Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (2017)

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Basics Of High-Pressure Measuring And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): James N. Witte
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents a review of the criteria necessary for designing high-pressure natural gas measuring and regulating stations. For the purpose of this discussion , high pressure is assumed to be gauge pressure values above typical distribution mainline pressures (greater than 60 psig). Therefore, it is most applicable to station designs with gathering, midstream, and transmission operations. The design engineer has many factors to consider when designing a metering facility. These factors must include considerations for their impact on measurement accuracy, facility capital cost, environmental stewardship, public stewardship, and long-term maintenance cost. The successful designer will seek to achieve high accuracy at an appropriate capital cost, while minimizing the risks of environmental hazards, public nuisance, such as noise, and maintenance requirements.
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Document ID: F815773D

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement III
Author(s): Joseph J. Bauer
Abstract/Introduction:
To become proficient in all phases of gas measurement, one must fully understand what natural gas is and the theory of its properties. The theories about natural gas properties are the gas laws, and their application is essential to gas measurement. Quantities of natural gas for custody transfer are stated in terms of standard cubic feet. To arrive at standard cubic feet from actual flowing conditions requires application of correction factors that are defined by the gas laws.
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Document ID: A7B3DB97

Lact Unit Proving - The Role Of The Witness
Author(s): Wally Boudreaux
Abstract/Introduction:
Custody Transfer Measurement provides quantity and quality information used for the physical and fiscal documentation of a change in ownership and/or a change in responsibility for commodities. In any case, each party involved in an exchange wants to be fairly compensated for the quality and quantity so accuracy is always a joint priority. Because measurement errors can have both immediate and long-term impact, it is essential that custody transfer measurement is precis e and accurate with a minimum of bias errors. It is also important to establish and maintain a traceable chain that links the me assurement to appropriate industry standards. In this manner, fiscal transfers can be done equitably with the confidence of both the seller and buyer.
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Document ID: 53B1D55E

Liquid Flow Provers
Author(s): James Hensley
Abstract/Introduction:
This document will provide the reader with an understanding of the need for proving meters for measurement verification, the equipment deemed acceptable and available for use in the oil and liquefied gas market. It will also define the general terminology used in the industry, general operational aspects for each device, pros and cons of each technical solution and an insight in the future developments What do proving and prover mean? According to the American Petroleum Institute, static physical quantities are calibrated, flows are proved. Verifying the accuracy of a flow metering device is then p roving them. In the rest of this paper we will refer to Proving as the activity and to Provers as devices.
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Document ID: 64E1B5A3

Liquid Meter Proving Techniques
Author(s): Jerry Upton
Abstract/Introduction:
A meter is only an indication of flow unless it is proved. T hat sounds like a bold statement. But, it is true. A lot of people think that a meter always gives you the right answer. They are ignorant of the facts. A meters ability to be right is a function of its traceability to a National Metrology Institute or NMI. You are probably thinking what in the world is that and what does it have to do with a meter. Well, the oil industry has agreed to make all Custody Transfer measurements directly traceable to something that everyone has faith in. And, that is an NMI. The NMI in the United States is the National Institute of Standards and Technology or NIST. That is where all the standards for the United States are kept.
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Document ID: B651DBFB

Operation & Problems Associated With Prover Detector Switches
Author(s): Nicholas Thurlby
Abstract/Introduction:
In many parts of the petroleum industry, sphere provers are used to dynamic ally calibrate volumetric meters. In order to accomplish this, sphere provers are required to be accurate and repeatable. This accuracy and repeatability is largely dependent on performance of t he prover sphere detector. Any operational or design problems associated with the prover detector will affect the provers performance. This paper will review critical parts of a prover sphere detector that must be checked in order to obtain accuracy reliability and repeatability.
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Document ID: 01012C5A

Master Meter Prover Certifications Per API Mpms 4.9.3
Author(s): Kevin Fields
Abstract/Introduction:
When discussions about prover calibrations occur, they normally end with a disagreement about the accuracies of the different approved methods. This paper will discuss the procedures and advantages of the master meter method This method was developed over 20 years ago to minimize difficulties in calibrating very large volume provers. In the fast pace world of today, where down time means money, many companies use the master meter method to save time and money on a variety of prover sizes. Accurate calibrations require good technique from a knowledgeable technician. Having the proper knowledge and equipment to perform the master meter method will improve the accuracy and minimize time to complete the calibration. This paper will discuss the Master Meter Method of prover calibration as described in API MPMS Chapter 4.9.3.
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Document ID: 784E5409

Operational Experience With Small Volume Provers
Author(s): Billy Burton
Abstract/Introduction:
Over several decades, the Small Volume Prover (SVP) has become a common and vital piece of equipment throughout the pipeline industry. There are many available publications that explore the functionality and method of operation for the SVP. The primary focus of this document is to highlight the authors experience with the SVP. The majority of the document will address the technical operations and advancements made to the SVP over time, as well as the calibration methods and proper maintenance of the devices. SVPs have progressed into being the industry standard in custody transfer applications. They have shown to be extremely accurate as well as efficient in both stationary and portable applications. They can operate across an extensive variety of fluids and an equally broad span of flow rates.
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Document ID: 269466C4

Theory And Application Of Pulse Interpolation To Prover Systems
Author(s): David J. Seiler
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulse interpolation, by definition, is the ability to estimate values of (a function) between two known values. Therefore, pulse interpolation enables pulse counts to be made to a fraction of a pulse, thus greatly reducing the rounding - off errors that occur when pulse counts are made to the nearest whole number which always happens in the absence of Pulse Interpolation.
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Document ID: FFCD1F65

VERIFICATION/CERTIFICATION Of Devices Used In Liquid Measurement And Implications Of How Mercury Issues Will Impact These Processes
Author(s): Anne Walker Brackett
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past the standards from the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the American Society for Testing and Measurement (ASTM) provided specifications for instruments and equipment. Simple compliance with these standards was not enough. Therefore, a system of verification and/or certification of equipment used in measurement of liquids was instituted. These requirements were written into the standards as they came up for review. An excellent example of such a standard is Chapt er 3.1.A. Standard Practice for the Manual Gauging of Petroleum and Petroleum Products of the APIs Manual of Petroleum Measurement 3.1.A. calls for field verification of working tapes against against a National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable master tape when it is new and every year thereafter. This is an example of the requirements to insure the instrument and the equipment meets the specifications of each standard. It is important to understand the definitions of traceability, verification, and verification before discussing the specifications for equipment used in liquid measurement.
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Document ID: DDABFD1E

Witnessing Orifice Meter Verification/Calibrations
Author(s): Kyle Bates
Abstract/Introduction:
In the natural gas measurement industry, it is very common for companies to routinely witness or watch another company verify and/or calibrate a custody transfer gas meter. Witnessing another companys technician inspect their primary measuring device, secondary measurement equipment and tertiary equipment calculations is something that is often overlooked as routine and has historically lacked an emphasis on importance. If you look around your everyday world, there are a multitude of meters measuring commodities that are verified for accuracy on a regular basis. This verification may be required by a contract to buy or sell, a contract to ship or gather, state or federal agencys regulatory branches, or a gentlemans agreement. Each agreement is in place as a means to protect the interest of each respective party whether that is of a large company or the general public. As an agent for the company and responsible for implementing company standards around verifying metering points where large volumes of energy change hands on a daily basis, it is in the technicians best interest to insure these metering points are measuring correctly.
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Document ID: FA4840F4

Improving Flow Measurements With Improved Calibration And Data Handling Procedures
Author(s): Duane Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past, every major company staffed its own measurement training facility. A company would provide the training at regularly scheduled intervals throughout the y ear. The training would often take place at a live gas facility and might include videos, classroom training sessions, and hands-on field training. Every company had their own set of Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) and the appropriate AGA, API, and GPA documents. The procedures in each document were taught, demonstrated, and executed by all measurement technicians. Each SOP had a standard form which outlined the procedure on how to successfully document the gas measurement data. Every measurement technician was cycled through multi-level training classes. Upon completion of each measurement level obtained, they received certificates and sign-off.
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Document ID: 422B8ABF

Preparing A Prover For A Water Draw Calibration
Author(s): Herb Garland
Abstract/Introduction:
The key to a successful calibration of a prover by the water draw method is thorough planning and organization followed by good execution of the plan. The primary goal is to get the prover as clean as possible and perform any replacements and maintenance needed prior to the arrival of the Calibration Company. This paper is intended to assist you attain an accurate calibration by presenting some things to consider for the planning, organization and execution phases. A more detailed Procedure for prover preparation is provided in API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards, Chapter 4-Proving Systems, Section 9, Part 2.
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Document ID: 730F9CC1

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Milo Clark
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many different metering devices being used for gas measurement today. Most of these devices fall into the two main types of measurement, positive displacement or inferential measurement devices. Positive displacement meters such as diaphragm and rotary style meters are usually used for measurement of gas at lower volume and/or reduced flow rates. With inferential type devices such as turbine meters, ultrasonic meters, and orifice devices being used for the larger volume, higher flow rate applications. Turbine meters are versatile measurement devices used in applications with varying flow rates and pressure ranges. They are being used in applications ranging from atmospheric pressure to elevated pressures up to 1440 psi. Turbine meters have become a mainstay in the gas industry and are a considered to be very accurate devices . In fact, turbine meters are routinely used as master or reference meters in secondary calibration systems such as transfer provers. Although the modern turbine meter still operates for the most part on the same theory, the configurations, mechanical design, and electrical output options have advanced greatly since it was introduced to the US over 50 years ago.
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Document ID: 3D6B9A71

Laboratory Versus In Situ Proving Of Liquid Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Terry Cousins
Abstract/Introduction:
Unfortunately all meters are fundamentally non-linear in their basic form. This means that unless the meter is characterized in some way to account for this non-linearity the meter when it arrives on site the proving must take into account this non-linearity if the meter is going to encounter any flow changes. In particular changes in Reynolds number will cause calibration change, but proving on site and correcting for Reynolds number is an arduous and often impossible task. These meters have to be linearized, whether it is by modifying the fluid mechanics as in the case of the turbine meter, for exam ple, or by a correction deter mined by the physics using software, as with a USM. The corrections are often very sensitive to operational conditions, in particular viscosity changes and so it is essential that the meters are characterized in the way that is not fragile when the meter is installed. Proving will obviously help with site variations, but it is essential that the initial data fit, linearization is carried out under controlled conditions. To achieve this the base calibration facility must have a good uncertainty, good range of viscosity to achieve the required Reynolds number range and a good pedigree, such as ISO 17025.
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Document ID: 53CA0ECC

Equipment And Techniques Used In Real Time Component Volume Calculation For Natural Gas Liquid Measurement
Author(s): David Beitel
Abstract/Introduction:
Correct measurement practices are established to minimize uncertainty in the determination of the custody transfer volume (or mass) of products. Understanding and evaluation of the fundamental cause and effect relationships with the liquid to be measured will lead to a volume determination that most closely matches the true volume at the referenced standard pressure and temperature. When designing a new measurement station it is up to us as measurement people, to understand the product to be measured, apply the correct equipment, and implement the appropriate correction equations. Crucial to the proper selection of measurement equipment and the proper calculation technique is an understanding of the product that is being measured.
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Document ID: AACD7499

The Uncertainty Of A Waterdraw Calibration Vs. Gravimetric Calibration On Small Volume Provers
Author(s): Gary Cohrs
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to review the history, techniques, similarities, advantages, and disadvantages and the uncertainty comparison between gravimetric and t he traditional water draw method of prover volume calibrations by NIST certified volumetric field test measures, focusing on high precision captive displacement flow provers, known more commonly as Small Volume Provers or SVPs. Since the introduction of the SVPs almost 40 years ago, SVPs have gained widespread acceptance and use in the petroleum industry, and are the prover of choice for a large number of applications. Because of the SVPs precision, advances in weighing equipment allowed for more precise calibrations with much less uncertainty. This fact was recognized by both people in the industry and National and International standards organizations. The American Petroleum Institute Manual of Petroleum Measurements Chapter 4.9.4, and NIST SOPSVP15Nov-06 have defined standards for gravimetric displacement flow Prover calibrations.
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Document ID: 455B929B

New Technologies In S&W Measurement
Author(s): Thomas M. Canty
Abstract/Introduction:
Vision technology is providing the answer for crude and produced water measurements that are currently skewed by the uncertainty of traditional, non visual instrumentation to know what kinds of particles are being measured. For instance, ultrasonic meters can be affected by the solid particles they are measuring. Air bubbles can also affect the accuracy and calibration of the instrument. Particle counters are likewise affected by the presence of non solid constituents in the mixture such as air or water. In any event, there is no direct, or immediate, method to confirm that the measurement shown is actually a true measurement or a skewed reading caused by some of these process factors.
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Document ID: E16965A6

Roles And Responsibilities Of Witnessing A Liquid Prover Calibration
Author(s): Kenneth Lancy
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to give direction to those that have little or no experience with liquid hydrocarbon prover calibration. The results of this procedure will impact the custody transfer of product and could affect the accuracy of millions of transported barrels. The upmost importance and attention to detail must be stressed while witnessing the prover calibration process. This will ensure that mistakes and uncertainties are minimized. Why do we to calibrate meter provers? Being that there are many different types of meters manufactured all over the word, how do we know what one is right? The short answer the meter prover will ensure the accuracy of the meter. When we calibrate a meter prover we use water. Water as we all know has not changed in billions of years. We understand its properties, know how it will react in all situations and environments. Knowing that water is stable, safe, and there is an abundance of it, its the best choice for prover calibrations. That is why prover calibration is often referred to as a waterdraw. The prover calibration must be performed before the prover can be used in any measurement service. In the end it s all about the accuracy and performance of our metering systems.
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Document ID: B1F55C4A

Using Control Charts To Predict Failures Of Measurement Devices
Author(s): Zaki Husain
Abstract/Introduction:
A Control Chart of a measurement device is a historical documentation of the performance of the device. For a flow meter, a control Chart is the Meter Factor (MF) of the flow meter plotted or tabulated in consecutive proving in time. Figure 1 is an example of a typical control chart of a flow meter. This flow meter is installed to measure flow rate in a process control application, where flowing fluid remains the same, but the flow rate and temperature of the fluid is change for the process of each week. The flow rate from week to week range varies between 62 to 85 percent of the maximum flow rate range of the meter, while the temperature maintained from week to week is between 55 and 83 degree Fahrenheit. Measurement uncertainty for the process needs to be within +/-0.05%. The baseline calibration to the flow meter indicated that the meter performance was acceptable for the application.
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Document ID: 350A6E0F

Methods For Certifying Measurement Equipment
Author(s): Scott Crone
Abstract/Introduction:
Like any other piece of equipment, a measurement artifact must be maintained. Obviously, it has to be in working order in general. However, what is more important is that it be operating within specified parameters and providing measurements that are traceable to a known source or sources. This paper provides a general overview of calibration and certification. It also discusses some key terminology and methods.
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Document ID: 664B961F

Auditing Gas Laboratories
Author(s): Vertis Grummert
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for ensuring the analytical lab is producing accuate results has increased dramatically throughout the years. In the 1970s, many natural gas shortages were experienced, which resulted in the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 to be passed by Congress. Natural gas companies had to be more competitive with the guaranteed rate structure being phased out. Prior to the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978, natural gas in many contracts was bought, sold and traded on the Mcf basis and not on the heating value basis (MMBtu). Also, with the advent of shale gas plays in the last 10 to 15 years, the normal clean, dry, pipeline quality gas with a Btu of 1025 is no longer the norm. Obtaining accurate gas analysis is crucial to a companys financial health. The laboratory produces gas quality results which are utilized by companies for multiple reason s, including volumetric and energy calculations, safety (H2S concerns), pipeline integrity (H2S, H2O, CO2 levels ), and environmental compliance (vents, blow downs, engine emissions). During the audit, any deficiencies will be identified and corrective actions taken to ensure quality results.
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Document ID: 8AC00126

Natural Gas Analysis By Gas Chromatograph
Author(s): Seth Nease
Abstract/Introduction:
The most equitable means of exchange of Natural Gas and Natural Gas Liquid products is by the measure of their energy. In order to determine the energy of the product, the individual components within the product must be measured. The most common and accepted means of measuring the amounts of each component with a Natural Gas or Natural Gas Liquid sample is by the use of a gas chromatograph (GC). The following is a description of basic GC operation for energy determination.
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Document ID: 84CC305F

Btu Determination Of Natural Gas Using A Portable Chromatograph
Author(s): Bonnie Crossland
Abstract/Introduction:
Often the BTU content and other physical properties of a Natural Gas sample are required to be measured for operational or contractual reasons. The gas chromatograph (GC) is the instrument widely accepted as the most appropriate analyzer for this application. In some locations the use of a permanently online GC is impractical or cost prohibitive. For these locations, either spot analysis using sample cylinders analyzed at a central location or a portable GC is used to determine the BTU and physical properties. This paper will provide an overview of the consideration for portable measurement of BTU.
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Document ID: A8EBB15E

Chromatograph Applications And Problems From A Users Standpoint
Author(s): Fred Ryel
Abstract/Introduction:
Chromatographs are available for all types of applications in the natural gas industry. The main applications that this class will discuss are process monitoring of liquids and gases, environmental flares and ambient air, landfill gas and contaminates. These can also include corrosives such as H2S, CO2 and O2, etc. Regardless of the application, the main priority is to capture an accurate sample and not change the properties before it can be analyzed. Maintaining the sample integrity is by far the most difficult process. The procedure of acquiring the sample and the way it is analyzed depends upon the media being sampled.
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Document ID: A32B1D3E

Chromatograph Maintencance And Troubleshooting
Author(s): Daniel Tiller
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas is sold as Energy. Gas Chromatographs calculate the Energy value of the Gas (as well as other calculated values used in Flow Calculations). When there is only a single Gas Chromatograph (GC) on a Custody Metering station, the downtime for a GC must not only be at a minimum but it should be planned for ahead of time, rather than addressing issues as they arise. It is necessary to create a preventative maintenance program and oversee that it is taking place so that analysis problems are identified before they cause measurement errors. It is necessary to perform maintenance on a predictive basis, rather than being triggered by a measurement issue.
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Document ID: 3C667B1A

Installation And Operation Errors In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr. Jacob L. Thorson Dr. Thomas B. Morrow
Abstract/Introduction:
Installation errors may occur when an instrument is used in a manner different from how it was calibrated. For example, suppose that a temperature sensor is calibrated in a stirred, constant temperature bath. During calibration, t he sensor is in thermal equilibrium with the circulating fluid, and the fluid and sensor temperatures are the same. Next,let the same sensor be used to measure the temperature of natural gas flowing through a pipe at low velocity. If the pipe wall temperature is different from the flowing gas temperature, convection heat transfer will occur between the gas and the pipe wall, conduction heat transfer will occur between the pipe wall and the sensor, and convection heat transfer will occur between the sensor and the flowing gas. In this example, the sensor would not be in thermal equilibrium with the flowing gas and the sensor temperature would be different from the flowing gas temperature.
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Document ID: F2CE936F

Chromatographic Analysis Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): Bob Armbruster
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate laboratory analysis is impossible unless a truly representative sample is delivered to the laboratory. The purpose of this paper is not to teach natural gas liquid sampling, but it is appropriate to list some of the most important aspects of sampling. Composite samplers should be flow proportional. That is, the sample pump stroke should be initiated by flow volume. It should not be time proportional. That is, the sample pump stroke should actuate based on periodic product flow volume intervals, and not be initiated by time. If the sample rate is time proportional, it should at least have a provision for stopping sample collection if the flow stops.
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Document ID: 345727F8

An Optical Hydrocarbon Analyzer For Real-Time Hydrocarbon Gas Speciation And Measurement
Author(s): Roberto Bosco
Abstract/Introduction:
A unique all-optical, real-time, unattended sensor platform has been developed for hydrocarbon gas composition analysis enabling speciation and quantification of the individual light hydrocarbon components such as C1 - nC6 of alkanes, high- range hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide. This all-optical sensor performs real-time specifiation without requiring physical separation of the compounds as performed in traditional chromatography. Moreover the ability to offer fast, accurate and repeatable C1 - C6 total BTU/HHV for natural gas pipeline energy content monitoring can be proven side-by-side with traditional gas chromatograph methods.
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Document ID: 5183C59D

Crude Oil Quality - What Is It And Why Its Important
Author(s): Paul Furman
Abstract/Introduction:
Crude oil quality is critical to the custody transfer process of delivering crude oil to market. The actual process of determining the quality of crude oil is well documented, but can have different meanings depending on the oils location in its life cycle of delivery. In this part of the delivery process, an entire market of third party independent laboratories, production companies, pipeline companies and refineries are responsible for the quality determination at these points of custody transfer in the delivery life cycle of crude oil. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) have multiple standards that guide each effected group on how to perform the requested tests in a uniform manner. The standards assure individuals in industry are consistently producing repeatable results within an accepted and documented set of rules that all parties must follow. Now, lets talk for a minute about what these tests mean to you, and each group that handles the crude oil in its cycle of delivery.
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Document ID: E3ED48DF

Refined Product Sampling Systems
Author(s): Garrett Van Dyke
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses design considerations for refined, multi-product, automated sampling systems. First, lets define what a refined product is. Crude oil pipelines are brought into refineries all across the country and those crude oils are refined into many useful products. These products include gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, lubricants, and raw materials for fertilizer, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. The process of refining is a totally separate topic in itself. However, sampling all of these refined products to ensure that the refining process is working properly is a crucial step that cannot be taken lightly to ensure that a company is delivering accurate products that stay within regulation.
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Document ID: 6191D338

Determination Of H2S And Total Sulfur In Natural Gas
Author(s): David Haydt
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur bearing compounds exist naturally in many natural gas fields throughout the world. It is generally necessary to remove these sulfur bearing compounds from the gas in order to preserve public safety, reduce corrosion in pipelines, meet contractual agreements and to control odor in the gas. Thus the determination of hydrogen sulfide and total sulfur in natural gas is critical to the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: 0A3DB195

Determination Of Water Vapor Content In Natural Gas
Author(s): Sohrab Zarrabian
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of dew point and vapor pressure of various gases has applications across a wide swath of industries. Within each industrial segment, there are different instruments available for measurement of either the dew point or vapor pressure of the gas of interest. Although dew point of a gas is a function of its vapor pressure, they are not the same thing. In general given the vapor pressure of a single gas component, and the makeup of the rest of the gas mixture, one can theoretically calculate its dew point at any pressure. However, it is important to remember that this is a calculated/theoretical dew point and may vary from the actual dew point due to errors/inadequacies in the theoretical model.
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Document ID: 60B4E224

Hydrocarbon Dew Point Effects On Gas Flow Measurement
Author(s): Martin Schlebach
Abstract/Introduction:
In this paper we will discuss the effects of Hydro Carbon Dew Point (HCDP) on measurement accuracy. We will look at multiple factors that affect uncertainty such as proper meter operation, maintaining fluid in a gaseous state, gas sampling and handling of samples after they are obtained. All of these factors and more contribute to increased uncertainty when measuring gas close or in the critical area.
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Document ID: 98B8C7AD

D.O.T. Requirements For The Transportation Of Sample Cylinders
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The United States Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) is a department of the U.S. Federal Government which oversees all issues regarding transportation within the United States of America and U.S. Territories. Its influence around the world is great and widely respected, but its jurisdiction and power of enforcement is limited to the USA and its territories. As regards this paper, we will discuss the D.O.T. and its involvement surrounding sample cylinders for the hydrocarbon industry and the rules regarding the movement of these cylinders from point to point in the United States.
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Document ID: 8002C65A

Energy Measurement Using Flow Computers And Chromatography
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
The transactional environment of todays energy business often necessitates the on-site facilitation of total energy measurement in order to accomplish the timelier settlement of measured fluid quantities between parties. In the natural gas industry, this is most commonly accomplished per the use of Primary Flow Meters, Secondary Devices, Electronic Flow Measurement (EFM) and Gas Chromatographs (GC). These technologies enable the operator to determine total measured volumetric and energy quantities at the time that individual measurements of key parameters are taken with little or no need for subsequent data processing. There are several advantages associated with the implementation of a total energy measurement system. As previously mentioned, because the system determines total measured volumetric and energy quantities at the measurement site, the need to perform downstream data processing is minimized or eliminated. Because measurement of flow parameters and composition are being made much more frequently, and the values then integrated together on-site for calculation of flow and energy rates, uncertainties associated with less frequent measurements, downstream data processing, averaging error and unrepresentative values utilized for long periods of time are greatly minimized. When remote communications systems are utilized, data can be collected and delivered to organizational business systems, enabling such to be transacted upon in a much timelier manner.
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Document ID: 8F11848C

Energy Measurement Using Ultrasonic Flow Measurement And Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Martin Schlebach
Abstract/Introduction:
The demand for global energy increases with time as surely as the world population of users of gas energy has increased each year. Energy will ALWAYS be in demand. Good Systems for measuring it accurately and reliably are a Must. This paper will put some of the realities of assembling and operating an Energy Measurement Station for natural gas into perspective into A Technicians perspective!
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Document ID: 1FABDA8F

Low Pressure Gas Measurement
Author(s): Philip A. Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
Many regions of the USA have many natural gas wells that are declining in both flow and pressure due to extensive exploitation and production over many years, horizontal drilling has brought new life to these regions however some production sites in a region may not be capable to be rejuvenated which leaves them in a state of low output. These traditional wells which are showing symptoms of reduced pressure and flow-rates, may need to change the scope and design criteria of the metering station or central receipt point (CRP) usually being designed around the API 14.3 - AGA 3 measurement standard for pipeline quality gas.
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Document ID: EB5AA53C

Field And Laboratory Testing Of Sediment And Water In Crude Oil
Author(s): Jane Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
The quantity of sediment and water in crude oil must be accurately established as part of the custody transfer process. Purchasers only pay for the crude oil received, and want to minimize the quantity of sediment and water they must transport and dispose of. Consequently, monitoring of the sediment and water content is performed at the production site to prevent excessive sediment and water from entering the pipeline system. The quantity of sediment and water a pipeline is willing to accept into their system depends on geographic location, market competitiveness and their ability to handle the sediment and water in the system. Each pipeline publishes the quantity of sediment and water it will accept. States also may have sediment and water limits as well.
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Document ID: 54218376

Fundamentals Of Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Lou De Jager
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chromatography (GC) is a technique that separates mixtures into individual components. It is used to identify components and to measure their concentrations. Chromatography is one of the most widely used means of performing chemical analyses in the world. This paper will cover the nature of chromatography, how to introduce the sample, how column separation occurs, common detectors used in chromatography, the operation of the analysis valves, and the interpretation of the analysis, including the importance of extended analysis.
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Document ID: 48A1390D

Design Considerations For Analyzer Enclosure Systems
Author(s): David Beitel
Abstract/Introduction:
Instrument shelters are a necessity. In the Rocky Mountain Region, the decision to provide an Instrument Shelter is not something that is usually debated. The real issue is how sophisticated (read Expensive) they need to be and what should go into them. The decision as to what goes into a Shelter for a project engineer can be a delicate balancing act. Depending on the various adders the cost of a shelter can become quite expensive. When we talk about Instrument Shelters, two general categories are relevant: Buildings that house Meters, and Buildings that house Quality Instrumentation- Chromatographs, Water Monitors, H2S Analyzers, and Oxygen Analyzers.
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Document ID: 029CA243

Heat Quantity Calculation Relating To Water Vapor In Natural Gas
Author(s): James N. Witte
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is produced from underground formations in which the gas is at an equilibrium condition with water in the formation. Since the gas has been in the formation for a sufficiently long period, full saturation at the pressure and temperature conditions that exist in the production formation is a good assumption. This paper will discuss the effects of water vapor content on natural gas quality and the effect of water vapor on gas measurement.
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Document ID: 36897711

Validating Laboratory Gas Analyses
Author(s): Dennis Updike
Abstract/Introduction:
The intent of this paper is to explore the concepts around an effective data validation process for determining the accuracy of natural gas samples analyzed at a laboratory. The accuracy of gas sample analysis depends upon a variety of parts in the overall measurement process. Understanding the types of errors that can occur in each aspect will aid in the development of an effective validation method.
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Document ID: D3A2AAB2

On Line Water Measurement Devices In Liquid Service
Author(s): Craig Mcwhorter
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays uncertain energy market there is a tremendous emphasis on cost saving and productivity at all levels of the industry. Online water detection - continuous measurement of free and entrained water quantities in petroleum and petroleum products - provides vital real-time information regarding water concentrations in hydrocarbons in a wide variety of applications, empowering the user with the knowledge necessary to maximize efficiencies and cost savings while increasing many safety factors at the same time. There are several important considerations regarding the usage of on-line water detectors or OWDs (also called water cut meters or BS&W monitors). There are multiple technologies and form factors offered for these units, each with differing pros and cons dependent upon user requirements, applications, process conditions, suitable installation, and budget.
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Document ID: 4F49EF45

Sampling And Conditioning Of Natural Gas Containing Entrained Liquids
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
The monetary value of natural gas is based on its energy content and volume. The energy content and physical constants utilized in determining its volume are computed from analysis. Therefore correct assessment of the value of natural gas is dependent to a large extent on overall analytical accuracy. The largest source of analytical error in natural gas is distortion of the composition during sampling. Sampling clean, dry natural gas, which is well above its Hydrocarbon Dew Point (HCDP) temperature, is a relatively simple task. However, sampling natural gas that is at, near, or below its HCDP temperature is challenging. For these reasons, much attention is being focused on proper methods for sampling natural gas which have a high HCDP temperature.
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Document ID: E07E45B8

Ultrasonic Meters And Measurement Accuracy In Leak Detection
Author(s): Andrew Soddy
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid ultrasonic flow meters operating a part of a pipeline leak detection system are required to continuously monitor process operations under difficult fluid conditions such as in homogeneous fluid properties and transient conditions. The meters response to these process conditions can be understood using the built in diagnostic capabilities of the meter. This paper presents real-time data collected from the evaluation of over 245 custody transfer accuracy liquid ultrasonic meters used in pipeline leak detection. The data helps to identify the causes for instrumentation anomalies by utilization the diagnostics held within the liquid ultrasonic meters. Understanding pipeline operational characteristics will lead to further improvements in leak detection models and pipeline operational procedures. The importance of maintaining accurate flow measurement is considered with respect to API standards for leak detection design. As the technology develops we can see how the predictive nature of diagnostics can be utilized in a smarter measurement system to maintain tighter tolerances under adverse operating conditions.
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Document ID: 7C128C57

Sample Conditioning And Contaminant Removal For Water Vapor Content Determination In Natural Gas
Author(s): Brad Massey
Abstract/Introduction:
The Natural Gas Industry experiences numerous operational problems associated with high water vapor content in the natural gas stream. As a result several problems are experienced such as, equipment freezes, dilution of physical properties reducing heating value, volume measurement interference, and pipeline corrosion. Contracts and Tariffs usually limit the amount of water vapor content allowed at the custody transfer point. For these and other reasons, accurate Water Vapor Dew point measurements are critical measurements for all companies involved in natural gas production, gathering, transmission and delivery.
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Document ID: 1C3E25A2

Techniques Of Gas Composite Sampling
Author(s): Billy J. (B.J.) Jackson, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is a commodity that must be measured as it is transported from the wellhead into processing and distribution sectors. To measure natural gas, several variables must be considered - pressure, temperature, volume, and gas composition. Gas composition provides insight into the physical makeup of the fluid. Depending on the chemical content, the amount to charge or to be charged for the quantity of gas measured will vary. Accurate collection and determination of the gas composition is the foundation for natural gas purchase, sales contracts and royalty payments. Unfortunately, inaccuracies occur. When they occur, buyers and sellers alike demand correction and reimbursement. Inaccuracies in measurement can result from the following: a. Inappropriate sampling techniques and/or equipment b. Inappropriate sample conditioning and handling c. Samples collected from non-representative locations and/or under non-representative operating conditions d. Inappropriate/inaccurate analytical methods
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Document ID: CABB36BF

Advanced Application Of Liquid Flow Computers
Author(s): Bobby Wollard
Abstract/Introduction:
Within the Oil/Gas industry Flow Computers have been used since the mid to late 1980s to perform real-time, accurate, and reliable flow measurement processing. However, since the late 90s their functions have become ever more complex and required functionalities increase steadily year after year. We are in an age of technological development and we see automation continually grow around us in every aspect of our lives. Like clockwork every year we see new phones/tablets, and gizmos that make often mundane tasks simpler and more efficient. Oil/Gas measurement is no exception to this as it pertains to Liquids flow computing. Because of the complexity of many of these devices we tend to view them as black boxes or voodoo machines simply spitting out contrived numbers based upon simple inputs. In most cases this could not be further from the truth, simplicity is and always should be at the heart of any flow computer development.
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Document ID: 43E5EF0D

Techniques Of Gas Spot Sampling
Author(s): Jane Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the various approved methods used for spot sampling in the natural gas industry. Proper sampling technique is extremely important because it impacts both the quantity and quality of the gas being measured. Up until 1978 when congress passed the Natural Gas Policy Act, natural gas was sold based on volume. The Natural Gas Policy Act implemented selling of natural gas based on the energy available in the gas being sold. Consequently, the importance of sampling to determine the BTU content of the natural gas sold became much more important. The energy available in a gas stream is the product of the volume and the BTU content of the gas sold. In order to determine the BTU content of the gas, a representative sample must be captured and analyzed by a gas chromatograph or calorimeter. Typically, the industry utilizes gas chromatographs to make this determination. The sampling method is frequently a function of the volume of gas sold over the period. If the volume sold is relatively small the technique used is usually the spot sampling method, which is the method covered in this paper. In spot sampling, the sample is obtained and transported to a laboratory for analysis by a gas chromatograph. If significant volume is transferred over the period, a composite sample might be captured and analyzed.
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Document ID: 76E9297E

Application Of Flow Computers For Gas Measurement And Control
Author(s): Scott m. Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow Computers, like the computer industry, have been changing rapidly over the past few years. Faster, more powerful microprocessors, higher quality batteries and solar panels, improved electronics and new methods of remote communications now make it possible to automate field production and pipeline systems primarily using flow computers as the core hardware. Flow computers were originally designed to replace mechanical charts used in custody transfer gas measurement. They now are being used in whole scale SCADA systems often performing multi-tube and tube switching operations, flow control, tank monitoring, compressor monitoring, artificial lift and total MMBTU calculation.
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Document ID: 637552CF

Basic Applications For Flow Computers And Telemetry Systems
Author(s): Denis Rutherford
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the basics of Flow Computers and Telemetry Systems. Electronic gas flow computers are microprocessor-based computing devices used to measure and control natural gas streams. There are a variety of configurations available from dedicated (integrated) single board computers to PLC-based multi-run (hybrid) systems.
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Document ID: 76450537

Mass Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Marc Buttler
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early 1977, Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in gas, liquid, and slurry applications with an installed base of well over a million units. Since the early 1990s Coriolis meters have rapidly gained acceptance in gas applications with over 100,000 meters installed worldwide. Principal gas applications for Coriolis meters include fiscal transfer of valuable process gases such as ethylene, oxygen, and hydrogen, utility gases such as natural gas, and reactor feed gases such as hydrogen, ethylene, ammonia, and chlorine. Coriolis meters offer improved measurement accuracy over wide turn downs and with less installed uncertainty due to swirl and flow profile effects.
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Document ID: 057DD8CE

Basic Electronics For The Field Technician
Author(s): Rick Kroeker
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic flow meters (EFMs) are widely used for metering of hydrocarbon fluids. A basic understanding of electricity is essential to reliable, accurate and safe operation of these EFMs. While it is not necessary for the field technician to understand circuit board level operations of microprocessors and integrated circuits, it is important to understand the electrical power and electronic signals going in and out of the EFM in order to maintain a healthy EFM system.
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Document ID: 4840E3F3

Scada Systems
Author(s): Nick Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems are described as being an industrial computer scheme for measuring, controlling, and interfacing with a manufacturing process. SCADA systems exist in nearly all types of manufacturing of products, be it oil and gas, power, automotive, water systems. It is a technology that can be deployed to improve a process. That help may be defined as speeding up or increasing the yield of a process, improving safety, acquiring data for accounting purposes, controlling a process with minimal to no human interaction among other things.
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Document ID: E66D0EBA

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement I
Author(s): Douglas Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
To truly understand gas measurement, a person must understand gas measurement fundamentals. This includes the units of measurement, the behavior of the gas molecule, the property of gases, the gas laws, and the methods and means of measuring gas. Since the quality of gas is often the responsibility of the gas measurement staff, it is important that they have an understanding of natural gas chemistry.
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Document ID: 73B9D502

Fundamentals Of Sampling Natural Gas For Btu Determination
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
It has long been recognized that the largest source of error in the analysis of natural gas is the sample conditioning system (SCS). The sample conditioning systems consist of all components through which the sample gas travels from its source, typically a pipeline, to the gas chromatograph (GC) inject valve. The purpose of the sample conditioning system is to extract a natural gas sample that is representative of the source, transport it to an on line gas chromatograph, and in the process condition it so that it is compatible with the analyzer. Conditioning consist mainly of excluding unwanted liquids and solids, regulating the pressure and flow, and heating to maintain the sample gas well above its hydrocarbon dew point temperature(1). During the entire sample conditioning process the sample gas must not undergo any changes in its composition.
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Document ID: F15C0DA6

Moisture Measurement Using Laser Spectroscopy
Author(s): Samuel C. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for reliable moisture measurement is essential to natural gas companies because of the corrosive nature of the moisture in combination with compounds such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. Natural gas processors and pipeline operators must measure moisture and other contaminants to protect equipment and to conform to customer specifications. Since tunable-diode laser (TDL) analyzers provide very fast and reliable measurements, they are commonly used in the control loops of purification, separation, and liquefaction processes to optimize efficiency and costs.
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Document ID: 7FA17298

Uncertainties Within The Centrifuge Method And Mitigations
Author(s): Allen Wong
Abstract/Introduction:
The centrifuge method is widely used to determine the amount of water and/or sediment in crude oil as part of the custody transfer process. The parties involved in a transaction would benefit to minimize the uncertainties involved. Pipeline companies publish the quantity of water and sediment it will contractually accept. Maintaining a balanced system is crucial to the business of a pipeline company. This paper discusses what could be the contributing factors to uncertainties related to the centrifuge methods with the assumption that a homogenous sample was obtained from the process line. Proper mixing, temperature control, visual aids to enhance reading ability, training, equipment with consistent performance and capable to provide the required relative centrifugal force are some of the contributing factors.
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Document ID: 98476FBE

Considerations For Sampling Wet, High Pressure, And Supercritical Natural Gas
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux Shannon m. Bromley
Abstract/Introduction:
It is a well established fact that the sample conditioning system (SCS) is the largest source of error in natural gas analysis. The SCS is comprised of all the components which contact the sample on its journey to the analyzer, including those which are designed to protect the analyzer from damage by solids and liquids. Its purpose is to extract a representative sample from a natural gas source, condition it so that it is compatible with the analyzer, then transport it to the analyzer for analysis. During this process, the SCS must maintain the integrity of the sample composition. Knowledge of the physics and chemistry related to the extraction, transportation and conditioning of natural gas sampling is a must for anyone who designs, maintains, or purchases a sample conditioning system.
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Document ID: 2F620492

Flare Measurement Practices
Author(s): Eric Estrada Steve Baldwin
Abstract/Introduction:
With the recent release of the Green House Gas Regulations, the increased visibility of flaring natural gas and increased awareness of royalty owners, the ability to accurately measure and account for the amount of product flared from a facility has become increasingly important to regulators, royalty owners and operators. In the past, flare gas was not considered a necessary measurement, so the measurement of flared product has often been overlooked or not given the same attention as custody transfer measurement. This paper reviews data obtained during flow calibration of several meters at an internationally accredited flow laboratory. The types and technologies of flare gas meters tested include optical scintillation, tracer methods, and ultrasonic meters designed specifically for flare measurement. Meters were tested in both straight-run and elbow configurations. The data shows the importance of flow calibrating flare meters prior to installation to reduce bias, and define both the range of linearity and range of operation. The data presented also shows the effects that upstream piping geometry has on these flare meters.
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Document ID: 2F1DDBC2

Principles Of Multi-Dimensional Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Gregg Meidl
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past 45+ years, multi-dimensional gas chromatography has made a tremendous impact in the HPI and CPI markets. Process GCs play an important role in the areas of safety, process control, process monitoring and environmental monitoring. Modern analyzer systems have sophisticated PC based electronic controllers with LCD man-machine interface suitable for hazardous area classifications. Despite the fact that there have been considerable strides in process gas chromatographic technologies and practices, the same basic principles hold true today. This paper will cover the basic structure of a typical process gas chromatograph from the sample probe, through the sample system, GC sample valves, columns and column valves and through the detector.
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Document ID: 1B9EC594

Sampling Challenges Associated With Unconventional Gas Sources
Author(s): Mark Firmin
Abstract/Introduction:
Advances in exploration, drilling and production technologies make it feasible to extract natural gas from sources that in the past have been regarded as unconventional and so, such sources are becoming a larger percentage of the gas supply. The feasibility of producing gas from a source is the primary factor in determining whether that source should be categorized as conventional or unconventional. What has been unconventional in the past may be considered conventional in the future.
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Document ID: 2B72EB20

Introduction To Measurement Uncertainty
Author(s): Richard Estabrook
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the concepts of both uncertainty and bias in measurement, discusses the need to eliminate bias prior to performing an uncertainty calculation, outlines the difference between component uncertainty and system uncertainty, and provides several sample calculations. This paper also introduces simple statistical methods such as standard deviation and mean.
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Document ID: 72B6D069

Custody Transfer Crude Oil Sampling Systems
Author(s): Dominic Giametta
Abstract/Introduction:
In the oil and gas industry, there are generally two ways that we take measurements of product. The first is by volume. As fluid flows through a pipeline or sits in a tank, the industry has developed many ways by which we can capture that fluid and calculate how much of a particular product we have. These methods are calculated and refined to the point that we can determine these volumes down to the lowest possible unit. The second method by which we measure fluid is a quality measurement. Quality measurement has been well refined over the years to include new technologies not seen in the past. Electronic devices are very commonly used to provide real time analyzation of product as it flows through a custody transfer system. Although there have been many advances in the electronic quality measurement realm, another of the most common and widely accepted method of quality measurement is the composite sampling system. These systems incorporate the use of mechanical devices that capture small bites of the flowing product to compile a composite sample that is representative of the flowing batch. In crude oil sampling, these devices are used almost religiously to provide a primary source of measurement, or even a redundancy to an electronic system. In either scenario, there are certain considerations one should entertain in order to ensure that the composite sampling system is set up for success.
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Document ID: C4446740

Determination Of Trace Oxygen In Natural Gas
Author(s): Sam Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
The necessity for trace oxygen measurements is increasing with requirements below 100 or 10ppmv. An understanding of the considerations when choosing technology for measuring Oxygen is useful especially for remote locations or locations with high levels of corrosive contaminants such as CO2 and H2S. This paper discusses a variety of measurement methods used in natural gas such as Galvanic Cell method, the Quench Florescence method and the Gas Chromatograph method.
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Document ID: 9D019218

Measurement Station Inspection Documentation Program And Guide
Author(s): Joe Sena Debra Ball
Abstract/Introduction:
Having a formalized maintenance and inspection program is important to ensure measurement metering accuracy and that custody related activities are documented to show compliance with regulatory and contractual requirements. Oil and gas companies must operate within many constraints such as Regulations, (Federal, State, BIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs), FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission), PHMSA-DOT (Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration - Department of Transportation) & BSEE (Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement), Contractual obligations (tariff, gather, buy/sell, & measurement agreements) and Industry standards (API ((American Petroleum Institute), AGA (American Gas Association), & GPA (Gas Processors Association)).
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Document ID: E09B4587

Inline Color Measurement Of Refined Product And Condensate
Author(s): Steven W Schoenborn
Abstract/Introduction:
Crude oil refiners and natural gas producers have long used color determination of liquid hydrocarbon streams for manufacturing and quality control purposes. However, the testing methods to determine color were normally conducted manually (offline) by sample analysis, often requiring some level of sample conditioning. Now, advances in process photometry has created devices capable of inline color measurement of liquid hydrocarbon streams - all in real time and under process conditions. This ability allows crude oil refineries, natural gas processers, and pipeline owners an opportunity to monitor/control manufacturing process parameters where it couldnt be done before, and as a result, a real time opportunity to increase product quality, control product manufacture, and monitor product transfer.
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Document ID: 6EE85861

Introduction To Gas Quality Using Spectroscopy
Author(s): Sohrab Zarrabian
Abstract/Introduction:
Optical spectroscopy is an established group of techniques. These methods all share a fundamental common feature they use the interaction of electromagnetic waves (e.g. light) with materials to deduce information about the make-up of the material under analysis. Optical spectroscopy has been around for almost 100 years. Despite this relatively long history, practical industrial applications in the industry have been somewhat of a more recent trend. Field applications (outside of laboratories) have been even more recent phenomena. In the last 20 years, advances in optical components, computing power, and display technologies have worked hand in hand to enable many new applications of field-deployed spectroscopy in many different industries. Wide ranging applications in medical, semi-conductor, environmental, materials, pharmaceutical, food, and energy industries have emerged making significant contributions to safety and efficiency in these industries.
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Document ID: 63E1EED7

Proper Handling & Maintenance Of Natural Gas Calibration Cylinders
Author(s): Richard Rayon
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays market with accounting and other regulations being tougher as well as higher restrictions dealing with safety, knowing as much information about calibration standards and how they need to be handled is vital. Even the equipment being used in the field, plant, laboratory and on the pipeline are more advanced than even 10 years ago. There are DOT regulations and company policies that need to be followed to ensure the accurate use and safety in the use of and the transportation of all calibration standards. The results of the analytical measurement and the use of the calibration cylinders go hand in hand with each other. Calibration Standards should be made with the highest quality of products and with the most accurate of measurements. Not knowing about the calibration cylinders could affect the Calibration Standard and have an effect on the outcome your company is looking for.
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Document ID: 7B364490

Causes And Cures Of Regulator Instability
Author(s): Paul Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the gas pressure reducing regulator installation and the issue of erratic control of the downstream pressure. A gas pressure reducing regulators job is to manipulate flow in order to control pressure. When the downstream pressure is not properly controlled, the term unstable control is applied. Figure 1 is a list of other terms used for various forms of downstream pressure instability. This paper will not address the mathematical methods of describing the automatic control system of the pressure reducing station, but will deal with more of the components and their effect on the system stability.
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Document ID: 86238A61

Controlling Surges In Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): Dave Seiler
Abstract/Introduction:
Controlling transient surges in liquid hydrocarbon applications is a complex task that requires experienced engineers to dissect every section of the system. They must take into account every what if scenario and design a system that will protect piping, equipment and personnel. This paper provides a basic understanding of transient pressures, how they can occur and how they can be controlled.
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Document ID: B80D6162

Prevention Of Freezing In Measurement And Regulating Stations
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The failure to supply natural gas upon demand can cause irreparable damage to a companys corporate image in the 21st Century. Consistent and continuous pipeline operations are key and critical factors in todays natural gas pipeline industry. With todays supply and reserves of natural gas, there is no excuse for failure to deliver product to the end-user. The competitive nature of the business, together with the strict rules and regulations of natural gas supply, mandate that companies stay on top of all operational parameters that could cause interruption or complete shut-down of the natural gas supply to customers. Identifying what may ultimately cause problems is a first step to controlling and eliminating those problems for the supplier.
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Document ID: 907A11F9

Turbulence And Its Effects In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Terrence A. Grimley Edgar B. Bowles, Jr. Adam Hawley
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many misconceptions and misunderstandings about pipe flow turbulence and its influences on flow measuring and flow regulating stations in gas and liquid transport pipelines. Many volumes have been written on the subject of flow turbulence. This paper is not intended to be a comprehensive treatment of the subject of pipe flow turbulence, but does discuss fundamental concepts and terminology, and provides information on how flow turbulence and its effects can adversely affect flow measurement and flow regulation. This information can give pipeline measurement station and regulation station designers and operators insight into ways to minimize possible adverse effects of flow turbulence.
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Document ID: A581E044

Flow Meter Installation Effects
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr. Jacob Thorson
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many causes for natural gas flow rate measurement errors at field meter stations. Many of the sources for meter error are identified in the proceedings of this conference. For instance, errors can result from an improper installation configuration, calibration of a meter at conditions other than the actual operating conditions, or degradation of meter performance over time. Industry standards have been developed to help meter station designers and operators avoid situations that would produce gas metering errors. Typically, gas meter standards address meter design, construction, installation, operation, and maintenance. Most of the standards focus on the flow meter and the piping immediately upstream and downstream of the meter. Research has shown that many meter types, particularly inferential meters, are susceptible to errors when the flow field at the meter is distorted. The sources of flow field distortions are many.
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Document ID: EEB6BD06

Production Equipment Effects On Orifice Gas Measurement
Author(s): Stormy Phillips
Abstract/Introduction:
The condition of gas as it presents itself in the pipeline is often not ideal for accurate measurement, by an orifice flow meter. It is the requirement of the American Gas Association (AGA) that the natural gas be in a single phase and with a swirl-free fully developed profile as it passes across the orifice plate to meet the standard of measurement to provide acceptable uncertainty for the flow calculation. Thus it is often necessary to condition the gas prior to measurement. Using the basic laws of gases we can control these conditions by altering the temperature, pressure, or component makeup of the gas. Neglecting these conditions will create a poor measurement environment and inaccurate measurement. It is therefore necessary for measurement personnel to be familiar with common production equipment, how that equipment is utilized and what effect it can have on the overall ability for a system to provide accurate measurement.
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Document ID: 724D62C5

Orifice Meter Primary Elements Standards
Author(s): Hunter Ward
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter is the most predominately utilized device for measurement of natural gas. Its dominant presence in the natural gas industry stems from many years of acceptance as the primary means for accurate measurement. In 2000, revised manufacturing an inspection standards, along with new technology for flow enhancement have improved the overall accuracy of orifice metering. Thought other measurement devices and technologies have made significant impact, the orifice meter stands as the dominant device for several reasons:
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Document ID: D1A731F2

Auditing Electronic Gas Measurement Per API Chapter 21.1
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
API 21.1 is recognized as an international industry standard documenting the Electronic Gas Measurement (EGM) system audit and record requirements for differential and linear meter measurement. This standard is used by the measurement community to reduce the overall EGM system uncertainty and improve measurement data integrity. Measurement data integrity plays a critical part in overall measurement accuracy for all organizations and has a direct impact to the financial bottom line. Measurement integrity is also vital for ensuring compliance with regulatory and industry standard requirements.
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Document ID: A5C67E86

Identifying And Eliminating Effects Of Induced Signals On Measurement System Electronics
Author(s): Peter P. Jakubenas
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement errors and other effects of induced signals on measurement system electronic equipment can be quite profound. This paper will explore the sources and effects of induced signals and other phenomena including effects of cathodic protection systems, high voltage power lines, faulty grounds, lightning, RFI, and intermittent events. Information to prevent and eliminate undesirable signals and technical references are provided.
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Document ID: D3FC5E8C

Multipath Ultrasonic Flow Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jonathan Fiedler
Abstract/Introduction:
Why multi-path? Flow profile distortion under normal process conditions causes ultrasonic flow meters the either under report or over report the measured volumetric flow. Multipath ultrasonic flow meters can provide a measurement while maintaining within their uncertainty as compared to single path ultrasonic measurement solutions. Multi path meters can also provide a window into the changing process conditions by presenting multitudes of diagnostics and calculations beyond the flow measurement.
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Document ID: FA3D48D7

Auditing Gas Measurement And Accounting Systems
Author(s): Debbie Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement practices related to gas volume production from the field to volumetric calculations in the office play a crucial role in accurately recording revenue and have a direct effect on the financial results. The measurement environment has experienced a rapid and revolutionary change, with evolving measurement technology, the enactment of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX), in 2002, and the new federal regulations (CFR 43, sub parts 3173, 3174, 3175) published January 17th, 2017. There is a heightened demand for corporate accountability, measurement accuracy, and increased regulatory scrutiny. In such a climate, there is tremendous need for good internal controls and audit processes.
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Document ID: 47A1B3F8

Auditing Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Linda A. Larson
Abstract/Introduction:
An effective audit of liquid hydrocarbon measurement is dependent upon a solid understanding of the measurement process combined with the application of sound internal auditing principles. The quality of liquid measurement activities is contingent upon (1) the reliability of the measurement equipment and instrumentation used (2) the specific procedures and practices followed in performing the measurement activities (3) the adequacy of training and proper performance of the measurement technician and (4) the proper documentation of transactions based on a measured value. All four components must be taken into consideration when auditing liquid measurement. In addition, to ensure the efficiency of the audit process, auditors must identify those areas which present the greatest risk to the organization to achieving its goals, and concentrate audit effort on those areas.
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Document ID: 8CAF589C

Overview Of Gpa 2172/API 14.5 Revision
Author(s): Don Sextro
Abstract/Introduction:
GPA Standard 2172-09 / API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards Chapter 14, Section 5, Calculating Gross Heating Value, Relative Density, Compressibility and Theoretical Hydrocarbon Liquid Content for Natural Gas Mixtures for Custody Transfer, Third Edition, January 2009 finds wide application in the natural gas gathering and processing business as well as related natural gas handling activities because it provides methods to calculate these often-used parameters from a gas analysis. Several important changes occurred in the recent revision of this standard that became effective January 1, 2009. The main changes comprised in this revision provide methods for incorporating water vapor into the analysis calculations, include theoretical hydrocarbon liquid content (GPM) calculations on a real gas basis in this standard, discuss characterizing heavy ends in the gas analysis as well as other analysis cautions and present a number of detailed example calculations. Refer to the standard itself for requirements, procedures, details and further explanation.
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Document ID: 01454FCF

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Adam Hawley
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement accuracy is an important concept for anyone who deals with measurement on a regular basis. In fact, a measurement is not truly complete until the accuracy has been assessed and is understood. This paper will introduce multiple concepts regarding measurement accuracy and how they apply to flow measurement. The examples in this paper will focus on natural gas measurement, but the concepts discussed could also be applied to other measurement systems.
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Document ID: 8CFE18B8

API Mpms Chapter 22.2 - Testing Protocol For Differential Pressure Flow Measurement Devices
Author(s): Richard Estabrook
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Petroleum Institute (API) Manuals of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) are developed for the devices and systems installed for the measurement of oil, gas, and petrochemical products by the oil and gas industry. Historically the API flow meter standards are developed for devices that are accepted and installed by the industry to achieve precise and repeatable measurement for fiscal, material balance, and process control applications. Flow meters can be divided into two classes: Linear and Differential. Linear meters measure some attribute of the fluid such as velocity, magnetic flux, thermal mass, or momentum to derive the flow rate. Examples of these meters include ultrasonic meters, turbine meters, magnetic meters, Coriolis meters, and thermal mass meters. Differential pressure (DP) meters respond to the presence of a primary device placed into the fluid flow which either accelerates or decelerates the fluid in the vicinity of the primary device. The resulting acceleration or deceleration of the fluid causes a pressure change that is proportional to the flow rate. Examples of differential meters include orifice plates, Venturis, nozzles, pitot tubes, and cone meters.
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Document ID: 1C0B28CB

Ethernet For Scada Systems
Author(s): Denis Rutherford
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will cover the implementation of Ethernet applications in SCADA system communications and architecture. Supervisory Control and Data acquisition (SCADA) systems provide a superior base for better controlled facilities in the upstream, midstream and pipelines for oil and gas facilities. Computerized handling of remote installations is integrated with communications and provides means for reducing the operating cost, cost of maintenance and effective handling of the Oil and Gas network. System parameters communicated via wireless data network must present true conditions related to the status of the field equipment including the Custody Transfer Measurement Systems. In likewise manner, commands sent to remote sites must be promptly executed and the back indication is to be sent to the control center.
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Document ID: 0AD9D320

Dot Qualification Training For Measurement And Control Technicians
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement and control technicians must possess certain knowledge and skills in order to effectively and safely perform their required tasks. These knowledge and skill sets are obtained through education and experience. While these requirements are common to all personnel working within these areas of technical discipline, those performing safety sensitive functions on facilities regulated under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Transportation (US DOT) are additionally required to be evaluated for these qualifications as defined within applicable regulation.
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Document ID: 8B1F0385

On-Line Flow Computers For Liquid Custody Transfer
Author(s): Philip A Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will focus on the major parameters that are associated with flow computers. The topics discussed will encompass a wide range from the basic concept of fluid flow computing, algorithms, audit trail, ancillary equipment and flow meter interconnection information. A flow computer is an electronic computational device which implements approved or standardized algorithms to convert raw data received from flow meters and other tertiary equipment with other appropriate data to calculate accurately, securely and subsequently display or indicate contractual or standardized volumes at agreed base conditions, or other desired information as is needed by the operator. Usually a standardized volume for each flow meter (if in a multiple system) is monitored and from this data a traceable secure record of the contract volume on an hourly, daily, batch or monthly basis is provided.
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Document ID: 556988D5

Influencing Planning, Operations And Closing Of Commercial Business Through Efficient Measurement
Author(s): John Newman
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement is ground zero for any oil and gas organization and it is paramount that the data from the field be accurate, timely, relevant, complete and accessible. The upstream, midstream and to an extent, the downstream, oil and gas markets are unique in that assets are typically geographically dispersed with a corporate office hundreds if not thousands of miles away. The critical role of the measurement community is to consolidate/extract data from well sites, processing facilities, tankers, trains, pipelines and other assets in order to get it to the right person at the right time so that they can make the right decision.
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Document ID: 704733A0

Real-Time Electronic Gas Measurement
Author(s): Al Majek
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of oil & gas production has progressed considerably since the days of paper charts and manual integration. Technology has moved increasingly to microprocessor based flow computers allowing for greater measurement accuracy, increased control functionality, and ready integration into a companys enterprise computer networks.
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Document ID: E9B7F63B

Interface Detection In Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): Craig Mcwhorter
Abstract/Introduction:
The basic concept of interface detection is simple: detect and direct the flow of different fluids, or batches, through pipelines. The implementation, however, can be very complicated. The goal of interface detection is to time the switching or cut of the product in such a way that delivers the maximum quantity of product to customers without downgrading the quality of the product. In the case of transmix, the goal is to minimize the quantity of fluid requiring re-refining. In order to avoid the potential contamination of any product by the interface, operators tend to be conservative in cutting batches, but this can result in increased product downgrade or sending some on spec product to the slop tank. With the large mix and high cost of todays specialty fuels, accurate interface detection is key to maximizing profits.
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Document ID: FE90C03C

Multiphase Flow Measurement
Author(s): Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of unprocessed hydrocarbon flows is becoming more prevalent in the hydrocarbon production industry. Multiphase meters are now often integral in the design plans for new developments. However, the phrase multi-phase flow covers a huge range of flow conditions and metering these varied flows has proven a major challenge to engineers. Furthermore, the relatively complex and proprietary nature of these meter designs leads to the finer details of their operation not being divulged, so there is often a lack of technical understanding amongst the end users. In this paper, definitions of the phrases multiphase flow and wet gas flow will be discussed. There will be a discussion on the requirement for multiphase metering before multiphase flow patterns and the methods of predicting them are discussed. Finally, an overview of the common multiphase meter generic principles will be given.
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Document ID: 04812828

Odorization In Natural Gas
Author(s): Kris Kimmel
Abstract/Introduction:
It is generally accepted that natural gas has become a critically important energy source for the future. The abundance of natural gas, its favorable impact on the environment and its use across all sectors of the economy means natural gas will play an increasingly important role in meeting the global demand for energy. It is important to note a key driver for demand of natural gas has been and will continue to be public safety. Since natural gas has no color and rarely has a detectable odor, a mission critical process in delivering natural gas safely is a robust odorant injection program. In order to give this complex and challenging task some perspective, the United States has approximately 1200 Distribution companies with 1.2M miles of pipeline networks.
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Document ID: 41BE3A49

Spread Spectrum Radio Technology For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Ben Hamilton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper focuses on the Spread Spectrum Radio applications in the 902-928 MHz ISM band for unlicensed radio. It is suggested that the reader do a Google search for FCC OET Bulletin 63 and read the FCC bulleting for a description of the service. Another good source of information can be found with a Google search for FCCPart15regulationsSemtech.pdf. Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS), is becoming the preferred communications technology for the EFM gas measurement systems. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) allocated spectrums in several bands for unlicensed use (CFR 47, part 15 - the FCC rules). Equipment manufacturers developed high quality, low cost equipment with robust features. The end users of this technology have accepted the innovations and quickly deployed it. The demand for more information and the ability to remotely manage well site automation equipment has accelerated the use of this technology.
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Document ID: 43F25560

Smart Transmitter Selection, Calibration And Installation
Author(s): Derya Dikbas
Abstract/Introduction:
Smart transmitter is a microprocessor-based measurement device that combines analog and digital circuitry to compute process parameters in desired units. Embedded Analog-Digital circuitry in smart transmitters offer higher accuracy, extra functionality with better long-term stability compared to analog transmitters. However, suitable device selection with proper field installation is crucial to take advantage of smart transmitters superior features. Selecting transmitter to meet application specific requirements can be overwhelming. A variety of features are listed by manufacturers to propose distinguishing products in response to market needs. Understanding the characteristics of process entity and understanding field requirements are necessary for choosing the right device for customer-specific application. The device offering the best accuracy available in the market can operate poorly if the installation is not performed properly. Using protection equipment, proper grounding and applying measurement adjustments are important in order to receive the best performance from the purchased transmitter.
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Document ID: 50F9EDD7

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Arthur Farve
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to the cost of production and transfer of natural gas, the industry has demanded a higher level of accuracy and an economical method for measurement. Orifice fittings and meter tubes satisfy this demand for most natural gas measurement applications today. The level of accuracy achieved in orifice measurement has been continually refined and improved upon since it was first put to use for measurement of petroleum products. The accuracy of orifice measurement is controlled by published standards currently AGA 3 Part 2 / API 14.3 April 2000 that define the requirements to achieve a known level of accuracy and eliminate error in measurement. The intent of this paper is to focus on the basics of orifice measurement.
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Document ID: EDBCC104

Testing, Maintenance And Operation Of Electronic Flow Computers For The Gas Industry
Author(s): Denis Rutherford
Abstract/Introduction:
Say goodbye to obsolete chart recorder technology and bulky multi-component flow computers with the Electronic Flow Computer (EFM). The EFM is a solar-powered single to multi run flow computer, an evolution in gas measurement technology. Designed for use in remote locations where solar is the only power and technician access is less than ideal, the EFM incorporates a dedicated single run flow computer, solar/battery power supply and communication system within an all-in-one, compact, easy-to install package. The EFM requires a Man-Machine Interface (MMI) to configure the EFM. The MMI or Configuration Software allows editing of the flow computer configuration parameters with configuration dialogs for process inputs, contract specifications, compressibility calculations, and flow calculations for each meter run. The operator may write configuration data to the flow computer or read it back. Parameter checking is provided on user entries.
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Document ID: 334BE557

Orifice Meter Tube Dimensional Tolerances
Author(s): John Abbott
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter is a time tested and proven device used for the measurement of gases and fluids, with standards covering every aspect of the meter run. Uncertaintys can me calculated without the needs for flow calibrations. Those uncertainties can be further reduced through flow calibration. The standards have been written and modified over time and continue to evolve. So that repeatable accurate measurement may be achieved. While the orifice meter has the ability to measure either gas or liquid, measurement should be clean single phase for greater accuracy.
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Document ID: E5B240DA

Effects Of Additives On Metering Of Liquids In Pipelines
Author(s): Zaki Husain
Abstract/Introduction:
Most refined fuels and hydrocarbon products are formulated using different chemical blending and complex processing at the plants. Blending of the fuel and chemical products is necessary to conform to the required product quality and performance, but that can introduce problems and challenges for the quantitative and qualitative measurement of these products. Refined products may be altered or degraded prior to their use by environment and additives that are blended to reduce pressure loss while transporting the products through pipeline. A wide range of additives is blended to enhance performance enhancement, frictional loss during transportation, enhance refining processes, and/or retard product degradation. The effect of the additives on liquid metering often depends on the composition and concentration of the additives. Hence, pipeline and terminal metering systems must be adjusted to the offset the influences for varying liquid properties and quantities of the blended additives.
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Document ID: DBE17B78

Gas Meter Selection
Author(s): Robert Fritz
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to provide general guidelines & criteria for the evaluation & selection of a high pressure gas meter, including a discussion of the basic operating principles and installation and maintenance considerations. This paper will concentrate primarily on four high pressure/high volume custody transfer flow meters, Orifice, Ultrasonic, Coriolis and Turbine. A short discussion will be provided for other alternative types of flow meters and different gas stream conditions. When selecting a gas flow meter for particular application remember that there is no one Panacea for flow measurement. No one meter is the right choice for all applications. The following general criteria needs to be considered in evaluating which type of meter to select:
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Document ID: 8D25633A

Cone Meters For Liquid And Gas Measurement
Author(s): Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Differential Pressure (DP) meters have been used extensively since Herschel developed a commercial Venturi meter in the 1880s. Since then many different variants of DP meters have been developed. One of the most recent is the cone meter. The cone meter is a generic DP meter. It uses the same generic DP meter flow equation as all other standard DP meters. All DP meter types exist on the market as they offer some particular advantage over the others. If a meter does not have some niche, whether it be reduced flow rate prediction uncertainty, lower pressure loss, no requirement for calibration, more robust, wider range ability, resistance to flow disturbances, self-verification capable, or simply an attractive price, it would not be successful on the market. The cone meter has been steadily growing in market share for twenty-five years. Originally a patented device the patent expired in 2004 and now the meter is a generic type offered by multiple suppliers.
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Document ID: 9857E898

Measurement Scene Investigations
Author(s): Casey Hodges
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many ways to measure hydrocarbons. Measurements may be performed on liquids, gases, or multiphase fluids. Measurement may be made utilizing orifice plates, ultrasonic meters, Coriolis meters, or a host of other meter types. After the actual meter, there is secondary instrumentation involved from transmitters to flow computers and SCADA systems. With so many components to a flow measurement system, determining the root cause of measurement discrepancies becomes a forensic exercise. In any forensic exercise, the more information the Detective has the more likely they are to find the culprit. This paper describes methodologies to determine the causes of measurement discrepancies. While this paper does draw a parallel between criminal forensics and measurement forensics, it should not be interpreted that measurement discrepancies are criminal. The world of measurement is becoming more automated, and monitor systems can detect and analyze discrepancies faster than before. However, a vast majority of measurement systems are not being monitored at the highest level, and by the time discrepancies are noted, it is all hands on deck to solve the crime.
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Document ID: 66AC1995

Measurement Policies And Procedures - Development And Implementation Considerations
Author(s): Bruce Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
With proper consideration and with buy-in from stakeholders, well designed and documented measurement practices help reduce company costs. Cost reductions include those associated with Lost-and-Unaccounted-for (L&U), asset maintenance, and labor. Furthermore, good measurement procedures help employees perform safely and effectively and help support stable, predictable measurement processes. In this paper, we will discuss: ? What happens when measurement practices are not effective? ? What are the metrics to determine if measurement practices need improvement? Why do policies and procedures fail? When should policies and procedures be reviewed and updated? Who is responsible for creating and maintaining policies and procedures? ? How do policies and procedures get effectively communicated? It is important to understand that business processes are not static and are subject to changing environments. Without this understanding, measurement policies and procedures can become outdated, lose effectiveness, and eventually become counter-productive. Periodic review of measurement processes, quantifying policy and procedure effectiveness, and adjusting measurement policies and procedures for process gaps are important considerations.
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Document ID: D2C3C6AF

Benefits Around Timely Analysis Of Measurement Data
Author(s): Aleata Raymond
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to have timely measurement data has grown considerably over the years due to the age of electronic flow measurement, contracts, and competition. Timely data allows companies to more effectively and efficiently operate their systems, determine shortfalls, and meet the needs of their customers. Electronic flow measurement reviewed on an hourly granularity has 744 records per month on a 31 day calendar. If you process approximately 10,000 measurement sites, you could potentially review some 7,444,000 records. We will discuss various processes to identify potentially invalid or incorrect transactional data and push that data to those analyzing and reviewing the information. This will reduce the time is takes to analyze the data, thus enabling internal and external customers downstream of measurement to use the data.
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Document ID: 91425A58

Contributors To Historical Advances In Natural Gas Measurement
Author(s): Bruce Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas was discovered as seeps, in what is now known as Iran, between 6000 and 2000 bce. When ignited, these seeps produced eternal flames having religious importance. The first known natural gas well was drilled in China in 211 bce. It was drilled using bamboo poles and primitive percussion bits to a depth of 500 feet, and having the purpose of producing brine and natural gas trapped in limestone formations. By 1900 these wells numbered in the thousands, with depths greater than one-half mile. Produced brine and gas were transported via bamboo tubes to a processing site where the brine was emptied into cast iron evaporation pans. The gas was delivered to underground wooden facilities where it was mixed with air for use as fuel to evaporate the brine and produce salt. Natural gas was unknown in Europe until its 1659 discovery in England and was not used in North America until 1821.
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Document ID: 835316DB

Applications And Fundamentals Of Catalytic Heaters In Measurement
Author(s): Chad Richards
Abstract/Introduction:
Catalytic heaters are used in several areas within the natural gas industry. They are commonly used to prevent liquid distillation and freezing in natural gas, to heat a work space, to maintain operating temperatures on equipment or to maintain required measurement conditions of a natural gas sample. As relevant to measurement applications, this paper will cover the principals of catalytic heater function, installation and operation.
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Document ID: BE855BBE

Iiot From A Cyber Security Concern
Author(s): Asim Farooq
Abstract/Introduction:
Advancement in technology has no doubt given us an edge in making our lives better and more productive. We can preempt health related concerns by providing diagnoses before they become an issue. We are able to extract natural resources with much more efficiency and with less impact to the environment. We are even able to access conferences and lecture materials remotely in the comfort of our homes. With the push to get these advancements in to our daily lives and even in to an industrial plant, a very important side effect of being connected is being over looked: security. Many have not thoroughly considered the effects of bringing the industrial data, from its current isolation, to our finger tips. Not only is that data easily accessible for the right user, it also is accessible to the wrong user.
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Document ID: 733EA712

Thermometry In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jorge A. Delgado
Abstract/Introduction:
The temperature in natural gas is dynamic, when gas molecules are compressed they heat up, and as they expand after flowing through a restriction it cools down. Gas temperature it is also affected by external elements such as the temperature of the pipe. It is also good to note that the greater the temperature measurement error, the higher the measurement uncertainty becomes.
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Document ID: EACDE59B

Understanding Hazardous Area Classifications
Author(s): Irvin Schwartzenburg
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for increased workplace safety has created many regulations over the years and perhaps one of the earliest, most beneficial and yet often confused regulations deals with the prevention of explosions. In the US, the development of a system to classify an area as hazardous, or not, is credited to the early needs of the mining industry. Tragic coal mine explosions around the turn of the century were directly related to companies deploying electrical devices in the mines. While today virtually everyone has a basic common knowledge relating to electrical safety, and to us it seems obvious that electricity can cause sparks, one has to wonder what it was like to the common person over 120 years ago who may have never seen something as simple as an electric light. Thus, the area classification system we know today began with the need to deal with the use of electrical devices such as bells and lights in the presence of hazardous atmospheres found in coal mines rich with methane gas and carbon dust.
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Document ID: ECF0F057

Natural Gas Vehicles: Whos In The Drivers Seat?
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr. J. Christopher Buckingham Darin L. George
Abstract/Introduction:
With the discovery and development of vast domestic gas shales in the United States over the past decade, the country now has to decide how best to use a resource that will provide a tremendous amount of energy in the decades ahead. One appealing opportunity is broader utilization of natural-gas-fueled vehicles (a.k.a., NGVs). Vehicle manufacturers are increasing the number of their NGV offerings, and the natural gas refueling infrastructure in the U.S. continues to expand - two key elements to broader utilization of NGVs in the future. This paper examines the future prospects for NGVs in the U.S. and discusses the measurement challenges associated with refueling NGVs. References to trade names or specific commercial products in this presentation are for illustrative purposes only and do not represent or constitute endorsements, recommendations, or favoring by SWRI, ISHM, or the authors of the specific commercial products.
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Document ID: 255B613E

Measurement Economics
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
Before we get waist deep into science and technology and economics and variability in return rates based upon the intransient effects of Federal Reserve interest rate and debt management policy on petroleum commodity markets and related no-fault based derivative securities: A neutron walks into a bar and orders a drink. What do I owe you? the neutron asks the bartender. For you? No charge! An electron sitting at the other end of the bar jumps up with outrage and yells at the bartender . Why does he drink for free and I have to pay? Because youre always so negative! barks the bartender. The electron turns to the attractive proton sitting next to him and asks . Am I really negative? Yes said the proton. Are you sure? Im absolutely positive! So what does this little parable teach us? First of all, a bad attitude at the bar is not endearing to good service and making friends. Secondly, chemistry jokes are only funny to a narrowly targeted audience. But more appropriate to the topic of discussion, products are valued differently based upon their phases, uses, behaviors and applications so the precise sampling and measurement of hydrocarbons are critical to optimizing economic value.
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Document ID: FB2788A6

Transient Lightning Protection For Electronic Measurement Devices
Author(s): Leon Black
Abstract/Introduction:
We have all heard of or seen the devastating effects of a direct lightning burst. Communication equipment destroyed. Transmitters and EFM devices vaporized into slag metal. Complete process and measurement systems down with extended recovery times. These effects are the most dramatic and the easiest to trace. However, these kinds of events are rare. The more prominent events are those that occur on a day-to-day basis without we, the user, even knowing. With the advent of the transistor and today when surface mount electronics is the norm and not the exception, transient suppression has become a science of necessity. Tight tolerances of voltage requirements and limited current carrying capabilities makes the new compact integrated circuits much more susceptible to many types of transients.
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Document ID: 0DFAC59B

Quality Assurance Program For Measurement Package Construction And Safety
Author(s): Stormy Phillips
Abstract/Introduction:
The industry as a whole is operating in a much different environment today, then in years past. The new widespread availability of information and the role of social media, has led to a more informed public. This is not a negative for the industry as a whole, but it has increased the importance of accountability for every member of an organization. The idea that anything could happen in a vacuum is no longer acceptable. So now more than ever organizations must insure that the products that reach the field and are put in service are both functional and safe. It is important to be confident that these products comply with all current industry standards, and that compliance can be traced. This must also be accomplished in the realities of budgets and project time lines. A quality assurance program is one of the most effect ways to accomplish all of these goals. This paper will review some considerations for developing such a program, specifically dealing with the fabrication of measurement packages.
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Document ID: 8B54585E

Conventional Measurement In Unconventional Plays
Author(s): Stephen Anson
Abstract/Introduction:
Advances in hydraulic fracturing technology have allowed access to, and the development of, shale formations previously considered to be uneconomical (API, 2014). This access and development has led to increased production of oil and natural gas within the United States. As these discoveries and developments grow, so does the need to rethink how this production is harvested, gathered and transported. Several factors are changing the way we have conventionally produced, measured and sold our crude oil and natural gas in these unconventional plays which is why we must begin to evaluate the need for changes to our conventional tactics.
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Document ID: D662B7CB

Data Validation - Requirements Of An Egm Editor
Author(s): Kandi Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement is a time-critical function in which an Electronic Gas Measurement (EGM) Editor is necessary in order to conduct good business and practice sound measurement. The Natural Gas and Liquids industry of today is technology-driven with an adherence to industry standards and government regulation as a premise for the structure and foundation of the EGM Editor application. Contractual requirements based on industry standards provide further incentive and direction for a platform that can meet the needs of its customers through a multifaceted approach that incorporates necessary attributes for effective and thorough data validation, compliance, and reporting.
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Document ID: 873AE074

Establishing A Development Program For Hydrocarbon Measurement Staff
Author(s): Richard L. Britton
Abstract/Introduction:
With the downsizing of many energy companies in the 1990s, the impending retirement of many of the energy industrys expertise, the rapid advancement of technologies, and increased world demand for energy, the development of technical talent within the energy industry has become paramount. Nowhere is the need to develop talent more apparent than in the area of hydrocarbon custody measurement. Given the quantities involved, inaccurate measurement of hydrocarbon transfers between suppliers and customers, and owners and transporters poses a relatively high financial risk to all affected parties. Addressing this need is substantially more complex than in many disciplines, as many of the skills needed in this field must be acquired in the work place rather than in a university or technical school.
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Document ID: 2588FEF0

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement II
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
A knowledge of the Fundamentals of Gas Measurement is essential for all technicians and engineers that are called upon to perform gas volume calculations. These same people should have at least a working knowledge of the fundamentals to perform their everyday jobs including equipment calibrations, specific gravity tests, collecting gas samples, etc. To understand the fundamentals, one must be familiar with the definitions of the terms that are used in day-to-day gas measurement operations. They also must know how to convert some values from one quantity as measured to another quantity that is called for in the various custody transfer agreements.
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Document ID: 057180E6

Wet Gas Measurement
Author(s): Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
There is high demand for wet natural gas flow measurement technologies. As natural gas wells age the production flow typically becomes wetter as the dynamics of the reservoir change. Furthermore, marginal fields often produce natural gas flows with significant liquid loading from the outset. It is important that these wet gas flows are metered as accurately as possible. The traditional method of metering wet gas or multi phase flows is to separate the fluids in a dedicated separator vessel. The inlet of these vessels receives the unprocessed flow of natural gas and liquids (which may be both hydrocarbon liquids and water). The vessel is designed to separate the component fluids and allow the flow to exit separately as natural gas and single component liquid flows where single phase flow measurement technologies can be utilized. This is the original wet gas and multi phase meter technology.
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Document ID: 66CB8BBD

Compressibility Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Jeffrey L. Savidge
Abstract/Introduction:
The accurate measurement of natural gas and natural gas related fluids is difficult. It requires care, experience, and insight to achieve consistently accurate measurements that can meet stringent fiscal requirements. It is particularly difficult to measure complex fluid mixtures that are exposed to: (1) a range of operating conditions, (2) dynamic flow and fluid property behavior, and (3) changing equipment conditions.
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Document ID: AA635373

Flow Conditioning For Fluid Flow Measurement
Author(s): Blaine Sawchuk
Abstract/Introduction:
Some excerpts and graphics of this paper have been previously presented at the American Gas Association Operations Conference, Orlando Florida 2000, and The International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement, 2016, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The American Gas Association (AGA) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) provide metering guidelines for orifice, ultrasonic, turbine, and other gas and liquid phase meters. In all of the metering recommendations, flow conditioning (FC) devices are recommended for a meter run. The function of the FC is to prepare the pipe flow to allow the flow meter to work as intended. Fundamentally, the function of a FC is to minimize metering facility life cycle costs: capital, operating, error costs. This is why FCs are always a popular topic of discussion, they establish those capital and operating costs for the metering facility right from the meter station design stage. Not all FCs are created equal and measurement error due to a poor design or installation could even be an additional unforeseen measurement error legal cost not included in this analysis.
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Document ID: 17E8C446

Contaminant Accumulation Effect On Gas Ultrasonic Flow Meters
Author(s): Ed Hanks
Abstract/Introduction:
The following paper discusses the effects of accumulation on natural gas ultrasonic meters. The paper uses four meters, two Daniel meters and two Instromet meters, that were recalibrated at the CEESI Iowa facility. From CEESIs experience with recalibrations of contaminated meters, the results of these four meters are typical. Due to the relative newness of the other brands of meters in the US market, CEESI does not have recalibration data available for this paper, and thus other brands are not included. The four meters discussed in the paper are labeled meters A through D. Meters A and B are Instromet Q3 meters. Meter A is an 8 meter and B is a 10 meter. Meters C and D are Daniel SeniorSonic meters. Meter C is a 10 meter and D is a 12 meter.
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Document ID: C96E9B3E

The Evolution Of Data Collection For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jackson Kyle Bates
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief snapshot on the current state of measurement data collection now being utilized by the Natural Gas Measurement Industry. Although our industry is now in a significant downturn, over the last five years we have seen a large increase of individuals entering the industry for the first time. The employees new to the industry, specifically measurement, are not always familiar with the various types of remote measurement data collection methods and often request training specific to this very topic. I think there is great benefit in providing a current state summary of measurement data collection as we sit today and discuss how technology and metrics are continuously being utilized to help shape the future of remote measurement data collection in the Natural Gas industry.
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Document ID: D32493AD

Impact Of Regulation On Greenhouse Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jim Tangeman Jon Torizzo
Abstract/Introduction:
The regulatory environment affecting the oil and gas (O&G) industry over the last few years has been rapidly changing and expanding. Unfortunately, the majority of regulatory changes have generally not been favorable to the industry. Among these regulatory developments, a key one has been the issuance of the first ever federal greenhouse gas (GHG) mandatory reporting regulation (MRR). The first set of these federal regulations was issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) on October 30, 2009 under 40 CFR Parts, 86, 87, 89 et al. encompassing a large variety of industries across the country. A subsequent set of regulations was issued on November 30, 2010 and this second set of regulations issued under 40 CFR 98, Subpart W encompasses all sectors of the O&G industry from wellhead to burner tip.
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Document ID: 1AE4FB01

Manufactured Meter Pulses - An Explanation
Author(s): Robert Fritz
Abstract/Introduction:
The electronic interface between flow meters and flow computers takes a couple of different forms (i.e. a current loop proportional to flow rate, a voltage loop proportional flow rate, or electronic pulses representing a volume). For the remainder of this paper we are going consider only the electronic pulse interface. These electronic pulses are typically generated by a change in voltage and take the form of a square wave similar to those shown in figure 1.
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Document ID: EBEA2188

Measurement And Regulation Operation Of A Ldc
Author(s): Philip A. Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow measurement has evolved over the years in response to demands to measure new products, measure old products under new conditions of flow, or to meet tightened accuracy requirements as the value of a fluid has increased in value. Over 4,000 years ago, the Romans measured water flow from their aqueducts to each household to control allocation. The Chinese around the same time measured salt water to control flow to brine pots to produce salt used in cooking. In each case, control over the fluid process was the prime reason for the measurement! Flow - measurement for the purpose of fiscal billing of a products total flow was developed later. Natural gas usage is also an old technology! One of the most famous as fired phenomena a natural gas fire was discovered by goat shepherd about 1000 B.C. in ancient Greece on the mountain Parnas.
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Document ID: 2B19F22C

Opc Fundamentals
Author(s): Stephen Sponseller
Abstract/Introduction:
In the mid-1990s, a group of vendors convened to address the growing concern regarding connectivity to the plant floor referred to as the Device Driver Problem. At that time, HMI and SCADA vendors were responsible for building their own driver libraries. This approach created great solutions when it included all the connectivity requirements that their end users would need, but incomplete solutions when it did not. The vendors were faced with a decision: they either needed to invest resource application-level functionality or extend connectivity.
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Document ID: 1872F613

New Differential Meters In Natural Gas
Author(s): Dave Bell
Abstract/Introduction:
The scope of this paper will be to present the progress made in Differential Pressure measurement over approximately the last one-hundred years. More specifically, the focus will be on the Primary Flow Element, rather than secondary or tertiary elements. Highlights will include new technologies which have improved measurement efficiency. Principles of Operation All of the devices presented here conform to the basic Bernoulli equation, which states that as the flow rate inside a pipe increases at a constriction, the pressure will decrease, yielding no net loss of energy:
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Document ID: 75F55415

Effects Of Atmospheric Pressure On Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jane Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the effects of atmospheric pressure on natural gas measurement. Atmospheric pressure is the force per unit area, pressure, created by the atmosphere, (air and water vapor) in a column directly above a one square inch area on the ground all the way to the edge of outer space. We are not aware of the pressure from the weight of the air on us as we have always felt it A pioneering scientist in the 1800s named Evangelista Torricelli discovered that air actually has weight, which he called atmospheric pressure. Torricelli stated, We live submerged at the bottom of an ocean of elemental air. The earths gravitational field is pulling on air, and this pull, or pressure of air is called atmospheric pressure. Torricelli went on to develop an instrument to measure the atmospheric pressure, the mercury barometer.
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Document ID: 4AF5861C

Basics Of Gas Ultrasonic Diagnostics
Author(s): Martin Schlebach
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses basic USM diagnostics, this term is somewhat misleading as what was once thought to be the basics have now been expanded to include several additional values which are based on simple calculation but are very powerful indicators of overall measurement uncertainty. We will review the basics plus advanced diagnostics that are part of the latest rewrite of AGA-9 which will be release later this year and includes a USM Commissioning and Verification Checklist which can be followed as an informative guideline.
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Document ID: 1BBCB125

Advanced Gas Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics
Author(s): David Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses what has been considered advanced ultrasonic meter diagnostic procedures in light of the emerging trend of modifying traditional meter geometry and path layout to extract additional diagnostic information. The industry is recognizing that process contamination or the presence of two phase flow, when left undetected, can be one of the single biggest causes of uncertainty in measurement. The diagnostic capability of meters vary and this paper will focus on those meters that are considered custody transfer or marketed as fiscal meters that have path layouts yielding velocity data comparisons that form the basis of advanced diagnostics. The field and test data will utilize the (4) path chordal British Gas in addition to dedicated diagnostic paths for explanatory purposes.
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Document ID: 4956FEA9

Wireless Economics 101
Author(s): Russell Hall
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past few years, the Oil and Gas Industries are continually being driven by cost cutting measures, the need to gain more operational information and increased efficiencies. Wireless instruments can be a very significant option towards cutting costs, and can lead to better efficiencies. Rapid deployment, paired with other conventional equipment, can lead to advanced well optimization. These are the steps production companies now recognize as a method of increasing production and decreasing costs. With a rugged design and area classification meeting Class I Div. I hazardous location requirements, wireless instrumentation is designed for the majority of Oil and Gas applications. Operating in extreme temperature and humidity ranges, todays wireless designs provide easy to install alternatives to traditional hardwired sensors. True wireless instrumentation is comprised of self-contained, self-powered field units providing process data to a centralized base radio through an unlicensed band, spread-spectrum, and frequency-hopping wireless connection. Networks of up to 100 field units (900MHz version) can be created and polled by a single base radio using a secure, proprietary Industrial Wireless protocol, with a typical range between field unit and base radio of up to 5000 feet (-1500m). With the capability to scale up to as many as 256 wireless instrumentation LANs, Wireless Instrumentation networks easily accommodate future expansion plans.
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Document ID: E399701E

Recent Innovations In License Radio Technology For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Roy Rosado
Abstract/Introduction:
License industrial radios have been successfully used for gas measurement applications for over 25 years. In the past these systems were mostly serial communication to a few critical devices that required less than 5 Kbps of bandwidth and were used to achieve very long distance and highly reliable communication. License radios have proven to be extremely valuable and allow for the automation of forward-deployed devices in diverse applications. However, during the last five years, we have seen significant introductions of innovative license Ethernet industrial data radio technologies that dramatically optimize the performance and reliability of a telemetry network, while at the same time lowering the total deployment cost of the same. By migrating to these newer technologies, gas companies can now, more than ever, seamlessly monitor and control all of their geographically dispersed gas measuring devices and gain unprecedented access to real-time information, to enhance their ability to make just-in- time decisions.
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Document ID: 58195995

Condition-Based Monitoring Of Natural Gas Ultrasonic Measurement Facilities
Author(s): Ed Hanks
Abstract/Introduction:
During the past several years the use of ultrasonic meters (USMs) has gained worldwide acceptance for fiscal applications. The many benefits of USMs have been documented in papers at virtually every major conference. The significance of knowing the ultrasonic meter is operating accurately has never been more important. The use of diagnostics to help identify metering issues has been discussed in several papers at many conferences Ref 1, 2 & 3. USM technology has played a key role in reducing Lost And Un-accounted For (LAUF) numbers. However, like any technology, the client must understand the meters diagnostics in order to validate it is working correctly. Due to mergers, acquisitions, changes in technology, and purchasing preferences within an organization, it can be difficult for technicians to be skilled on all products. Also, changing technology adds to the difficulty as they often encounter multiple manufacturers equipment.
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Document ID: A32FA7E9

Calibration Of Liquid Provers
Author(s): Nathan Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
A meter prover is installed in series with a meter and used to establish a meter factor. The volume that passes through the meter is compared to the prover volume during the time a sphere or piston passes between two detector switches. The prover volume is accurately determined by a calibration procedure known as the Water Draw method.
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Document ID: B150280F

Coping With Changing Flow Requirements At Existing Metering Stations
Author(s): Ronald Sisk
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays competitive gas market, utility companies must meet aggressive market strategies or suffer the consequences. All industries have cash registers, and gas distribution is no exception. Our measuring stations are our cash register. The problem is, these stations were designed 10, 20, 30 or even 50 years ago, and are now performing tasks they were not designed for. Therefore, changes must be made. Measurement personnel today must be trained and taught to cope with changing flow requirements. But, modifying a station to meet todays aggressive market can be very expensive. Equipment, such as regulators and the primary element (the meter tube, the orifice plate holder, and the orifice plate), must meet A.G.A. 3 requirements. The secondary element (the recording device) can raise expenditures significantly. Sometimes modifications cannot be made to deliver the specified volume of product needed, and replacement of a complete station is even more expensive. Companies today must watch money closely, and work to reduce operating and maintenance costs.
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Document ID: C9871E2D

Effective Use Of Deadweight Testers
Author(s): Scott Crone
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most difficult problems facing the instrument engineer is the accurate calibration of pressure or differential pressure measuring instruments. The dead weight tester or gauge is the economic answer to many of these problems. The instrument engineer will typically specify the dead weight tester and the technician will use the standard. For both parties, it is essential to understand certain aspects of dead weight tester operation, concepts related to the design and operation, and the best use practices for the instruments. This paper describes concepts related to and methods to select dead weight testers and gauges. Also included are procedures for using pneumatic and hydraulic dead weight testers.
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Document ID: 85E48271

Thermal Mass Flow Meters For Greenhouse Gas Measurement
Author(s): Thomas Kemme
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many well documented flow meter technologies that are essentially trying to accomplish the same thing: measure fluid flow rate. Some of the technologies that are entrenched in the market, such as flow meters that utilize differential pressure as the measurement principle, are well understood due to the present installed base. However, an evolving technology such as thermal mass flow is often over complicated or not well understood. Instead of measuring flow rate by pressure drop, rotor rotation, or a number of conventional methods, thermal mass flow meters measure flow rate by convection heat transfer. Some of the key advantages are direct mass flow measurement, high sensitivity at low pressures and high turn down.
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Document ID: C15D3438

Meter Factor Traceability For Coriolis Mass Flow Meters
Author(s): Michael Keilty
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis Mass Flow meters are used widely in a broad spectrum of industries on both liquids and gases. Natural gas companies apply Coriolis flow meters into applications requiring high accuracy over wide ranges of flow. Coriolis manufacturers use traceable gravimetric calibration stands to determine a mass flow calibration factor. Because of the direct mass measurement capability of Coriolis flow meters, this Meter Factor is valid for the flow of mass regardless of whether the physical state is liquid or gas.
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Document ID: 6945B4EF

Application Of Densitometers To Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Dean Minehart
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) Chapter 9 Section 4 provides guidance for online density meter selection/operation, sampling system design and calibration methods. Continuous density measurement may be accomplished with a device located in the main flowing stream or located in a slipstream representative of the main stream. Density measurement is utilized in both volume and mass measurement systems. Volumetric measurement requires the use of density measurement in order to determine correction factors for temperature and pressure on a flowing liquid. Inferred mass measurement systems require density measurement at meter conditions in order to determine mass flow. Direct mass measurement systems require on line density measurement at a meter prover to determine prover mass.
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Document ID: 84B8928A

Application Of Turbine Meters In Liquid Measurement
Author(s): David Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Measuring the flow of liquids is a critical need in the Hydrocarbon Industry. Turbine flow meters have proven to be an effective means of accurately measuring petroleum liquids. Its compact size, range ability, low cost of ownership, superior accuracy, wide temperature and pressure range makes it attractive for liquid hydrocarbon measurement. While there are many advantages there are also weaknesses of a turbine meter such as flow conditioning requirement, back pressure control, high viscosity liquids, and susceptibility to fouling and deposits. Turbine meters are often found measuring light crude oils, refined products (gasoline, diesel, jet fuel) and light hydrocarbons (LPG and NGL). This paper will discuss pipeline metering utilizing conventional turbine flow meters for liquid measurement.
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Document ID: 54116DE4

Automated Truck Loading Systems
Author(s): James m. Pettinato, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Bulk storage facilities and the associated infrastructure to perform loading/unloading of transports, often referred to collectively as distribution terminals or load racks, must support the loading and unloading of liquid product between storage tanks, rail cars, tank trucks, and barges. These transfers of petroleum products impact multiple facets of terminal operations including safety, security, measurement accuracy, and regulatory requirements. Due to the continuous advancement of electronic systems, improvements are continually being made in the development of specialized systems to address the needs of these applications. This report will focus on the types of automated systems utilized to meet these needs and the features they provide.
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Document ID: F4118E35

Calculation Of Liquid Petroleum Quantities
Author(s): Peter W Kosewicz
Abstract/Introduction:
must be determined. These elements are the quantity and quality of the hydrocarbon in question. This paper will address one of those elements, the determination of the quantity of the hydrocarbon in the transaction. The determination of the quantity of hydrocarbon can be further subdivided into: Static quantity determination Dynamic quantity determination Static quantity is determined when the hydrocarbon is measured under non-flowing conditions, such as when contained in a tank, rail car, truck or vessel. Conversely Dynamic quantity determination occurs when the hydrocarbon is measured under flowing conditions.
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Document ID: 774F4ACD

Crude Oil Gathering By Truck - Measurement Alternatives
Author(s): John W. Brackett
Abstract/Introduction:
Forty years ago, Americans were entranced with a song that seemed to sum up the hopes and fears of the nations citizens. The lyrics carry the un dying truth that the times they are a-changing. Mr. Dylans words remind us that things come and go and are at the heart of the debate regarding Manual Gauging versus Metering. The source of this change stems from the need to limit or eliminate the release of toxins and other noxious gasses into the air from lease tanks. The debate must now focus on this new trend and find a method to enable crude gathering in a manner that is cost effective and workable for the producer and the buyer.
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Document ID: 01C832A7

Flow Calibrating Ultrasonic Gas Meters
Author(s): Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary method for custody transfer measurement has traditionally been orifice metering. While this method has been a good form of measurement, technology has driven the demand for a new, more effective form of fiscal measurement. Ultrasonic flow meters have gained popularity in recent years and have become the standard for large volume custody transfer applications for a variety of reasons. Most users require flow calibrations to improve meter performance and overall measurement uncertainty. The latest revision of AGA Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters, Second Addition Ref 1, now requires flow calibration for ultrasonic flow meters when being used for custody transfer applications.
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Document ID: 2CA8A8C5

Design, Operation And Maintenance Of Lact Units
Author(s): Dean Minehart
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper covers Lease Automatic Custody Transfer (LACT) units installed on lease stock tank outlets which measure stabilized crude oil into gathering pipe lines or gathering truck loading. Some discussion is included around an operating companys work flow process to generate a measurement ticket and LACT unit operation/maintenance. LACT units are a necessary means to generate revenue from a production facility. LACT unit operation and measurement ticket generation may be automated by the use of custody transfer flow computers and/or programmable logic controllers (PLC). The American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) provides guidance on the design, operation and maintenance of LACT units.
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Document ID: D9914E31

Guide To Troubleshooting Problems With Liquid Meters And Provers
Author(s): Jerry Upton
Abstract/Introduction:
As one of my true and trusted friends says, Counting is easy, but measuring is not so easy. What he means by this is, without establishing any rules you and I could agree on how many tanks there are in a tank farm. The difficulty comes in when we start to try and agree upon how many barrels or cubic meters are in the tanks. Measurement becomes more difficult when the things that we rely on to do the measuring, meters and provers, are not predictable in their performance. When this happens, quite often the reason for the unpredictability is not apparent. However, because of the value of todays liquid hydrocarbons, the problem must be corrected in a timely manner. Therefore someone must analyze the situation and eliminate each possible contributor to the problem until only one remains. This process is called troubleshooting. Thats what we will be talking about in this paper. Because of space constraints and knowledge limitations, especially the later, this paper is not an exhaustive list of problems and solutions. But, hopefully we will discuss something that might be of some help to some people. We will start with the different type of provers in use today.
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Document ID: 19E523BA

In-Situ On-Site Gas Meter Proving
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr. Adam Hawley
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas flow rate measurement errors at field meter stations can result from the installation configuration, the calibration of the meter at conditions other than the actual operating conditions, or the degradation of meter performance over time. The best method for eliminating these or other sources of error is with in-situ (on-site) calibration of the meter. That is, the measurement accuracy of the field meter station should be verified under actual operating conditions by comparing to a master meter or prover. Comparisons of flow meters in the field have been performed for nearly as long as flow meters have been in existence. For example, Figure 1 shows an orifice meter being compared to three 60-A tin meters (a.k.a., diaphragm meters) in Rosedale, Kansas in 1921.1 Each tin meter had the flow capacity of 1,800 standard cubic feet per hour. In this particular test, a 1.6% difference in reading was discovered between the orifice meter and the tin meters.
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Document ID: C4D8F527

Displacement Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Kevin Raeke
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to examine the positive displacement (PD) meter. The emphasis will be on the factors influencing the design and performance of the meter for liquid petroleum measurement. However, these factors can be applied to other liquids as well.
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Document ID: F272453E

Effects Of Petroleum Properties On Pipeline Measurement
Author(s): Jim Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of liquid hydrocarbons in pipelines is done on a standard volume basis or by mass. These dynamic measurement points typically are custody transfer and are the cash register measurements between the two parties involved in the transactions. This is one reason why the measurement accuracy is critical with some others being product accountability and a one time dynamic measurement point. The volume or mass measurements must account for the entire liquid product received or delivered in order to track and determine if product is being lost or gained. Several fluid properties can change the accuracy of this measurement and knowing how they impact the measurement is crucial to its integrity. This paper focuses on dynamic measurement (measurement by metering) and discusses several fluid property effects on measured results involving the common types of metering technologies used today.
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Document ID: 778F2E0F

Design Of Distribution Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Edgar Eddy Wallace Collins Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The design of natural gas distribution metering and/or regulating stations is a mixture of science and art, of knowledge and judgment. The process requires four areas of knowledge: product, application, components, and communication. The goal in design is to use judgment to select and combine compatible components to create a safe, effective, and economical unit.
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Document ID: E14CDC2A

Measurement Of Dense Phase Fluids
Author(s): Fred G. Van Orsdol
Abstract/Introduction:
Many people in the industry, including probably most measurement specialists, have no experience with the measurement of Dense Phase Fluids (if you dont count water). When the uninitiated are asked to develop or operate such a system, they tend to repeat the same mistakes others have made over and over again, by trying to treat the streams like natural gas liquids or liquefied petroleum gases (NGLs or LPGs). Hopefully, this paper will assist the uninitiated reader avoid some of those mistakes. Although definitions can be boring, a few should be covered that will help the student be sure they understand the fluid properties unique to Dense Phase Fluids and eventually clarify the reasons for the special handling requirements for these fluids.
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Document ID: 1AA4A7CE

Evaporation Loss Measurement From Storage Tanks
Author(s): George L. Morovich
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Petroleum Institute Committee for Evaporation Loss Estimation (API CELE) operates under the Committee on Petroleum Measurement to perform research and produce the Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS), Chapter 19. API CELE is composed of Petroleum Company Representatives, Equipment and Instrumentation Manufacturers, Consultants, the Energy Institute (Europe) and is attended by the US EPA and State Air/Emission Regulators. The current Chair is Shankar Ananthakrishna of Chevron Energy Technology Company. The current API Staff person is Sally Goodson.
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Document ID: 1955135E

Fundamentals Of Liquid Measurement - Physical Properties
Author(s): David Beitel
Abstract/Introduction:
Correct measurement practices are established to minimize uncertainty in the determination of the custody transfer volume (or mass) of products. Understanding and evaluation of the fundamental cause and effect relationships with the liquid to be measured will lead to a volume determination that most closely matches the true volume at the referenced standard pressure and temperature. When designing a new measurement station, it is up to us as measurement people, to understand the product to be measured, apply the correct equipment, and implement the appropriate correction equations.
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Document ID: A07A13D4

Fundamentals Of Liquid Measurement II - Static Measurement
Author(s): Martin R. Dudley
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrocarbon fluid measurement is primarily achieved by two methods, dynamic measurement or static measurement. Dynamic measurement is a methodology where the fluid is measured while in motion. Static measurement is its opposite and refers to a fluid measured at rest, motionless. The oil and gas industry utilizes both methods under conditions that meet the requirements for custody transfer to perform accurate, precise measurement for their companies. It is paramount that professionals in industry understand the intricacies of both dynamic and static measurement in order to protect their governing assets and the integrity of the industry. This paper will discuss the API Standards, ASTM Standards, and best work practices associated with a wide range of static measurement principles in the hope that it expands the knowledge of professionals within our field.
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Document ID: 4BDC4BF8

Fundamentals Of Liquid Measurement III - Dynamic
Author(s): Peter W Kosewicz
Abstract/Introduction:
Weve learned when measuring crude oil or any hydrocarbon that liquids expand and contract with increases and decreases in temperature. The liquid volume also decreases when pressure is applied. All these effects are part of the physical properties of liquid petroleum fluids. In addition to the effects of temperature and pressure on the liquid and their indicated volume, the container in which the liquid is measured also changes the volume it contains at different temperature and pressures. These changes must also be accounted for in determining the true volume being transferred. We learned in Fundamentals of Liquid Measurement I how these physical properties effect the measurement of liquid hydrocarbons. The objective of either static measurement or dynamic measurements is to determine the quantity and quality of hydrocarbons transferred. However these measurements are rarely performed at the standard conditions discussed in Fundamentals I, therefore not only must temperature be measured, but also density, sediment and water, vapor pressure, flowing pressure and viscosity must be measured.
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Document ID: 9AF6349E

Fundamentals Of Liquid Turbine Meters
Author(s): Dan Zoller
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine meters have been used for the custody transfer of refined petroleum products and light crude oils for over 50 years. When correctly applied, they offer high accuracy and long service life over a wide range of products and operating conditions. Traditionally turbine meters were used for the measurement of low viscosity liquids and PD meters for higher viscosities. However, new developments in turbine meter technology are pushing these application limits while increasing reliability and accuracy. This paper will examine the fundamental principles of turbine meter measurement as well as new developments including: smart preamps for real-time diagnostics, helical turbine meters for higher viscosity applications, high performance flow conditioners to increase accuracy, and viscosity compensation to extend the application limits.
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Document ID: EFEDD75A

Gauging, Testing And Running Of Lease Tanks
Author(s): Anne Brackett
Abstract/Introduction:
A large majority of the oil gathered in this nation is collected from small lease sites that populate the oil rich regions that many of us call home. These lease tanks are a common site, and we often overlook their importance. While our industry has raced forward by adding technology and electronic systems, this one sector has remained steadfast. It should be noted that the new technologies are seriously being looked at by many companies due to a new API standard written and published last year. The new standard is Chapter 18.2 of the American Petroleum Institutes Manual of Petroleum Measurement. The title is Custody Transfer of Crude Oil from Lease Tanks Using Alternate Measurement Methods. The aim to remove the gauger from the top of a tank when hazardous conditions exist, such as H2S (hydrogen sulfide), which is a deadly natural nerve agent.
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Document ID: 4556716A

Helical Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Romain Mary
Abstract/Introduction:
Numerous technologies allow measuring an instantaneous flow or even a mass of fluid. Each of these technologies has advantages and disadvantages and selection must be carried out considering many parameters: fluid viscosity, flow rate, size, weight, budget, maintenance Helical turbine meters offer an excellent measurement choice with a high accuracy, low maintenance and a cost efficient option for a wide range of products and operating conditions. Unlike conventional turbine meters typically used for low viscosity refined products, with limited performances for high viscosity applications helical turbine meters are an adapted measurement option for multi-product custody transfer application, for both high and low viscosity products.
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Document ID: 54FAE390

Installation And Operation Of Densitometers
Author(s): Corky Atchison
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of Densitometers is wide spread over many different industries. These range from food & beverage industries to petro-chemical & pipeline transmission. This paper will be covering installation and operation of densitometers with regards to the petroleum pipeline industry. In this area, the densitometer is used to determine various specifics of the transmitted product in the pipeline. They are used to monitor flowing density of non custody transfers, fluid mix interfaces, custody transfers, and other applications. This paper will mostly cover the recommended installation and operation of densitometers for custody transfer applications. We will review the standards for density measurement found in API Standards Chapter 14.8 and 14.6.
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Document ID: 0B91DA9E

Leak And Detection On Petroleum Pipelines
Author(s): David Ramo
Abstract/Introduction:
According to the Pipeline and Hazards Material Safety Administration (PHMSA) website, last updated January 23, 2013, the United States has 2.6 million miles of pipelines dedicated to the delivery of natural gas and petroleum products. This vast network of pipelines mandates that operators provide some form of leak detection on petroleum pipelines as a critical component of pipeline operations. To safeguard the public, pipeline companies are responsible for the safe operation their assets. Several regulatory agencies inspect, oversee and investigates operations in the United States, including Pipelines and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) and state agencies such as the Texas Railroad Commission. Pipeline operations in the US are governed by several regulatory recommended practices and guidelines that include:
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Document ID: 7599BF78

Determination? Of Leakage And Unaccounted For Gas
Author(s): Allison Bentley
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas producers, gathers, treaters, processors, transporters, and distributors are all exposed to the potential safety hazards and costs associated with lost and unaccounted for gas. Safety hazards include leaks and theft, and costs may be incurred due to incorrectly measured gas or line pack. Costs can also be associated with imbalances or contractual caps.
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Document ID: 009CB135

Liquid Measurement Station Design
Author(s): Kevin J. Tansey
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid Measurement Stations are necessitated by agreements between petroleum buyers, sellers, and transporters along with appropriate customs and or governmental authorities. These agreements outline how the fluid is to be measured and how the results will be traceable to recognized standards. In the case of common carrier pipelines, the pipeline is entrusted with the transport of their customers fluid, thus loss control by use of accurate liquid measurement stations is essential. It is important to note that everyone involved has an interest in the true net volume or associated mass. In addition to meeting the requirements for measurement stations must meet numerous safety and construction codes and standards, as the fluids are normally hazardous. Operation of the measurement station must be relatively simple and a user-friendly operator interface is highly desirable. The task of the station or system designer is to transform these requirements into engineering specifications, drawings, and bills of materials, for procurement, manufacture, test, certification, and delivery to the end user of a cadre of components specifically selected and assembled to work together to meet the requirements of the measurement agreement and applicable codes. This paper will discuss the various topics the designer must address and the methodology he must use to produce a satisfactory system.
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Document ID: B9DAFDC6

Mass Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquid Mixtures
Author(s): Eric Estrada
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to review methods for directly or indirectly determining the mass of Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) streams. NGLs by definition are hydrocarbons liquefied by gas processing plants containing ethane, propane, butane, and natural gasoline.
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Document ID: 2BA49B6E

Mass Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Steffen Baecker
Abstract/Introduction:
During the last decade manufacturers have been launching larger Coriolis mass flow meters to satisfy the requirement for mass flow measurement in larger line sizes for bulk fluid transfer applications in oil and gas, chemical or petrochemical industry segments. The high performance mass flow and density accuracy specifications of the Coriolis flow meters have made this technology become more and more popular. Until now, there are very few manufacturers producing larger line size Coriolis flow meters in the market.
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Document ID: AEA64A71

Measurement Accuracy And Sources Of Error In Tank Gauging
Author(s): Dan Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
Upright cylindrical storage tanks are used not only to store liquid petroleum between custody transfers for inventory purposes, but to measure the quantities of those transfers. As in all measurements for custody transfer, it is essential to identify the sources of error in the measurement processes and to keep the impact of those sources to a minimum.
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Document ID: 53FEB190

Shrinkage Losses Resulting From Liquid Hydrocarbon Mixing
Author(s): J. H. Harry() James, T. Brett Cameron
Abstract/Introduction:
stages of oil and gas production. It was quickly recognized that even with the best volumetric measurement equipment, unaccounted for discrepancies still occurred that exceeded the accuracy and uncertainty ranges associated with the custody transfer and inventory accounting systems. Conventionally we have been taught to understand that one plus one equals two. In an ideal world of integers this is the case but in the world of volumetric hydrocarbon measurement one plus one is usually less than two. In rare circumstances it can also be greater than two. As stated in the Dec. 1967 edition of API Publication 2509C regarding the result of blending two different hydrocarbons, If the nature of the molecules of the components differ appreciably, then deviation from ideal behavior may be expected. This deviation may either be positive or negative that is, the total volume may increase or decrease when components are blended. .. Inasmuch as petroleum components contain molecules of various sizes and weights, solutions of two separate components are seldom ideal. Consequently it is to be expected there may be a change in volume associated with the mixing or blending of petroleum components of varying gravities and molecular structure.
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Document ID: 72DC4BB4

Measurement Of Cryogenic LNG
Author(s): Alastair Mclachlan
Abstract/Introduction:
With depletion of conventional oil reserves, natural gas is becoming an increasingly important source of energy for many countries. While some of the demand for natural gas can be met by domestic production or pipeline imports, many countries are becoming increasingly dependent on natural gas imports in the form of LNG. In 2014 the global production capacity of LNG was around 240 MT (Million Tonnes) and although this has remained essentially flat year on year for the last 3 years the production capacity currently under construction will deliver a 36% growth over the next 5 years.
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Document ID: 4756E773

Measurement Methods For Liquid Storage Tanks
Author(s): Daniel Baldwin
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to provide, in general terms, an overview of the different technologies available to measure volumes in atmospheric storage tanks. There are typically four (4) volumes that are of interest to be calculated for atmospheric storage tanks: Total Observed, Gross Observed, Gross Standard, and Net Standard (see Fig 20 page 9). The basic measurements required for these volumes are: product level, observed temperature, water level, and the observed density of the product.
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Document ID: 42E2F12B

Measurement Of Petroleum On Board Marine Vessels
Author(s): Juri Koern
Abstract/Introduction:
The process that calculates the volume of liquid petroleum loaded onto, or received from, a ship or barge is known as Custody Transfer Measurement. It is important to note that the custody transfer measurement is not determined by a single measurement. A series of measurements are taken, tests are performed and calculations are made before, during and after the transfer takes place in order to reach a Custody Transfer Measurement. The transferred volume is usually determined by calculating the difference between the volume measured before and after the transfer. After gauging, sampling and temperature readings are taken ashore, on the vessel(s) or by a combination of the two, volume quantities may be calculated. Shore volumes are the quantities measured on shore. The quantities measured on the vessel are ship, barge or vessel volumes.
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Document ID: F55497FC

Orifice Meters For Liquid Meaurement
Author(s): Stephen T. Steve Stark
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice meters remain very popular today despite the evolution of newer and much more fascinating measurement technologies. More commonly used to measure natural gas in the oil and gas industry, orifice meters perform very well in many liquid measurement applications and can produce excellent results well within acceptable uncertainty tolerances when they are carefully designed, properly installed, well maintained - and when calculations are performed correctly. Of course, these same requirements exist for all flow meter types. We know from our mistakes that absolutely any meter type that is poorly designed for the application, improperly installed, receives little or no maintenance, and is not set up with the correct flow calculations is doomed to fail - either immediately or in the not too distant future.
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Document ID: BCF91833

Effects And Control Of Pulsation In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Royce Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulsation created by compressors, flow control valves, regulators and some piping configurations are known to cause significant errors in gas measurement. In the 1980s, the Pipeline Compressor Research Council (PCRC) (now known as the Gas Machinery Research Council (GMRC)), a subsidiary of the Southern Gas Association, commissioned and funded various pipeline pulsation research projects at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in San Antonio, Texas. This research culminated in the publication of several technical papers, including a report1entitled Pulsation and Transient-induced Errors at Orifice Meter Installations and a later report2 entitled An Assessment of Technology for Correcting Pulsation-induced Orifice Flow Measurement.
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Document ID: 0FC5711B

Pycnometer Installation, Operation And Calibration
Author(s): Charles Burton
Abstract/Introduction:
Several different types of densitometers are available today. The most common used in the industry rely on vibration to calculate fluid density. Whether a tuning fork, straight tube, or Coriolis design, each of these use the same basic principle of vibration. These types of density meters all vibrate at a resonant frequency. As product is introduced into the system, that frequency is altered. The system senses the change in vibration making the necessary calculations and transmits the measured density.
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Document ID: 191BB102

Resolving Liquid Measurement Differences
Author(s): Deanne Strothers
Abstract/Introduction:
To measure is to estimate the relative amount of something by comparison with some standard. For measurement of liquid petroleum products in the US, the comparisons are set by a standard issued by the APIs Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS). These measurement techniques should be implemented along with any company standards that further enhance the industrys guidelines. Measurement is the cash register of the energy industry. The value of a liquid is determined by the parties involved in any transaction. Most of these values are determined through contractual means, with volumes, calibrations and tolerance levels for variances set forth before any product is moved. Its these variances that are the basis of much time and effort spent by technicians and analysts alike to track down, document and repair anything in the process that causes a discrepancy on a gain/loss sheet. Since the limits for these variances are predetermined, care and oversight must be used to control any aspect of the measurement process that can create values outside the tolerable levels. Some will say that no variance is the ultimate goal, but this isnt achievable due to limitations on all the equipment, technology and people that come into contact with the product or data somewhere in the process.
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Document ID: 68F8B52A

Statistical Control Of Meter Factors - A Simplified Approach
Author(s): Dan Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
Statistical control is a tool for discernment and communication. This paper will give a brief overview description of a simplified method for monitoring the performance of a flow meter and performing the same exercise on each meter in the system. The idea is to provide graphical assistance, through the use of meter factor control charts in: (a) developing preventive maintenance programs (b) heightening awareness of alarm situations and, (c) reducing risk to the financial bottom line. Meter factor control charts and logs make it easier to prepare reports to maintenance, operations, financial and executive managers from time to time and furthermore, they make it easier for the target audience to digest the points being made.
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Document ID: C040FB56

Troubleshooting Liquid Pipeline Losses And Gain
Author(s): Joseph T. Rasmus Michael R. Plasczyk
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid pipelines are integrated transportation networks providing multiple services for many shippers and customers. These systems may connect to multiple origins and destinations, and carry various products across long distances with changing elevation profiles, pipe dimensions and directions. Expectations are that the volumes received in the system are equivalent to the volumes delivered, with the exception of inventory changes. But in reality, every pipeline system will experience a loss or gain over time. Monitoring pipeline losses and gains employs tools and analysis methods developed specifically to troubleshoot pipeline variances. Evaluation of pipeline losses and gains uses basic statistical tools as well as intuitive and creative insight into what controls losses and gains.
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Document ID: 7464BE46

Viscosity And Its Application In Liquid Hydrocarbon Measurement
Author(s): Terry Cousins
Abstract/Introduction:
The effect of viscosity takes a variety of forms in its relationship to flow measurement. As a general rule low viscosity has less effect on the performance of flow meters, although this is not totally true, for example, with positive displacement meters. For most meters, as viscosity increases it has greater effects on meter performance, both in the operation and in the effect of the fluid passing through the meter. So, for example, as the viscosity of the fluid increases the chances of the fluid in the pipe being in a transition region, or going into laminar gets greater. This can lead to measurement issues due to the variations in flow profile and turbulent noise affecting the meter performance.
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Document ID: 6D16708B

Proving Liquid Meters With Microprocessor Based Pulse Outputs
Author(s): Galen Cotton
Abstract/Introduction:
The advent of microprocessor driven flow meters in the late 1960s and early 1970s was heralded as a new frontier in flow measurement. Little did we anticipate the unintended consequence of adopting these new technologies, or how our conventional verification techniques would be challenged? We are still playing catch-up in the realm of flow meter verification where manufactured or, computationally derived flow meter pulse outputs, are concerned.
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Document ID: E2BECD34

Offshore Liquid Fpso Measurement Systems
Author(s): Alastair Mclachlan
Abstract/Introduction:
Floating production, storage, and offloading systems (FPSOs) receive crude oil from deepwater wells and store it in their hull tanks until the crude can be pumped into shuttle tankers or oceangoing barges for transport to shore. They may also process the oil and in some later FPSOs to be used for Gas distribution. Floating productions systems have been utilized in remote offshore areas without a pipeline infrastructure for many years. However, they have become even more important with the push by the offshore industry into ever deeper waters. Floating production, storage, and offloading/floating storage and offloading (FPSO/FSO) systems have now become one of most commercially viable concepts for remote or deep-water oilfield developments. They also allow a company to develop offshore resources quickly between discovery and production. They have been shown to reduce this time as much as two to four years. Further there can be significant cost savings in developing marginal fields.
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Document ID: 6D9B11D6

Volumetric Measurement Of Liquefied Petroleum Gases Lpgs()
Author(s): Paul Mullen
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is defined as butane, propane or other light ends separated from natural gas or crude oil by fractionation or other processes. At atmospheric pressure, LPGs revert to the gaseous state. Included in this paper will be information for turbine, coriolis and positive displacement meters used in volumetric measurement systems. The basic calculations and industry standards covering volumetric measurement will also be covered.
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Document ID: 8AB1E801

Advanced Diagnostic Measurements And Verification With Coriolis Flow Meters
Author(s): Tom Obanion
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis flowmeters provide precision mass and volumetric flow and density measurement. The electronics needed for these measurements can be leveraged to provide diagnostic outputs to track and trend measurements and the processes in which the meters are used. This paper discusses these diagnostics. Coriolis flowmeters can be proven like any other type of flowmeter. Proving can be costly and difficult in some processes. Because of this, several techniques to verify the measurement of the Coriolis meter have been developed. This paper discusses, compares, and contrasts these techniques. To better understand diagnostics and verification, Coriolis theory is first presented to provide background understanding.
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Document ID: DECAC9E8

Lpg Terminal Operations And Measurement
Author(s): Zaki Husain
Abstract/Introduction:
In the oil and gas industry, the commercial viability of a product depends on economic considerations of marketability of the product. The marketable products can be naturally occurring or is often a byproduct of refining and/or chemical process. Marketability of a product is impacted by cost of processing, handing, transportation, dispensing, safety precautions, storage, quality control, etc. If a product is deemed commercially unmarketable, it is often disposed, internally used for heat generation, or flared. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is one of those hydrocarbon liquids that pose very complex difficulties in storage, handling, and measurement accuracy. Hence, historically LPG byproduct was treated as a nuisance by many companies in the petroleum industry and was disposed, burned as plants internal heating fuel, or flared. With increasing production of natural gas and demand and cost of energy resources, the marketability of LPG has become an economically viable commodity. With increasing cost versus profitability of the petroleum industry and expanding demand for energy, there are consorted efforts to market LPG and overcome the known difficulties of storage, transportation, safety issues, handling, and accurately measure the LPG products.
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Document ID: 78C28F30

Effects Of Abnormal Conditions On Accuracy Of Orifice Measurement
Author(s): Dean Graves
Abstract/Introduction:
Whenever one focuses on gas or fluid measurement, he or she will eventually discover an abnormal condition at a measurement station. Invariably someone will ask, What effect will it have on measurement? A student of measurement may spend years answering this question. This and similar questions have generated many research studies. This research has enabled us to better understand measurement abnormalities and to improve measurement procedures and standards. Even though we have made great strides in measurement, we will continue to ask this question.
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Document ID: 7DD4D51C


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