Measurement Library

Canadian School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (2016)

Canadian School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Machine Learning Algorithms For Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics
Author(s): Joel Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Statistical algorithms Pattern recognition Make generalizations about training data Make predictions about testing data
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Document ID: 4A1AA159

Ma Chine Learning Algorithms For Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics
Author(s): Joel Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Machine learning algorithms (MLAs) are statistical models that make generalizations about training data in order to properly classify future, unknown data. MLAs can be super vised (given labelled training data), semi-super vised (given some labelled data and a lot of unlabelled data), or unsupervised (given only unlabelled data). There are a huge number of practical applications for these algorithms including Internet search engines, voice recognition, robot vision, stock market analysis, and cancer screening, among many others.
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Document ID: 10D7B66A

Inventory Management Solutions
Abstract/Introduction:
The Value of Inventory Management Solutions API 3.1B - Appendix B From level to volume to cash! International trade of hydrocarbons
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Document ID: 3506C27B

Accuracy And Uncertainty In A Measurement System
Author(s): Bill Cheung
Abstract/Introduction:
Identifies the uncertainty (accuracy) requirements for measured and reported production volumes
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Document ID: ADBFFCE1

Update On SK Implementation Of EPAP And Measurement & Reporting
Author(s): Blake Linke
Abstract/Introduction:
Regulatory Priorities Benefits for Industry Past Audit Results (2013 & 2014) Steps to Improving Measurement in SK Directive PNG017 Directive PNG076 Guideline PNG028 Implementation Timing & Considerations Stakeholder Engagement Questions
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Document ID: 334A55F3

Greenhouse Gas Regulations In Canada: Offsets And Measurement
Author(s): Kelly Parker Mark Menezes
Abstract/Introduction:
Carbon Project Investment, Development, Marketing Leader in carbon project finance, development, marketing since 2001 100M t portfolio, 25M t sold to date All key regulatory/voluntary registries (Alberta, CAR, VCS, ACR, CSA) Market presence: 20% of all Alberta offsets annually and 25% in California/Quebec market to date Advisory Services Technical services including emission reduction quantification and valuation Protocol development: methodologies for over 25 project types Facility GHG/emission reporting CCEMC and other funding/grant applications Corporate carbon mitigation and offset strategies & plans
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Document ID: 72CCD63E

Measuring Carbon Emission Reductions In Alberta
Author(s): Kelly Parker, Mark Menezes
Abstract/Introduction:
Carbon trading, credits and offsets have featured prominently in the news, in Alberta and at the Canadian federal level, over the past year. This paper provides guidance to the User in the Alberta hydrocarbon industries-how have regulations changed, how will they continue to change, and what must Users do to comply. In addition to mandating compliance, the new regulations present new opportunities. Measurement projects, if properly executed and documented, can now attract additional carbon return, in addition to the usual efficiency/safety/productivity benefits used to justify such investment. While Alberta and Canadian federal regulations are new or emerging, Users in Alberta can learn from other jurisdictions in Canada, USA or Europe, which have mature carbon trading environments. Case Studies from other jurisdictions are presented, with the expectation that Users in Alberta will soon be able to apply the same methodologies to achieve similar benefits.
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Document ID: 43D38963

End-To-End Flow Computer Considerations
Author(s): John-Michael Carolan, Noman Rasool
Abstract/Introduction:
While projects usually have a clear distinction between development phases (design and build), and the operations and maintenance phases, the best executed systems occur when operator long-term operations and maintenance needs are considered at the design phase of the product and project, as making changes afterwards is expensive. In addition, a thoughtful approach better ensures that the design supports the upgrading of the system over time to allow for easily executed continuous improvements and modernization. This presentation summarizes leading practices in flow computer product design and project delivery, and reviews a 10 year life cycle from smooth installation, reliable operation, to effective upgrade.
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Document ID: 898B6E29

How And Why Of Intelligent Transmitter Verification
Abstract/Introduction:
The recommended practice is made up of two parts: -Installation, -Verification. By implementing separate installation and verification procedures the user is able to: -Retain the factory calibration accuracy, -To leverage the demonstrated stability of current intelligent transmitter technology.
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Document ID: 36ABBA4F

Custody Transfer Independent Of Reynolds Number
Author(s): Peter Kucmas
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow meters used in custody transfer applications are calibrated prior to their final installation on site to determine their performance characteristics. For this purposes dedicated and approved calibration facilities are utilized like NMi, Trapil, SPSE and in future Euroloop. These facilities are originally designed for traditional measurement principles like PD and turbine meters, specifically related to the maximum flow rate. As a result the maximum flow rate which can be covered is 300 0 m3/hr. New technologies like ultrasonic flow meters are available in bigger diameters up to 36 and consequently are suitable to be used on flow rates up to 7000 m3/hr and in some cases even higher. As a result the above mentioned calibration facilities are not suitable to be used for the high flow rates specified.
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Document ID: 9D3AD790

Custody Transfer Independent Of Reynolds Number
Abstract/Introduction:
Measuring principle: Ultrasonic Flowrate measurement Typical path configurations Flow regimes
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Document ID: 614B9C26

Fundamental Principles Of NIR And Capacitive Technologies For Water Cut Measurement
Author(s): Tim Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will review the fundamental principles of NIR (Absorption Spectroscopy) and Capacitive technologies when used for the purpose of water-cut measurement. It will provide insight into the differences between the technologies and help demonstrate the applications and where they are applicable for maximum accuracy and best performance. The success of field/plant management depends on the accuracy and availability of well and plant performance data. Determination of water and sediment content is required to measure accurately net volumes of actual oil in sales, taxation, exchanges, production allocation and custody transfer. Continuous water-cut monitoring provides information so that action can be taken to better manage well assets by maintaining well potential, managing water conformance and increasing the well life. Accurate water-cut monitoring can also significantly increase the performance of separation units, and provide an increased confidence in plant operating environments.
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Document ID: 5FA4CC42

Measurement Automation Key In Optimizing Performance
Author(s): Duane Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Current Business Climate Well Production Depletion System Balance Process Recalculation & Data Edits
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Document ID: DE697F88

Estimating Gas Ultrasonic Meter Field Error Using Diagnostics
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: F593E8F0

NIR & Capacitive Technologies For Water Cut Measurement
Abstract/Introduction:
Fundamental Principles of NIR and Capacitive Technology for Water Cut Measurement Accuracy Attainability and Application Review Design/Implementation/Engineering Considerations for Installation Calibration Requirement-sampling techniques-verification and review of Calibration Reports
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Document ID: 3B2F105A

Estimating Gas Ultrasonic Meter Field Error
Author(s): Randy Miller Ed Hanks John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
For nearly a decade the North American Fluid Flow Measurement Council (NAFFMC) has investigated a variety of ultrasonic meter effects on both low and high-pressure ultrasonic meters. This research has studied effects ranging from header designs, various meter tube end-treatments, and inline filters. While this paper examines some of the history behind the NAFFMC research, much of this papers focus will encompass examinations into the use of an ultrasonic meters diagnostics to determine the health and uncertainty of the meter.
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Document ID: 3AB2D900

Liquid Hydrocarbons: Properties And Analyses
Author(s): Nathan Scott, P.Chem
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid hydrocarbons under reservoir conditions have both gas and liquid species present and full accounting and analysis of all components can take a variety of techniques in both the sampling and analysis of the product. The difficulties associated with both the sampling and analysis of the hydrocarbon liquids, specifically lighter condensates and NGLs, originates from the volatility of the compounds and the pressure that must be maintained during their collection and use within the lab. Many clever techniques have been developed to accomplish this goal and can range from using simple displacement mediums during collection to using precisely controlled temperatures and pressures to accurately and quantitatively separate gases from liquids for measurement purposes.
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Document ID: 763812DA

Calculation Methodologies And Financial/GH G Impact Considerations For The Estimation And Reporting Of Unmetered Fuel, Flared And Vented Volumes From Oil And Gas Operations
Author(s): Ted Hart
Abstract/Introduction:
Here is increased scrutiny being given by provincial regulators to ensure that oil and gas companies have the necessary systems and processes in place to accurately measure and report volumetric production data from their operations. This includes increased rigor in how unmetered fuel consumption, flared and vented volumes (FF V) of natural gas are estimated and reported to government agencies. Historically, sources of unmetered fuel, flared and vented gas have not gained much attention since, individually, the volumes are deemed to small and of not much concern. While this is true on an individual component or event basis, it takes on a different perspective when one considers the cumulative impact of literally hundreds of thousands of emission points within the oil and gas industry. According to the Alberta government oil and gas statistics there are over 200,000 oil and gas wells in production and over 10,000 new wells being drilled each year in Alberta alone. There are also close to 30,000 active facility licenses being maintained by the Alberta Energy Regulator (AER)
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Document ID: E4DA865E

Large Demo - Pipe Prover
Author(s): Brett Gray
Abstract/Introduction:
WYOMING METER PROVING SERVICE BEGAN OPERATING IN 1980, AND HAS GROWN TO BECOME ONE OF CANADAS LARGEST PIPE PROVING FLEETS AND LIQUID CALIBRATION SERVICE PROVIDERS. CONVENTIONAL BI-DIRECTIONAL PIPE PROVERS HAVE BEEN IN USE SINCE THE 1950s AND ARE VERY COMMON IN TODAYS OIL INDUSTRY.
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Document ID: A024E6A1

Design, Operation & Maintenance Of L.A.C.T. Units
Author(s): Bob Petty
Abstract/Introduction:
The two most common methods of measuring the volume of petroleum liquids are tank gauging and liquid metering. The problems associated with tank gauging are (1) it requires that an operator make an accurate liquid level determination by climbing to the top of the tank to be gauged, (2) that an operator make an accurate average liquid temperature determination, (3) that an operator make an accurate sediment and water content analysis and (4) that the tank be static, which means that no liquid can enter or leave the tank during gauging. Once the contents of the tank are removed, it is necessary to re-gauge the tank.
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Document ID: EE045961

Lact Unit Design
Author(s): Duane Rowan
Abstract/Introduction:
LACT SYSTEM : An arrangement of equipment designed for the unattended transfer of liquid hydrocarbons from a producer to a purchaser or consignee. LACT Units Must provide means of: Volume determination Quality determination Fail-safe operation Tamper-proof operation Technical Requirements : API standard 11N, Lease Automatic Custody Transfer Equipment API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards, Chapter 6, Metering Assemblies, Section 1, LACT Systems (currently drafting)
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Document ID: DF0ADC4E

Surge Protection Methods And Effects Of Measurement On Pipelines
Author(s): Gobind Khiani
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure surges are changes in pressure in pipelines when there is a change in velocity. These changes are the result of events such as pump tripping and control valve or an isolation valve operation. The greater the rate of change of velocity, the greater the pressure wave traveling along a pipeline will be. The initial wave may be positive or negative, depending on the cause of the change, and the initial wave is followed by an equal and opposite reflected wave.
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Document ID: FE62B9A2

Real-Time Analysis Of Hydrocarbon Composition And Properties In Upstream, Midstream And Downstream Applications
Author(s): Phil Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Rise in Oil and Gas Production - Horizontal drilling technology Reduction in Emissions - Process control and vapor recovery Increase in Profitability - Measurement, Analysis and Efficiency
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Document ID: 3F7EF5FE

Real-Time Analysis Of Hydrocarbon Composition And Properties In Upstream, Midstream, And Downstream Applications
Author(s): Phil Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The determination of hydrocarbon composition and physical properties is a critical step in allocation of assets, process control, and transportation and facility optimization. However, the instrumentation to perform such analysis is often complex to install, maintain, and operate. Recent advances in Near Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy h as enabled equipment which is ruggedized for field use, can operate at line conditions, and perform similar analysis as conventional equipment with better reliability and speed.
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Document ID: BAB7A433

Effluent Testing Factors
Author(s): Wayne Dunnington
Abstract/Introduction:
Well Testing Objectives Testing Configuration Testing Practices & Factor Determination Decision Tree Questions
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Document ID: 76CF0035

Water Cut Best Practices In SAGD Applications
Author(s): Matthew Pylychaty Forogh Askari
Abstract/Introduction:
Difficulties in measuring water in oil has led to the industry providing solutions for real time measurement. Complexity of water cut measurement around emulsions, determining the correct technology type for accurate measurement involves more than just finding a technology type and implementing it. Precautions need to be taken at the design phase to ensure that the challenges around sampling and the ability to measure a consistent representative portion of the fluid is taken into account. With sampling system costs normally out weighing the cost of the analyzer, a focus has to be taken on sampling practices, procedures, and maintenance to ensure accurate measurement of a particular analyzer.
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Document ID: 6922CB72

Uncertainty - Based Proving - Overcoming Time Restraints
Author(s): Kevin Kennedy
Abstract/Introduction:
Proving meters can consume a significant portion of a pipeline operators workday. Short batches do not allow much time to do the recommended five proving runs for several meters. Meters with artificially generated pulse trains are difficult to prove and often do not work well with the traditional proving algorithms. Uncertainty - based proving can help with both of these situations by understanding when a valid meter factor has been obtained.
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Document ID: EC150C60

Electronic Meter Verification
Author(s): Jason Riegert
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays Intelligent Flow meters have no moving internal parts, resulting in no physical wear or tear, no maintenance and an expectation of long- term stability that the meter calibration will not drift over time. In fact some flow meters today even come with guaranteed life time calibration. That meters have these characteristics, exceptional accuracy, long- term stability and they deliver multi-variable process data like mass, corrected volume, temperature and density measurement all from a single device and now they can verify themselves- is it all too good to be true? Absolutely not!
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Document ID: E3788300

Shrinkage Losses Resulting From Liquid Hydrocarbon Blending
Author(s): James Harry
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline integrity balance and custody transfer accuracy have been the focus of measurement specialists since the industry began trading and transporting liquid hydrocarbons. Even with the best volumetric measurement equipment, unaccounted for discrepancies still were occurring. Temperature, pressure and meter factor corrections were not enough to explain these discrepancies. Mathematicians have been telling us for centuries that one plus one equals two. In an ideal world of Newtonian physics this is the case but in the world of volumetric hydrocarbon measurement one plus one is usually less than two.
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Document ID: DFB2A525

Calculation Methodologies And Ghg Impact Considerations For The Estimation And Reporting Of Unmetered Fuel, Flared And Vented Volumes
Author(s): Ted Hart
Abstract/Introduction:
Just small sources, right? Literally hundreds of thousands of emission points ESRD Oil and Gas Reclamation Statistics 400K oil & gas wells have been drilled in Alberta to date 160K of those have been abandoned 14K new wells drilled each year in Alberta alone AER Licensed Facility List 31,760 active facility licenses in Alberta alone Increased scrutiny by public and government Inaccurate estimation and/or reporting can lead to a Notice of High Risk Noncompliance from the AER.
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Document ID: EB1B30DF

Measurement Exemption Applications & How To Make Them
Author(s): Lisa Clark
Abstract/Introduction:
What do I do at the AER? Is An Application Really Necessary? Application Evaluation Criteria Section 5 Application Types of Applications Other Measurement Applications Application Requirements Recommended Approach Questions
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Document ID: 14EF2040

Benefits Around Timely Analysis Of Measurement Data
Author(s): Brian Sowell
Abstract/Introduction:
Verifying measurement data can be challenging. Challenges include processing an overwhelming amount of data, choosing meaningful data types and validation criteria, and validating the data in a timely manner. Failure to meet these challenges can lead to undesired outcomes such as inaccurate measurement results, prior period adjustments in accounting and increased costs.
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Document ID: 2AF358D0

Benefits Around Timely Analysis Of Measurement Data
Author(s): Brian Sowell
Abstract/Introduction:
Verifying measurement data has its challenges Failure to meet these challenges can lead to undesired outcomes Determining a validation strategy requires many decisions to be made
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Document ID: A617A3CC

Water Quality Measurement Solutions
Author(s): Dirk Steyn
Abstract/Introduction:
Incorporating customized water quality measurement of produced and boiler feedwater in steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes can result in safer, more efficient operation of a facility. By monitoring some key measurements in the water in the process, its possible to assess the current health of the system and make quick adjustments to avoid declined production and possible downtime.
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Document ID: C21119D3

Tank Inventory Measurement-Modern Level Devices Offer Safer, More Efficient Compliance
Author(s): Gerhard Jansson
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic tank gauges must have a minimum resolution of 3 mm. One reading of the instrument is acceptable. Instruments must be calibrated in accordance with the manufacturers recommendation. See section 2.12 for frequency requirement.
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Document ID: 10486AC4

How To Extract Value From Your Completed Measurement Schematics
Author(s): Rhon Rose
Abstract/Introduction:
Assumes you already have a decent set of measurement schematics, built in any software. The ideas are not original. But companys go through cycles of learning, and then forgetting. Pick two or three, start with sample sizes. Get measurement schematics outside the measurement group. Slight variations depending on systems your company uses.
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Document ID: 29E6F07C

Pipeline Diagnostics With Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Nicole Gailey Noman Rasool
Abstract/Introduction:
Canada and the United States have vast energy resources, supported by thousands of kilometers (miles) of pipeline infrastructure built and maintained each year. Whether the pipeline runs through remote territory or passing through local city centers, keeping commodities flowing safely is a critical part of day-to-day operation for any pipeline. Real-time leak detection systems have become a critical system that companies require in order to provide safe operations, protection of the environment and compliance with provincial and federal regulations. The function of leak detection system is the ability to identify and confirm a leak event in a timely and precise manner. Flow measurement devices are a critical input into many leak detection systems and in order to ensure flow measurement accuracy, custody transfer grade liquid ultrasonic meters (as defined in API MPMS chapter 5.8) can be utilized to provide superior accuracy, performance and diagnostics.
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Document ID: 39C3D91C

GIS And GOR Factors
Author(s): Pascal Bonnet
Abstract/Introduction:
What is GIS? Where is GIS applied? Methods to determine GIS GIS Factor vs GIS Rate GIS Frequency What is GOR? Where is it applied? Methods to determine GOR GOR Frequency Related EPAP Themes and control points
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Document ID: CDA52201

Proper Railcar Loading/Gauging Procedure
Abstract/Introduction:
Railcar Loading of Petroleum based products has become common place in our industry today Railcars allow us to utilize more options for getting our products to different markets Allows smaller quantities to be transported and delivered to refineries and fraq facilities Allows movement to more diverse markets than via pipeline connected production. Allows trans-loading as well (Truck to Railcar)
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Document ID: 2B49A042

Flow Measurement Using Differential Pressure: Selection Criteria
Abstract/Introduction:
As we strive to improve the control and management of our processes, we rely on improvements in the measurement of those processes keeping pace Improvements in technology Improvements in the way we use the technology Each technology brings with it a particular list of factors and process conditions that can influence the measurement
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Document ID: E4FFBB8A

Flow Measurement Using Differential Pressure: Selection Criteria
Author(s): James Spinney
Abstract/Introduction:
Today there are many technologies for measuring liquid flow in process piping. As we strive to improve the control and management of our processes, we rely on improvements in the measurement of those processes keeping pace. The improvement of the measurement can come from both new and refined technologies and through a better understanding of how to best employ the technology. Each technology brings with it a particular list of factors and process conditions that can influence the measurement. For example a fluid that coats the pipe wall can cause problems for magnetic flow meters if the electrodes become coated as well. Vortex flow meters cannot measure highly viscous or low velocity fluids that cannot create the necessary vortices as the fluid flows past the shedder bar. Coriolis meters are susceptible to vibration and certain levels of air entrainment both of which can affect the phase shift of the excited single or double tubes. And extreme pressures and temperatures will limit the use of many of the available technologies.
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Document ID: 7F2AF527

Fuel Flare And Vent Measurement, Estimating And Reporting
Abstract/Introduction:
Why Report FFV Metering Estimates Reporting Purchase Fuel Gas Routine Flare/Vent Non Routine Flare/Vent Flare Vent Logs Managing FFV
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Document ID: FD06A0A0

The Importance Of Accurate Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Maureen Evers-Dakers
Abstract/Introduction:
Why do we need accurate measurement? What accuracy do we need? How do we get there? What is the cost? What are the benefits?
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Document ID: CA44F47F

Typical Scada, Measurement, Or Amr System
Abstract/Introduction:
Figure 1 is a generalized view of a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition, Measurement, or AMR (Automated Meter Reading) system Potential Threats and Types of Cyber-Attacks In an insecure network, a malicious user who has access to the communication network can perform the following types of attacks on: -Data Messages: Eavesdropping. Data Manipulation. Data Replication and Message Freshness. Masquerading. Repudiation. Denial of Service. -Data At-Rest: Data Monitoring and Confidentiality. Data Manipulation. Data Availability.
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Document ID: A77B688C

Large Demo - Pipe Prover
Author(s): Brett Gray
Abstract/Introduction:
CARBON OR STAINLESS STEEL DESIGN MATCH BORED OR DOWEL PINNED FLANGES INTERNAL COATING - AIR DRIED EPOXY OR BAKED ON PHENOLIC 4 WAY DIVERTER VALVE W/ VALVE ACTUATOR DETECTOR SWITCHES SPHERE - INFLATABLE POLYURETHANE, NITRILE OR NEOPRENE SS THERMOWELLS, PRESSURE GAUGES, DRAIN VALVES
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Document ID: 90DD03D2

NTAP Mixed Oil & Gas Battery
Author(s): Kirk Howell Kevin Boyce
Abstract/Introduction:
NTAP & CAPP NTAP - A Near Term Action Plan initiative at the Alberta Energy Regulatory (AER) to find opportunities in working with industry to optimize areas of regulation with high value costs savings Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) working on behalf of its membership and industry to propose industry guidelines that offer value and align with current industry challenges CAPP engaging with industry measurement representatives and working to align technically responsible proposals for consideration Disclaimer - regulatory changes not yet approved
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Document ID: D32B92A6

Oil And Gas Measurement Automation
Author(s): Michael Squyres
Abstract/Introduction:
Oil and gas measurement automation software applications are arriving on the scene just as the industry is in the midst of substantial changes in operating strategies. In response to the current business climate that is characterized by commodity prices running 40% below their levels a year earlier, operating units are increasing efficiency and optimizing existing assets.
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Document ID: 4098005A

Advanced Thermal Well Testing
Author(s): Nicolas Santibanez Fabian Patino Hernan Beltran Shahid Hussain
Abstract/Introduction:
The SAGD area, there have not historically been many reliable options available for well testing and flow measurement, besides test separators. -Usually operating temperature above 150 C at the well head One technology that has been adapted for SAGD over the last 6 years is the multi-phase measurement. -Currently only a few oil sands operators have evaluated this technology, with some interesting results. The use of MPFM is not something new for Statoil - Experience with permanent MPFMs configuration for well testing on onshore and offshore business
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Document ID: 5096004A

Improving Multiphase Flow Measurement With Coriolis Meters
Author(s): Justin Hollingsworth Laura Schafer
Abstract/Introduction:
Improvement of Coriolis flow measurement in the presence of gas grants the possibility of significant reduction in capital expenditure and maintenance costs associated with monitoring flow at individual wellheads on a continuous basis, when compared with a test separator or full multiphase flow meter. Last year, we presented on a novel algorithm, which was introduced to improve Coriolis flow measurement in the presence of gas (1). Data collected over the past year yields evidence in support of the techniques proposed to mitigate errors in flow measurement with coriolis meters, caused by multiple fluid phases. By carefully monitoring (and in some cases managing) flow regimes in multiphase processes, it is possible to significantly reduce measurement errors caused by multiple phases within the tubes of coriolis meters.
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Document ID: 9BD30517

Methods Of Determining And Verifying Fiscal Sampling System Uncertainty By Analysing 25 Years Of Real Field Proving Data And Laboratory Tests Compared With International Acceptance Criteria
Author(s): Duane Rowan
Abstract/Introduction:
The interval within which the true value of a measured quantity can be expected to lie at a stated probability (normally a 95% confidence level) Sampling and density systems are subject to systematic errors Sampling systems generally understate water content
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Document ID: EFF2EE54

Methods Of Determining And Verifying Fiscal Sampling System Uncertainty By Analysing 25 Years Of Real Field Proving Data And Laboratory Tests Compared With International Acceptance Criteria
Author(s): Gary Potten Stuart Wright
Abstract/Introduction:
As offshore production flow rates decline, oil-fields mature and water fractions climb, it becomes increasingly challenging to achieve a representative sample for use in fiscal, allocation, and custody transfer. It is therefore important that a sampling systems performance is evaluated on a regular basis so that any limitations are identified to mitigate the risks to measurement accuracy and uncertainty.
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Document ID: C6E6A400

Equity, Royal-Es And Reservoir
Abstract/Introduction:
1. Is this a regulatory violation? 2. What is the cost of fixing the issue? 3. What is the cost of not fixing the issue? (not all issues need to be fixed)
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Document ID: 28E0672F

1 Of 11 Wireless Communication Technology For Flow Measurement On Pad Production Sites
Author(s): Don Hammill
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow computing and SCADA have a long association with wireless communications. Historically wireless was used from one point to another over considerable distance. This is particularly true where conventional well spacing meant that the distance from a point of measurement to the central collection and assessment point was over many kilometers.
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Document ID: A3F7CCD7

Emulsion Satellite Testing Alternatives For Cost-Effective Accuracy
Author(s): David Penton
Abstract/Introduction:
Proration Factors are used to report production from periodic well tests through a battery with continuous measurement Proration factor total prorated production total estimated production
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Document ID: DFF7B43B

Cybersecurity From Field To Host
Author(s): Lee A. Cysouw Douglas C. Osburn, III Nadar m. Rabadi
Abstract/Introduction:
Remote communications to field devices for data monitoring and controls has greatly reduced operating costs, reduced downtime, and helped in optimize our industry. With the ever growing threat of cyber-attacks, the need for securing that data is becoming a more common topic of discussion. Whether collecting SCADA or Measurement data from the field, doing remote configuration, or even sitting dormant, it is important to keep the line of communication to your devices secure. This presentation will discuss potential threats and examples of cyber-attacks. It will cover industry standards, types of cyber security, and the importance and best practices for securing data for Measurement and/or SCADA and control systems.
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Document ID: 4651C10E

Emulsion Satellite Testing Alternatives For Cost-Effective Accuracy
Author(s): David Penton
Abstract/Introduction:
Advantages and disadvantages are compared for a dozen oil well proration satellite liquid testing design alternatives by ease of use, cost-effectiveness and accuracy. Alter natives are listed for separators with various liquid meter, piping and sampler combinations as well as for test tanks, each with specific application parameters for conventional and heavy oil operations.
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Document ID: FBC7FEF0

Interface Measurement What Happens When A Rag Layer Occurs In The Dehydration Process?
Author(s): Johnathan Kohout - Gerhard Jansson - Jason Riegert
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to fines (sand) in suspension the oil and water both bond to the sand and the rag layer occurs. This is demonstrated in the mason jar separator below.
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Document ID: 2C8A62A9

Nuances Of BC Production Reporting Implied Reporting Requirements
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Reporting Requirements - Motor Fuel Tax (MFT) - Carbon Tax (CT) - Green House Gas (GHG) - General Regulatory Differences (vs. AER) Oil - Allowables or Maximum Rate Limitation (MRL) - Production Reporting For Oil
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Document ID: 2A433274

Reynolds Number And Viscosity Effects On Coriolis Flow Measurement Uncertainty
Author(s): Steffe N Baecker
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis flow measurement technology has been providing unparalleled measurement uncertainty for many years without the usual need and regard for inlet and outlet conditions. Despite a modest pressure drop, Coriolis technology has been the wonder of the measurement world with very limited external influence effects until of late. Recent laboratory testing has revealed that some Coriolis tube geometry is very sensitive to high viscosity fluids at Reynolds number below 10000 and as Reynolds number decreases towards laminar region. In these low flow high viscosity flow regions the mass flow measurement uncertainty increases as much as hundred times from the typical 0.0 1% to 1% and more in mass flow.
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Document ID: 907D3349

Reynolds Number & Viscosity Effects On Coriolis
Author(s): Steffen Baecker
Abstract/Introduction:
Basic Principle of Operation Reynolds Number & Viscosity Effects on Coriolis Comparison of two sensors
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Document ID: 7375F0DE

Gas 101: Reading & Interpreting Gas Analyses
Abstract/Introduction:
Why do people collect and use analyses? Why is it important to review? How are compositions determined? What is in the makeup of a gas analysis? Common sources of errors How to Validate a gas analysis Examples of poor analyses
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Document ID: C17F4F86

Pitfalls And Advantages Of Various Vapor Pressure Measurement Techniques In Crudes And Condensates
Author(s): Jeff Schowalter Stuart Simmonds Bob Birchmore
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper compares the various techniques of measuring Vapor Pressure in Crudes and Condensates. It will review the definition of Vapor Pressure and current ASTM methods pertaining to crudes and condensates, then go into detail on the pitfalls and advantages of inferred and lab methodology vs the ASTM method.
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Document ID: 06947A33

50 Ways To Save Oil And Gas Companies Opex And Capex
Author(s): Mark Flynn
Abstract/Introduction:
The reduction in operational and capital costs easily pays for the implementation of Management and Execution of Measurement processes returns standardization of processes and equipment. This is particularly true for new operators who are not familiar with the requirements, and for existing operators who wish to optimize and consolidate their measurement system management. Measurement is now more critical to all operators, e.g. EPAP Carbon Taxation, and new provincial measurement and reporting requirements. An absence of awareness means that companies are challenged in their efforts to comply with all the regulations. Through the deficiency of vision and knowledge, lead organization into higher OPEX and CAPEX selection for measurement.
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Document ID: A82D0903

Custody Transfer Measurement
Abstract/Introduction:
Oil custody transfer meters evolved over time -Positive displacement meters Both positive displacement and turbine meters have moving parts, and are subject to changes in calibration factors over time The parties to the transaction required verification of the validity of the measured volume, so provers were designed and used to verify the calibration of these CT meters in service
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Document ID: 0CF6775D

Provability Of Liquid Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Ernie Hauser Bobbie Griffith Dr. Gregor Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
Custody Transfer of Petroleum Crude Oils and Products has historically been accomplished by first positive displacement systems or meters, and later by turbine type flow meters. All of these devices are subject to drift or changes in calibration factors over time or with different conditions as compared with original calibrations. This, and the need for verified records of transactions to prevent nefarious impulses, led to the common use of in situ provers to periodically verify or modify the calibration factor of the meters. Provers thus became the traceable reference standard against which the duty custody transfer meter could be verified. When ultrasonic meters came onto the scene, they offered the promise of long-term stability and operation over multiple products and crudes, in addition to lower maintenance requirements. However, the need for traceability and verification in service remained.
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Document ID: E1FC297D

Fundamentals Of Meter Proving
Author(s): Greg Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
This document will provide the reader an understanding of what a prover is, the need for proving meters for accurate measurement verification, the equipment deemed acceptable and available for use in the oil and liquefied gas market. It will also define the general terminology used in the industry, general operational aspects for verification devices, and general information utilized by the groups and agencies that govern the meter verification process.
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Document ID: C39345E8

Being Good Isnt Good Enough Improving Your Measurement Program To Increase Returned Value
Abstract/Introduction:
We are producing oil and gas in one of the worlds most expensive environments -Product quality differential -Extreme weather conditions -Difficult/isolated geography -High regulatory framework -High tax/royalty framework
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Document ID: 2DF340EC

Process Insight From The Outside The Use Of Radiometric Technology In Challenging Oil Applications
Author(s): Dr. Dirk Mrmann
Abstract/Introduction:
The basics ... -Measurement arrangement -Real life applications -Safety and Radiation protection
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Document ID: 3199EDB1

Process Insight From The Outside -The Use Of Radiometric Technology In Challenging Oil Applications
Author(s): Dr. Dirk Moermann
Abstract/Introduction:
Where high temperature, high pressure or heavy erosive conditions require non-conventional measurement methods, radiometric technology presents a reliable solution for online, non-contacting level and density measurements. The fundamentals of the technology and recent progresses in detector technology are discussed based on installation examples in the heavy oil upgrading and refining industry to give operators a guideline regarding the present capabilities of radiometric systems and safety considerations that shall be taken into account when applying the technology.
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Document ID: 09E54828

White Paper -Safe, Efficient And Compliant Meter Verifications Are Finally Available For All Intelligent Flow Meters
Author(s): James Henderson Jason Riegert
Abstract/Introduction:
4 Main Outcomes of Implementing Operational Excellence Programs Electronic Verification -As Is Example: As Is Situation Addressing Your Metering Challenges
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Document ID: EC110BF6

Impact Of Sampling And Subsampling Methods On Liquid Hydrocarbon Analysis And Quality
Author(s): Branko Banjac Derek Fraser
Abstract/Introduction:
Product quality is an important component of petroleum valuation and custody transfer. Measurement and quality professionals are required to coordinate product quality testing in addition to volumetric measurements to determine the value of these products. Western Canada has a wide variety of liquid hydrocarbons that are produced which range from light sweet crudes and condensates to heavy crude oil and bitumen. In addition, the variety of end intermediate products can range from fuels (gasoline, diesel) to other complex mixtures such as dilbits and synthetic crudes. These types of crude oil, fuel and other liquid hydrocarbons are highly variable and differ in physical and chemical properties. They often require specific and specialized sampling techniques for collection of representative testing specimens. The sampling, subsampling or test prioritization that take place are fundamental in the sample analyzing process and have a major impact on quality and accuracy of obtained results.
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Document ID: B5D94BCC

Driving Concepts To Completion Quickly Investigate Epap Cai Report Items
Author(s): Yogi Schulz Jennifer Pham
Abstract/Introduction:
Learning objectives ? Monthly CAI Process ? CAI investigation and remediation ? Conclusions ? Recommendations ? Questions & Answers
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Document ID: F51B4912

Impact Of Sampling & Subsampling Methodologies On Liquid Hydrocarbon Analysis And Quality
Abstract/Introduction:
Measuring Product Quality Purpose -Identify Sampling and Sample Preparation Impact on Liquid Hydrocarbon Data Quality Process -Outline Sampling Techniques, Containers, and Sample preparation techniques Payoff -Improve Sample Quality -Improve Understanding of Sampling of Liquid Hydrocarbon
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Document ID: F135C052


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