Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (2017)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

FIELD INSPECTION AND CALIBRATION OF VOLUME CORRECTING DEVICES
Author(s): George E. Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
Timely, diligent field testing and calibration of gas volume recording and correcting instruments ensure that measurement information fairly represents actual volumes. The instruments save a company capital and operating costs because they can record or integrate volumes at pressures and temperature above the normal pressurebase conditions specified in contracts for volume calculation. This allows the company to use smaller and fewer meters.
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Document ID: D454CFAE

GAS ODORANTS - SAFE HANDLING, HEALTH, AND ENVIRONMENT
Author(s): Daniel E. Arrieta, David C. Miller, Eric Van Tol
Abstract/Introduction:
Thiols (i.e. mercaptans), sulfides, and tetrahydrothiophene (THT) have been widely used in the odorization of natural and liquefied petroleum gas due to the fact that natural gas does not possess an odor. Mercaptans, for example, have proven to be very effective in odorizing because of their low odor threshold and therefore, immediate impact on the olfactory system (Roberts, 1993). Although, gas odorants are characterized as having a low hazard potential regarding health effects, their unique physical chemical properties such as, high flammability, require that they be handled safely. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the human health and environmental concerns associated with gas odorants, to recommend safe handling and personal monitoring, and to discuss the impact of regulatory changes associated with the chemical management of these chemicals.
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Document ID: 24B6CEF8

METER SELECTION FOR VARIOUS LOAD REQUIREMENTS
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr. Adam G. Hawley
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to provide meter station designers with a basic methodology for selection of an appropriate flow meter (or meters) for a given application. Since many applications require that a meter station operate over a broad range of flow rates or loads, an example is provided on how to address system rangeability while maintaining accurate flow measurement. Detailed technical descriptions of the functionality of the various available gas metering technologies is beyond the scope of this paper, but information of that type can be found in other papers in these Proceedings.
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Document ID: 3ED150B7

ODORANT LEAK MANAGEMENT
Author(s): Pierre Braud Olivier Griperay Jean-Benoit Cazaux
Abstract/Introduction:
All around the world, propane, butane and natural gas must be odorized. The odorization ensures a safe transport, distribution and use of this valuable energy to residential buildings. Regulations vary from one country or state to another. The natural gas can be odorized at different points of the gas grid: in some countries (France, Spain, South Korea), odorization takes place at the entry points of the countrys gas grid, either at the gas transmission pipes or at Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) terminals just after vaporization. In other countries (USA, Canada, Mexico, Germany, Italy, Belgium, China), natural gas is often odorized at city gate level, where gas is depressurized to allow distribution to residential points. Odorants also may vary from one country to another, and within the same country as well. The International Organization for Safety (ISO) is listing in the ISO 13734(1) components commonly used: odorants are mainly composed of Sulfides (TetraHydroThiophene, MethylEthylSulfide, DiMethylSulfide) and Light Mercaptans (mainly TertiaryButylMercaptan, IsoPropylMercaptan). With the exception of TetraHydroThiophene which can be used as a standalone odorant, odorants are composed of blends of these thiochemical compounds. By definition, these odorant are flammable products and have a very low odor detection threshold: 0.3 part per billion in volume for TertiaryButylMercaptan(2). Any small leak of odorant can trigger a misleading gas alert. A significant leak will do the same and may lead local authorities to evacuate large city areas to manage the public reaction and protect people against the potential fire and chemical risks.
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Document ID: A78C4A5A

SMART NETWORKS FOR GAS UTILITY SYSTEMS
Author(s): David Anglin Brian Crowder
Abstract/Introduction:
There was once a time when you could get a car in any coloras long as it was black. They had frames, running boards and 15 horsepower engines. Who could ever need more? Just like the auto industry has adapted from this original approach to meet the demands of consumers, regulators and shareholders, the gas industry must do the same. Automated meter reading - also known as AMR or AMI - provides that opportunity. This paper will compare and contrast AMR and AMI for gas utilities and provide important areas for gas utilities to consider when adopting or upgrading wireless meter technology.
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Document ID: 63415DB0

ULTRASONIC METERS FOR COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Author(s): Paul Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
An ultrasonic meter falls into the classification of inferential meters. Unlike positive displacement meters that capture volume to totalize volume, inferential meters measure flowing gas velocity to totalize volume. Ultrasonic meters use sound waves to measure flowing gas velocity to infer volume. Ultrasonic meters have been around for many years, primarily in liquid measurement. However, we are seeing more and more applications in the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: C3A25106

GAS CONTRACTS IMPACT ON MEASUREMENT ACCURACY
Author(s): T. Dean Graves
Abstract/Introduction:
Much effort is spent to achieve accurate measurement. Up to date measurement standards, modern meter station design, high quality equipment, and proper measurement operations are all necessary for measurement accuracy. Unfortunately, these processes do not assure measurement accuracy if the contract does not also support accurate measurement. The contract impacts measurement accuracy by what it addresses and what is left unaddressed. More focus needs to be applied to the measurement sections of the contracts. Hopefully this paper will help the reader better understand the relationship between the contract and accuracy.
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Document ID: BCB6549B

Methods of Gathering Electronic Gas Measurement (EGM) Data
Author(s): Jackson Kyle Bates
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to discuss various methods used to collect Electronic Gas Measurement (EGM) data. There are quite a few options on the market today when it comes to remote measurement data collection in the Natural Gas industry. Due to advancements in technology, we have seen changes in most all the options available making each product viable and made to serve a particular niche. Depending on your companys philosophy and direction, the data collection equipment may be as simple as a hard line phone modem or as advanced as satellite monitoring. We have seen a large rise and then decline of spread spectrum radio networks due to the sheer number of radio networks and realized interference. Quite a few companies are choosing to move from serial and go with IP technology all the way to the RTU in an effort to bridge multiple networks and protocols. Licensed radio networks have been around for quite some time and are still being utilized in certain geographical areas where the power in a particular frequency band is essential to meet performance and reliability requirements. In very dense and remote areas, companies are forced to utilize satellite communications to ensure efficient communication to end devices. Satellite communication devices can prove costly but are often the only alternative when attempting remote data collection in some parts of the United States.
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Document ID: A4A4618B

VERIFYING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHS AT CUSTODY TRANSFER LOCATIONS
Author(s): Shane Hale
Abstract/Introduction:
Verifying the correct operation and accuracy of the Gas Chromatograph (GC) is an integral part of a custody transfer metering system, and involves ensuring the accuracy of the analyzer at the time of testing, as well as confirming that the GC performed properly during the periods between validations and assessing the likelihood of continued proper functioning until the next validation. Because the GC will be offline during much of a validation procedure, the validation should only be performed at a time when the composition of the gas flowing through the metering station is relatively stable.
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Document ID: CCEE3B15

TRAINING FIELD PERSONNEL - Training Field Measurement Technicians
Author(s): Tom Pendleton
Abstract/Introduction:
Can the effectiveness of skills training be measured? A Region Director friend of mine who works for a large natural gas pipeline company complained that his new measurement employees (new hires and experienced personnel that have transferred into gas measurement) are not performing required tasks and activities to his expectations. My over-pressure protection & measurement equipment supplier, two month ago, presented a free, 1- day training session on How to Test a Relief Valve Set Point. I paid for donuts and lunch! We told them exactly how to do it. My employees just dont get it.
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Document ID: 5F739176

CLAMP-ON ULTRASONIC FLOW METER APPLICATION AND PERFORMANCE
Author(s): WILLIAM E. FRASIER CASEY HODGES JOE NETTLETON
Abstract/Introduction:
Clamp-on meters are specified to achieve one to three per cent uncertainty. Manufacturers cannot control the quality of a given field installation and must provide latitude. Lab testing has demonstrated many installations perform at an accuracy level range of 1%. If a reliable installation technique is maintained, the clamp-on meter will often perform better than manufacturer standards. Further, the meter control units have piecewise linear error correction schemes such that they can be adjusted to reference flow rates as afforded at a flow lab. Clamp-on repeatability is very precise. Often the exact flow volume is not as important as repeatable data before and after an experimental change such as a meter cleaning. Changes as small as 0.1% can be detected. There is a learning curve or experience effect. New users may have no confidence in the clamp-on technology. Training helps and repeated installation in known settings aids user confidence. Clamping on at a flow lab where flow rate is known is helpful. In fact, a useful application is clamping on a custody meter as it is flow calibrated at a lab and collect clamp-on data at the same time. The clamp-on meter can later be installed in the field setting and compared to the custody meter to identify relationship shifts between the two meters as found at the flow lab.
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Document ID: B1C08F98

UNDERSTANDING THE ADVANTAGES OF IP NETWORKS
Author(s): Burke P. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays oil and gas industry faces increasing pressure to maximize the capability of its wireless infrastructure while minimizing operational and developmental costs. Unprecedented uncertainty and business volatility are transforming the landscape, as the oil and gas industry becomes more competitive, profit-oriented, and responsive to a fickle and savvy clientele. The key to developing a successful enterprise-wide networking strategy is to recognize that it is only part of a larger strategy-one in which modern oil and gas facilities must literally reinvent themselves.
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Document ID: 27245B3D

COLLECTING AND HANDLING OF NATURAL GAS SAMPLES FOR CUSTODY TRANSFER
Author(s): Christopher L. Grant Dr. Darin L. George Jacob L. Thorson
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) Chapter 14.1, Collecting and Handling of Natural Gas Samples for Custody Transfer, provides practical guidance for gas sampling in custody transfer applications. Though gas sampling should not be performed without fully reading the standard, this paper is designed to provide supplemental information, illustrative examples, and guidelines for how best to use API 14.1. Specific sections of the standard are highlighted and broadened with additional detail. Special emphasis is put on the accurate sampling of an unknown gas stream.
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Document ID: 21102BF3

Upstream Natural Gas Sales Verification Producer and Pipeline Perspectives
Author(s): Mark B. Fillman Jayson A. Payne
Abstract/Introduction:
Within the upstream sector of the oil and gas industry, the custody transfer of natural gas is usually determined by orifice measurement which is governed by a sales agreement between the producer and pipeline company. In most cases, the gas sales agreement references a combination of American Gas Association (AGA), American Petroleum Institute (API), and Gas Processors Association (GPA) standards which are to be incorporated into the custody measurement procedures. Verification that the physical deliveries of natural gas are accurate and accountable, for both parties, is fundamental to the business cycle that occurs each month. This paper reviews the relationships between producer and pipeline, the varying responsibilities of each party, and some useful methods to produce more accurate and accountable natural gas measurement results.
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Document ID: 20146AFD

FUNDAMENTALS OF PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Brian Cleary
Abstract/Introduction:
So with everything else being constant, when pressure of a gas increases, so does its temperature, when temperature goes up, so does its pressure. In safety applications, it is important to measure pressure and temperature to understand, notify, and mitigate the possibility of dangerous situations occurring due to the physical changes of the gas, or associated equipment such as pumps and compressors. Pipelines and storage vessels are designed to contain gas only under specified conditions, when these conditions are exceeded, catastrophic events can occur. Also, motor bearings and pump seals failures also can be identified by changes in temperature and pressure, and machinery loss prevented. In control applications, pressure and temperature measurements are made, along with other process variables, to regulate the conditions and optimize the process around a certain set of criteria. In compensation applications, pressure and temperature measurements are made to calculate the mass/volume relationship during gas transfer and storage by correcting for density changes due to pressure and temperature variability.
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Document ID: 291E8131

FUNDAMENTALS OF CORIOLIS METERS AGA REPORT NO. 11 ASGMT 2017
Author(s): Marc Buttler Kyle Barry
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early 1980s, Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in gas, liquid, and slurry applications with an installed base of more than one million units. Through significant design, enhancements in the early 1990s Coriolis meters have rapidly gained worldwide acceptance in gas phase applications with over 100,000 meters installed worldwide and most notably the publication of the second edition of AGA Report Number 11, Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis Meter.
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Document ID: CAB71ED4

UTILIZING WIRELESS INSTRUMENTATION IN WELL OPTIMIZATION
Author(s): Denis Rutherford
Abstract/Introduction:
The Natural Gas and Oil industry is continually driven by cost cutting measures and the need to gain more operational efficiencies and visibility to regulatory requirements. This paper summarizes a solution in which wireless instruments integrate with other conventional equipment to offer a rapidly deployable advanced well optimization system. Wireless instrumentation products provide cost-effective and easy to install alternatives to traditional, hardwired sensor sites. These rugged field units are designed for the majority of Oil & Gas applications and for installations ranging from general purpose to Class I Div 1 hazardous locations with extreme temperature and humidity ranges. True wireless instrumentation is comprised of self contained, self-powered field units providing process data to a centralized base radio through an unlicensed band, spread-spectrum, and frequency hopping wireless connection. Networks of up to 100 field units (900MHz version) can be created and polled by a single base radio using a secure, proprietary Industrial Wireless protocol, with a typical range between field unit and base radio of up to 5000ft (-1500m). With the capability to scale up to as many as 256 wireless instrumentation LANs, Wireless Instrumentation networks easily accommodate future expansion plans.
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Document ID: 3A3A1747

AUDITING GAS ANALYSIS LABORATORIES
Author(s): Joe Landes
Abstract/Introduction:
The data produced by Gas Chromatograph (GC) laboratories is used for many purposes, including product specification, accounting, safety and environmental compliance issues. The accuracy of this data has direct impact on all of these areas. Auditing laboratories responsible for producing this data is prudent business practice. The audit will provide a means of process improvement, through proper identification of deficiencies and a precise plan for corrective action. The level of confidence in analytical results will increase when the appropriate corrective actions are implemented. The amount of financial and legal exposure can be reduced from a properly executed audit program.
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Document ID: 961F634F

FUNDAMENTALS OF DIAPHRAGM DISPLACEMENT METERS
Author(s): Julie Ellington
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement is the vertebrae of any natural gas utility. Without the ability to measure, it would be impossible to account for the flow of gas from receipt to delivery. Very much like an accountant that labors to keep the ledger balanced, a utility needs metering to balance the gas producers receipts against the end customer delivery. The first natural gas utilities did not have the ability to measure their gas deliveries. The initial high costs and slow growth of the industry logically gave way to the need to measure the delivered energy. Today utilities spend millions of dollars to install, maintain, and upgrade their cash registers. Meters are placed throughout the transmission and distribution systems all in an effort to balance the inflows and the outflows. Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of different types of meters. Positive displacement meters measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them. Diaphragm meters are one type of positive displacement meters and will be discussed throughout this paper.
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Document ID: 23018160

CONSIDERATIONS FOR SAMPLING WET, HIGH PRESSURE, AND SUPERCRITICAL NATURAL GAS
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux Shannon M. Bromley
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the problems encountered when sampling wet, high pressure and supercritical natural gas for on-line BTU analysis, and provides solutions and comments on how they relate to the API and GPA industry standards for natural gas sampling. It also discusses the use of phase diagrams in the design and operation of a natural gas sampling system.
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Document ID: 70895DB2

FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONIC FLOW METER DESIGN, APPLICATION & IMPLEMENTATION
Author(s): Jim Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic flow measurement as applied to the natural gas industry has advanced considerably over the last 30 years. Applications to address Upstream, Midstream and Downstream gas measurement technologies have become more complex. Over time it has become necessary to understand the fundaments that make up this ever changing environment. This paper will discuss the important fundamental parameters to consider when designing an Electronic Flow Measurement (EFM) system. Please be aware of the many variances to each specific design and understand this is only a fundamental paper to give new gas industry members a first look at the technologies that are required when considering an EFM design. Custody Transfer Custody transfer gas measurement implies that a buying or selling transaction is taking place based on the flow computer calculated volumes. This normally requires high accuracy digital resolution and speed, but often custody transfer requires that the flow computer meet American Gas Association (AGA) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) standards. Since this paper is geared to the US market AGA 3, 7, 8, 10 and API 21.1 offer recommendations and or standards in assisting in the design.
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Document ID: BCC3B0E4

D.O.T. REQUIREMENTS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF SAMPLE CYLINDERS
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The United States Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) is a department of the U.S. Federal Government which oversees all issues regarding transportation within the United States of America and U.S. Territories. Its influence around the world is great and widely respected, but its jurisdiction and power of enforcement is limited to the USA and its territories. As regards this paper, we will discuss the D.O.T. and its involvement surrounding sample cylinders for the hydrocarbon industry and the rules regarding the movement of these cylinders from point to point in the United States.
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Document ID: 2E01928E

FUNDAMENTALS OF ENERGY DETERMINATION
Author(s): J. David Hailey
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents fundamental information necessary to understand and appreciate the concept of total gas energy in a natural gas pipeline. That is, to be able to converse with peers within the natural gas industry and understand basic concepts and terminology. Discussed is the historical transition from volumetric measurement to total gas energy including some of the basic terminology, physics, measurement, as well as the reasons for changes in methodologies. Included is industry acceptance of new concepts and regulations involving custody transfer as well as the instrumentation and systems involved in traditional and newer, more progressive forms of gas measurement.
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Document ID: 82CD535E

DETERMINATION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE AND TOTAL SULFUR IN NATURAL GAS
Author(s): Marshall T. Schreve
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is a gas composed of one Sulfur Atom and two Hydrogen Atoms. H2S is formed by the decomposition of organic matter and is therefore, found naturally in crude oil and natural gas deposits. H2S is a highly toxic, transparent, colorless and corrosive gas. Due to the toxic and caustic properties of this gas and its natural presence within natural gas, it is imperative to measure and control the concentration levels of H2S within natural gas pipelines. This paper will discuss the Properties, Purpose of Measurement and Measurement Technologies for H2S and discuss how these technologies can be adapted for measurement of Total Sulfur.
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Document ID: DF837155

FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS LAWS
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters. A standard cubic foot is defined as one cubic foot of gas at a pressure and temperature agreed upon by the buyer and seller. Common standard conditions are 14.73 psia and 60 Fahrenheit. The gas passing through a meter is rarely at standard conditions. It is necessary to convert the gas in the meter from the metered conditions to standard cubic feet. The tools we have for relating volume to pressure and temperature are Equations of State or, simply, the Gas Laws. The Gas Laws serve two purposes. They allow the conversion of a gas stream from metered conditions to standard conditions. They also provide an understanding of what the gas is doing and why. This paper will briefly present the Gas Laws and the physical properties of gas that the Gas Laws describe.
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Document ID: 85E43ECA

FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS TURBINE METERS
Author(s): Paul Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of all gas measurement used in the world today is performed by two basic types of meters, positive displacement and inferential. Positive displacement meters, consisting mainly of diaphragm and rotary style devices, generally account for lower volume measurement. Orifice, ultrasonic and turbine meters are the three main inferential class meters used for large volume measurement today. Turbines are typically considered to be a repeatable device used for accurate measurement over large and varying pressures and flow rates. They are found in a wide array of elevated pressure applications ranging from atmospheric conditions to 1440 psig. Turbine meters have also become established as master or reference meters used in secondary calibration systems such as transfer provers. A significant number of both mechanical and electrical outputs and configurations have become available over the past 60 years of production.
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Document ID: 50DFD070

DEVICES FOR FIELD DETERMINATION OF H2O IN NATURAL GAS
Author(s): Sam Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
H2O vapor is an undesirable component of natural gas. It takes up space in the pipeline and provides no fuel value. In higher concentrations it can condense into liquid water in the pipeline and cause corrosion, especially in the presence of carbon dioxide or H2S. Liquid water can also cause damage to turbines. Because of this, most gas transfer tariffs include a limit on the acceptable concentration of H2O in the gas stream. This paper reviews the devices that can be used in the field to determine the amount of water vapor present in a natural gas stream.
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Document ID: 21319F0E

Fundamentals of Multipath Ultrasonic flow meters for Gas Measurement
Author(s): Dan Hackett
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses fundamental principles of ultrasonic gas flow meters used for measurement of natural gas. A review of an ultrasonic meters operation and the equations used to determine actual volumetric flow is presented. The ultrasonic flow meters diagnostic capability will also be briefly presented. Further, diagnostic data, in conjunction with gas composition, pressure and temperature, will be reviewed to show how this technology provides diagnostic benefits beyond that of other primary measurement devices. The basic requirements for obtaining good meter performance, when installed in the field, will be reviewed. Most of this information can be generalized to other manufacturers transit time ultrasonic flow meters however, these examples provided, particularly with respect to some diagnostic features, are based on the Daniel SeniorSonic ultrasonic flow meter.
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Document ID: 126314CF

FUNDAMENTALS OF MULTIPATH ULTRASONIC FLOW METERS FOR LIQUID MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Dan Hackett
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of Liquid Ultrasonic Meters for liquid petroleum applications such as custody transfer or allocation measurement is gaining worldwide acceptance by the Oil Industry. Ultrasonic technology is well established but the use of this technology for custody transfer and allocation measurement is relatively new. Often users try to employ the same measurement practices that apply to turbine technology to the Liquid Ultrasonic. There are some similarities such as: the need for flow conditioning, upstream and downstream piping requirements but there can also be differences such as the proving technique. This paper will discuss the basics of liquid ultrasonic meter operation and performance. While proving liquid ultrasonic meters is not specifically discussed, diagnostic information available to troubleshoot meter performance in general will be presented.
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Document ID: B53D76A5

DEW POINT WET GAS AND ITS EFFECT ON NATURAL GAS SAMPLING SYSTEMS
Author(s): Philip A Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
Wet gas measurement is becoming widely used in the modern oil and gas market place. The effect of entrained liquid in gas and its impact on measurement systems is being researched world-wide by various laboratories and JIP working groups. The impact can be very significant financially. Hydrocarbon Dew Point can also effect the financial operation of a gas transportation company if not managed effectively amounting to hundreds of thousands of dollars per annum based on incorrect sampling and its subsequent analysis.
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Document ID: 9D95AB43

FUNDAMENTALS OF NATURAL GAS CHEMISTRY
Author(s): Steve Whitman
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to understand the chemistry of natural gas, it is important to be familiar with some basic concepts of general chemistry. Here are some definitions you should know: Matter - anything that has mass and occupies space. Energy - the capacity to do work or transfer heat. Elements - substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical changes. There are approximately 112 known elements. Examples: carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. Atom - the smallest unit in which an element can exist. Atoms are composed of electrons, protons, and neutrons. Compounds - pure substances consisting of two or more different elements in a fixed ratio. Examples: water and methane. Molecule - the smallest unit in which a compound can exist or the normal form in which an element exists. Example: One molecule of water consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. One molecule of nitrogen consists of two atoms of nitrogen. Mixture - combination of two or more pure substances in which each substance maintains its own composition and properties. Examples: natural gas, gasoline, and air.
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Document ID: BE838E85

Fundamentals of Orifice Metering
Author(s): David Courtney
Abstract/Introduction:
The history of orifice metering began in the early 1900s. The first test data was done by the U.S. Geological Survey and in 1913 the first Handbook of Natural Gas was published. So, as you can tell, orifice metering has been around for over 100 years and in that time, much has been learned and improved on. Orifice metering flow equations have been derived from test data where an orifice plate, a plate with a hole in the middle of it, was placed in the flow line causing a restriction in flow. This differential was then compared to the actual amount that passed by the orifice and from that information engineers can then ascertain by mathematical algorithms what equations to use to duplicate those results. Below is a schematic of an orifice differential being compared to a known prover volume.
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Document ID: 8EBC6B7E

EFFECTS OF WET ON ORIFICE METERS
Author(s): Josh Kinney Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice plate meters are one of the most widely used technologies in industry for gas flow metering. This is due to their relative simplicity, the extensive publicly available data sets that led to several orifice plate meter standards 1, 2, 3, 4 and the fact that they are a relatively inexpensive method of gas metering. However, it is common in industry for gas meters to be installed in applications where the flows are actually wet gas flows, i.e. flows where there is some liquid entrainment in a predominantly gas flow. This is usually done out of economic necessity or due to the fact that the system designers were not aware at the systems conceptual design stage that the gas flow would have entrained liquid. Therefore, with the orifice plate meter being such a popular gas flow meter it is by default the most common wet gas flow meter.
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Document ID: FC8D0C76

FUNDAMENTALS OF PRESSURE REGULATORS
Author(s): Jim Mueller
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry, there are two basic types of regulators used for both pressure reducing and back pressure (relief) control. The two types are: ? Self Operated Regulators (Sometimes referred to as spring loaded regulators) ? Pilot Operated Regulators (Loading and Unloading style pilot regulators) This paper will discuss the basic principle of Self Operated and Pilot Operated Regulators including components of the system, principles of operation, advantages and disadvantages, and some maintenance and inspection procedures.
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Document ID: 83533FEE

PRINCIPLES OF ODORIZATION
Author(s): Stephen West
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas has no innate odor, color, or taste therefore, odorization is one of the most important aspects to safely transporting natural gas to customers in a distribution system. As demand for natural gas rises as does the technology involved in odorization. The first odorization occurred in Germany in the 1880s by a German scientist as a means of detecting leaking blue water gas. Fragmented and unregulated odorization of natural gas continued in the United States throughout the early 20th century until tragedy struck in in 1937 in New London, TX. An undetected gas leak at the New London School caused an explosion that completely leveled the school and ultimately killed over 300 people. As a result of this tragedy, the Texas legislature immediately moved to make the odorization of natural gas mandatory. Soon regulation spread across the entire United States. For this reason, it is important that we understand the tremendous responsibility of knowing and implementing the odorization process.
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Document ID: 1E516F11

FUNDAMENTALS OF PRESSURE RELIEF VALVES
Author(s): Paul J. Murtaugh
Abstract/Introduction:
What Are They and Why Are They Needed What: A stand-alone device that opens and recloses at a pre-selected pressure, containing an orifice sized to flow a required capacity to prevent / avoid overpressure. Why: All natural gas equipment (pipelines, pressure vessels, air-cooled heat exchangers, compressor cylinders, odorant tanks, instrument control lines, valves, underground storage, industrial-residential-commercial system supply) has a maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) rating. Pressure ratings (MAOP) of each piece of equipment may be different. Pressure relief valves with proper application will prevent overpressure above MAOP. Set point is dictated by the lowest MAOP equipment in the system.
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Document ID: 21A4243E

MEASURING HYDROCARBON DEW POINT
Author(s): Sohrab Zarrabian
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrocarbon Dew Point (HDP) remains one of the key quality parameters of natural gas streams. Its determination is needed for operational and safety considerations, as well as to satisfy tariffs and regulations in US and overseas pipeline operations. The recent development of shale gas in US has added to the need for accurate and consistent measurement of HDP across a range of different mixtures of natural gas. Theoretical methods for prediction of natural gas have been used in the past, but have been shown to have significant errors associated with them1. In general, theoretical methods using GC component analysis and EOS models have too much error to be useful. Direct measurements, using a chilled-mirror, continue to remain the preferred method for measurement of HDP.
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Document ID: 2E155A9F

FUNDAMENTALS OF ROTARY DISPLACEMENT METERS
Author(s): Cristina Lancelot
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classifications of gas meters. The first consists of inferential type meters, including, orifice, ultra-sonic and turbine meters, and the second is the positive displacement meters, which consist of diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferential type meters are so-called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas flow and calculating the volume based on the measurements. The positive displacement type meters are so-called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them. The reliability of the rotary positive displacement meter, rangeability, long-term accuracy, and ease of installation, maintenance and testing have made this meter a favorite among gas utilities for billing purposes in industrial and commercial applications. Rotary meters have continued to gain popularity in the production and transmission markets. This document briefly discusses the concepts of rotary positive displacement meters and the related operating principles, sizing practices, accuracy and rangeability, along with the installation, start-up and maintenance of the meters.
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Document ID: 777EFBFC

OPERATION OF ON-LINE GAS CHROMATOGRAPHS
Author(s): Bill Frazier
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Chromatographs serve as a basis for measurement of individual Natural Gas Components to determine the BTU or Energy Value of the Natural Gas. The use of On-Line Gas Chromatographs enables the end user to know 100% of the time the energy value of the gas flowing through their system. It is much like using a cash register to keep count of the dollars flowing through your pipelines. Here is an example of just how Gas Chromatographs interconnect with the entire setup to determine the value of the natural gas in question:
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Document ID: 3B526AA6

AN OVERVIEW OF THE AGA GAS QUALITY MANAGEMENT MANUAL
Author(s): Terrence A. Grimley
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides an overview of the recently released Gas Quality Management Manual 1 that was developed by the American Gas Association Transmission Measurement Committee over a period of roughly seven years. The manual pulls together a wide range of information and provides context that allows both the expert and the novice to understand the why, how and what needed to develop a plan for managing gas quality.
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Document ID: 54AD7DC1

A REVIEW OF API MPMS CHAPTER 14.3/AGA REPORT NO. 3 - PART 2
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr. Jacob L. Thorson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the current contents of the United States (U.S.) orifice flow metering standard - American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) Chapter 14.3, Orifice Metering of Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbon Fluids, Part 2, Specification and Installation Requirements.1 This document is also known as American Gas Association Report No. 3, Part 2.2 As of the writing of this paper (i.e., May 2017), this standard was in its fifth edition and was last revised in March 2016.
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Document ID: E83B3371

USE OF EQUATION OF STATE (EOS) SOFTWARE
Author(s): Adam G. Hawley Darin L. George
Abstract/Introduction:
Determination of fluid properties and phase conditions of hydrocarbon mixtures is critical for accurate hydrocarbon measurement, representative sampling, and overall pipeline operation. Fluid properties such as compressibility and density are critical for flow measurement, and determination of the hydrocarbon due point is important to verify that heavier hydrocarbons will not condense out of a gas mixture in changing process conditions.
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Document ID: 4FEA1896

ADVANCED COMMUNICATION DESIGNS
Author(s): Bob Halford Walt Philips
Abstract/Introduction:
We say Advanced Wireless Data Radio Communication Systems Design Process not because this is a more in- depth and more technical process, but because the systems involved are complex in nature and must be carefully designed and programmed. If anything, what I want to do is teach you a more simplified approach and technique to design a SCADA or Telemetry project, but one which you do the same whether the system is large or small. By design, I mean we take this specified approach, or Process, which is consistent every time to show us geographically where the sites are and what the terrain challenges are for each site. We think more about one site at a time than the whole forest of sites. We need to visit the area and know the foliage conditions, man made structures and any other issue that may inhibit a good communication path. What is a path? I am sure you most likely know this, but a path is the line of site from the end device back to a collection point, whether a master receiver or a repeater or repeaters between each end point and the master collection point. There must be as clear of a straight line path as possible between key points of collection or repeating or no data is consistently transmitted in those com systems which are line of sites technologies.
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Document ID: C906A91A

SAMPLING CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH UNCONVENTIONAL GAS SOURCES
Author(s): Mark Firmin, Vincent Argrave
Abstract/Introduction:
Advances in exploration, drilling and production technologies make it feasible to extract natural gas from sources that in the past have been regarded as unconventional and so, such sources are becoming a larger percentage of the gas supply. The feasibility of producing gas from a source is the primary factor in determining whether that source should be categorized as conventional or unconventional. What has been unconventional in the past may be considered conventional in the future.
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Document ID: 8BD079B8

AN OVERVIEW AND UPDATE OF AGA 9
Author(s): Jim Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association published Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters 2nd Edition Ref 1 in April 2007. Report 9 details recommended practice for using multipath gas ultrasonic meters (USMs) in fiscal (custody) measurement applications. This paper reviews some of history behind the development of AGA Report No. 9 (often referred to as AGA 9), key Report contents, which includes information on meter performance requirements, design features, testing procedures, and installation criteria. This paper also discusses changes that will be incorporated in the next revision. At the time of this paper the expected publication date is spring of 2017.
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Document ID: 40DF9A1D

TECHNIQUES FOR COMPOSITE GAS SAMPLING
Author(s): David J. Fish Garret Van Dyke
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to be able to take a representative sample of a hydrocarbon product is necessary to ensure proper accounting for transactions and efficient product processing. The various sampling methods that are available and the options and limitations of these methods are investigated the most appropriate equipment to use the reasons for its use and correct installation of the equipment are also addressed.
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Document ID: 2E39082B

TECHNIQUES FOR SPOT SAMPLING GAS
Author(s): Matthew S. Parrott
Abstract/Introduction:
While inaccuracies in measurement can be costly and common, they are also avoidable in most cases. Technicians willing to study the experiences and best practices of industry leaders can make a world of difference by applying what theyve learned and sharing the knowledge shared in this paper with others. This paper aims to describe spot sampling as defined by industry standards, and discuss important factors that may impact accuracy when taking a spot sample.
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Document ID: 797DDFDB

AN OVERVIEW OF INDUSTRY STANDARDS RELATED TO NATURAL GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Barry Balzer
Abstract/Introduction:
What is a standard? Why are standards important? Merriam-Webster dictionary defines standard as: 1) a conspicuous object (as a banner) formerly carried at the top of a pole and used to mark a rallying point especially in battle or to serve as an emblem 2) something established by authority, custom, or general consent as a model or example 3) something set up and established by authority as a rule for the measure of quantity, weight, extent, value, or quality 4) the fineness and legally fixed weight of the metal used in coins 5) the basis of value in a monetary system 6) a structure built for or serving as a base or support From these definitions, it appears that one could conclude that a standard should have value be established by general consent or by an organization be a yardstick to measure quantity, quality, and value and be a base or support upon which one can built procedures and policies.
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Document ID: 0549345F

?AN OVERVIEW OF PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION TECHNOLOGIES
Author(s): Jonathan Fiedler
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will provide you with a fundamental understanding of the operating principles of currently available pipeline leak detection technologies. To start with well have a look at the topics to be covered: ? Historical development of pipelines ? Why they are monitored for leaks ? The requirements and regulations placed on leak detection systems ? Various causes of leaks ? Different leak detection methods It will also be shown how pipelines are monitored utilizing leak detection systems which are operated: ? non-continuously ? continuously with external measurements ? continuously with internal measurements
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Document ID: C0B1EC13

APPLICATION OF FLOW COMPUTERS FOR MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL
Author(s): Al Majek
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of oil & gas production has progressed considerably since the days of paper charts and manual integration. While still in use today, the technology has moved increasingly to microprocessor based flow computers. Such devices allow for greater measurement accuracy, increased control functionality, and are readily integrated into a companys enterprise computer networks.
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Document ID: 34B706B4

COMPAIRING PLUG & SEAT REGULATORS & CONTROL VALVES
Author(s): Rick Schneider
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays charging world of technology there have been may changes in controls that now allow to truly compare a plug and seat regulator to a control valve for high-pressure natural gas installations such as: power plants, city gate stations, large industrial customers, compressor stations, and storage fields. The features, benefits, capabilities, and differences of both devices will be outlined, to enable the reader to make an educated selection. In addition, acceptable design practices will be reviewed concerning sizing, gas velocities, noise levels, equipment layout, and performance. The ball valve is the most commonly used type of modulating valve for natural gas pipeline control applications, for that reason, we will limit this discussion to comparison between the plug and seat regulator and versions of a 1/4 turn ball valve.
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Document ID: FB83BE91

AUDITING ELECTRONIC GAS MEASUREMENT PER API MPMS, CHAPTER 21.1
Author(s): Keith Fry
Abstract/Introduction:
Auditing evolved as a business practice as owners began to realize a standardized form of accounting must exist to prevent fraud. Financial audits made their way into businesses during the late 1700s. The industrial revolution brought about the separation of job duties beyond what a sole proprietor or family could oversee. Managers were hired to supervise the employees and the business processes. Businesses began to expand geographically where previously they were all local. Owners, who could not be in more than one place at a time or chose to be absent, found an increasing need to monitor the accuracy of the financial activities of their growing businesses. Owners responded by hiring people to check their financial results for accuracy, resulting in the process of financial auditing. In the early 1900s and at the request of the Securities and Exchange Commission, the auditors reports of duties and findings were standardized. Financial auditors developed methods of reporting on selected key business cases as an affordable alternative to examining every detailed transaction. It was found with auditing that the evaluation of both financial risk and financial opportunity was improved.
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Document ID: 685D6BCA

COMPLETE MEASUREMENT & CONTROL FACILITY DESIGN & INSTALLATION
Author(s): Thomas G. Quine
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation is intended to illustrate the implementation of a successful project. These principles can be applied to measurement and control projects, LNG projects, and LPG projects. The strategy presented involves performing through preliminary engineering, performing final design and procurement, qualification of installers, construction, testing, commissioning and finally, training and documentation. This presentation focuses on the following items: Developing a project perspective Establishing a sound baseline from which to proceed Examples of actual designs Typical design deliverables Conclusion
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Document ID: D69B92D0

FIELD TESTING GAS METERS BY TRANSFER PROVING
Author(s): Larry K. Wunderlich
Abstract/Introduction:
Transfer proving was initially developed to provide an easier and more accurate field meter proving method. Because of the capacity capabilities of transfer provers (2000 CFH to 80,000 CFH) transfer provers are utilized in meter shops where bell prover capacity is limited and allow for shop testing of the larger capacity meters.
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Document ID: D099395D

AUTOMATING GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Richard L. Cline
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address concepts of SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) Systems and their application to the measurement industry. An important focus of the paper is to provide the reader with an understanding of the technology and with guidelines to be used to evaluate this equipment as part of an automation project.
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Document ID: C976751E

PERIODIC INSPECTION OF REGULATORS AND RELIEF VALVES
Author(s): James M. Doyle
Abstract/Introduction:
Inspections and tests on regulators and relief valves is a Department of Transportation Compliance rule. The sections within the DOT manual stating the rule include 192.351 through 192.359, 192.751, 192.479, 192.481, 192.739, and 192.741. Keep in mind these rules are the minimum required tests. Your Company or Regulatory Agency may be more stringent and require more or detailed testing. You must also keep in mind that the Manufacturer of your equipment will also provide a guideline pertaining to maintenance. These tests are not only required for safe, reliable service to your Customers, but also could be used in any legal proceeding for documentation and purpose. There are many important tasks and precautionary measures to perform and inform before you actually start the actual testing. Listing these items and performing a checklist could provide to be a reminder. Some station designs and equipment installations may require more than one person to perform a safe, reliable test. Plan the procedure within your work group, be sure all safety equipment and notifications are in place, perform the task and document the results according to your Company procedures.
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Document ID: 35944618

BASIC ELECTRONICS FOR FIELD MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Steve OBannon
Abstract/Introduction:
Electricity has become the life blood of our society. From years past of it being a miracle just to switch on a light bulb, to something that is used 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Today, we depend on it for every aspect of our lives, yet take it completely for granted. Electricity is used for everything from powering motors, to running the most complicated computer systems, factories and defense systems, to charging our iPods and iPhones.
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Document ID: 956044AE

PHMSAS RULE IMPACT ON GAS MEASUREMENT (CONTROL ROOM MANAGEMENT)
Author(s): Russel W.Treat
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper summarizes a SCADA implementers perspective regarding the intent of the Pipeline Hazardous Materials Safety Administrations (PHMSA) Control Room Management (CRM) rule. In addition, this paper provides a fresh approach to CRM, describing why companies should use the CRM process to go beyond compliance requirements and implement operating best practices that would significantly enhance operations reliability and pipeline safety.
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Document ID: 398CF6F9

SCADA AND TELEMETRY IN NATURAL GAS OPERATIONS
Author(s): Russel W. Treat
Abstract/Introduction:
SCADA systems are combinations of field devices, communications infrastructure, computer hardware and software integrated into a system that provides for safe, reliable, and effective operation of remote facilities. Producers, gatherers, midstream operators and pipelines use SCADA system for operations. In addition, SCADA gathers data used by advanced applications such as measurement accounting. SCADA is key for highly profitable operation. This paper provides and overview of the building blocks of the SCADA system. The SCADA host and advanced applications are discussed in detail. The paper concludes with a discussion of SCADA trends.
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Document ID: 75692CCF

UNDERSTANDING AGA REPORT NO. 10 - NATURAL GAS SPEED OF SOUND
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
The speed of sound in natural gas is the velocity a sound wave travels in the gas. There are a number of gas properties that affect the speed of sound and they include the composition of the gas, the pressure of the gas, and the temperature of the gas. The American Gas Association (AGA) Report No. 10, Speed of Sound in Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbon Gases, provides an accurate method for calculating the speed of sound in natural gas and other related hydrocarbon fluids.
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Document ID: E70A9E9C

CALCULATION OF NATURAL GAS LIQUID QUANTITIES
Author(s): Keith Fry
Abstract/Introduction:
There is no substitute for well maintained, properly installed, and properly performing measurement equipment. Provisions for measurement equipment installation, operation, and maintenance deliver the raw data required for those dealing with natural gas liquids (NGLs) to transact business. Then, this raw data can be adjusted or converted to values suitable for transactions to take place and for proper accounting. To make these adjustments and conversions, it helps to know the desired results. Some measurement software applications require volume quantities. Others require mass. For many NGL applications, the preferred outcomes are liquid volumes of pure components. This is because most NGLs are eventually fractionated into pure products and market prices for these are readily available. Sometimes, the gas equivalent values are also useful for operations. Knowing the starting point is equally important. The starting point can vary depending on the type of measurement. Different resources and applications provide for different means of measuring NGLs. Measurements can be made on a mass basis or a volumetric basis.
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Document ID: 01493897

CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF ULTRASONIC METERS
Author(s): Randy Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many in our industry who would consider the advancement of the ultrasonic meter to be one of the most important improvements in gas measurement in the past twenty years. It is my opinion that the immense improvement in gas measurement is not so much the ultrasonic meter itself. Instead, I believe it is the meters ability to detect conditions that would compromise its own accuracy and ability to communicate those conditions to the user. It is in the area of communicating those conditions, that we often under-utilize the meters capabilities.
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Document ID: 417810B4

COPING WITH CHANGING FLOW REQUIREMENTS AT EXSISTING METERING STATIONS
Author(s): James M. Doyle
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays competitive gas market, utility companies must meet aggressive market strategies or suffer the consequences. All industries have cash registers, and gas distribution is no exception. Our measuring stations are our cash register. The problem is, these stations were designed 10, 20, 30 or even 50 years ago, and are now performing tasks they were not designed for. Therefore, changes must be made. Measurement personnel today must be trained and taught to cope with changing flow requirements. But, modifying a station to meet todays aggressive market can be very expensive. Equipment, such as regulators and the primary element (the meter tube, the orifice plate holder, and the orifice plate), must meet A.G.A. 3 requirements. The secondary element (the recording device) can raise expenditures significantly. Sometimes modifications cannot be made to deliver the specified volume of product needed, and replacement of a complete station is even more expensive. Companies today must watch money closely, and work to reduce operating and maintenance costs.
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Document ID: 8679196B

CORIOLIS MASS FLOW METERS FOR GAS AND LIQUID MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Michael Keilty Chester Meyers
Abstract/Introduction:
A mass flowmeter is a system that provides a measurement of fluid flow in units of mass pounds, tons. The Coriolis flowmeter is a type of flowmeter which measures the mass of the fluid flow directly. Coriolis mass flowmeters were first introduced more than 30 years ago. Global acceptance has spread across all industries where precision flow measurement is needed. Today, installations number in the hundreds of thousands of measurement points including those in liquid hydrocarbon and natural gas applications. This paper will review the Coriolis mass flowmeter technology describing the differences and similarities between Coriolis flowmeters and electronic and mechanical meters and looking at some latest developments in Coriolis mass meter design and operation.
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Document ID: BFFD843F

INTRODUCTION TO DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE PRODUCING PRIMARY FLOW ELEMENTS
Author(s): Richard L. Wakeland Cheryl D. Wakeland
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow is one of the four major physical measurements in processes. Flow meters may be classified in four categories: differential pressure, velocity, mass and positive displacement or volumetric. Each category has advantages and disadvantages however, the focus of this paper will be the differential pressure flow meters. Differential pressure (dP) flow meters include flow elements such as the orifice plate, venturi, flow nozzle, wedge meter, cone meter and proprietary devices. The elbow flow meter, pitot and annubar are also differential type flow meters, but have a different operating principle than the others and are outside of the scope of this paper. These meters may be referred to as flow elements (FE) or primary flow elements. These flow elements are called primary because an additional or secondary device must be attached to indicate the measured differential pressure. This secondary device may be an electronic transmitter, manometer, standpipe or gage.
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Document ID: 36F46627

EFFECTS AND CONTROL OF PULSATION IN GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most common measurement errors and the most difficult to identify in natural gas metering systems is that caused by pulsating flow. It is important to understand the effects that pulsations have on the common types of flow meters used in the gas industry so that potential error-producing mechanisms can be identified and avoided. It is also essential to understand pulsation control techniques for mitigating pulsation effects. This paper describes the effects of pulsation on orifice, turbine, ultrasonic, and other flow meter types. It also presents basic methods for mitigating pulsation effects at meter installations, including a specific procedure for designing acoustic filters that can isolate a flow meter from the source of pulsation.
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Document ID: 5CBFD6DA

FLUID FLOW CONDITIONING FOR METER ACCURACY AND REPEATABILITY
Author(s): Danny Sawchuk
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow conditioning is one of the most critical aspects dealing with any type of volumetric flow metering. Flow conditioning is the final buffer between the flow meter and the upstream piping layout and is responsible for eliminating swirl, restoring flow symmetry and generating a repeatable, fully developed velocity flow profile. Even though modern advancements have resulted in low uncertainty, high repeatability devices that are effective across a range of flow rates, proper utilization of flow conditioner is still required to maximize the meters performance, diagnostics and ensure the most stable long term flow measurement. All flow conditioner technologies are not made equal, as commonly used designs such as AGA tube bundles and straightening vanes can actually cause more measurement problems than they resolve. This paper will focus on two main types of flow conditioners perforated plate systems and tube bundles.
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Document ID: ED372FDE

EFM Data Communications Problems and Solutions
Author(s): Jackson Kyle Bates
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is discuss various methods to mitigate experienced problems when it comes to measurement data collection and discuss possible solutions. I think there is great benefit in providing a current state summary of measurement data collection as we sit today and discuss how technology and metrics are continuously being utilized to help shape the future of remote measurement data collection in the Natural Gas industry.
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Document ID: A4704D47

PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS IN MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Terry Jackson
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of electronics is evolving in the measurement industry. The technology of measurement and control has evolved over the past few decades. Systems have moved from mechanical devices that were read on site to early versions of electronic systems that were polled infrequently. Current systems can control several devices such as pumps, meters or injectors simultaneously using advanced electronics to measure, control and communicate at greater frequency than ever.
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Document ID: 56049161

ETHICS
Author(s): John L. Chisholm Patrick L. Mills
Abstract/Introduction:
In any discussion of ethics, the first issue is always nomenclature. Unfortunately, this is often the topic that receives the least attention. Frequently, those involved in the conversation conduct deep insightful discourses in which there is virtually no understanding exchanged, although the participants will all agree that the quality of the rhetoric was outstanding. The problem with the words ethics and morals is that they are generally interchangeable. Admittedly there are subtleties in their use and connotation, but generally they both mean a system of standards for good and evil, right and wrong, and the condition of being in harmony or disharmony with them (ethical, unethical, moral, immoral).
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Document ID: 2E852611

FACTORS AFFECTING DIGITAL PRESSURE CALIBRATION ASSOCIATED TECHNIQUES, USES, TRACEABILITY, AND PROBLEMS
Author(s): Scott A. Crone
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure calibration is as important today as it has been for a very long time, but the way calibration is done and the equipment used to do it has changed drastically. In the past it was a standard practice to use a primary standard for pressure calibration. That standard was normally a dead weight tester or a manometer. Today with more accurate secondary standards available there is a larger choice in what can be used for pressure calibration. What is used normally will depend on the requirements that have to be met and the equipment that is available.
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Document ID: F27F6022

FLARE MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Eric Estrada, T Irvin Schwartzenburg
Abstract/Introduction:
With the recent release of the Green House Gas Regulations, the increased visibility of flaring natural gas and increased awareness of royalty owners, the ability to accurately measure and account for the amount of product flared from a facility has become increasingly important to regulators, royalty owners and operators. In the past, flare gas was not considered a necessary measurement, so the measurement of flared product has often been overlooked or not given the same attention as custody transfer measurement. As such API published API MPMS Chapter 14.10, Measurement of Flow to Flares, in June of 2007. This paper will provide a quick overview of the contents of API MPMS 14.10 but is encouraged to obtain 14.10 if more detailed information is desired. In addition, a brief discussion on the importance of calibrating flare flow meters is also discussed.
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Document ID: 8598574F

HOW TO NOT MEASURE GAS - ORIFICE
Author(s): Dee Hummel
Abstract/Introduction:
Measuring natural gas is both a science and an art. Guidelines and industry practices explain how to accurately measure natural gas. The art comes in trying to minimize errors and prevent measurement problems. However, sometime its easier to explain how not to measure gas when reviewing measurement errors. Measurement errors can be caused through poor installation practices, poor measurement practices, operational changes, and human error. The purpose of this paper is to address some real life cases of measurement errors.
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Document ID: 10979810

HOW TO PERFORM A LOST & UNACCOUNTED-FOR GAS PROGRAM
Author(s): John McDaniel
Abstract/Introduction:
Many (likely most) gas pipeline companies struggle with lost-and-unaccounted-for-gas (L&U) and it can be a significant cost to their bottom line as shown below. As shown in this inset, by reducing L&U from 0.6 percent to .25 percent, a typical company with a 2 BCF daily throughput could save Over 7.6 million dollars annually based on 3.00 gas prices, which is a daily loss of 21,000.
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Document ID: F4004227

IMPROVING FLOW MEASUREMENTS WITH IMPROVED CALIBRATION AND DATA HANDLING PROCEDURES
Author(s): Duane Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The knowledge base from a field measurement technician to the measurement analyst is extremely demanding. Every field technician is tested in both knowledge and skills on a daily basis regarding: ? Electronic controls to pneumatic controls ? Communication system support ? Multiple technical disciplines ? Support of measurement equipment ? Procedures that must be followed (SOP) - Standard Operating Procedures ? Regulatory requirements governing the facilities ? Ongoing training of field personnel These factors and many more create a tremendous and constant challenge for every organization.
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Document ID: F2ABACB0

LIGHTNING-FREE AUTOMATION
Author(s): Jim Gardner Jim Horton
Abstract/Introduction:
Historically, oil & gas automation has relied heavily on the direct burial of cable for signal communication from remote devices back to a central controller. This cable acts as a copper conductor for power transients (indirect lightning strikes). A majority of all automation damage is caused by indirect lightning strikes. Copper cable buried on a location acts like an antenna picking up all inducted power surges from the surrounding area.
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Document ID: EB86C2ED

LIQUID MEASUREMENT STATION DESIGN with NGL CONSIDERATIONS
Author(s): Michael P. Frey
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many factors that must be considered in order to properly design a liquid measurement station. While many of the components of measurement stations are similar, the criterion that determines the equipment to utilize for a given application or product can vary significantly from project to project. This paper will address the most common applications in the liquid hydrocarbon industry for large volume product measurement as it pertains to custody transfer applications. Custody transfer measurement includes accurate quantity measurement through the use of metering, though equally important is accurate quality measurement through the use of quality and sampling equipment. These custody transfer and/or fiscal metering stations consist of mechanical components and instrumentation on a skidded system along with simple to complex supervisory control systems with flow computers, programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and a human machine interface (HMI) with customized programming to achieve the required measurement goal.
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Document ID: A65E715C

METHODS FOR CERTIFYING MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT
Author(s): Scott Crone
Abstract/Introduction:
Like any other piece of equipment, a measurement artifact must be maintained. Obviously, it has to be in working order in general. However, what is more important is that it be operating within specified parameters and providing measurements that are traceable to a known source or sources. This paper provides a general overview of calibration and certification. It also discusses some key terminology and methods.
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Document ID: 80914FCD

ONSITE PROVING OF GAS METERS
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increased use of Natural Gas as a fuel, and higher natural gas prices buyers and sellers of natural gas are seriously looking at ways to improve their natural gas measurement and reduce the error in natural gas measurement. A 6 Turbine or Ultrasonic meter operating at 1,000 Psi will move 100 MMSCF/Day. An error in measurement of only one tenth of one percent (0.1%) on 100 Million Standard Cubic Feet (MMSCF) of Natural Gas selling at 4.00 per Thousand Standard Cubic Feet (MSCF) will cause an over or under billing of 400.00. Therefore the error in a year is (400 X 365) 146,000.00 This will more than pay for a proving or verifying system. The Btu in one barrel of oil is equivalent to the Btu in approximately 5,600 cubic feet of natural gas. At 4.00 per thousand cubic feet, the natural gas equivalent of one barrel of oil is 22.40 which is much less than a barrel of oil so natural gas is becoming the fuel of choice.
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Document ID: D01EC101

ORIFICE PLATE METER DIAGNOSTICS
Author(s): Dr. Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice plate meters are popular for being relatively simple, reliable and inexpensive. Their principles of operation are relatively easily understood. However, traditionally there has been no orifice meter self diagnostic capabilities. In 2008 & 2009 a generic Differential Pressure (DP) meter self diagnostic methodology 1,2 was proposed. In this paper these diagnostic principles are applied to orifice meters and proven with experimental test results. The diagnostic results are presented in a simple graphical form designed for easy use in the field by the meter operator.
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Document ID: A7508CCA

OVERALL MEASUREMENT ACCURACY
Author(s): Paul J. LaNasa
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents methods for determining the uncertainty of both differential and positive metering stations. It takes into account the type of meter, number of meters in parallel, type of secondary instruments, and the determination of physical properties. The paper then relates this information to potential influence on system balance
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Document ID: 10AE987F

OVERVIEW OF AGA REPORT NO. 7 REVISION
Author(s): Angela Floyd Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
Just when you thought you knew everything there was to know about Turbine meter measurement, wham, out comes a revised AGA 7 standard. Now those basic principles are all still valid but maybe those operating practices we have built into our operating procedures need a little review. Rather than proceed as generations have done before us, research has been completed on the meters, their installation and operating practices and the way we calibrate and field test them. So now we have some data to back up our methods and madness.
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Document ID: 58D86DCE

PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE, AND OTHER EFFECTS ON TURBINE METER GAS FLOW MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Paul W. Tang
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper explains the general working principle of gas turbine meters and the common causes for turbine metering errors. Field observations and laboratory test examples are presented in this paper to demonstrate these phenomena. The author also suggests methods to optimize the measurement performance of turbine meter installations.
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Document ID: 19B92D48

PROBLEMS UNIQUE TO OFFSHORE GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Royce Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Some major problems and unique solutions will be addressed with gas measurement on offshore platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. This presentation will show the major roll safety, transportation, and weather play in the technicians ability to verify the accuracy of the gas measurement facility. Proper operation, design, and installation will ensure accurate measurement.
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Document ID: DA00A025

PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT EFFECTS ON GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): John McDaniel Tom Cleveland
Abstract/Introduction:
The drill bit penetrates a rock formation thousands of feet below the surface of the earth, a steel casing is slid into the hole, and perforations are made to the casing that reach into the surrounding rock. At that point, an escape route is created for anything in the formation that can be released to the surface, which has lower pressure, or that can be lifted by that process. The producer must be able to obtain enough of what comes up to the surface and conditioned to a marketable state to make it worthwhile. Obviously, the natural gas, natural gas liquids (NGLs), crude oil and condensates are the valuable commodities that are produced and sold. Unfortunately, other materials are included in what surfaces from inside the earth. Many of these require production equipment to remove the material or condition the product for sale, and the effects of some types of production equipment used can have an effect on measurement.
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Document ID: 3FCEA31B

PROTECTION OF NATURAL GAS MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT AGAINST MOISTURE AND CORROSION
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux David Wall
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation addresses problems associated with moisture and corrosion caused by high relative humidity and airborne contaminants. By controlling moisture and corrosion long-term, many problems associated with sensitive field electronics can be avoided. INTRODUCTION The natural gas industry relies very heavily on sensitive electronic equipment utilized in the production, gathering, transportation, and distribution phases. There is an increasing reliance on the use of electronics for performing important tasks relating to measurement, control, and safety. Coupled with increased reliance is the demand by users for increased reliability.
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Document ID: 5DE1A7B4

Real Time Electronic Gas Measurement
Author(s): Al Majek
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of oil & gas production has progressed considerably since the days of paper charts and manual integration. Technology has moved increasingly to microprocessor based flow computers allowing for greater measurement accuracy, increased control functionality, and ready integration into a companys enterprise computer networks.
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Document ID: FBE03059

BASICS OF ULTRASONIC FLOW METERS
Author(s): David Crandall
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to explain the measurement of natural gas for custody transfer applications through the use of ultrasonic meters. Specifically, this paper explains the operation of ultrasonic meters, issues surrounding their performance in natural gas, calibration procedures, and proper installation considerations. Additionally, the electronics making the measurements generate calculated values relating to the operation of the meter and as a result a database is available to provide analysis of the meters ongoing performance. Meter health parameters can be evaluated to verify the meters operation and these principles are explained.
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Document ID: EC329360

TRANSIENT LIGHTNING PROTECTION FOR ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENT DEVICES
Author(s): Leon Black
Abstract/Introduction:
We have all heard of or seen the devastating effects of a direct lightning burst. Communication equipment destroyed. Transmitters and EFM devices vaporized into slag metal. Complete process and measurement systems down with extended recovery times. These effects are the most dramatic and the easiest to trace. However, these kinds of events are rare. The more prominent events are those that occur on a day-to-day basis without we, the user, even knowing. With the advent of the transistor and today when surface mount electronics is the norm and not the exception, transient suppression has become a science of necessity. Tight tolerances of voltage requirements and limited current carrying capabilities makes the new compact integrated circuits much more susceptible to many types of transients.
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Document ID: 85102B98

FLOW CALIBRATING ULTRASONIC GAS METERS - CONSIDERATIONS AND BENEFITS
Author(s): Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary method for custody transfer measurement has traditionally been orifice metering. While this method has been a good form of measurement, technology has driven the demand for a new, more effective form of fiscal measurement. Ultrasonic flowmeters have gained popularity in recent years and have become the standard for large volume custody transfer applications for a variety of reasons. Most users require flow calibrations to improve meter performance and overall measurement uncertainty. The latest revision of AGA Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters, Second Addition Ref 1, now requires flow calibration for ultrasonic flow meters when being used for custody transfer applications. What considerations then, should be taken when choosing to flow calibrate an ultrasonic flowmeter? What are the benefits to the user? What should a user expect from a flow calibration? What kind of performance should the customer expect or accept from an ultrasonic meter? What are the diagnostic capabilities inherent in an ultrasonic meter? These areas, as well as others will be explored and considered.
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Document ID: 4CD4AF12

Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics - Advanced
Author(s): Dan Hackett
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses advanced diagnostic features of ultrasonic gas flow meters used for measurement of natural gas which are generally used to assess dynamic meter operation and performance. The basic diagnostic features of most gas ultrasonic flow meters were covered in the companion paper Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics - Basics which covered diagnostics that relate to meter health or validation that the meter is operating properly. Advanced diagnostics are typically those that provide operators information regarding flowing conditions that may affect optimum meter performance. These can include determination of installation effects, upstream blockages, dirt or other similar operating conditions that can adversely affect the uncertainty or repeatability of the volumetric flow rate information determined by the flow meter.
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Document ID: C77FF1BF

Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics - Basic
Author(s): Dan Hackett
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses fundamental principles of ultrasonic gas flow meters used for measurement of natural gas and the available basic diagnostic capability to assess meter operation and performance. The basic requirements for obtaining good meter performance, when installed in the field, will be reviewed. Most of this information can be generalized to other manufacturers transit time ultrasonic flow meters however, these examples provided, particularly with respect to some diagnostic features, are based on the Daniel SeniorSonic ultrasonic flow meter. Advanced diagnostic data, in conjunction with gas composition, pressure and temperature, that provides diagnostic benefits beyond that of other primary measurement devices is outside the scope of this paper, though these topics will be covered in the companion paper, Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics - Advanced.
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Document ID: F8D02D01

WELLHEADS LIQUIDS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Mark V. Goloby
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquids measurement in the oil patch is suddenly getting a lot of attention. Some are dismayed at the low level of technology used to measure liquids. Today, custody transfer of 80 to 85% of onshore crude and condensate production is still documented by a hauler climbing to the top of the tank and strapping it. That would be a fair estimate, concurs Mark Davis Staff Engineer Shell Exploration and Production. The hauler straps the tank before loading his truck and again when he finishes. The producer is paid on whatever that hauler writes on the ticket.
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Document ID: C7603636

AUDITING LIQUID MEASUREMENT FACILITIES
Author(s): Galen Cotton
Abstract/Introduction:
The word Auditing is often used to imply that activities related to a review of general business practices, and procedures for an asset or business unit, are under way. The objective of those activities is to assure compliance with corporate policies and procedures, industry and government standards, and sound management principles. Additional objectives may include review of accounting and financial transactions for accuracy, completeness and timeliness. The Institute of Internal Auditing defines the process as: Internal auditing is an independent, objective assurance and consulting activity designed to add value and improve an organizations operations. It helps an organization accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance processes.
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Document ID: AE41549F

FUNDAMENTALS OF PYCNOMETERS AND DENSITOMETERS
Author(s): Charles Burton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss the role of the pycnometer in density meter calibrations. The primary objective will be to provide the necessary steps required to properly install, operate, and maintain the densitometer and pycnometer (pyc). Common issues encountered with pycnometers as well as densitometers are also discussed.
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Document ID: 83731BFC

FUNDAMENTALS OF MASS MEASUREMENT (CORIOLIS METERS)
Author(s): Marsha Yon Kyle Barry
Abstract/Introduction:
The first flow meter utilizing the Coriolis force to measure mass flow was patented in 1978. Today, hundreds of thousands of Coriolis meters are in service in the hydrocarbon industry to measure mass, volume, and density of a wide variety of fluids. The American Petroleum Institute published Chapter 5.6 entitled Measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbons by Coriolis Meters in October 2002 and reaffirmed the standard in 2013. The standard describes methods to achieve custody transfer levels of accuracy when a Coriolis meter is used to measure liquid hydrocarbons.
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Document ID: C90B677D

FUNDAMENTALS OF METER PROVERS AND PROVING METHODS
Author(s): Greg Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
This document will provide the reader an understanding of what a prover is, the need for proving meters for accurate measurement uncertainty verification, the equipment deemed acceptable and available for use in the oil and liquefied gas market. It will also define the general terminology used in the industry, general operational aspects for verification devices, and general information utilized by the groups and agencies that govern the meter verification process.
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Document ID: 6D5AF31E

FUNDAMENTALS OF NATURAL GAS LIQUID MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Don Sextro Dan Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of natural gas liquids (NGL) is similar in many respects to that of other hydrocarbon liquids but is markedly different in other aspects. The main difference in NGL measurement is the need to properly address the effects of solution mixing. Measuring NGL by mass measurement techniques will properly address solution mixing effects because the mass measurement process is not sensitive to the effect that pressure, temperature and solution mixing have on the fluid measured.
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Document ID: BCF39309

FUNDAMENTALS OF NATURAL GAS LIQUID MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Don Sextro Dan Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of natural gas liquids (NGL) is similar in many respects to that of other hydrocarbon liquids but is markedly different in other aspects. The main difference in NGL measurement is the need to properly address the effects of solution mixing. Measuring NGL by mass measurement techniques will properly address solution mixing effects because the mass measurement process is not sensitive to the effect that pressure, temperature and solution mixing have on the fluid measured. Another difference is the effect of higher vapor pressures on the measurement of natural gas liquids. In static measurement methods, the liquid equivalent of the vapor space must be determined. In dynamic measurement methods, the equilibrium vapor pressure, or that pressure at which a liquid and its vapor phase is in equilibrium at a given operating temperature, must be deducted from the operating pressure when determining the compressibility effects on measured volumes.
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Document ID: D0863F0F

Fundamental Overview of an NGL Meter Station Design
Author(s): Tony Lockard
Abstract/Introduction:
In this paper I will attempt to give a fundamental overview of an NGL meter station design however, it is not a straight forward, one size fits all scenario. There are multiple considerations that influence the meter station design and all must be taken into account. Major considerations are: what product or products will be measured, what meter technology to utilize, and the process design limitations.
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Document ID: 84DF9064

FUNDAMENTALS OF NGL SAMPLING SYSTEMS
Author(s): Dominic Giametta Jim Klentzman
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to discuss in depth systems we use as a standard to sample natural gas liquids, or NGLs. Before we discuss the systems and methods used to sample these products, we must first clearly define what NGLs are. NGLs can be a combination of any fluid in liquid form that is taken from the pipeline under pressure. Typically, NGL refers mainly to ethane, propane, butanes, natural gasolines (pentanes) and condensates. Because of the broad range of products that can be claimed as NGLs, there are many different approaches to the methods by which we sample them. The common thread among all NGLs is that these products, in order to be maintained and properly sampled, require the use of specific sampling techniques unique to light liquid and NGL sampling.
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Document ID: B51D4A92

FUNDAMENTALS OF LIQUID TURBINE METERS
Author(s): Tony Petitto
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine meters have been used for the custody transfer of refined petroleum products and light crude oils for over 40 years. When correctly applied, they offer high accuracy and long service life over a wide range of products and operating conditions. Traditionally turbine metes were used for the measurement of low viscosity liquids and PD meters for higher viscosities. However, new developments in turbine meter technology are pushing these application limits while increasing reliability and accuracy. This paper will examine the fundamental principles of turbine meter measurement as well as new developments including: smart preamps for real-time diagnostics, helical flow turbine meters for higher viscosity applications, higher performance flow conditioners to increase accuracy, and viscosity compensation to extend the application limits.
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Document ID: B6C1100E

Integrating and trending USM, Flow Computer, and Chromatograph diagnostics to identify measurement problems
Author(s): Lynette Welker Pierce
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to understand ultrasonic meter and measurement diagnostics in general, we will need to know some facts about data and how the Oil and Gas Industry is handling technology. Todays technology requires that we must account for all of the information being pushed our way. Whether it is our refrigerator, the home security alarm, or the average television/smart phone, all of these individual pieces of equipment are constantly bombarding us with new information. This information collects over time forming tendencies and trends that, in time, essentially results in what we know as Big DATA. Can you imagine if the average homeowner or apartment dweller had to somehow warehouse and observe all of that data, and THEN make their decisions based upon what the data was telling them?! That would be a full-time job in itself.
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Document ID: DF970C30

COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE OFFICE AND FIELD
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Transferring the knowledge base regarding the measurement equipment between a field measurement technician and a corporate measurement analyst can be extremely challenging. A Field technicians skill set is tested on a routine basis therefore, the technician must be knowledgeable in: ? electronic controls to pneumatic controls ? communication system support ? multiple disciplines ? support of measurement equipment ? procedures that must be followed ? regulatory requirements governing the facilities ? ongoing training of field personnel Each organization is constantly facing challenges due to these factors as well as many others.
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Document ID: 2056F686

EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP AT ALL LEVELS
Author(s): Bill Stahl
Abstract/Introduction:
We study Engineering, Accounting, Business Management, Computer Science and a host of other curriculums on our way to employment. Technical schools teach us Ohms Law, Fundamental Physics, Chemistry, Electronics and Welding. Courses and complete degree programs in Leadership are available but for some reason, Effective Leadership is rarely taught in the disciplines found in our industry. While we admire sports heroes and winning coaches, how often do we admire winning CEOs or Managers? How many coaches, teachers or other people of influence have mentored us to success? How do we adapt the winning qualities we find in sports or college to Leadership in our careers? Sadly, Managers often lead or manage as they were managed.
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Document ID: 33476BD6

ELECTRONIC GAS MEASUREMENT AUDITING
Author(s): Gary P. Menzel - Co Perry Dee Hummel
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic gas measurement auditing or EFM auditing is a very important process in the natural gas industry. Within the last twenty years, the natural gas industry has changed from the dry flow chart recorder to the Electronic flow Computer(EFM) as the primary method of recording the measurement data for custody transfer. These flow computers are still typically connected to an orifice meter and are subject to all of the problems in the primary device that a chart recorder was. In addition they have their own set of problems that crop up in the flow computer and transmitters, some of which had similar problems when it was a chart recorder and some of which are unique to the flow computer. Careful review of the meter data should still be (and usually is) a part of the monthly close process. Even with the review process, occasionally measurement errors make it through to the payment calculation. It is for this reason that auditing is necessary and prudent. A proper audit procedure can be cost effective and ensure that proper credit is received for any delivery. As a side benefit, it will also help ensure that internal measurement is being performed properly.
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Document ID: 77461402

FIELD DATA CAPTURE WITHOUT PAPER FORMS
Author(s): Bruce Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter inspections, configuration changes, calibration verification, troubleshooting, and gas sampling generate important subsets of measurement data. Automated computer systems capture, process, store, and report this data better than manual, paper-based systems minimizing effort, time, resources, and error for field and office workers.
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Document ID: 31CC2B9E

GAS AND LIQUID MEASUREMENT VALIDATION NEW AUDIT REQUIREMENTS EXPAND THE FOCUS ON MEASUREMENT DATA INTEGRITY
Author(s): R. Michael Squyres
Abstract/Introduction:
Fundamental to all electronic gas measurement (EGM) and electronic liquids measurement (ELM) systems is the ability to accurately measure, review, correct, and report data. Any weakness in this chain undermines the accuracy and data integrity in the system. Recent industry standards and practices have greatly expanded the emphasis on data integrity. The Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) Act of 2002 focuses on the integrity and consistency of all financial-based transactions for an organization.
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Document ID: 4E9B959F


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