded various pulsation research projects at Southwest Research Institute (SWRI) in San Antonio, Texas.
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Document ID: BDD122DE

MITIGATING LOST AND UNACCOUNTED-FOR GAS
Author(s): Duane Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
In light of volatile prices, the industry has assumed an every drop counts approach to running the business. In this environment, issues such unaccounted-for (UAF) gas, with which every operation has dealt before, find themselves under new scrutiny. Production, gathering, midstream, pipeline and distribution companies are all responsible for managing UAF. Long gone are the days when the cost and impact of UAF was passed directly to the customer with virtually no requirements for managing and reducing costs associated with the loss.
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Document ID: 898F7625

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF PILOT OPERATED FLEXIBLE ELEMENT REGULATORS
Author(s): Michael Garvey Steve Ludtman
Abstract/Introduction:
Pilot Operated Flexible Element Regulators are capable of providing very accurate control in natural gas transmission and distribution pipelines. The Pilot Operated Regulator provides advantages over both self-operated regulators and control valves. Primary benefits include simplicity of operation and elimination of any fugitive emissions caused by atmospheric bleed gas. However, it is important to recognize the limitations of the pilot operated flexible element regulator and apply it accordingly. The original Flexible Element Regulator, the Flexflo , was developed by the Grove Valve and Regulator Company circa World War II. The original intent for the regulator was to regulate water in submarine ballasting systems. However, Grove quickly recognized that the Flexflo regulator product was ideally suited for pressure control applications in natural gas pipelines. Many advances have been made since the original Flexible Element was created more then fifty years ago, but the same basic operational advantages and principles of operation remain unchanged.
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Document ID: CE799808

LNG SAMPLING SYSTEMS, TECHNIQUES, DOS & DONTS WITH INDUSTRY OVERVIEW OF LNG FLOW LAB AND LNG INDUSTRY
Author(s): Ken Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
Sampling and transportation of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) has increased as this has become a Global Market with many new liquefaction plants, export and import terminals that have been built to date and more under construction or in the planning stages due to the increase in world demand of LNG. This demand has increased due to LNG being considered by many countries as the fuel of choice based on its safe properties, availability, cost, cleanness and ease of transportation. With the increase of liquefaction, storage, blending and transportation so has the need increased for Analytically Accurate measurement of the LNG in the realm of custody transfer. This has also led to new techniques in LNG sampling to help verify the measurement results. This paper will cover these new techniques in their approach and their unique challenges for the industry.
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Document ID: BC66EACE

DEGREE PROGRAMS IN GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Ken Haynes
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 6FDA9950

MULTIPHASE FLOW MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of unprocessed hydrocarbon flows is becoming more prevalent in the hydrocarbon production industry. Multiphase meters are now often integral in the design plans for new developments. However, the phrase multi-phase flow covers a huge range of flow conditions and metering these varied flows has proven a major challenge to engineers. Furthermore, due to the relatively recent arrival of these technologies on the market, and, the relatively complex and proprietary nature of the products leading to the finer details of operation not being divulged, there is often a lack of technical understanding amongst the multiphase meter users. In this paper, definitions of the phrases multiphase flow and wet gas flow will be discussed. There will be a discussion on the requirement for multiphase metering before multiphase flow patterns and the methods of predicting them are discussed. Finally, an overview of the common multiphase meter generic principles will be given.
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Document ID: F8581EC8

OVERVIEW OF AN APPALACHIAN SHALE GAS PROCESSING PLANT
Author(s): Ryan Savage Jim Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this class is to provide an overview of a typical northeast Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) processing plant. The Marcellus and Utica Shale play in the Appalachian Basin area has brought the need for new substructure, compressor stations, facilities and processing plants. The natural gas production in Appalachia has historically been lower pressure Devonian gas which is considered dry when compared to the rich Shale gas. The terms dry, wet, lean and rich are industry terms for describing the physical state and composition of the gas as it is produced from the earth. The term dry gas or lean gas refers to natural gas that has a BTU value range of approximately 900 to 1100. The terms wet gas or rich gas is used almost interchangeably, but the more accurate term for description is probably rich because wet can also refer to the gases water content. Rich gas is natural gas that has a BTU value above 1100 generally.
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Document ID: 753C0442

PROPER SAMPLING PROCEDURES NGL AND RICH GAS
Author(s): Jason Rine
Abstract/Introduction:
COLLECTING PROPER SAMPLES Analytical Parameters Sample Location Sample Collection Methods Sample Containers Sample Collection Material Safety ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS Fractional Sulfur Compounds NGL Air Emissions Others SAMPLE LOCATIONS Representative of Product Stream to be Analyzed Accessible for Sampling Accessible Sampling Methods
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Document ID: A921C934

NATURAL GAS LIQUID MEASUREMENT-DIRECT & INFERRED MASS
Author(s): Dean Minehart
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) streams consist of mixtures of hydrocarbons including ethane, propane, butane, pentane and natural gasoline. NGL is sometimes referred to as y-grade. The American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) Chapter 14 Section 7 provides guidance on the mass measurement of NGL. Mass measurement techniques are applied to NGL measurement due to solution mixing of a variable fluid composition within the NGL stream.
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Document ID: F04107A8

PROVERS FOR MEASUREMENT VERIFICATION
Author(s): Greg Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
This document will provide the reader an understanding of what a prover is, the need for proving meters for accurate measurement verification, the equipment deemed acceptable and available for use in the oil and liquefied gas market. It will also define the general terminology used in the industry, general operational aspects for verification devices, and general information utilized by the groups and agencies that govern the meter verification process.
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Document ID: 311069EB

SAFE HANDLING AND OPERATION OF LIQUID PRODUCTS
Author(s): Alex Ramsey Jay Bailey
Abstract/Introduction:
In our industry Liquid Products are becoming more and more valuable. As an industry we are converting our gases to liquids for a multitude of reasons. These reasons include easier transportation, easier means of storage, and more efficient operations. So with these practices comes a different role of responsibility. Different safety measures must be taken when operating handling these liquids. When the correct steps are preformed, this makes for a much more efficient and safe operation. To understand the safe handling of liquid products, you must first understand the different types liquid products. Three different types of liquid products that will be covered are: Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), and Natural Gas Liquids (NGL). When dealing with these different liquids you must understand the physical properties of each.
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Document ID: 58EAD24C

WET GAS TEST COMPARATIVE RESULTS: ORIFICE VS. USM
Author(s): John Lansing Toralf Dietz Dr. Richard Steven Jim Bowen Irvin Schwartzenburg
Abstract/Introduction:
The CEESI Nunn Wet Gas facility consists of a closedloop test stand with up to 650 horsepower that permits flow rates from about 83 to 620 ACMH. This corresponds to 3 to 23 m/s in 4-inch Schedule 80 piping. Pressures can range from 1,380 kPa up to 7,500 kPa (13.8 Bar - 75 Bar). Gas flow is measured using a calibrated 6-inch turbine meter, and the injected liquid is measured using one of 2 different Coriolis meters (1/2 and 2 sizes). The liquid typically used is Exxsol D80, but water, or a mixture of both can also be used.
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Document ID: 725E7D17

FUNDAMENTALS OF CONTROL VALVES AND PNEUMATIC CONTROLLERS
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry utilizes two devices to reduce gas pressure and control gas flow. The first is the regulator and the second is a control valve. The control valve is utilized for high volumes and it can perform flow control as will as pressure control. This paper will provide the fundamentals of control valve types, sizes, and the controllers that are utilized to operate the control valves. We will also investigate the differences between the regulator and the control valve and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
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Document ID: 092C8A86

FUNDAMENTALS OF NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS (NGLS)
Author(s): Ken Haynes
Abstract/Introduction:
Before discussing NGLs, it is first necessary to build some background on natural gas. Natural gas is a naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbons (compound of hydrogen and carbon) and nonhydrocarbon gases found in porous geologic formations beneath the earths surface. Natural gas is a mixture of the hydrocarbon components of methane, ethane, propane, butane, and pentanes, with the principal constituent being methane. Natural gas also can contain non-hydrocarbon gases such as carbon, dioxide, water, hydrogen sulfide, and nitrogen.
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Document ID: 78193839


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