Measurement Library

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (2016)

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course

Fundamentals Of Gas Laws
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters
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Document ID: B3D2C127

Measurement Of Natural Gas B Y Coriolis Flow Meter AGA Report No. 11
Author(s): Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early 1980s, Coriolis meters have gained world- wide acceptance in gas, liquid, and slurry applications with an installed base of more than one million units. Through significant design, enhancements in the early 1990s Co- riolis meters have rapidly gained worldwide acceptance in gas phase applications with over 100,000 meters installed worldwide and most notably the publication of the sec- ond edition of AGA Report Number 11 , Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis Meter .
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Document ID: 7B3141A0

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): John A. Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of all gas measurement used in the world today is performed by two basic types of meters, posi- tive displacement and inferential. Positive displacement meters, consisting mainly of diaphragm and rotary style devices, generally account for lower volume measure- ment. Orifice, ultrasonic and turbine meters are the three main inferential class meters used for large volume measurement today. Turbines are typically considered to be a repeatable device used for accurate measurement over large and varying pressures and flow rates. They are found in a wide array of elevated pressure applica- tions ranging from atmospheric conditions to 1440 psig.
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Document ID: 934E907B

Compressor Station Design B Asics And An Over View Of The Design Process
Author(s): G. Mitchell Mazaher
Abstract/Introduction:
PurPosE oF a comPrEssor s tation Production - Move gas from wells into transmission pipelines Storage - Move gas in and out of storage fields to and from transmission pipelines Transmission - Move gas through a pipeline systEms main gas The BIG pipe. Much of it is often buried except at equipment
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Document ID: 65D2DE7F

Rotar Y Displacement Meters Basics
Author(s): Todd Willis
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classes of gas meters. These are inferential type meters, which include orifice and turbine meters, and positive displacement meters, which include diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferen- tial type meters are so-called because rather than mea- suring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas flow and calculating the volume based on the measurements. The positive displacement type meters are so-called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them
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Document ID: 2200CB2D

Horizontal Drilling
Author(s): Ellen Montgomery
Abstract/Introduction:
BEnEFits oF horizontal wElls Higher production rates Cutting more pay zone Flexibility of surface location Fewer surface locations Smaller environmental footprint Less surface equipment Fewer pipelines and right-of-ways Inaccessible development acreage
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Document ID: 1C778900

Operation And Maintenance Of Well P Ad Surf Ace Eq Uipment
Author(s): Chris Buckley J. W . W Illiams
Abstract/Introduction:
355 There can be many different types of equipment used. The equipment is based on several factors Parameters of the Well The Formation being drilled Pressure, and Volume Location Experience the company or industry has Type of Production the company is looking for Basic pad operations can include Pressure Control Separation Treating Measurement
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Document ID: C3496846

Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meter Basics
Author(s): James W. Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the operating principal and applica- tion of ultrasonic gas flow metering for custody transfer. Basic principals and underlying equations are discussed, as are considerations for applying ultrasonic flow meter technology to station design, installation and operation. These applications are illustrated based on operating experience with the Instromet 3 path and 5-path q.Sonic custody transfer flow meter, however, many of these is- sues may be generalized to devices manufactured by others
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Document ID: E8B59370

Basics Of Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): Jerry Kamalieh
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the United States, The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat-rate basis. Its growth was slow, its charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority. By comparison, the New York Gas Light Company found- ed in 1823 prospered and expanded. They had built their system on the use of gas meters to measure the sup- ply of gas to customers, and a large one to register the quantity made at the station before it is conveyed to the gasometers
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Document ID: 84F195D1

Non-Intrusive Ultrasonic Flowmeters In Liquid And G As APPLICATIONS-TECHNOLOGy And Installation Techniques
Author(s): Ron Mccarthy
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas and Oil are different in their physical, chemical, and ultrasonic properties. Nevertheless, each fluid state can use Widebeam technology that uses the pipe wall as a Sonic Waveguide, permitting accurate, repeatable and reliable non-intrusive flow metering. This paper explains non intrusive gas ultrasonic metering, providing field and laboratory test data demonstrating the ability of Clamp- On Ultrasonic meters to provide accurate Measurement. It also explains the importance of correct installation
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Document ID: FD9BF100

Advanced Application Of Rotar Y Meters
Author(s): Ron Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
As gas flows through a rotary meter the impellers turn, trapping known volumes of gas. This measuring chamber and impellers are constructed of hard coated anodized aluminum to offer strength and resistance to damage from gas flow debris. For the purposes of this paper it is impor - tant to note that the impellers and cylinder do not touch each other and are separated by gaps that measure an average of .003. As a meter begins to increase its speed this gap creates a fluidic seal so that any slippage (un- measured gas), is confined to very low flow rates
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Document ID: 2C333F7C

In-Situ On-Site() Gas Meter Proving
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
94 INTRODUCTION Natural gas flow rate measurement errors at field meter stations can result from the installation configuration, the calibration of the meter at conditions other than the actual operating conditions, or the degradation of meter perfor - mance over time. The best method for eliminating these or other sources of error is with in-situ (on-site) calibration of the meter. That is, the measurement accuracy of the field meter station should be verified under actual operating conditions by comparing to a master meter or prover. Comparisons of flow meters in the field have been per - formed for nearly as long as flow meters have been in ex - istence.
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Document ID: B6D65D63

Ultrasonic Meters For Commercial Applications
Author(s): Paul Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
An ultrasonic meter falls into the classification of inferen- tial meters. Unlike positive displacement meters that cap- ture volume to totalize volume, inferential meters measure flowing gas velocity to totalize volume. Ultrasonic meters use sound waves to measure flowing gas velocity to infer volume. Ultrasonic meters have been around for many years, primarily in liquid measurement. However, we are seeing more and more applications in the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: E3160923

Automating Meter Shop Practices Using AMR/AMI Technology
Author(s): Scott Haldi
Abstract/Introduction:
AMR/AMI devices or endpoints have historically been used to reduce labor costs associated with meter read- ing. They can provide other benefits, as well, which would save meter shops additional operating costs, while simul- taneously improving overall efficiencies. This paper will address those options. Meter shops perform key activities related to the prepara- tion of meters for distribution. Facing changing technolo- gies, many meter shops now have to deal with not only mechanical meters but also with electronic endpoints. This places even greater demands on meter shops to process meters through their systems in a smooth, cost- effective manner
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Document ID: 74A5D79F

Basic Properties Of Natural Gas
Author(s): John H. Batchelder
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is misunderstood by many. It is believed by some that all gas is a liquid that is pumped into automo- biles or into tanks and is used as a fuel. It is thought of as a dangerous material that will blow up easily. Others do not differentiate between LP gas, natural gas, or gasoline - They are all the same thing, right? While it is true that the above mentioned materials are all made up of the same basic components, each has its own physical and chemical characteristics
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Document ID: 125DBD52

Low Pressure G As Measurement Using Ultrasonic Technology
Author(s): Volker Herrmann Toralf Dietz John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
The utilization of ultrasonic metering as a cost effective form of measurement has grown dramatically over the past 10 years. A growing portion of this market is in cus- tody transfer applications. This growth is primarily due to growing acceptance in industry, advances in the technol- ogy, extensive self diagnostic capabilities and industry/ regulatory standards and recommendations related to their use in custody transfer applications
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Document ID: 9D66CBD0

Distribution Gas Meter Proving: The Equipment And Methodology Used Toda Y In The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): Gregory A. Germ
Abstract/Introduction:
To determine the accuracy of a natural gas meter, a known volume of air is passed through the meter, and the meter registration is compared against this known volume. The known volume of air originates from the meter prover. In earlier times, the gas meter prover was a stand-alone device (usually a bell-type prover), manually operated without any electronics or automation. Today, the majority of gas meter provers are fully automated computer controlled and operated, and responsible for other job functions besides the proving of gas meters. The bell-type meter prover - though still commonly used in the industry - is not the only kind of meter prover used today.
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Document ID: D48579F7

Differential Testing Of Rotar Y Meters
Author(s): Ron Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the introduction of rotary meters in the 1920s, gas distribution companies have used the differential pressure across the meter as an indication of meter condition and performance. Using manufacturers recommendations in concert with industry and regulatory standards differential testing is a cost effective method to verify the condition of a rotary meter while in service
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Document ID: 48A08C0B

Diagnostics For Large High V Olume Flow Orifice Plate Meters
Author(s): Mark Skelton Simon Barrons, Jennifer Ayre, Richard Steven,
Abstract/Introduction:
In 2008/9 DP Diagnostics disclosed a proprietary dif - ferential pressure (DP) meter diagnostic methodology 1,2. Swinton Technology (ST) has subsequently devel - oped software named Prognosis in partnership with DP Diagnostics. Prognosis allows these generic DP meter diagnostic methodologies to be applied in flow comput - ers thereby making these principles available for field applications.
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Document ID: 301493C2

Diagnostic Measurements And Verification With Coriolis Mass Flowmeters
Author(s): Michael Keilty
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis mass flowmeters are high accurate and repeat- able electronic multivariable devices. The inherent design of the Coriolis flowmeter also incorporates internal mea- surements which can be used to diagnose the health of the flowmeter. Continuous monitoring of these diagnostic measures can verify the integrity of the flow and density measurements. Advanced diagnostics is now used in other regulatory applications where verification periods are described as part of the requirements
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Document ID: D57C7A6D

Practical Solution For Ultrasonic Flow Measurement In High Co 2 Natural Gas Applications
Author(s): Marcel Vermeulen Jan Drenthen Hilko Den Hollander
Abstract/Introduction:
Having it over the past decade established as one of the preferred measurements for high pressure natural gas, the application range of ultrasonic flow meters is also shifting towards the more difficult applications. One type of these applications is natural gas with a high content of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The concentration of CO 2 varies considerably over the various reservoirs. A few examples of this are shown in table 1
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Document ID: 63217B07

Recognition & Resolution Of Problems With G As Ultrasonic Flow Meters
Author(s): Jim Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline Operators have used Ultrasonic meters commer - cially for gas custody transfer applications since the late 90s. These meters combination of operating features, including superior rangeability and on-board diagnostics have made this the technology of choice for most high vol- ume gas metering applications. As user comfort with, and capabilities of, the technology has increased and the size and cost of ultrasonic meters has decreased, Operators and Manufacturers continue to stretch the envelope of ap- plication possibilities. This includes use in upstream, cor - rosive and high CO 2 applications, where the technology previously couldnt work or didnt make economic sense.
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Document ID: 953F448B

Understanding Hydrocarbon Dew Points In Natural G As Mixtures
Author(s): James N. W Itte,
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will present a discussion on the hydrocarbon dew point of a gas, and is intended as an introduction for operations technicians to the conditions that determine a hydrocarbon dew point value, operating concerns gener - ated when the hydrocarbon dew point is reached, and approaches to the management of gas quality to control hydrocarbon dew point in pipeline systems. The hydrocar - bon dew point is one of the most important parameters defining the quality of a natural gas mixture.
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Document ID: B33E00A3

Fundamentals Of Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Bonnie Crossland
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chromatography is one of the most widely used tech- niques for analyzing hydrocarbon mixtures. Some of the advantages of chromatography are the range of measure- ment (from ppm levels up to 100%), the detection of a wide range of components, and the repeatability of the measurements. Chromatography is used in the labora- tory, in permanently installed online systems, and in the field with portable systems. No matter the location, style or brand, all gas chromatographs are composed of the same functional components that are the sample handling sys- tem, the chromatograph oven, and the controller electron- ics (refer Figure 1)
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Document ID: 1880767E

Practical Considerations For Gas Sampling And Gas Sampling Systems
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to be able to take a representative sample of a hydrocarbon product is necessary to ensure proper ac- counting for transactions and efficient product processing. The various sampling methods that are available and the options and limitations of these methods are investigated the most appropriate equipment to use the reasons for its use and correct installation of the equipment are also addressed
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Document ID: BCE0A560

How Is Your G As Quality Applied?
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Every company involved in the natural gas industry must reckon with the issue of how to determine and apply gas quality throughout their measurement systems. Pro- duction, gathering, midstream, pipeline and distribution companies are all impacted in this area even though the metering conditions and gas flows swing significantly. The issue of accurate gas quality has an impact on reporting an accurate volume and energy to each customer, man- aging the unaccounted for (UAF) gas loss, determining potential operating condition impacts on the pipeline sys- tem, and the potential fugitive emissions.
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Document ID: 7DB5BF84

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement
Author(s): Pat Donnelly
Abstract/Introduction:
Samuel Clegg made the first practical gas meter in Eng- land in 1815. It was a water-sealed rotating drum meter that was improved in 1825 however, it was still very costly and very large. Thomas Glover developed the original diaphragm meter in England in 1843. It consisted of two diaphragms, sliding valves and linkage. T. S. Lacey patent- ed the pre-payment meter in 1870. The most significant change to diaphragm meters over the years has been in the materials of construction. Brass parts have been replaced by plastic, and leather diaphragms have been replaced with synthetic rubber
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Document ID: 4143E3CB

Understanding Gas Ultrasonic Meter DIAGNOSTICS-ADVANCED
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses advanced diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USMs), and how capabilities built into todays electronics can identify problems that may have gone undetected in the past. It primarily discusses fiscal- quality, multipath USMs and does not cover issues that may be different with non-fiscal meters as they are often single path designs. Although USMs basically work the same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in AGA 9 Ref 1. However, some provide more advanced features that can be used to help identify issues such as blocked flow conditioners, liquids, and gas compositional errors. This paper focuses on the Westinghouse and British Gas configurations (both being four-path chordal designs) and the information presented here may or may not be appli- cable to other path designs
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Document ID: EADC1967

Determination Of H 2 S & Total Sulfur In Na Tural Gas
Author(s): Byron L Arson
Abstract/Introduction:
In the natural gas industry, H 2 S and total sulfur are moni- tored to validate tariff limits or to ensure process specifica- tions are maintained at receipt, sales, and process con- trol points throughout the system. Typical measurement ranges are 0-20 ppm for H 2 S and 0-100 ppm for total sul- fur on transmission lines. Wellhead treating, particularly shale gas development has created the need to measure higher ranges of 1000 to 5000 ppm measurement at H 2 S treater skid inlet with a target treater outlet of 1 to 5 ppm.
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Document ID: 04F01596

Fiscal Imp Act Of Accurately Measuring Hydrocarbon Dew Point
Author(s): Jack Herring, Bob Kenney
Abstract/Introduction:
Measuring Hydrocarbon Dew Point (HCDP) accurately is critical to the profitability of producing/processing natural gas. End users want a quality product and when HCDP limits are written into the gas contract the producer/pro- cessors and pipeline operators each play a role in deliver - ing that quality product. Accurately measuring HCDP in order to satisfy t
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Document ID: 90CB66BC

Fundamentals Of Water V Apor Measurement In Natural Gas
Author(s): Ken Soleyn
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of moisture in natural gas is an impor - tant parameter for the processing, storage and transpor - tation of natural gas. Natural gas is dehydrated prior to introduction into the pipeline and distribution network. For interstate custody transfer of natural gas maximum allow - able levels are set by tariff, normally expressed in terms of absolute humidity in pounds per million cubic feet (lbs/ mmscf). The dew point temperature (C or F T d ) is of interest to insure that liquid water or ice does condense in the system
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Document ID: 64CEEE2E

Large Coriolis Meters And The Applicability Of W Ater Calibrations For G As Service
Author(s): Tonya Wyatt, Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
In the late 1970s, the first Coriolis mass flow meter was introduced. By the early 1980s, the use of Coriolis me- ters gained popularity for liquid applications, but few were used for gas applications. In the 1990s major design en- hancements were made to the technology improving its usability in gas applications. Driven by the need for a stan- dard industry practice to guide its use in gas applications, the American Gas Association (AGA) published the first edition of AGA Report Number 11, Measurement of Natu- ral Gas by Coriolis Meter in 2003. Today, with an installed population of over 100,000 Micro Motion Coriolis meters in gas applications and the 2013 publication of the second edition of AGA Report No. 11, many users are applying Coriolis meters in gas custody transfer applications
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Document ID: 1E45592E

From The Wellhead To The Burner Tip: A S Ystem Overview
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is presented at the Appalachian Gas Mea- surement Short Course - Fundamentals Section. The paper is designed for the first year student to understand the basic flow of natural gas and the terminology utilized from Production and Storage areas to end use by con- sumers. Specific focus is given to history of natural gas, gas transmission, city gate stations, and distribution sys- tems.
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Document ID: 27AF8DD9

High Volume Measurement Using Turbine Meters
Author(s): John A. Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
For over one hundred years the turbine meter has been servicing large volume applications of the natural gas market. During this time the turbine has continuously evolved into a device that offers the industry new and unique features. This paper will focus on the significant advancements of this technology as well as how they are applied in the field today.
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Document ID: 39E4C3C6

Electronic & Pneumatic Pressure And Flow Contro
Author(s): Bob Powell
Abstract/Introduction:
This class will highlight the various methods used to electronically adjust both pressure and flow rate. It will include motorized pilots, traditional kickcell applications, and electronic and pneumatic valve positioners. Flow computers which monitor flow and pressure act as the brain of these systems and either through the output of a 4-20mA signal or a contact closure adjustments can be attained. 4-20mA loops are controlled via proportional,
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Document ID: CE3E58D4

Pressure Re Gulation & Principles Of Pilot Operated Regulators
Author(s): Bryan Vranek
Abstract/Introduction:
This class will consist of a presentation about pressure regulation including the types of pressure regulators (PRV and BPV), a brief overview of self-operated regulators, but will mainly be focusing on pilot operated regulators. For the pilot operated regulators, we will discuss the principles of operation, the components of a typical pilot operated regulator, the different types of regulators (unloading and loading style), and the advantages of using pilot operated under certain conditions.
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Document ID: 5EE462F4

Overpressure Protection Basics
Author(s): Dennis Landrum
Abstract/Introduction:
The goal of this course is an introduction to various types of Overpressure Control Devices and Schemes. The dis- cussion will include Operation and Advantages/Disadvan- tages of each method. PurPosE oF oVErPrEssurE ProtEction To maintain the pressure downstream of a regulator to a safe, maximum value maximum PrEssurE considErations 1. Downstream equipment 2. Low pressure side of main regulator 3. Pipeline
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Document ID: 5AE7E54D

Flow Calibrating High Volume Ultrasonic Flowmeters- Considerations And Benefits
Author(s): Joel Clancey
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary method for custody transfer measurement has traditionally been orifice metering. While this method has been a good form of measurement, technology has driven the demand for a new, more effective form of fiscal measurement. Ultrasonic flowmeters have gained popu- larity in recent years and have become the standard for large volume custody transfer applications for a variety of reasons. Most users require flow calibrations to improve meter performance and overall measurement uncertainty. The latest revision of AGA Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters, Second Addition Ref 1, now requires flow calibration for ultrasonic flow meters when being used for custody transfer applications.
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Document ID: F06E39F0

Fundamentals Of District Re Gulator Station Design
Author(s): James P. Davis Scott A. Laplante
Abstract/Introduction:
Eversource is a local distribution company serving 600,000 customers in Connecticut and Massachusetts. The company has been serving customers as a LDC since the mid 1800s. Eversources service territory is urban where district regulating facilities are usually bur - ied in sidewalks and relief vents are not embraced as an overpressure protection method. District regulators are typically permitted to reside within town sidewalks by a street opening permit or grant of location process
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Document ID: E6814D39

Gate Station Design
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
The City Gate station is one of the more complex designs a natural gas engineer will deal with in the course of a ca- reer. Like all projects, a properly designed and constructed gate station begins with good preliminary engineering. In preliminary engineering, all of the major project goals and hurdles are defined. If the preliminary engineering docu- ment is written properly, it will serve as the backbone for the entire project.
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Document ID: 577446BF

Understanding Remote Controlled Control Val Ves And Automated Val Ves From The Scada Control Room To The Field Device
Author(s): Raymond J. Schnebelen
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays modern natural gas infrastructure requires the need for natural gas utilities and pipelines to remotely con- trol flow and pressure through control valves, regulators and actuated block valves to properly and safely control the gas flow to critical systems. For those new to the gas industry, much of this technology may seem overwhelming, and difficult to understand how commands from a gas control center are transferred to the field devices, and signals from end devices are relayed back to the control center
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Document ID: 3B245CFD

Basic Application Of Flow Computers And Telemetry Systems
Author(s): Jim Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to the evolution of flow computers being commonly used in the measurement of hydrocarbons, most telem- etry systems were used to collect control information and real time data and provide control commands to a Remote Terminal Unit at major pump and compressor stations. Most of the local metering was being handled by chart recorders and local data collection by operations. These charts and reports were sent to a central facility where the information was used to provide custody transfer reports and or operations reports
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Document ID: 8FA10484

Real Time Applications For Electronic Flow Computers
Author(s): Jim Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years now, flow computers have been imple- mented in gas measurement systems to utilize technol- ogy, to improve measurement accuracy, provide far more efficient data acquisition and provide better control re- sources for remote interface through telemetry
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Document ID: FDBC9EE0

Fundamentals Of Pressure Control
Author(s): Paul R. Seking
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure control is the fundamental operation of all natu- ral gas delivery systems. It provides a safe and reliable energy source for manufacturing and heating systems throughout the world. Pressure control is utilized to bal- ance the system supply demands with safe delivery pressures. Pressure control is used in all phases of the delivery sys- tem as follows:
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Document ID: 2AFA4F84

Basics Of Using Modb Us Rtu In Monitoring And Control Production
Author(s): Ed Smigo
Abstract/Introduction:
MODBUS is a common industrial Communication proto - col that has been around for decades. It is widely avail- able either as a standard or option in industrial control and monitoring equipment and can be easily utilized. While it is simple, it is slow in comparison to some of todays available networking architecture, but has been so widely adopted because that simplicity
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Document ID: 00DC0F00

Over View Of Level Measurement Technologies
Author(s): George F. Poole
Abstract/Introduction:
In consideration of the importance of selecting the right technology for good level measurement, Magnetrol would like to present an Overview of Level Measurement Tech - nologies (for point level and continuous level measure- ment). We provide something similar, but more specific to our products for Magnetrols customers. We would expand this topic and make it generic by including more technologies than just what Magnetrol offers. Here is our outline
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Document ID: 70CCE5C7

Guided Wa Ve Radar Level Measurement
Author(s): George F. Poole
Abstract/Introduction:
269 Guided Wave Radar (GWR) technology is often the level measurement problem solver and certainly the premier level technology solution. GWR has significant advantag- es vs. all other level technologies. Magnetrol pioneered the GWR technology for level measurement 15 years ago and now has over 100,000 installed units around the world, many in oil & gas related applications.
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Document ID: 573642D2

Wireless Hart Solutions In Oil And G As Production
Author(s): Joe Cipriani
Abstract/Introduction:
Wireless HART is a global IEC-approved standard (IEC 62591) that specifies an interoperable self-organizing mesh technology in which field devices form wireless net- works that dynamically mitigate obstacles in the process plant or well pad environment. This architecture creates a cost-effective automation alternative that does not require wiring and other supporting infrastructure.
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Document ID: DDA6168C

The Challenges Of Liq Uid Hydrocarbon Flow Measurement
Author(s): John J. Culp
Abstract/Introduction:
The Oil and Gas industry (buyers and sellers) have agreed for nearly 100 years that the market value of liquid hydrocarbons should be based on the volume of the product at standard conditions. Standard conditions being defined as Standard Conditions - Where the pressure is 14.696 psia (101.325 kPa) (One standard atmosphere) and the temperature is 60.0F (15.56C). In some regions of the world the base temperature used is 20.0C, 15.0C or some other agreed to temperature
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Document ID: D30DB590

Basic Gas And Instrumentation For Gas Detection
Author(s): George Lomax Eric Six
Abstract/Introduction:
In this class we will review what we need to know about how natural gas, and other gases, works in order to bet- ter understand how to detect leakage and unintended releases. We will then look at the operation, maintenance and cali- bration of the instrumentation available for gas detection. The class will conclude with a demonstration of the Explo - sion Chamber.
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Document ID: 8D272775

Network Analysis - P Art 1 Gas Flow Eq Uation Fundamentals
Author(s): Tim Bickford
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past 25 years engineers in the natural gas in- dustry have come to depend on the computer as a tool to perform complex hydraulic network analysis. Analysis, which would take weeks to perform by hand or by punch- card machines 30 years ago, can now be accomplished in mere hours or sometimes seconds. Today gas net- work analysis software, though complex and extremely sophisticated, has become very user friendly. Low cost PCs, inexpensive software and flexible software licensing now make it possible for almost anyone to have access to these powerful engineering tools. Today, more and more non-technical persons are using this cutting edge tech- nology to perform analyses that were once performed by specialists
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Document ID: 0417226F

Corrosion Control Considerations For m&r Stations
Author(s): John Otto
Abstract/Introduction:
what is corrosion? nacE international The deterioration of a material, usually a metal, that re- sults from a reaction with its environment. what is necessary for corrosion to occur Anode Cathode Electrolyte Metallic Path Note - Current flow must occur between the Anode and Cathode
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Document ID: DD34E4A5

Ad Vances In Hydrocarbon Dewpoint Monitoring Theory And Practice
Author(s): Sohrab Zarrabian
Abstract/Introduction:
402 Monitoring the hydrocarbon dewpoint of natural gas is becoming ever more important. We have collected more than 20 years worth of data from our customers who use our analyzers in a few different countries with different cli- mates. We have analyzed this data to look for trends and other information that may be useful to the industry
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Document ID: B7F20201

Scada Communications For The G As Industry
Author(s): Joseph A. Furjanic
Abstract/Introduction:
With the growth in the Natural Gas Industry, the need for ever increasing information from the field is going to force us, as an industry to re-evaluate how we communicate with equipment at remote sites. For the next hour, we will look at some of the options available and discuss the ad- vantages and disadvantages of them. Communications links can be broken down into two general categories: LEASED FACILITIES and OWNED FACILITIES. Most systems that need to cover a large geographic area may require a combination of the two to achieve the optimum communications efficiency
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Document ID: CBC52FEC

scada/m2m Satellite For Dummies
Author(s): Chuck H. Moseley
Abstract/Introduction:
satellIte networks Major components and knowing what the differences are makeuP oF a s atellIte network 3 major components Space segment - wireless portion of satellite network LEO or GEO is most common. Speeds may be an option also bi-directional? Ground segment - sends/receives signal from satellite and switches it to PSTN, Internet or private network User Terminals - Device used on the ground to connect to the satellite network. Can be receive only or transmit only, or both. May be mobile or fixed. May be a large antenna, or dish or a very small devices
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Document ID: 655D22CF

Understanding oPc-oPen Connectivity Via Open Standards: The Opc Foundation
Author(s): Russel W. Treat, Tony Paine
Abstract/Introduction:
In the mid-1990s, a group of vendors convened to address the growing concern regarding connectivity to the plant floor-referred to as the Device Driver Problem. At that time, HMI and SCADA vendors were responsible for building their own driver libraries. This approach created great solutions when it all the connectivity requirements were provided by a single vendor. However, often when multiple vendors were involved, solutions were incomplete or unreliable across vendors. The vendors were faced with a decision: they either needed to invest resources to de- velop application-level functionality or extend connectivity
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Document ID: 0F7CDA6E

Wireless Sensor Networks: Applications In Oil & Gas
Author(s): Brent E. Mcadams
Abstract/Introduction:
n 19991 1 and refers to uniquely identifiable assets and their organizational internet-like structure. These assets can be anything but in the industrial automation world, it is specific to wireless sensors. While IoT does not define communication platforms or topologies, wireless sensor network communications architecture implementations allow for the proliferation of the technology across all mar - kets and applications
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Document ID: 0F56F775

A Re Gulator Station Design For Natural Gas Pressure Control To Simple Cycle And Combined Cycle Comb Ustion Turbine Engine Power Plants
Author(s): Jim Green
Abstract/Introduction:
Regulator stations providing pressure control to large power plants have always presented unique des i gn chal- lenges that differ from standard pipeline pressure control application s . A large combustion turbine power plant load with little buffering between the regulators and the turbine engines requires a different approach to station design. The design approach becomes even more complicated if the power plant also h a s additional, low flow, auxiliary equipment such as duct burners, waste heat recovery boilers, building heaters, etc
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Document ID: 48B87F28

Project Management Fundamentals
Author(s): John Jay Gamble, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
what is a Project? A temporary , non-routine endeavor to create a unique prod- uct or service limited by time, budget, and specifications. how does it differ from operations? Operations are on-going , permanent , and repetitive . The purpose of operations is to sustain or maintain the business
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Document ID: 325BFA04

Benefits Around Timel Y Anal Ysis Of Measurement D Ata
Author(s): Bruce Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
Verifying measurement data can be challenging. Challenges include processing an overwhelming amount of data, choosing meaningful data types and validation criteria, and validating the data in a timely manner. Failure to meet these challenges can lead to undesired outcomes such as inaccurate measurement results, prior period adjustments in accounting and increased costs
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Document ID: CFE67B5A

Well Site Safety
Author(s): Brandon Bajek
Abstract/Introduction:
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) identified exposure to airborne silica as a health hazard to workers conducting some fracking operations during recent field studies Crystalline silica is a common mineral found in the earths crust. It occurs primarily as quartz and is a major compo- nent of the sand, clay and stone materials used to make every day products such as concrete, brick and glass
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Document ID: DE3F42CE

Experiences In Shale Play Measurement
Author(s): Buzz Knape
Abstract/Introduction:
As with all production gas measurement, the gas being produced in the various shale plays has its own version of measurement issues. While some of the issues fall more in line with historical production measurement and general industry measurement issues, some of the is- sues seen on a day to day basis are unique to shale play measurement
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Document ID: 81E57FA2

scada-PuttIng The P Arts Together
Author(s): Steve Hill
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary role of SCADA & Automation is the monitor - ing and control of remote plant and equipment. These functions should always be considered first when design- ing SCADA software or implementing a SCADA system. However, the data collected by most SCADA systems is often extremely valuable beyond immediate operational requirements. This is clearly the case for Oil & Gas fiscal measurement data, where SCADA can be seen as the cash register for the enterprise. Other data can prove valuable, especially when transferred into other business systems for analysis and distribution. Data can become a strategic tool, used for long term planning and manage- ment of the business
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Document ID: 492C8E39

Radio Path Studies 101
Author(s): Dan Steele
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of path studies both physical and use of comput- er-generated software to predict radio frequency (RF) path studies has been around for several years. If you combine the field work with the latest GPS and Google map data you can determine how well your network might work, ac- tual terrain between links, its RF path link reliability, link budgets, Fresnel zones, multi-path and if you may need to invest in different towers, use of more repeaters or add ad- ditional technologies to cover the area you need for com- munication.
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Document ID: E42523FF

Self-Operated Regulator Basics
Author(s): Trent Decker Steve Ludtman
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accus- tomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a ten- dency to take them for granted. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application that we need to look more deeply into the fun- damental of the regulators operation
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Document ID: F7FD6145

Remote Monitoring And Control - Imp Act Of Ev Ol Ving Communication Technologies And Protocols
Author(s): Vishal Prakash
Abstract/Introduction:
434 Monitoring of remote assets has been in practice since the 19th century. Since then, there has been many quan- tum changes including the type of assets that are being monitored, remote control of instruments and processes, type of media and the protocols used. There is a plethora of information available on the World Wide Web that docu- ments and explains these changes, in detail, including a number of white papers.
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Document ID: B41DB189

The Economic Ad Vantages Of Using Modern Wireless Communications In Upstream Oil And Gas Operations
Author(s): Bill Keever
Abstract/Introduction:
When upstream oil and gas producers consider the es- sential components they need for drilling, completing and automating wells, communications technology is often an afterthought. This oversight has a serious negative impact on the economics of upstream operations. With todays volatile market, more emphasis is being placed on hyper-efficient well completion and full automa- tion. This story is quite common within the industry: drilling crew arrives at the pad site and begins the exploration process.
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Document ID: 5FC831F1

The Basics Of Pickling A New Natural G As Pipeline
Author(s): Shawn Jennings
Abstract/Introduction:
So, why do we odorize natural gas? Most natural gas is an odorless and colorless flam - mable gas Odorant is added to establish pungent odor of natural gas When odorized, undesirable or accidental fugitive natu - ral gas will have strong odor (very distinctive and un- pleasant odor) that will be easily detected by human Ensure safe transport and delivery of natural gas. Odor - ants ensure that the public will detect fugitive natural gas. Eliminate/reduce property damage To ensure complete public safety
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Document ID: FB29E5A1

Fundamentals Of Odorization
Author(s): Ed Flynn
Abstract/Introduction:
The practice of odorization of gas is relatively a simple operation, however, the detection of gas by means of odor is quite complex. Over the years a great deal of work has been done by the industry to improve the excel- lent record of safety. During the era of manufactured gas most of the pro- cessed gas possessed a readily detectable gassy odor. The discoveries of odorless natural gas expanded the need for a satisfactory odorant agent. Natural Gas was introduced to the Northeast in the 1950s, and the odor - ization issue became critical.
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Document ID: 3041F4CD

Odorant Spills: Prevention And First Response
Author(s): Juraj Strmen, John Beighle
Abstract/Introduction:
1. Station shutdown - business disruption 2. Public at risk - negative perception 3. High environmental cleanup costs Sources of odor leaks and spills Storage/burial of contaminated material Equipment malfunction (leaky gaskets, seals, corrosion...) Decommissioning of odorization stations Odorant transfers, filtration, transport of odorization equipment Maintenance of odorization systems Natural disasters (hur - ricanes, floods) Operator error Construction projects involving odorization equipment
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Document ID: DE69EF60

Gas Odorants - S Afe Handling, Health, And Environment
Author(s): Daniel E. Arrieta, David C. Miller, Eric Van Tol,
Abstract/Introduction:
Thiols (i.e. mercaptans), sulfides, and tetrahydrothiophene (THT) have been widely used in the odorization of natural and liquefied petroleum gas due to the fact that natural gas does not possess an odor. Mercaptans, for example, have proven to be very effective in odorizing because of their low odor threshold and therefore, immediate impact on the olfactory system (Roberts, 1993).
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Document ID: 4D883DEB

Decommissioning Of Obsolete Odorization Eq Uipment
Author(s): Juraj Strmen Wesley Lucas
Abstract/Introduction:
why decommIssIon and dIsPose? Natural Gas industry is a fast growing segment of our en- ergy industry and there is a need to keep the operations safe and environmentally friendly. Obsolete odorization equipment needs to be removed and disposed of in an environmentally sound and odor-free manner in order to avoid business disruption or potential liquid/vapor odorant leaks from obsolete equipment
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Document ID: 513559F0

Natural G As Odor Level Testing Programs
Author(s): Mark E. Gunsalus
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas odor level testing programs are an important part of delivering safe and reliable natural gas. We will review olfactory biology basics, regulations, odor fade, program development, program execution and training. As an operator and Director for 28 years responsible for this process, we have developed and refined processes and procedures that ensure proper odor levels and iden- tify deficiencies so they can be quickly rectified
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Document ID: A4A6650F

Effects And Control Of Puls Ation In Ga S Mea Surement
Author(s): Michael Royce Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulsation created by compressors, flow control valves, regulators and some piping configurations are known to cause significant errors in gas measurement. In recent years the Pipeline-and Compressor Research Council (PCRC) now know as (GMRC) Gas Machinery Research Council, a subsidiary of the Southern Gas As- sociation, commissioned and funded various pulsation re- search projects at Southwest Research Institute (SWRI) in San Antonio, Texas
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Document ID: 185529AA

Marcellus Shale Measurement
Author(s): Drew Willard
Abstract/Introduction:
The development of the Marcellus Shale play has gener - ated a significant increase in the need for an expanded gas takeaway system. As the pipeline system continues to expand, so does the need for custody transfer mea- surement stations. This significant increase in demand is impacting station design parameters and the means by which they are constructed. This paper is intended to ex - plore the current trends and challenges associated with the Marcellus development, review how those trends have affected station design and investigate potential future trends that may impact future station design
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Document ID: A61F8833

Basic Principles Of Pilot Operated Flexible Element Regulators
Author(s): Michael Garvey Carol Nolte
Abstract/Introduction:
Pilot Operated Flexible Element Regulators are capable of providing very accurate control in natural gas trans- mission and distribution pipelines. The Pilot Operated Regulator provides advantages over both self-operated regulators and control valves. Primary benefits include simplicity of operation and elimination of any fugitive emissions caused by atmospheric bleed gas. However, it is important to recognize the limitations of the pilot operated flexible element regulator and apply it accord- ingly.
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Document ID: D827D620

Marcellus Shale Measurement
Author(s): Drew Willard
Abstract/Introduction:
The development of the Marcellus Shale play has gener - ated a significant increase in the need for an expanded gas takeaway system. As the pipeline system continues to expand, so does the need for custody transfer mea- surement stations. This significant increase in demand is impacting station design parameters and the means by which they are constructed. This paper is intended to ex - plore the current trends and challenges associated with the Marcellus development, review how those trends have affected station design and investigate potential future trends that may impact future station design
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Document ID: E01CFCCA

LNG S Ampling S Ystems, Techniques, Dos & Donts With Indus Try O Verview Of LNG Flo W Lab And LNG Indus Try
Author(s): Ken Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
Sampling and transportation of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) has increased as this has become a Global Market with many new liquefaction plants, export and import ter - minals that have been built to date and more under con- struction or in the planning stages due to the increase in world demand of LNG. This demand has increased due to LNG being considered by many countries as the fuel of choice based on its safe properties, availability, cost, cleanness and ease of transportation. With the increase of liquefaction, storage, blending and transportation so has the need increased for Analytically Accurate measure- ment of the LNG in the realm of custody transfer.
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Document ID: DF9523C0

Gas Ultra Sonic Station Success Through Controlling Ins Tallation Conditions
Author(s): Charles W. Derr
Abstract/Introduction:
Field Multi-Path Gas Ultrasonic Meter (Gusm) installa- tions may require pipe inlet bends, tees, headers, clea- nouts, etc. that can create significant flow disturbances for meter inlets. Knowing the magnitude of installation error or shift that may occur for different piping-to-meter inlet configurations and relying on the Law of Similarity in physics may help to find appropriate piping configu- rations and determine when to calibrate with these end treatments in place at the Cal Lab is very important for proper field results
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Document ID: F8DD5A17

Ultra Sonic Ga S Leak Detection, Current And Future
Author(s): Earl Morris
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the late 1990s ultrasonic gas leak detection has emerged as a powerful method for detecting gas. 1, 2 . The techniques operating principle is that jetting gas from a high pressure vessel or other pressurized system gener - ates ultrasound, providing a measure of the mass flow rate. Principal advantages of the technology are its fast speed of response, relatively large area of coverage per device, and detection effectiveness in open, well ventilated areas. Sev - eral models are equipped with an acoustic integrity check for fail safe operation. Such advantages and the ultrasonic gas leak detectors simplicity of operation have contributed to the technologys widespread use. By recent estimates there are approximately 4,000 installed devices worldwide.
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Document ID: 93344B50

Mitig Ating Los T And Unaccounted-For G As
Author(s): Duane Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
495 IntroductIon In light of volatile prices, the industry has assumed an every drop counts approach to running the business. In this environment, issues such unaccounted-for (UAF) gas, with which every operation has dealt before, find themselves under new scrutiny. Production, gathering, midstream, pipeline and distribu- tion companies are all responsible for managing UAF. Long gone are the days when the cost and impact of UAF was passed directly to the customer with virtually no re- quirements for managing and reducing costs associated with the loss
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Document ID: C9758CF7

Sampling Challenges Associated With Unconventional Gas Sources
Author(s): Mark Firmin
Abstract/Introduction:
Advances in exploration, drilling and production technolo- gies make it feasible to extract natural gas from sources that in the past have been regarded as unconventional and so, such sources are becoming a larger percentage of the gas supply. The feasibility of producing gas from a source is the primary factor in determining whether that source should be categorized as conventional or uncon- ventional. What has been unconventional in the past may be considered conventional in the future
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Document ID: 1140C4E6

Natural Ga S Liquid Mea Surement-Direct & Inferred Ma Ss
Author(s): Dean Minehart
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) streams consist of mixtures of hydrocarbons including ethane, propane, butane, pen- tane and natural gasoline. NGL is sometimes referred to as y-grade. The American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) Chapter 14 Section 7 provides guidance on the mass measurement of NGL. Mass measurement techniques are applied to NGL measurement due to solution mixing of a variable fluid composition within the NGL stream
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Document ID: 3D02475F

Provers For Mea Surement Verification
Author(s): Greg Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
This document will provide the reader an understanding of what a prover is, the need for proving meters for accurate measurement verification, the equipment deemed ac- ceptable and available for use in the oil and liquefied gas market. It will also define the general terminology used in the industry, general operational aspects for verification devices, and general information utilized by the groups and agencies that govern the meter verification process
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Document ID: 6A062B9C

Wet Gas Defined
Author(s): Jim Reinmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Wet Ga S - deFIned Natural Gas drilling activity into Ohios Point Pleasant and Utica Shale formations has unearthed a prized commod- ity know as Wet Gas. These two formations, and others like them across the nation, have attracted Producers and Midstream operators to garner this value-added Wet Gas product. Improved exploration and drilling techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, continue to reveal new Wet Gas shale opportunities, and challenges, around the world.
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Document ID: 34E875BF

Overview Of An App Alachian Shale Ga S Processing Plant
Author(s): Ryan Savage Jim Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this class is to provide an overview of a typical northeast Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) processing plant. The Marcellus and Utica Shale play in the Appala- chian Basin area has brought the need for new substruc- ture, compressor stations, facilities and processing plants. The natural gas production in Appalachia has historically been lower pressure Devonian gas which is considered dry when compared to the rich Shale gas. The terms dry, wet, lean and rich are industry terms for describ- ing the physical state and composition of the gas as it is produced from the earth.
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Document ID: 44DA56E0

Fundamentals Of Control Valves And Pneumatic Controllers
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry utilizes two devices to reduce gas pressure and control gas flow. The first is the regula- tor and the second is a control valve. The control valve is utilized for high volumes and it can perform flow control as will as pressure control. This paper will provide the funda- mentals of control valve types, sizes, and the controllers that are utilized to operate the control valves. We will also investigate the differences between the regulator and the control valve and the advantages and disadvantages of each
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Document ID: 745A4571

Overview Of An App Alachian Shale Ga S Processing Plant
Author(s): Ryan Savage Jim Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this class is to provide an overview of a typical northeast Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) processing plant. The Marcellus and Utica Shale play in the Appala- chian Basin area has brought the need for new substruc- ture, compressor stations, facilities and processing plants. The natural gas production in Appalachia has historically been lower pressure Devonian gas which is considered dry when compared to the rich Shale gas. The terms dry, wet, lean and rich are industry terms for describ- ing the physical state and composition of the gas as it is produced from the earth. The term dry gas or lean gas refers to natural gas that has a BTU value range of ap- proximately 900 to 1100.
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Document ID: 960559A2

Wet Gas Test Comparative Results: Orifice Vs. Usm
Author(s): John Lansing, Toralf Dietz, Dr. Richard Steven, Jim Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
The CEESI Nunn Wet Gas facility consists of a closed- loop test stand with up to 650 horsepower that permits flow rates from about 83 to 620 ACMH. This corresponds to 3 to 23 m/s in 4-inch Schedule 80 piping. Pressures can range from 1,380 kPa up to 7,500 kPa (13.8 Bar - 75 Bar). Gas flow is measured using a calibrated 6-inch turbine meter, and the injected liquid is measured using one of 2 different Coriolis meters (1/2 and 2 sizes). The liquid typically used is Exxsol D80, but water, or a mixture of both can also be used
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Document ID: 6626F7B2

Safe Handling And Operation Of Liquid Products
Author(s): John V. Jay() Bailey Kolt Decker
Abstract/Introduction:
In our industry Liquid Products are becoming more and more valuable. As an industry we are converting our gas- es to liquids for a multitude of reasons. These reasons in- clude easier transportation, easier means of storage, and more efficient operations. So with these practices comes a different role of responsibility. Different safety measures must be taken when operating handling these liquids. When the correct steps are preformed, this makes for a much more efficient and safe operation.
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Document ID: 8AF2168B

Multiphase Flow Measurement
Author(s): Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of unprocessed hydrocarbon flows is becoming more prevalent in the hydrocarbon production industry. Multiphase meters are now often integral in the design plans for new developments. However, the phrase multi-phase flow covers a huge range of flow conditions and metering these varied flows has proven a major chal- lenge to engineers. Furthermore, due to the relatively re- cent arrival of these technologies on the market, and, the relatively complex and proprietary nature of the products leading to the finer details of operation not being divulged, there is often a lack of technical understanding amongst the multiphase meter users
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Document ID: 618253ED

Proper Sampling Procedures Ngl And Rich Ga S
Author(s): Jason Rine
Abstract/Introduction:
collectInG ProPer S aMPleS Analytical Parameters Sample Location Sample Collection Methods Sample Containers Sample Collection Material Safety
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Document ID: B59764D3


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