Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (2016)

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted For Gas
Author(s): Tom Cleveland
Abstract/Introduction:
Any organization that is involved with natural gas production, gathering, treating, processing, transportation and distribution is exposed to the potential risk of high costs that can be associated with lost and unaccounted for gas. These costs can be attributed to actual cost or opportunity cost of leaked or under-measured gas, potential costs associated with imbalances that may require cash-outs or other arrangements, and exceeding contractual caps. There are many acronyms in use that all mean the same thing.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 9B062B2E

Basics Of High Pressure- Measuring And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): James N. Witte
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents a review of criteria necessary for designing high-pressure natural gas measuring and regulating stations. For the purpose of this discussion, high pressure is assumed to be gauge pressure values above typical distribution mainline pressures (greater than 60 psig). Therefore, it is most applicable to station designs with gathering, midstream, and transmission operations. The design engineer has many factors to consider when designing a metering facility. These factors must include considerations for their impact on measurement accuracy, facility capital cost, environmental stewardship, public stewardship, and long-term maintenance cost. The successful designer will seek to achieve high accuracy at an appropriate capital cost, while minimizing the risks of environmental hazards and public nuisance, such as noise, and maintenance requirements.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 838C18FB

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement III
Author(s): Joseph J. Bauer
Abstract/Introduction:
To become proficient in all phases of gas measurement, one must fully understand what natural gas is and the theory of its properties. The theories about natural gas properties are the gas laws, and their application is essential to gas measurement. Quantities of natural gas for custody transfer are stated in terms of standard cubic feet. To arrive at standard cubic feet from actual flowing conditions requires application of correction factors that are defined by the gas laws.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: DC64B3F7

Liquid Meter Proving Techniques
Author(s): T. Cousins
Abstract/Introduction:
Proving is the process used to produce the K Factor or Meter Factor of a pulse generating flow meter. Meter factor is generally the end goal as we are often looking for the difference in calibration, and hence the correct the indicated volume. It can be considered as a correction factor to the K factor. Proving allows the checking of a meter under operational conditions, reducing the potential installation errors in meter measurements. For years, it has been the backbone of Liquid custody Transfer measurement, and was developed primarily for the turbine meter, for which it is still best suited. Positive displacement meters can, if the output is designed correctly, be easily proved but the new meters in service are having more problems in coping with the small volumes and the required short term repeatability for proving. For turbine meters it acts as a diagnostic, and is probably the only diagnostic tool available that really gives a quantified value of any variations in the meter calibration with installation and time.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 31B049EB

Operation & Problems Associated With Prover Detector Switches
Author(s): Warren A. Parr, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
In many parts of the petroleum industry, sphere provers are used to dynamic ally calibrate volumetric meters. In order to accomplish this, sphere provers are required to be accurate and repeatable. This accuracy and repeatability is largely dependent on performance o f the prover sphere detector. Any operational or design problems associated with the prover detector will affect the provers performance. This paper will review critical parts of a prover sphere detector that must be checked in order to obtain accuracy reliability and repeatability. The areas that will be covered are:
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: B754A7B9

Operational Experience With Small Volume Provers
Author(s): Charles Burton
Abstract/Introduction:
Over several decades the Small Volume Prover (SVP) has become a common and vital piece of equipment throughout the pipeline industry. There are many available publications that explore the functionality and method of operation for the SVP. The Primary focus of this document will highlight the authors experience with the SVP. The majority will address technical operation and advancements made to the SVP over time, as well as calibration methods and proper maintenance of devices.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 31420644

Proving Coriolis Meters
Author(s): Marsha Yon
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis meters are in use throughout the hydrocarbon industry for the measurement of fluids including crude oil, products such as fuel oil, gasoline, and diesel, and light hydrocarbons such as natural gas liquids, propane, etc. When used for custody transfer, it is most often required by contract between the buyer and seller that the meter be proven in the field on the fluid that is being measured and at the conditions under which it will be operating. This paper will utilize the American Petroleum Institutes Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) as the reference for industry practices for field proving methods and calculations.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F3416F07

Theory And Application Of Pulse Interpolation To Prover Systems
Author(s): David J. Seiler
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulse interpolation, by definition, is the ability to estimate values of (a function) between two known values. Therefore, pulse interpolation enables pulse counts t o be made to a fraction of a pulse, thus greatly reducing the rounding-off errors that occur when pulse counts are made to the nearest whole number which always happens in the absence of Pulse Interpolation.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 2D1D77AB

VERIFICATION/CERTIFICATION Of Devices Used In Liquid Measurement And Implications Of How Mercury Issues Will Impact These Processes
Author(s): Anne Walker Brackett
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past the standards from the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the American Society for Testing and Measurement (ASTM) provided specifications for instruments and equipment. Simple compliance with these standards was not enough. Therefore, a system of verification and /or certification of equipment used in measurement of liquids was instituted. These requirements were written into the standards as they came up for review. An excellent example of such a standard is Chapter 3.1.A. Standard Practice for the Manual Gauging of Petroleum and Petroleum Products of the APIs Manual of Petroleum Measurement. 3.1.A. calls for field verification of working tapes against against a National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable master tape when it is new and every year thereafter. This is an example of the requirements to insure the instrument and the equipment meets the specifications of each standard. It is important to understand the definitions of traceability, verification, and certification before discussing the specifications for equipment used in liquid measurement.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: E1396EC9

Improving Flow Measurements With Improved Calibration And Data Handling Procedures
Author(s): Duane Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas measurement analyst requires a completely different set of skills to interpret and understand the information documented by the field regarding testing and calibration procedures. The task for the measurement analyst is to absorb the wealth of information presented, and utilize their extensive knowledge base in determining when a current month adjustment or even a prior month adjustment is warranted. Each time an analyst reviews data from the field, a question should be asked, Did the technician follow the correct procedures in performing the calibration?
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: EFC3876B

Proving Liquid Ultrasonics
Abstract/Introduction:
The development of a statistical tool for computing uncertainties and proving volumes based on a variable associated with a specific design and mode of UFM has been re ported in Reference 1. It is repeated here for completeness. When calculating a result using sampled data, where each sample has a random uncertainty, it is well known that the standard deviation of the mean can be reduced by increasing the number of samples.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 4C0598AD

Laboratory Versus In Situ Proving Of Liquid Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Terry Cousins
Abstract/Introduction:
Unfortunately all meters are fundamentally non-linear in their basic form. This means that unless the meter is characterized in some way to account for this non-linearity the meter when it arrives on site the proving must take into account this non-linearity if the meter is going to encounter any flow changes. In particular changes in Reynolds number will cause calibration change, but proving on site and correcting for Reynolds number is an arduous and often impossible task. These meters have to be linearized, whether it is by modifying the fluid mechanics as in the case of the turbine meter, for example, or by a correction determined by the physics using software, as with a USM. The corrections are often very sensitive to operational conditions, in particular viscosity changes and so it is essential that the meters are characterized in the way that is not fragile when the meter is installed. Proving will obviously help with site variations, but it is essential that the initial data fit, linearization is carried out under controlled conditions. To achieve this the base calibration facility must have a good uncertainty, good range of viscosity to achieve the required Reynolds number range and a good pedigree, such as ISO 1702.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: AAF2BE0E

Roles And Responsibilities Of Witnessing A Liquid Prover Calibration
Author(s): Kenneth Lancy
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to give direction to those that have little or no experience with liquid hydrocarbon prover calibration. The results of this procedure will impact the custody transfer of product and could affect the accuracy of millions of transported barrels. The utmost importance and attention to detail must be stressed while witnessing the prover calibration process. This will ensure that mistakes and uncertainties are minimized.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: A142A5D8

Equipment And Techniques Used In Real Time Component Volume Calculations For Natural Gas Liquid Measurement
Author(s): David Beitel
Abstract/Introduction:
Correct measurement practices are established to minimize uncertainty in the determination of the custody transfer volume (or mass) of products. Understanding and evaluation of the fundamental cause and effect relationships with the liquid to be measured will lead to a volume determination that most closely matches the true volume at the referenced standard pressure and temperature. When designing a new measurement station it is up to us as measurement people, to understand the product to be measured, apply the correct equipment, and implement the appropriate correction equations.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 056EAF5C

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meter
Author(s): Wayland Sligh
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Turbine Meters have developed greatly since their introduction to the US 1963. From the mechanically gear driven version, meters have developed into fully electronic designs and self-correcting models. Although these technological developments have greatly improved the application of the meter, the meters basic design and principles have remained very similar. As an inferential meter, the gas turbine meter competes with the rotary and diaphragm positive displacement meters. Like these meters, the turbine meter is versatile and accurate over a wide range of flowing conditions. Unlike these meters the turbine meter provides less pressure drop for equivalent flow rates. It also provides a digital pulse output for input with flow computers and local readout devices.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: EB2C703E

The Uncertainty Of A Waterd Raw Calibration Vs. Gravimetric Calibration On Small Volume Provers
Author(s): Gary Cohrs
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to review the history, techniques, similarities, advantages, and disadvantages and the uncertainty comparison between gravimetric and the traditional water draw method of prover volume calibrations by NIST certified volumetric field test measures, focusing on high precision captive displacement flow provers, known more commonly as Small Volume Provers or SVPs. Since the introduction of the SVPs almost 40 years ago, SVPs have gained widespread acceptance and use in the petroleum industry, and are the prover of choice for a large number of applications. Because of the SVPs precision, advances in weighing equipment allowed for more precise calibrations with much less uncertainty. This fact was recognized by both people in the industry and National and International standards organizations.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 6B771FDA

Vision Technology For Analyzing Crude And Produced Water: Advancements And Results From The Field
Author(s): Thomas m. Canty
Abstract/Introduction:
Vision technology is providing the answer for crude and produced water measurements that are currently skewed by the uncertainty of traditional, non visual instrumentation to know what kinds of particles are being measured. For instance, ultrasonic meters can be affected by the solid particles they are measuring. Air bubbles can also affect the accuracy and calibration of the instrument. Particle counters are likewise affected by the presence of non solid constituents in the mixture such as air or water. In any event, there is no direct, or immediate, method to confirm that the measurement shown is actually a true measurement or a skewed reading caused by some of these process factors.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: BBD137F3

Methods For Certifying Measurement Equipment
Author(s): Scott Crone
Abstract/Introduction:
Like any other piece of equipment, a measurement artifact must be maintained. Obviously, it has to be in working order in general. However, what is more important is that it be operating within specified parameters and providing measurements that are traceable to a known source or sources. This paper provides a general overview of calibration and certification. It also discusses some key terminology and methods.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C555E9A6

Meter Proving: Function Of Flow Rate Or Fluid Properties Too
Author(s): Zaki Husain
Abstract/Introduction:
The current industry practice is to prove a meter when the flow rate change is anticipated to influence the meter performance beyond the allowable tolerance of shift in Meter Factor (MF). For example, if the acceptable shift in MF is defined to be less than +/- 0.1%, then a change in flow rate that is anticipated to shift the MF by more than +/-0.1% should initiate a proving of the meter to establish the new meter factor for the operating flow rate. Typically meters with moving parts, e.g. displacement or turbine flow meter, are field proven, if change in flow rate is greater than 10% or whatever is pre-selected amount of percentage change from its operating flowrate at which the meter was last proved. If the meter performance is characterized for a given fluid and MF can be pre-defined as a function of flow rate for the given fluid, then instead of proving the meter against a reference (prover or master meter-transfer proving), the calculated MF for the operating flow rate is often implemented to correct for the anticipated change in meter factor for the actual flow rate.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: E2D94858

Ultrasonic Meters And Measurement Accuracy In Leak Detection
Author(s): Nicole Gailey
Abstract/Introduction:
Canada and the United States have vast energy resources, supported by thousands of kilometers (miles) of new pipeline infrastructure, built each year to help meet rising demands. Whether the pipeline runs through remote territory or passing through local city centers, keeping product flowing safely is a critical part of any pipelines daily operations. With such environmental and personal safety issues present, real-time leak detection systems become a necessity that companies need in order to safeguard their operations. At the heart of the leak detection monitoring and detection procedures is the ability to identify and confirm a leak event timely and precisely. In order to ensure accuracy, custody transfer level of liquid ultrasonic meters, as defined in API MPMS chapter 5.8, are utilized to provide superior accuracy, performance and diagnostics.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 4EEF32BD

Application Of Flow Computers For Gas Measurement And Control
Author(s): King Poon
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow computers are microprocessor controlled computer specifically designed to measure and regulate the transfer of a fluid from one point to another. They are an essential part of electronic fluid flow measurement, and are usually installed in various remote locations throughout the production, transmission and distribution segments of the gas industry. The function of a flow computer is fourfold: collect measurement data, calculate and store measurement data, transmit stored measurement data to a host system, and execute control requirements. In addition to measurement data, the event log, audit trail, and alarm information are also collected, stored, and subsequently transmitted to a host system in accordance with API Ch 21.1 - Flow Measurement Using Electronic Metering Systems.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 5995717D

Basic Application Of Flow Computers And Telemetry Systems
Author(s): Johnny Gutierrez
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to flow computers being commonly used in the measurement of hydrocarbons, most telemetry systems were used to collect control information and real time data and provide control commands to Remote Terminal Unit s (RTU) . Most of the local metering was being handled by chart recorders and local data collection by operations personnel. The collected charts were sent to the central facility where the information provided custody transfer reports and or field operations reports. Most of the commonly used chart recorders were the standard circular chart format and pneumatic devices. These were used to process the information for billing, regulatory operations, and monthly operations, but was a cumbersome and costly task. The measurement departments often had to deal with discrepancies in data and information that was often weeks or months old. There was an urgent need for collecting real time information from metering equipment and custody transfer data. Although there were telemetry systems in place, collecting real time data and getting this information to a central office was not easily accomplished with the early types of SCADA systems in place.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: DC53FEDB

Effects Of Abnormal Conditions On Accuracy Of Orifice Measurement
Author(s): Dean Graves
Abstract/Introduction:
Whenever one focuses on gas or fluid measurement, he or she will eventually discover an abnormal condition at a measurement station. Invariably someone will ask, What effect will it have on measurement? A student of measurement may spend years answering this question. This and similar questions have generated many research studies. This research has enabled us to better understand measurement abnormalities and to improve measurement procedures and standards. Even though we have made great strides in measurement, we will continue to ask this question.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C764B2B5

Basic Electronics For Field Measurement
Author(s): Jesse Steiner
Abstract/Introduction:
Electricity has been used for more than a century as a means to convey energy and information. While the two uses may seem very different at first glance, they are governed by the same basic principles. Technicians in the modern oil and gas field can find a cursory understanding of these governing principles to be of great benefit when working to install, expand, or troubleshoot to days measurement and automation systems.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 0D6C5619

Auditing Gas Laboritories
Author(s): Joe Landes
Abstract/Introduction:
The data produced by Gas Chromatograph (GC) laboratories is used for many purposes, including product specification, accounting, safety and environmental compliance issues. The accuracy of this data has direct impact on all of these areas. Auditing laboratories responsible for producing this data is prudent business practice. The audit will provide a means of process improvement, through proper identification of deficiencies and a precise plan for corrective action. The level of confidence in analytical results will increase when the appropriate corrective actions are implemented. The amount of financial and legal exposure can be reduced from a properly executed audit program.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 4BB01BFD

SCADA Systems
Author(s): Asim Farooq
Abstract/Introduction:
Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) in its most simplified definition is the process of using computers to collect and then process data from multiple devices across various remote locations. A SCADA system is an integral part of any efficient and effective process at a facility. SCADA is used in water, oil, gas, electricity grids, and other industries. With its relative ease of implementation, usage has expanded to data communication, transit systems and sprinklers, and continues to expand to numerous other areas. With the growth in new technologies, companies are now able to control and run more of the day-to-day processes using computers which increases profitability, preempts dangerous conditions, and streamline performance.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 6CC69DAD

Btu Analysis Using A Gas Chrom
Author(s): Bill Frazier
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to 1978, most custody transfer of natural gas con tracts were based on the volume of gas being transferred between the parties. In 1978, congress passed the Natural Gas Policy Act that mandated the custody transfer of natural gas based on the energy content, creating the need to determine the energy content of the natural gas at the custody transfer location. An instrument that burnt the gas and measured the heat output of the flame, a calorimeter, was then widely used to determine the energy content. In the mid-eighties, the functionality and reliability of gas chromatographs (GC ) began to surpass the calorimeter and the GC eventually took over the energy measurement role to become the most common method for determining the energy content of the gas. This paper will provide an overview of the considerations for online measurement of BTU and how the GC calculates the energy content.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 5523CA03

Btu Determination Of Natural Gas Using A Portable Chromatograph
Author(s): Russell L. Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is written with the intention of promoting collaboration in standardizing a methodology for collecting and handling natural gas samples when using portable chromatography to determine calorific value. It is important to reinforce established collection techniques, and to apply theory described in accepted industry standards. Dynamic field conditions, mechanical constraints, and human intervention are all factors that impact the quality of samples collected and the ensuing analysis. Proper sample conditioning and transport are fundamental requirements to ensuring quality analysis is obtained from the data acquisition process.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: A877A740

Chromatograph Applications And Problems From A Users Standpoint
Author(s): Fred Ryel
Abstract/Introduction:
Chromatographs are available for all types of applications in the natural gas industry. The main applications that this class will discuss are: process monitoring of liquids and gases, environmental flares and ambient air, landfill gas and contaminates. These can also include corrosives such as H2S, CO2 and O2, etc. Regardless of the application, the main priority is to capture an accurate sample and not change the properties before it can be analyzed. Maintaining the sample integrity is by far the most difficult process. The procedure of acquiring the sample and the way it is analyzed depends upon the media being sampled.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 321B3550

Chromatographic Analysis Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): Bob Armbruster Joe Landes
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses basic components of the gas chromatograph. It directs the student to Gas Processors Association (GPA) analytical methods 2177 Method for the Analysis of Demethanized Hydrocarbon Liquid Mixtures Containing Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide by Gas Chromatography and 2186 Tentative Method for the Extended Analysis of Hydrocarbon Liquid Mixtures Containing Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide by Temperature Programmed Gas Chromatography. This paper lists the critical steps to obtain accurate results.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C7A3A362

An Optical Hydrocarbon Analyzer For Real-Time Hydrocarbon Gas Speciation And Measurement
Author(s): Duane Sword
Abstract/Introduction:
A unique all-optical , real-time, unattended sensor platform has been developed for hydrocarbon gas composition analysis enabling speciation and quantification of the individual light hydrocarbon components such as C1 - nC6 of alkanes, high-range hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide. This all-optical sensor performs real-time speciation without requiring physical separation of the compounds as performed in traditional chromatography. Moreover the ability to offer fast, accurate and repeatable C1-C9 total BTU/HHV for natural gas pipeline energy content monitoring can be proven side-by-side with traditional gas chromatograph methods.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: A49D149E

Crude Quality What: Is Involved And Why Its Important
Author(s): James C. Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
Crude oil quality can mean different things to different people. A production facility may look at crude oil quality as anything that passes the field tests so the transporter will pick up the load or send it down their pipeline. A pipeline company or transporter may have a similar definition of crude quality, but from a different perspective. A crude oil marketer will also have a different idea of what crude quality is as will an end user, such as a refiner. I will touch on what each of these people think is crude oil quality, and why, and will discuss the testing procedures used to arrive at crude quality from their perspective.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 5ED4CE24

Fundamentals Of Sampling Natural Gas For Btu Determination
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
It has long been recognized that the largest source of error in the analysis of natural gas is the sample conditioning system (SCS). The sample conditioning systems consist of all components through which the sample gas travels from its source, typically a pipeline, to the gas chromatograph (GC) inject valve. The purpose of the sample conditioning system is to extract a natural gas sample that is representative of the source, transport it to an on line gas chromatograph, and in the process condition it so that it is compatible with the analyzer. Conditioning consist mainly of excluding unwanted liquids and solids, regulating the pressure and flow, and heating to maintain the sample gas well above its hydrocarbon dew point temperature (1). During the entire sample conditioning process the sample gas must not undergo any changes in its composition.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 7B834FB9

Installation And Operation Errors In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr Jacob L. Thorson Dr. Thomas B. Morr
Abstract/Introduction:
Installation errors may occur when an instrument is used in a manner different from how it was calibrated. For example, suppose that a temperature sensor is calibrated in a stirred, constant temperature bath. During calibration, the sensor is in thermal equilibrium with the circulating fluid, and the fluid and sensor temperatures are the same. Next, let the same sensor be used to measure the temperature of natural gas flowing through a pipe at low velocity. If the pipe wall temperature is different from the flowing gas temperature, convection heat transfer will occur between the gas and the pipe wall, conduction heat transfer will occur between the pipe wall and the sensor, and convection heat transfer will occur between the sensor and the flowing gas. In this example, the sensor would not be in thermal equilibrium with the flowing gas and the sensor temperature would be different from the flowing gas temperature.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 31D96E42

Determination Of H2S And Total Sulfur In Natural Gas
Author(s): Sam Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is a chemical compound comprised of one Sulfur Atom and two Hydrogen Atoms. It is a colorless, extremely poisonous gas that reeks of rotten eggs. H2S is formed when bacteria breaks down organic matter and is found in natural oil and gas deposits. Hydrogen Sulfide is highly corrosive and renders some steels brittle, leading to sulfide stress cracking which can lead to damage to operational equipment. Natural gas producers, gas processors and pipeline operators measure H2S to protect equipment and to conform to buyer specifications or government limits. Sometimes, H2S concentration is used as a feedback parameter to control and optimize sweetening and sulfur recovery processes. Due to the toxic and corrosive properties of Hydrogen Sulfide and its presence in natural gas, it is imperative to measure and control the concentration levels of this compound within natural gas pipelines.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: E17CF2F8

Determination Of Water Vapor Content In Natural Gas
Author(s): Sam Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
This is an overview of the main approaches to moisture measurements for natural gas. Natural gas presents a situation where the stream may have high levels of solid and liquid contaminants as well as corrosive gases present in varying concentrations. Additionally, the stream composition may change gradually or rapidly over time. This unique situation is a challenge for the measurement of moisture.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 2D2AE1E3

Considerations For Sampling Wet, High Pressure, And Supercritical Natural Gas
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux Shannon m. Bromley
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the problems encountered when sampling wet, high pressure and supercritical natural gas for on-line BTU analysis, and provides solutions and comments on how they relate to the API and GPA industry standards for natural gas sampling. It also discusses the use of phase diagrams in the design and operation of a natural gas sampling system.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: E39EFEF0

Determination Of H2S And Total Sulfur In Natural Gas
Author(s): Sam Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is a chemical compound comprised of one Sulfur Atom and two Hydrogen Atoms. It is a colorless, extremely poisonous gas that reeks of rotten eggs. H2S is formed when bacteria breaks down organic matter and is found in natural oil and gas deposits. Hydrogen Sulfide is highly corrosive and renders some steels brittle, leading to sulfide stress cracking which can lead to damage to operational equipment. Natural gas producers, gas processors and pipeline operators measure H2S to protect equipment and to conform to buyer specifications or government limits. Sometimes, H2S concentration is used as a feedback parameter to control and optimize sweetening and sulfur recovery processes. Due to the toxic and corrosive properties of Hydrogen Sulfide and its presence in natural gas, it is imperative to measure and control the concentration levels of this compound within natural gas pipelines.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: E2295226

Validating Laboratory Gas Analyses
Author(s): Dennis Updike
Abstract/Introduction:
The intent of this paper is to explore the concepts around an effective data validation process for determining the accuracy of natural gas samples analyzed at a laboratory. The accuracy of gas sample analysis depends upon a variety of parts in the overall measurement process. Understanding the types of errors that can occur in each aspect will aid in the development of an effective validation method.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 485FB16D

On Line Water Measurement Devices In Liquid Service
Author(s): Craig Mcwhorter
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays competitive energy market there is a tremendous emphasis on cost saving and productivity at all levels of the industry. Online water detection provides vital real-time information regarding water concentrations in hydrocarbons empowering the user with the knowledge necessary to maximize efficiency and cost savings while increasing many safety factors at the same time.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 14A95C0D

Principles Of Multi-Dimensional Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Gregg Meidl
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past 45 years, multi-dimensional gas chromatography has made a tremendous impact in the HPI and CPI markets. Process GCs play an important role in the areas of safety, process control, process monitoring and environmental monitoring. Modern analyzer systems have sophisticated PC based electronic controllers with LCD man-machine interface suitable for hazardous area classifications. Despite the fact that there have been considerable strides in process gas chromatographic technologies and practices, the same basic principals hold true today. This paper will cover the basic structure of a typical process gas chromatograph from the sample probe, through the sample system, GC sample valves, columns and column valves and through the detector.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 7AE480B9

Sampling And Conditioning Of Natural Gas Containing Entrained Liquids
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
The monetary value of natural gas is based on its energy content and volume. The energy content and physical constants utilized in determining its volume are computed from analysis. Therefore correct assessment of the value of natural gas is dependent to a large extent on overall analytical accuracy. The largest source of analytical error in natural gas is distortion of the composition during sampling. Sampling clean, dry natural gas, which is well above its Hydrocarbon Dew Point (HCDP) temperature, is a relatively simple task. However, sampling natural gas that is at, near, or below its HCDP temperature is challenging. For these reasons, much attention is being focused on proper methods for sampling natural gas which have a high HCDP temperature.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 34B2969B

Sample Conditioning And Contaminant Removal For Water Vapor Content Determination In Natural Gas
Author(s): Brad Massey
Abstract/Introduction:
The Natural Gas Industry experiences numerous operational problems associated with high water vapor content in the natural gas stream. As a result several problems are experienced such as, equipment freezes, dilution of physical properties reducing heating value, volume measurement interference, and pipeline corrosion. Contracts and Tariffs usually limit the amount of water vapor content allowed at the custody transfer point. For these and other reasons, accurate Water Vapor Dewpoint measurements are critical measurements for all companies involved in natural gas production, gathering, transmission and delivery.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 8E8361BA

Techniques Of Gas Composite Sampling
Author(s): Matthew S. Parrott
Abstract/Introduction:
While inaccuracies in measurement can be costly and common, they are also avoidable in many cases. Technicians willing to study the experiences and be st practices of industry leaders can make a world of difference by applying what theyve learned and sharing this knowledge with others. Composite sampling is a straightforward method. When managed correctly, samplers are able to take small bites of a flowing gas or liquid in such a way that the complete sample accurately represents what was in the pipeline for a given sample period.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 6452C123

Multipath Ultrasonic Flow Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Peter Kucmas
Abstract/Introduction:
A discussion of ultrasonic equipment technology and techniques utilized to perform gas flow measurement. Why multi-path? Flow profile distortion under normal process conditions causes ultrasonic flow meters the either under report or over report the measured volumetric flow. Multi-path ultrasonic flow meters can provide a measurement while maintaining within their uncertainty as compared to single path ultrasonic measurement solutions. Multi-path meters can also provide a window into the changing process conditions by presenting multitudes of diagnostics and calculations beyond the flow measurement.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 02A23281

Sampling Challenges Associated With Unconventional Gas Source
Author(s): Mark Firmin
Abstract/Introduction:
Advances in exploration, drilling and production technologies make it feasible to extract natural gas from sources that in the past have been regarded as unconventional and so, such sources are becoming a larger percentage o f the gas supply. The feasibility of producing gas from a source is the primary factor in determining whether that source should be categorized as conventional or unconventional. What has been unconventional in the past may be considered conventional in the future.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: AA4EC722

Introduction To Measurement Uncertainty
Author(s): Richard Estabrook
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the concepts of both uncertainty and bias in measurement, discusses the need to eliminate bias prior to performing an uncertainty calculation, outlines the difference between component uncertainty and system uncertainty, and provides several sample calculations. This paper also introduces simple statistical methods such as standard deviation and mean.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 9F402CBA

Custody Transfer Crude Oil Sampling Systems
Author(s): Gary Potten
Abstract/Introduction:
As sampling applications become more diverse it becomes increasingly challenging to achieve a representative sample for use in fiscal, allocation, and custody transfer. It is therefore important that a sampling systems performance is evaluated on a regular basis so that any limitations are identified to mitigate the risks to measurement accuracy and uncertainty. It is often difficult to conduct water injection certification tests of sampling systems due to the process conditions (varying water cut baseline, high pressure etc.) or the application (lack of space, access etc.). However each step in the chain of uncertainty of sampling should be analysed so that the overall uncertainty is both understood and determined to be within acceptable limits with respect to the transaction risks.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 7C3F0D61

Communication Systems For Gas Measurement Data
Author(s): Ben Hamilton
Abstract/Introduction:
This is an update of my 2009 ISHM paper with the same title it contains revisions and additional content. Communications systems range from the simple to complex we have a lot of choices to make! Making the best choices and avoiding the pitfalls can mean the difference between success and failure. The trend is to locate the polling engine in a data center or business office, remote from the production field or pipeline. This trend creates demands for connectivity equipped with an Ethernet digital interface. The business reality is that we must use capital wisely and control recurring cost while providing the service that our internal and external customers demand. Systems must be well documented to be maintain able. We must be able to define the quality of the connection and measure it (you cant manage what you cant measure). The connections to remote equipment may be isolated on hard to reach locations and they may be relocated from time-to-time. These and many other considerations may appear to make our decision making task impossible. The reality is that we dont have to choose a single option for all our needs. In fact complex systems usually rely on numerous connectivity methods. Some of the options are described here.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 1A0F02E5

Uncertainties Within The Centrifuge Method
Author(s): Allen Wong
Abstract/Introduction:
The centrifuge method is widely used to determine the a mount of water and/or sediment in crude oil as part of the custody transfer process. The parties involved in a transaction would benefit to minimize the uncertainties involved. Pipeline companies publish the quantity of water and sediment it will contractually accept. Maintaining a balanced system is crucial to the business of a pipeline company. This paper discusses what could be the contributing factor s to uncertainties related to the centrifuge methods with the assumption that a homogenous sample was obtained from the process line. Proper mixing, temperature control, visual aids to enhance reading ability, training, equipment with consistent performance and capable to provide the required relative centrifugal force are some of the contributing factors.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: A39B6DD5

Economics Of Electronic Gas Measurement
Author(s): Tom Cleveland
Abstract/Introduction:
When a new technology comes along that has the potential to make the existing technology obsolete, there is a time lag before the new technology becomes the norm. During the 1970s and 1980s, EGM was new, chart recorders had been the norm for decades, and skepticism of the new technology was high. Back office measurement departments were staffed up with chart integration equipment and experts to run it. Technicians and well operators in the field were accustomed to seeing a nice graphical picture of the meters flowing variables and typically were trained on how to calculate flow rates and volumes by hand just from looking at the chart. The technicians became experts in calibrating the chart recorders and everyone was in a nice comfort zone. The transition to a major change of technology, such as EGM, was not going to happen overnight!
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: A26B4C8B

Determination Of Trace Oxygen In Natural Gas
Author(s): Sam Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
The necessity for trace oxygen measurements is increasing with requirements below 100 or 10ppmv. An understanding of the considerations when choosing technology for measuring Oxygen is useful especially for remote locations or locations with high levels of corrosive contaminants such as CO2 and H2S. This paper discusses a variety of measurement methods used in natural gas such as Galvanic Cell method, the Quench Florescence method and the Gas Chromatograph method.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 31A06994

Inline Color Measurement Of Refined Product And Condensate
Author(s): Steven W Schoenborn
Abstract/Introduction:
Crude oil refiners and natural gas producers have long used color determination of liquid hydrocarbon streams for manufacturing and quality control purposes. However, the testing methods to determine color were normally conducted manually (offline) by sample analysis, often requiring so me level of sample conditioning. Now, advances in process photometry has created devices capable of inline color measurement of liquid hydrocarbon streams-all in real time and under process conditions. This ability allows crude oil refineries, natural gas processers, and pipeline owners an opportunity to monitor/control manufacturing process parameters where it couldnt be done before, and as a result, a real time opportunity to increase product quality, control product manufacture, and monitor product transfer.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 6C12CD8F

Production Equipment Effects On Orifice Gas Measurement
Author(s): Stormy Phillips
Abstract/Introduction:
The condition of gas as it presents itself in the pipeline is often not ideal for accurate measurement, by an orifice flow meter. It is the requirement of the American Gas Association (AGA) that the natural gas be in a single phase and with a swirl-free fully developed profile as it passes across the orifice plate to meet the standard of measurement to provide acceptable uncertainty for t he flow calculation. Thus it is often necessary to condition the gas prior to measurement. Using the basic laws of gases we can control these conditions by altering the temperature, pressure, or component makeup of the gas. Neglecting these conditions will create a poor measurement environment and inaccurate measurement. It is therefore necessary for measurement personnel to be familiar with common production equipment, how that equipment is utilized and what effect it can have on the overall ability for a system to provide accurate measurement.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: CC95A1D7

Identifying And Eliminating Effects Of Induced Signals On Measurement System Electronics
Author(s): Peter P. Jakubenas
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement errors and other effects of induced signals on measurement system electronic equipment can be quite profound. This paper will explore the sources and effects of induced signals and other phenomena including effects of cathodic protection systems, high voltage power lines, faulty grounds, lightning, RFI, and intermittent events. Information to prevent and eliminate undesirable signals and technical references are provided.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 97F5759B

Ethernet For Scada Systems
Author(s): Denis Rutherford
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will cover the implementation of Ethernet applications in SCADA system communications and architecture. Supervisory Control and Data acquisition (SCADA) systems provide a superior base for better controlled facilities in the upstream, midstream and pipelines for oil and gas facilities. Computerized handling of remote installations is integrated with communications and provides means for reducing the operating cost, cost of maintenance and effective handling of the Oil and Gas network. System parameters communicated via wireless data network must present true conditions related to the status of the field equipment including the Custody Transfer Measurement Systems. In likewise manner, commands sent to remote sites must be promptly executed and the back indication is to be sent to the control center.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 0A3BC24B

Real Time Electronics Gas Measurement
Author(s): Peter Kucmas
Abstract/Introduction:
Device diagnostics are extremely common in todays electronically enabled process control and measurement devices. Today the use of diagnostic data varies over an extremely wide range from end user operational needs to meeting requirements, standards and regulatory mandates. Modern regulations such as Directive 17 (western Canada) embrace technology and allow diagnostics to be used in proper circumstances to augment physical inspections of measurement devices such as but not limited to Coriolis flow meters, ultrasonic flow meters, pressure, temperature transmitters, level devices and any process instrumentation with an electronic processor. In the past decade detailed diagnostics from measurement devices tended to be monitored exclusively on high value or high risk assets but this trend of diagnostic monitoring is extending dramatically to other applications such as process control . The ultimate goal is for predicting the need for maintenance and or device calibration and ultimately to predict a drift in measurement uncertainty as well as the magnitude of that drift.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 0FB768AE

Spread Spectrum Radio Technology For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Ben Hamilton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper focuses on the Spread Spectrum Radio applications in the 902 -928 MHz ISM band for unlicensed radio. It is suggested that the reader do a Google search for FCC OET Bulletin 63 and read the FCC bulletin for a description of the service. Another good source of information can be found with a Google search for FCCPart15regulationsSemtech.pdf. Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS), is becoming the preferred communications technology for the EFM gas measurement systems. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) allocated spectrums in several bands for unlicensed use (CFR 47, part 15-the FCC rules). Equipment manufacturers developed high quality, low cost equipment with robust features. The end users of this technology have accepted the innovations and quickly deployed it. The demand for more information and the ability to remotely manage well site automation equipment has accelerated the use of this technology.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F9C38759

Smart Transmitter Selection, Calibration And Installation
Author(s): Derya Dikbas
Abstract/Introduction:
Smart transmitter is a microprocessor-based measurement device that combines analog and digital circuitry to compute process parameters in desired units. Embedded Analog-Digital circuitry in smart transmitters offer higher accuracy, extra functionality with better long-term stability compared to analog transmitters. However, suitable devices election with proper field installation is crucial to take advantage of smart transmitters superior features. Selecting transmitter to meet application specific requirements can be overwhelming. A variety of features are listed by manufacturers to propose distinguishing products in response to market needs. Understanding the characteristics of process entity and understanding field requirements are necessary for choosing the right device for customer-specific application. The device offering the best accuracy available in the market can operate poorly if the installation is not performed properly. Using protection equipment, proper grounding and applying measurement adjustments are important in order to receive the best performance from the purchased transmitter.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 17860AC5

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement I
Author(s): Douglas Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
To truly understand gas measurement, a person must understand gas measurement fundamentals. This includes the units of measurement, the behavior of the gas molecule, the property of gases, the gas laws, and the methods and means of measuring gas. Since the quality of gas is often the responsibility of the gas measurement technician, it is important that they have an under standing of natural gas chemistry.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F4E1C9B3

Real Time Electronics Gas Measurement
Author(s): Peter Kucmas
Abstract/Introduction:
Device diagnostics are extremely common in todays electronically enabled process control and measurement devices. Today the use of diagnostic data varies over an extremely wide range from end user operational needs to meeting requirements, standards and regulatory mandates. Modern regulations such as Directive 17 (western Canada) embrace technology and allow diagnostics to be used in proper circumstances to augment physical inspections of measurement devices such as but not limited to Coriolis flow meters, ultrasonic flow meters, pressure, temperature transmitters, level devices and any process instrumentation with an electronic processor. In the past decade detailed diagnostics from measurement devices tended to be monitored exclusively on high value or high risk assets but this trend of diagnostic monitoring is extending dramatically to other applications such as process control. The ultimate goal is for predicting the need for maintenance and or device calibration and ultimately to predict a drift in measurement uncertainty as well as the magnitude of that drift.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 232237C6

Smart Transmitter Selection, Calibration And Installation
Author(s): Derya Dikbas
Abstract/Introduction:
Smart transmitter is a microprocessor-based measurement device that combines analog and digital circuitry to compute process parameters in desired units. Embedded Analog-Digital circuitry in smart transmitters offer higher accuracy, extra functionality with better long-term stability compared to analog transmitters. However, suitable device s election with proper field installation is crucial to take advantage of smart transmitters superior features. Selecting transmitter to meet application specific requirements can be overwhelming. A variety of features are listed by manufacturers to propose distinguishing products in response to market needs. Understanding the characteristics of process entity and understanding field requirements are necessary for choosing the right device for customer-specific application. The device offering the best accuracy available in the market can operate poorly if the installation is not performed properly. Using protection equipment, proper grounding and applying measurement adjustments are important in order to receive the best performance from the purchased transmitter.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C019E813

Simplifying Real-Time And Historical EFM Data Collection For The Oil & Gas Industry
Author(s): Stephen Sponseller
Abstract/Introduction:
An Industrial Control System (ICS) is comprised of many disparate components, including hardware and software technologies, system infrastructure -from the communications network to the physical plant infrastructure-, the human element for tasks that require manual intervention, and the environment. To realize operational excellence, organizations must monitor and manage all aspects of the control system, turning data into usable business intelligence. To accomplish this, all the components that make up the control system must seamlessly interoperate with one another as if provided by a single vendor. The system must be both reliable and able to withstand the elements that can impact operation. And it must be extensible over time with the ability to scale and meet the needs of tomorrow. Lastly, the proper amount of security and safety must be built into the system to prevent costly downtime and damage, while safeguarding the environment and the surrounding community.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: B3AAD617

Testing Maintenance And Operation Of Electronic Flow Computers For The Gas Industry
Author(s): Denis Rutherford
Abstract/Introduction:
Say goodbye to obsolete chart recorder technology and bulky multi-component flow computers with the Electronic Flow Computer (EFM). The EFM is a solar-powered single to multi run flow computer, an evolution in gas measurement technology. Designed for use in remote locations where solar is the only power and technician access is less than ideal, the EFM incorporates a dedicated single run flow computer, solar/battery power supply and communication system within an all-in-one, compact, easy-to install package. The EFM requires a Man-Machine Interface (MMI) to configure the EFM. The MMI or Configuration Software allows editing of the flow computer configuration parameters with configuration dialog for process inputs, contract specifications, compressibility calculations, and flow calculations for each meter run.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 355175A5

The Evolution Of Data Collection For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jackson Kyle Bates
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief snapshot on the current state of measurement data collection now being utilized by the Natural Gas Measurement Industry. Although our industry is now in a significant downturn, over the last five years we have seen a large increase of individuals entering the industry for the first time. The employees new to the industry, specifically measurement, are not always familiar with the various types of remote measurement data collection methods and often request training specific to this very topic. I think there is great benefit in providing a current state summary of measurement data collection as we sit today and discuss how technology and metrics are continuously being utilized to help shape the future of remote measurement data collection in the Natural Gas industry.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 07ED2CFE

Manufactured Meter Pulses - An Explanation
Author(s): Robert Fritz
Abstract/Introduction:
The electronic interface between flow meters and flow computers takes a couple of different forms (i.e. a current loop proportional to flow rate, a voltage loop proportional flow rate, or electronic pulses representing a volume). For the remainder of this paper we are going consider only the electronic pulse interface. These electronic pulses are typically generated by a change in voltage and take the form of a square wave similar to those shown in figure 1.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: FA6086C6

Transient Lightning Protection For Electronic Measurement Devices
Author(s): Leon Black
Abstract/Introduction:
We have all heard of or seen the devastating effects of a direct lightning burst. Communication equipment destroyed. Transmitters and EFM devices vaporized into slag metal. Complete process and measurement systems down with extended recovery times. These effects are the most dramatic and the easiest to trace. However, these kinds of events are rare. The more prominent events are those that occur on a day-to-day basis without we, the user, even knowing. With the advent of the transistor and today when surface mount electronics is the norm and not the exception, transient suppression has become a science of necessity. Tight tolerances of voltage requirements and limited current carrying capabilities makes the new compact integrated circuits much more susceptible to many types of transients.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F2C73776

Data Validation - Requirements Of An EGM Editor
Author(s): Kandi Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement is a time-critical function in which an Electronic Gas Measurement (EGM) Editor is necessary in order to conduct good business and practice sound measurement. The Natural Gas and Liquids industry of today is technology-driven with an adherence to industry standards and government regulation as a premise for the structure and foundation of the EGM Editor application. Contractual requirements based on industry standards provide further incentive and direction for a platform that can meet the needs of its customers through a multi-faceted approach that incorporates necessary attributes for effective and thorough data validation, compliance, and reporting.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 446FE8E6

OPC Fundamentals
Author(s): Stephen Sponseller
Abstract/Introduction:
In the mid-1990s, a group of vendors convened to address the growing concern regarding connectivity to the plant floor referred to as the Device Driver Problem. At that time, HMI and SCADA vendors were responsible for building their own driver libraries. This approach created great solutions when it included all the connectivity requirements that their end users would need, but incomplete solutions when it did not. The vendors were faced with a decision: they either needed to invest resource application-level functionality or extend connectivity.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 04F4BEE1

Recent Innovations In License Ethernet Industrial Data Radio Technology For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Roy Rosado
Abstract/Introduction:
License industrial radios have been successfully used for gas measurement applications for over 25 years. In the past these systems were mostly serial communication to a few critical devices that required less than 5 KBPs of bandwidth and were used to achieve very long distance and highly reliable communication. License radios have proven to be extremely valuable and allow for the automation of forward-deployed devices in diverse applications. However, during the last five years, we have seen significant introductions of innovative license Ethernet industrial data radio technologies that dramatically optimize the performance and reliability of a telemetry network, while at the same time lowering the total deployment cost of the same. By migrating to these newer technologies, gas companies can now, more than ever, seamlessly monitor and control all of their geographically dispersed gas measuring devices and gain unprecedented access to real-time information, to enhance their ability to make just-in-time decisions.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F6578A31

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement II
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
A knowledge of the Fundamentals of Gas Measurement is essential for all technicians and engineers that are called upon to perform gas volume calculations. These same people should have at least a working knowledge of the fundamentals to perform their everyday jobs including equipment calibrations, specific gravity tests, collecting gas samples, etc. To understand the fundamentals, one must be familiar with the definitions of the terms that are used in day-to-day gas measurement operations. They also must know how to convert some values from one quantity as measured to another quantity that is called for in the various custody transfer agreements. Below are listed some of the most commonly used terms and their definitions along with some examples of various conversions that must be made from time to time by people working in the natural gas industry.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 79BDE6C1

SCADA And Field Data Capture In The Cloud
Author(s): Shawn Cutter
Abstract/Introduction:
In our currently volatile commodity market, data is the new economy. It is used to drive the creation of information and value across every industry. In the world of hydrocarbons, the necessity of tangible things like drill bits and tubulars have long been understood, but possessing the right information at the right time is the latest intangible invaluable asset needed. Information technology has enabled oil and gas companies to eliminate countless man hours and improve efficiency throughout the hydrocarbon value chain. Data now flows in real time from the field to backend reporting systems where it is transformed into actionable information, delivering value to internal and external users alike.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 0413E7E5

Calibration Of Liquid Provers
Author(s): Nathan Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
A meter prover is used to calibrate custody transfer meters to establish a meter factor. The volume that passes through the meter is compared to the prover volume during the time taken for a sphere or piston to pass between two detector switches. The prover volume must be accurately determined by a calibration procedure known as the Water Draw method.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 344C71E5

Effective Use Of Deadweight Testers
Author(s): Scott Crone
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most difficult problems facing the instrument engineer is the accurate calibration of pressure or differential pressure measuring instruments. The deadweight tester or gauge is the economic answer to many of these problems. The instrument engineer will typically specify the deadweight tester and the technician will use the standard. For both parties, it is essential to understand certain aspects of deadweight tester operation, concepts related to the design and operation, and the best use practices for the instruments. This paper describes concepts related to and methods to select deadweight testers and gauges. Also included are procedures for using pneumatic and hydraulic deadweight testers.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 847AC397

Guide To Troubleshooting Problems With Liquid Meters And Provers
Author(s): Jerry Upton
Abstract/Introduction:
As one of my true and trusted friends says, Counting is easy, but measuring is not so easy. What he means by this is, without establishing any rules you and I could agree on how many tanks there are in a tank farm. The difficulty comes in when we start to try and agree upon how many barrels or cubic meters are in the tanks. Measurement becomes more difficult when the things that we rely on to do the measuring, meters and provers, are not predictable in their performance. When this happens, quite often the reason for the unpredictability is not apparent. However, because of the value of todays liquid hydrocarbons, the problem must be corrected in a timely manner. Therefore someone must analyze the situation and eliminate each possible contributor to the problem until only one remains. This process is called troubleshooting. Thats what we will be talking about in this paper. Because of space constraints and knowledge limitations, especially the later, this paper is not an exhaustive list of problems and solutions. But, hopefully we will discuss something that might be of some help to some people. We will start with the different type of provers in use today.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 9DE5D7F2

In-Situ (On-Site) Gas Meter Proving
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr. James N. Witte Adam Hawley
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas flow rate measurement errors at field meter stations can result from the installation configuration, the calibration of the meter at conditions other than the actual operating conditions, or the degradation of meter performance over time. The best method for eliminating these or other sources of error is with in-situ (on-site) calibration of the meter. That is, the measurement accuracy of the field meter station should be verified under actual operating conditions by comparing to a master meter or prover. Comparisons of flow meters in the field have been performed for nearly as long as flow meters have been in existence. For example, Figure 1 shows an orifice meter being compared to three 60-A tin meters (a.k.a., diaphragm meters) in Rosedale, Kansas in 1921. 1 Each tin meter had the flow capacity of 1,800 standard cubic feet per hour. In this particular test, a 1.6% difference in reading was discovered between the orifice meter and the tin meters.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 544D28E8

Flow Calibrating Ultrasonic Gas Meters
Author(s): Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary method for custody transfer measurement has traditionally been orifice metering. While this method has been a good form of measurement, technology has driven the demand for a new, more effective form of fiscal measurement. Ultrasonic flowmeters have gained popularity in recent years and have become the standard for large volume custody transfer applications for a variety of reasons. Most users require flow calibrations to improve meter performance and overall measurement uncertainty. The latest revision of AGA Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters, Second Addition Ref 1, now requires flow calibration for ultrasonic flow meters when being used for custody transfer applications.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: E5C54756

In-Situ (On-Site) Gas Meter Proving
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr James N. Witte Adam Hawley
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas flow rate measurement errors at field meter stations can result from the installation configuration, the calibration of the meter at conditions other than the actual operating conditions, or the degradation of meter performance over time. The best method for eliminating these or other sources of error is with in-situ (on-site) calibration of the meter. That is, the measurement accuracy of the field meter station should be verified under actual operating conditions by comparing to a master meter or prover. Comparisons of flow meters in the field have been performed for nearly as long as flow meters have been in existence. For example, Figure 1 shows an orifice meter being compared to three 60-A tin meters (a.k.a., diaphragm meters) in Rosedale, Kansas in 1921. 1 Each tin meter had the flow capacity of 1,800 standard cubic feet per hour.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: AAA62069

L.A.C.T. Unit Proving - The Role Of The Witness Class
Author(s): C. Bynum Vincent
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid hydrocarbons removed from the ground must get to market via one of two ways. They are transported via pipeline or tanker truck from production facilities to pipeline systems, which transport the product to the refinery for processing. Once processed, the liquids are once again sent via tanker truck or pipeline to the distribution points downstream. Whether these fluids are purchased or consigned to common carriers, there is transaction called a custody transfer conducted to transfer ownership of the product for transportation or distribution. In each of these instances, a representative from each party involved in the custody transfer trans action is generally present to observe or witness the events of each transaction.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: AF5C2B8E

Liquid Flow Provers
Author(s): Greg Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
This document will provide the reader an understanding of what a prover is, the need for proving meters for accurate measurement verification, the equipment deemed acceptable and available for use in the oil and liquefied gas market. It will also define the general terminology used in the industry, general operational aspects for verification devices, and general information utilized by the groups and agencies that govern the meter verification process.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F7CA760E

Liquid Flow Provers
Author(s): Greg Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
This document will provide the reader an understanding of what a prover is, the need for proving meters for accurate measurement verification, the equipment deemed acceptable and available for use in the oil and liquefied gas market. It will also define the general terminology used in the industry, general operational aspects for verification devices, and general information utilized by the groups and agencies that govern the meter verification process.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: ACB35806

Determination Of Trace Oxygen In Natural Gas
Author(s): Sam Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
The necessity for trace oxygen measurements is increasing with requirements below 100 or 10ppmv. An understanding of the considerations when choosing technology for measuring Oxygen is useful especially for remote locations or locations with high levels of corrosive contaminants such as CO2 and H2S. This paper discusses a variety of measurement methods used in natural gas such as Galvanic Cell method, the Quench Florescence method and the Gas Chromatograph method. Oxygen can be found in various types of natural gas streams. These streams include vacuum systems and traditional pipeline systems. Vacuum systems include landfills, vacuum oil recovery systems, and coal mine methane, all of which can contain percent-level oxygen whereas interstate transmission pipelines typically contain only 100 ppm of oxygen.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 80C97741

Introduction To Gas Quality Using Spectroscopy
Author(s): Sohrab Zarrabian
Abstract/Introduction:
Optical spectroscopy methods are finding increased applications in analysis of natural gas from processing to the point of use. These applications are expected to grow in the coming years. This paper is aimed at helping beginning level technician get a broad overview of this topic. It will cover the fundamentals of optical spectroscopy as applied to natural gas analysis, without the use of rigorous mathematical and physical concepts. The discussion is then followed by each type of spectroscopy that is finding applications in natural gas including absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and fluorescence quenching spectroscopy. The focus is on field-deplorable methods and not laboratory based techniques.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: E4A29E54

Proper Handling & Maintenance Of Natural Gas Calibration Cylinders
Author(s): Russell Wenzel
Abstract/Introduction:
Much time and effort is spent measuring various hydrocarbon related concerns in natural gas and liquid streams and many dollars are exchanged everyday related to the results of these measurements. Sometimes little of this time and effort is spent considering pure and calibration gas and liquid mixtures quality, safe use, and cost optimization. The results of these measurements are only as good as the quality and accuracy of these calibration standards and pure carrier gasses.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: FED429F1

Causes And Cures Of Regulator Instability
Author(s): Paul Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the gas pressure reducing regulator installation and the issue of erratic control of the downstream pressure. A gas pressure reducing regulators job is to manipulate flow in order to control pressure. When the downstream pressure is not properly controlled, the term unstable control is applied. Figure 1 is a list of other terms used for various forms of downstream pressure instability. This paper will not address the mathematical methods of describing the automatic control system of the pressure reducing station, but will deal with more of the components and their effect on the system stability.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: B35AAE54

Orifice Meters: Operation And Maintenance
Author(s): Byron Saunders
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the first test data was published by U.S. Geo logical Survey in 1913, orifice meters have been one of the most widely used devices f or measuring gas flow. The publicly available data sets and the relatively simple technology ensured the growth of an innovative, competitive market that continues to push the boundaries of orifice metering applications. While the core principals of orifice metering remain unchanged over the past century, the maintenance and operation continue to evolve to meet the challenges presented by new meter designs, tighter tolerances and unnatural, natural gas flows.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 1559BE9C

Overpressure Protection Methods
Author(s): Kevin Burke
Abstract/Introduction:
Over-pressure protective devices are of vital concern to the gas industry. Safety codes and current laws require their installation each time a pressure reducing station is installed that supplies gas from any system to another system with a lower maximum allowable operating pressure. The purpose of this article is to provide a systematic review of the various methods of providing the over-pressure protection. Advantages and disadvantages of each method are evaluated, and engineering guidelines are provided.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 89E0C749

Prevention Of Freezing In Measurement And Regulating Stations
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The failure to supply natural gas upon demand can cause irreparable damage to a companys corporate image in the 21 st Century. Consistent and continuous pipeline operations are key and critical factors in todays natural gas pipeline industry. With todays supply and reserves of natural gas, there is no excuse for failure to deliver product to the end-user. The competitive nature of the business, together with the strict rules and regulations of natural gas supply, mandate that companies stay on top of all operational parameters that could cause interrupt ion or complete shut-down of the natural gas supply to customers. Identifying what may ultimately cause problems is a first step to controlling and eliminating those problems for the supplier.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 56C16860

Selection, Sizing And Operation Of Control Valves For Gases And Liquids
Author(s): Will Sjobeck
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper flow valve selection and sizing
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: CA8A9731

Turbulence And Its Effects In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Terrence A. Grimley Edgar B. Bowles, Jr. Adam Hawley
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many misconceptions and misunderstandings about pipe flow turbulence and its influences on flow measuring and flow regulating stations in gas and liquid transport pipelines. Many volumes have been written on the subject of flow turbulence. This paper is not intended to be a comprehensive treatment of the subject of pipe flow turbulence, but does discuss fundamental concepts and terminology, and provides information on how flow turbulence and its effects can adversely affect flow measurement and flow regulation. This information can give pipeline measurement station and regulation station designers and operators insight into ways to minimize possible adverse effects of flow turbulence.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 902D3933

Flow Meter Installation Effects
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr. Jacob Thorson
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many causes for natural gas flow rate measurement errors at field meter stations. Many of the sources for meter error are identified in the proceedings of this conference. For instance, errors can result from an improper installation configuration, calibration of a meter at conditions other than the actual operating conditions, or degradation of meter performance over time. Industry standards have been developed to help meter station designers and operators avoid situations that would produce gas metering errors. Typically, gas meter standards address meter design, construction, installation, operation, and maintenance. Most of the standards focus on the flow meter and the piping immediately upstream and downstream of the meter. Research has shown that many meter types, particularly inferential meters, are susceptible to errors when the flow field at the meter is distorted. The sources of flow field distortions are many.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 39C779FC

Overview Of The Committee On Production Measurement And Allocation
Author(s): Rick Gebbia Justin Corwin
Abstract/Introduction:
Custody transfer measurement quantities, usually quantified at some set of determined standard conditions of pressure and temperature, become the starting point for the allocation. These quantities and the associated measured distributions (fuel, flare, etc.) are allocated back to their original production sources. The measurements involved in determining the distribution s are called production allocation measurements. The individual allocation measurements, samples and associated calculations determine the allocation theoretical basis and provide the percentage of the total production which is attributable to an individual reservoir, field, or well. The need for allocation and allocation measurement is driven by the fact that it is common for produced fluids to be commingled and transported or processed at common facilities. Determining actual production quantities, stated at some determined standard conditions, is important for compliance with regulatory and environmental requirements, as well as facility optimization and reservoir management.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 7B609D6F

Auditing Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Lane Hedrick Linda A. Larson,
Abstract/Introduction:
An effective audit of liquid hydrocarbon measurement is dependent upon a solid understanding of the measurement process combined with the application of sound internal auditing principles. The quality of liquid measurement activities is contingent upon (1) the reliability of the measurement equipment and instrumentation used (2) the specific procedures and practices followed in performing t he measurement activities (3) the adequacy of training and proper performance of the measurement technician and (4) the proper documentation of transactions based on a measured value. All four components must be taken into consideration when auditing liquid measurement. In addition, to ensure the efficiency of the audit process, auditors must identify those areas which present the greatest risk to the organization to achieving its goals, and concentrate audit effort on those areas.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: FE169414

Orifice Meter Primary Elements Standards
Author(s): Hunter Ward
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter is the most predominately utilized device for measurement of natural gas. Its dominant presence in the natural gas industry stems from many years of acceptance as the primary means for accurate measurement. In 2000, revised manufacturing an inspection standards, along with new technology for flow enhancement have improved the overall accuracy of orifice metering. Though other measurement devices and technologies have made significant impact, the orifice meter stands as the dominant device for several reasons:
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: A453ACAE

Auditing Electronic Gas Measurement Per API Chapter 21.1
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
API 21.1 is recognized as an international industry standard documenting the Electronic Gas Measurement (EGM) system audit and record requirements for differential and linear meter measurement. This standard is used by the measurement community to reduce the overall EGM system uncertainty and improve measurement data integrity. Measurement data integrity plays a critical part in overall measurement accuracy for all organizations and has a direct impact to the financial bottom line. Measurement integrity is also vital for ensuring compliance with regulatory and industry standard requirements.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 3AB1AE8B

Auditing Gas Measurement And Accounting Systems
Author(s): Johna m. Smothermon
Abstract/Introduction:
An audit is an investigation of records to determine the accuracy of compliance and implementation. Performing an audit or getting audited does not need to be viewed as a negative but as a double check. Since there are human errors and technological errors, double checking or auditing the data is a precaution that is used by companies. Both parties want the gas that is being produced measured with the highest accuracy possible. Auditing does just that and has the ability to benefit either the producer or the buyer of natural gas.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 87412433

Thermometry In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jorge A. Delgado
Abstract/Introduction:
The temperature in natural gas is dynamic, when gas molecules are compressed they heat up, and as they expand after flowing through a restriction it cools down. Gas temperature it is also affected by external elements such as the temperature of the pipe. It is also good to note that the greater the temperature measurement error, the higher the measurement uncertainty becomes.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 3D73E086

API Mpms Chapter 22.2: Testing Protocol For Differential Pressure Flow Measurement Devices
Author(s): Richard Estabrook
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents a general overview of Chapter 22.2, including its history and expected changes to the next published edition. This paper highlights the required tests, the information required from the manufacturer, test facility requirements, and requirements for uncertainty and statistical significance determination.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: B2E02C5D

Influencing Planning, Operations And Closing Of Commercial Business Through Efficient Measurement
Author(s): Bill Morrow
Abstract/Introduction:
Field measurement is the beginning, but not the only part of a complete measurement practice. Measurements are brought in to central locations, and ultimately used to determine customers bills and suppliers payments. But in between the two extremes of field metering and financial calculations, many steps are required to transform the initial data into its final form. These may be literally steps, as your staff walks down the hallway with paper or floppy disk in hand or follows instructions to manually key data in to a system while reading from a faxed report.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: EBF3204B

Combining Intrinsic Safety With Surge Protection In The Hydrocarbon Industry
Author(s): Dan Mccreery
Abstract/Introduction:
First, many of the areas in and around pumping, custody transfer and storage areas are classified, or hazardous, that must, according to the National Electric Code, be assessed for explosion-proofing. This may be in the form of intrinsic safety barriers or isolators, explosion-proof enclosures and conduits, purged enclosures or non-incendive components.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C05100B5

Dot Qualification Training For Measurement And Control Technicians
Author(s): Joey Rockett
Abstract/Introduction:
The Pipeline Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) passed regulation that stated by October 26, 1999 Pipeline Operators who were subject to 49 CFR 192 and 195, were required to develop and maintain a written qualification program for individuals performing covered tasks on pipeline facilities. The intent of this qualification rule was to ensure a qualified work force and to reduce the probability and consequence of incidents caused by human error. It established qualification requirements for individuals performing covered tasks, and amended certain training requirements in the hazardous liquid regulations.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: D1CC4527

Interface Detection In Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): Craig Mcwhorter
Abstract/Introduction:
The basic concept of interface detection is simple: detect and direct the flow of different fluids, or batches, through pipelines. The implementation, however, can be very complicated. The goal of interface detection is to time the switching or cut of the product in such a way that delivers the maximum quantity of product to customers without downgrading the quality of the product. In the case of transmix, the goal is to minimize the quantity of fluid requiring re-refining. In order to avoid the potential contamination of any product by the interface, operators tend to be conservative in cutting batches, but this can result in increased product downgrade or sending some on-spec product to the slop tank. With the large mix and high cost of todays specialty fuels, accurate interface detection is key to maximizing profits.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F2B2EA14

Multi-phase Flow Measurement
Author(s): Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of unprocessed hydrocarbon flows is becoming more prevalent in the hydrocarbon production industry. Multi-phase meters are now often integral in the design plans for new developments. However, the phrase multi-phase flow covers a huge range of flow conditions and metering these varied flows has proven a major challenge to engineers. Furthermore, due to the relatively recent arrival of these technologies on the market, and, the relatively complex and proprietary nature of the products leading to the finer details of operation not being divulged, there is often a lack of technical understanding among the multi-phase meter users. In this paper, definitions of the phrases multi-phase flow and wet gas flow will be discussed.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 72409C95

Odorization Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Kenneth S. Parrott
Abstract/Introduction:
In the one hundred and thirty years or so that we have known natural gas as a fuel source in the United States, the demand for natural gas has grown at an astounding rate. There is virtually no area of North America that doesnt have natural gas provided as an energy source. The methods of producing, transporting, measuring, and delivering this valuable resource have advanced, and improved in direct relation to the demand for a clean burning and efficient fuel. While todays economic climate determines the rate of growth the gas industry enjoys, in a broad sense, natural gas is certainly considered essential and a fuel of the future.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 72004306

Overview Of Gpa 2172/API 14.5 Revision
Author(s): Don Sextro
Abstract/Introduction:
GPA Standard 2172-09/API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards Chapter 14, Section 5, Calculating Gross Heating Value, Relative Density, Compressibility and Theoretical Hydrocarbon Liquid Content for Natural Gas Mixtures for Custody Transfer, Third Edition, January 2009 finds wide application in the natural gas gathering and processing business as well as related natural gas handling activities because it provides methods to calculate these often-used parameters from a gas analysis. Several important changes occurred in the recent revision of this standard that became effective January 1, 2009. The main changes comprised in this revision provide methods for incorporating water vapor in to the analysis calculations, include theoretical hydrocarbon liquid content (GPM) calculations on a real gas basis in this standard, discuss characterizing heavy ends in the gas analysis as well as other analysis cautions and present a number of detailed example calculations. Refer to the standard itself for requirements, procedures, details and further explanation.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 669EA0F4

Meter Tube Dimensional Tolerances
Author(s): Molly Ryel
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter is one of the older devices that is utilized in the measurement and regulation of fluid flow. Romans regulated water flows to their homes by the use of orifice. Benoulli, Torricelli, and Venturi, discovered the original concept that the pressure of a flowing fluid varies as its velocity changes. When a flowing fluid is made to speed up by restricting the cross-sectional area of the flow stream, a portion of the pressure energy is converted into velocity energy and the pressure drops. Using this relationship with the fact that the quantity of the fluid flowing is equal to the product of the velocity times the cross-sectional area of the flow stream we can have flow measurement in the orifice meter. In order to correlate the theoretical flow with actual flow concepts there became a need for basic discharge-coefficient research to actually utilize these theories in custody transfer of products. In the early part of the last century the American Gas Association (AGA) established the Gas Measurement Committee to do just such.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 44BFABF7

Wet Gas Measurement
Author(s): Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Demand for wet gas flow measurement technologies has been increasing steadily for many years. As natural gas wells age the once dry natural gas production flow becomes wet natural gas as the dynamics of the reservoir change. Furthermore, with the value of hydrocarbon products rising steadily, reservoirs that were once considered not profitable, or marginal, are being produced. These marginal fields often produce wet gas flows from the outset. It is essential that these wet gas flows are mete red as accurately as possible.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 7380AEDD

The Role Of BLM In Oil And Gas Measurement
Author(s): Richard Estabrook
Abstract/Introduction:
BLM manages about 700 million acres of Federal and Indian mineral estate, which contributes a significant portion of domestic oil and gas production. BLMs role in oil and gas measurement is to ensure that volumes and qualities are accurately measured and properly reported, as Federal and Indian royalty is derived from these measurements. BLMs measurement requirements are dictated by Federal laws, from which BLM develops regulations, Onshore Orders, and Notices to Lessees. Most oil and gas measurement functions are carried out at the Field Office level through the approval of permits and variance requests.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 7558FBB6

Meter Selection
Author(s): Robert Fritz
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to provide general guidelines & criteria for the evaluation & selection of a high pressure gas meter, including a discussion of the basic operating principles and installation and maintenance considerations. This paper will concentrate primarily on four high pressure/high volume custody transfer flow meters, Orifice, Ultrasonic, Coriolis and Turbine. A short discussion will be provided for other alternative types of flow meters and different gas stream conditions.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: DA58D932

Cone Meters For Liquid And Gas Measurement
Author(s): Philip A Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will describe how cone meters differ from other differential pressure type meters as well as how they are used for the measurement of liquid and gas. The cone meter has become synonymous with specialist metering applications over the years due to the special traits that are inherent to this type of meter design. The original Venturi concept will be mentioned in the paper for first principle overview purposes. The Venturi original design was developed in 1791 by Hershel and other variants followed like the Burton Dunlingson Inverse Venturi (Patented in 1935). A cone meter can be described similarly as an inverse Venturi.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 1B865F60

Benefits Around Timely Analysis Of Measurement Data
Author(s): Kat Mcmaster
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to have timely measurement data has grown considerably over the years due to the age of electronic flow measurement, contracts, and competition. Timely data allows companies to more effectively and efficiently operate their systems, determine shortfalls, and meet the needs of their customers. Electronic flow measurement reviewed on an hourly granularity has 744 records per month on a 31 day calendar. If you process approximately 10,000 measurement sites, you could potentially review some 7,444,000 records.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 14725695

Measurement Management System
Author(s): Bruce Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
The value of hydrocarbon fluids is based upon basic customer expectations for delivery of a certain amount of a specific product at a certain time. These are universal customer expectations that apply to all products of value. Such expectations imply a requirement for a system to facilitate product movement and quality control. The measurement process is a critical component of such a system, providing process feedback data in the form of quantity, flow rate, pressure, and temperature for controlling movement. The measurement process also provides product composition for quality control. Hydrocarbon measurement can be considered a critical process, receiving certain inputs and performing certain tasks to produce results (data) to help facilitate the delivery of an expected amount of a certain product at an expected time.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 447E5069

Contributors To Historical Advances In Natural Gas Measurement
Author(s): Bruce Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas was discovered as seeps, in what is now known as Iran, between 6000 and 2000 BCE. When ignited, these seeps produced eternal flames having religious importance. The first known natural gas well was drilled in China in 211 BCE. It was drilled using bamboo poles and primitive percussion bits to a depth of 500 feet, and having the purpose of producing brine and natural gas trapped in limestone formations. By 1900 these wells numbered in the thousands, with depths greater than one-half mile. Produced brine and gas were transported via bamboo tubes to a processing site where the brine was emptied into cast iron evaporation pans. The gas was delivered to underground wooden facilities where it was mixed with air for use as fuel to evaporate the brine and produce salt.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 9599BD78

Fundamentals Of Catalytic Heaters In Measurement Applications
Author(s): Chad Richards
Abstract/Introduction:
Catalytic heaters are used in several areas within the natural gas industry. They are commonly used to prevent liquid distillation and freezing in natural gas, to heat a work space, to maintain operating temperatures on equipment or to maintain required measurement conditions of a natural gas sample. As relevant to measurement applications, this paper will cover the principals of catalytic heater function, installation and operation.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 21ECA42F

Measurement Management System
Author(s): Bruce Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
The value of hydrocarbon fluids is based upon basic customer expectations for delivery of a certain amount of a specific product at a certain time. These are universal customer expectations that apply to all products of value. Such expectations imply a requirement for a system to facilitate product movement and quality control. The measurement process is a critical component of such a system, providing process feedback data in the form of quantity, flow rate, pressure, and temperature for controlling movement. The measurement process also provides product composition for quality control. Hydrocarbon measurement can be considered a critical process, receiving certain inputs and performing certain tasks to produce results (data) to help facilitate the delivery of an expected amount of a certain product at an expected time.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 0F4CEFB2

Cyber Security
Author(s): David Blanco
Abstract/Introduction:
As a practical matter, the pressure to monitor and control large numbers of mission critical sites, the wide geographic distribution of these sites, and the environmental exposure of SCADA devices located at the sites, has driven the industry to low cost device solutions. The technological advances and evolving safety needs rapidly transformed Industrial Control Systems (ICS) from chart recorders to satellites and servers. Sites that werent even on a map were suddenly mapped on a communication network. While these innovations gave controllers more possibilities for production, they also gave hackers more opportunities for destruction. Once only able to delete and steal information, hackers now have the ability to control and destroy industrial equipment remotely and anonymously. This opportunity is so appealing that countries such as Russia, China, and Iran have created military departments dedicated to exploiting this phenomenon for political and economic leverage. The year 2014 saw 675,186 targeted attacks on Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems-more than quadruple from the previous year, which was itself doubled from the year before. 1: This issue is so pressing that the United States Government (USG) has become involved. Executive Order 13636 outlines the proactive and reactive steps that the USG will take in order to help industry prevent and mitigate cyber-security threats. 2: This document was quickly followed by action when the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) created several units to implement these policies such as the Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS - CERT) and the National Cyber-security and Communications Integration Center (NCCIC). 3: What the USG has not done, yet, is mandate security regulations.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 9AC3EC94

Understanding Hazardous Area Classifications
Author(s): Irvin Schwartzenburg
Abstract/Introduction:
The intent of this paper is to provide a high level understanding of hazardous are a classifications and common protection methods used in the oil and gas industry. This paper is informational only and is in no way meant to be a substitute for the readers own responsibility to research and correctly follow their applicable governmental, industry and company standards.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: DA1F966F

Flow Conditioning For Fluid Flow Measurement
Author(s): Blaine Sawchuk
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association (AGA) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) provide metering guidelines for orifice, ultrasonic, turbine, and other gas and liquid phase meters. In all of the metering recommendations, flow conditioning (FC) devices are recommended for a meter run. The function of the FC is to prepare the pipe flow to allow the flow meter to work as intended. Fundamentally, the function of a FC is to minimize metering facility life cycle costs: capital, operating, error costs. This is why FCs are always a popular topic of discussion, they establish those capital and operating costs for the metering facility right from the meter station design stage. Not all FCs are created equal and measurement error due to a poor design or installation could even be an additional unforeseen measurement error legal cost not included in this analysis.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: A9BF41C0

Natural Gas Vehicles: Whos In The Drivers Seat?
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr J. Christopher Buckingham Darin L. George
Abstract/Introduction:
With the discovery and development of vast domestic gas shales in the United States over the past decade, the country now has to decide how best to use a resource that will provide a tremendous amount of energy in the decades ahead. One appealing opportunity is broader utilization of natural-gas-fueled vehicles (a.k.a., NGVs). Vehicle manufacturers are increasing the number of their NGV offerings and the natural gas refueling infrastructure in the U.S. continues to expand-two key elements to broader utilization of NGVs in the future. This paper examines the future prospects for NGVs in the U.S. and discusses the measurement challenges associated with refueling NGVs.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: CCDDF6F0

Measurement Economics
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
Before we get waist deep into science and technology and economics and variability in return rates based upon the intransigent effects of Federal Reserve interest rate and debt management policy on petroleum commodity markets and related no-fault based derivative securities:
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C0BA1731

Creating A Quality Assurance Program For Measurement Package Construction
Author(s): Stormy Phillips
Abstract/Introduction:
The industry as a whole is operating in a much different environment today, then in years past. The new widespread availability of information and the role of social media, has led to a more informed public. This is not a negative for the industry as a whole, but it has increased the importance of accountability for every member of an organization. The idea that anything could happen in a vacuum is no longer acceptable.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 0283B117

Measurement Scene Investigations
Author(s): Casey Hodges
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many ways to measure hydrocarbons. Measurements may be performed on liquids, gases, or multiphase fluids. Measurement may be made utilizing orifice plates, ultrasonic meters, Coriolis meters, or a host of other meter types. After the actual meter, there is secondary instrumentation involved from transmitters to flow computers and SCADA systems. With so many components to a flow measurement system, determining the root cause of measurement discrepancies becomes a forensic exercise. In any forensic exercise, the more information the Detective has the more likely they are to find the culprit. This paper describes methodologies to determine the causes of measurement discrepancies. While this paper does draw a parallel between criminal forensics and measurement forensics, it should not be interpreted that measurement discrepancies are criminal. The world of measurement is becoming more automated, and monitor systems can detect and analyze discrepancies faster than before. However, a vast majority of measurement systems are not being monitored at the highest level, and by the time discrepancies are noted, it is all hands on deck to solve the crime.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 8E20E971

Creating A Quality Assurance Program For Measurement Package Construction
Author(s): Stormy Phillips
Abstract/Introduction:
The industry as a whole is operating in a much different environment today, then in years past. The new widespread availability of information and the role of social media, has led to a more informed public. This is not a negative for the industry as a whole, but it has increased the importance of accountability for every member of an organization. The idea that anything could happen in a vacuum is no longer acceptable. So now more than ever organizations must insure that the products that reach the field and are put in service are both functional and safe. It is important to be confident that these products comply with all current industry standards, and that compliance can be traced. This must also be accomplished in the realities of budgets and project time lines. A quality assurance program is one of the most effect ways to accomplish all of these goals. This paper will review some considerations for developing such a program, specifically dealing with the fabrication of measurement packages.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 839514F5

Conventional Measurement In Unconventional Plays
Author(s): Stephen Anson
Abstract/Introduction:
Advances in hydraulic fracturing technology have allowed access to, and the development of, shale formations previously considered to be uneconomical (API, 2014). This access and development has led to increased production of oil and natural gas within the United States. As these discoveries and developments grow, so does the need to rethink how this production is harvested, gathered and transported. Several factors are changing the way we have conventionally produced, measured and sold our crude oil and natural gas in these unconventional plays which is why we must begin to evaluate the need for changes to our conventional tactics.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 0F8DC295

Establishing A Development Program For Hydrocarbon Measurement Staff
Author(s): Richard L. Britton
Abstract/Introduction:
With the downsizing of many energy companies in the 1990s, the impending retirement of many of the energy industrys expertise, the rapid advancement of technologies, and increased world demand for energy, the development of technical talent within the energy industry has become paramount.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 477BC5A2

Contaminant Accumulation Effect On Gas Ultrasonic Flow Meters
Author(s): Ed Hanks
Abstract/Introduction:
The following paper discusses the effects of accumulation on natural gas ultrasonic meters. The paper uses four meters, two Daniel meters and two Instromet meters, that were recalibrated at the CEESI Iowa facility. From CEESIs experience with recalibrations of contaminated meters, the results of these four meters are typical. Due to the relative newness of the other brands of mete rs in the US market, CEESI does not have recalibration data available for this paper and thus other brands are not included.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 19A188F3

The Impact Of Greenhouse Gas Measurement How Recent Regulations Impact The Measurement Of Greenhouse Gaases
Author(s): Jim Tangeman Jon Tori
Abstract/Introduction:
The regulatory environment affecting the oil and gas (O&G) industry over the last few years has been rapidly changing and expanding. Unfortunately, the majority of regulatory changes have generally not been favorable to the industry. Among these regulatory developments, a key one has been the issuance of the first ever federal greenhouse gas (GHG) mandatory reporting regulation (MRR). The first set of these federal regulations was issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) on October 30, 2009 under 40 CFR Parts, 86, 87, 89 etal. encompassing a large variety of industries across the country. A subsequent set of regulations was issued on November 30, 2010 and this second set of regulations issued under 40 CFR 98, Subpart W encompasses all sectors of the O&G industry from wellhead to burner tip.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 93A37810

Compressibility Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Jeffrey L. Savidge
Abstract/Introduction:
The accurate measurement of natural gas and natural gas related fluids is difficult. It requires care, experience, and insight to achieve consistently accurate measurements that can meet stringent fiscal requirements. It is particularly difficult to measure complex fluid mixtures that are exposed to: (1) a range of operating conditions, (2) dynamic flow and fluid property behavior, and (3) changing equipment conditions.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 1DCFE82D

Measurement And Regulation Operation Of A LDC
Author(s): Philip A Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow measurement has evolved over the years in response to demands to measure new products, old products under new conditions of flow, or to meet tightened accuracy requirements. The value of a hydrocarbon fluid has increased in value over time. This is a normal evolution product in the consumer marketplace, this year however gas prices are very spurious and volatile. Over 4,000 years ago, the Romans under the supervision of Frontinus measured water flow from aqueducts to each household via pipelines to control the water allocation, based on the diameter of pipes only. It did not take into account pressure effects. The Chinese around the same time measured salt water to control flow to evaporative brine pots to produce salt used in cooking.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 1B9E1FB3

New Differential Producing Meters: Ideas, Implementation, And Issues
Author(s): Casey Hodges
Abstract/Introduction:
There are several relatively new differential producing meters that are available for end users. Each meter claims to have advantages over other meter types, specifically orifice meters. Meter types discussed include cone meters, Venturi meters, multi-ported averaging pitot tubes, multi-holed orifice plates, and diagnostic differential meters. This paper is intended to be used by purchasers of these meters to help them obtain the best meter for their application. The operating principles of these meters will be explored. This paper will look at the claims that the manufacturers of these meters make in terms of accuracy, required upstream lengths, and diagnostic capabilities. Another important aspect of these meters is industrys reaction to these meters.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: AF1929A4

Effects Of Atmospheric Pressure On Gas Measurement
Author(s): Denis Rutherford
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the often overlooked or misunderstood parameters in upstream gas measurement is the atmospheric pressure input. To correctly configure any Electronic Flow Measurement (EFM) device to calculate a corrected volume, the static pressure at the meter run must b e input to the calculations as an absolute pressure value. Since the absolute pressure is defined as the sum of the gauge pressure and the atmospheric pressure at the site, proper EFM setup requires that the atmospheric pressure be accurately determined for each metering location. This paper discusses the differences between gauge and absolute pressure sensors, methods of determining the atmospheric pressure at a location, and effects on measurement accuracy.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 610F5C3B

Basics Of Gas Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses basic diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USM), and how capabilities built into todays electronics can identify problems that may have gone undetected in the past. It primarily discusses fiscal-quality, multi-path USMs and does not cover issues that may be different with non-fiscal meters as they are often single path designs. Although USMs basically work the same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in AGA 9 Ref 1. However, some provide more advanced features that can be used to help identify issues such as blocked flow conditioners and gas compositional errors.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 3F42C6C2

Advanced Gas Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses advanced diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USM), and how capabilities built into todays electronics can identify problems that may have gone undetected in the past. It primarily discusses fiscal-quality, multi-path USMs and does not cover issues that may be different with non-fiscal meters as they are often single path designs. Although USMs basically work the same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in AGA 9 Ref 1. However, some provide more advanced features that can be used to help identify issues such as blocked flow conditioners and gas compositional errors. This paper focuses on the Westinghouse and British Gas configurations (both being chordal designs) and the information presented here may or may not be applicable to other path designs.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: BF874720

Condition-Based Monitoring Of Natural Gas Ultrasonic Measurement Facilities
Author(s): Ed Hanks
Abstract/Introduction:
USM technology has played a key role in reducing Lost And Un-accounted For (LAUF) numbers. However, like any technology, the client must understand the meters diagnostics in order to validate it is working correctly. Due to mergers, acquisitions, changes in technology, and purchasing preferences within an organization, it can be difficult for technicians to be skilled on all products. Also, changing technology adds to the difficulty as they often encounter multiple manufacturers equipment.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 0D2FEBBD

Thermal Mass Flow For Greenhouse Gas Measurement
Author(s): Thomas Kemme
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many well documented flow meter technologies that are essentially trying to accomplish the same thing: measure fluid flow rate. Some of the technologies that are entrenched in the market, such as flow meters that utilize differential pressure as the measurement principle, are well understood due to the present installed base. However, an evolving technology such as thermal mass flow is often over-complicated or not well understood. Instead of measuring flow rate by pressure drop, rotor rotation, or a number of conventional methods, thermal mass flow meters measure flow rate by convection heat transfer. Some of the key advantages are direct mass f low measurement, high sensitivity at low pressures and high turndown.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: B5DF9A9A

Meter Factor Traceability For Coriolis Mass Flow Meters
Author(s): Michael Keilty
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis mass flowmeters that are gravimetrically calibrated on water have been proven to be capable to satisfy the specifications and requirements of national and international standards for the measurement of natural gas in custody transfer applications.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: E2D0339A

Application Of Turbine Meters In Liquid Measurement
Author(s): David Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Measuring the flow of liquids is a critical need in the Hydrocarbon Industry. Turbine flowmeters have proven to be an effective means of accurately measuring petroleum liquids. Its compact size, rangeability, low cost of ownership, superior accuracy, wide temperature and pressure range makes it attractive for liquid hydrocarbon measurement. While there are many advantages there are also weaknesses of a turbine meter such as flow conditioning requirement, back pressure control, high viscosity liquids, and susceptibility to fouling and deposits. Turbine meters are often found measuring light crude oils, refined products (gasoline, diesel, jet fuel) and light hydrocarbons (LPG and NGL). This paper will discuss pipeline metering utilizing conventional turbine flow meters for liquid measurement.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 07DBF33B

Calculation Of Liquid Petroleum Quantities
Author(s): Peter W Kosewicz
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Petroleum industry as hydrocarbons are purchased, sold or transferred there are two key elements that must be determined. These elements are the quantity and quality of the hydrocarbon in question. This paper will address one of those elements, the determination of the quantity of the hydrocarbon in the trans action. The determination of the quantity of hydrocarbon can be further subdivided into:
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 1B7ED0BC

Coping With Changing Flow Requirements At Exsisting Metering Stations
Author(s): Ronald Sisk
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays competitive gas market, utility companies must meet aggressive market strategies or suffer the consequences. All industries have cash registers, and gas distribution is no exception. Our measuring stations are our cash register. The problem is, these stations were designed 10, 20, 30 or even 50 years ago, and are now performing tasks they were not designed for. Therefore, changes must be made. Measurement personnel today must be trained and taught to cope with changing flow requirements. But, modifying a station to meet todays aggressive market can be very expensive. Equipment, such as regulators and the primary element (the meter tube, the orifice plate holder, and the orifice plate), must meet A.G.A.3 requirements. The secondary element (the recording device) can raise expenditures significantly. Sometimes modifications cannot be made to deliver the specified volume of product needed, and replacement of a complete station is even more expensive. Companies today must watch money closely, and work to reduce operating and maintenance costs.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 1D4E5541

Crude Oil Gathering By Truck: Measurement Alternative
Author(s): Patrick Mclean
Abstract/Introduction:
API Chapter 18, Section 1 covers the manual gauging procedures during the custody transfer of crude oil from small lease tanks to a crude oil transport vehicle. This requires the driver/gauger to manually gauge the producers storage tank to determine the level of crude oil in the tank, average temperature, density and the sediment and water(S& W) content of the oil. All of these measurements will be used in the calculation of the volume of crude oil during custody transfer. This procedure exposes the driver to several hazards, particularly exposure to H2S and the risk of falling from the elevated gauging platform.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 395A9C1E

Design, Operation & Maintenance Of L.A.C.T. Units
Author(s): Bob Petty
Abstract/Introduction:
The two most common methods of measuring the volume of petroleum liquids are tank gauging and liquid metering. The problems associated with tank gauging are (1) it requires that an operator make an accurate liquid level determination by climbing to the top of the tank to be gauged, (2) that an operator make an accurate average liquid temperature determination, (3) that an operator make an accurate sediment and water content analysis and (4) that the tank be static, which means that no liquid can enter or leave the tank during gauging. Once the contents of the tank are removed, it is necessary to regauge the tank.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: B447C3C8

Displacement Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Michael S. Sulton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper explores the strengths, weaknesses and inherent design principles that are relevant to positive displacement meters. It will also highlight the parameters to be considered in order to provide accurate meter & meter system selection.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 67880C5D

Effects Of Petroleum Properties On Pipeline Measurement
Author(s): Mark Martin
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of liquid hydrocarbons in most pipelines is done on a standard volume basis or by mass. These dynamic measurement points typically are custody transfer and are the cash register measurements between the two parties involved in the transactions. This is one reason why the measurement accuracy is critical with some others being product accountability and a one time dynamic measurement point. The volume or mass measurements must account for the entire liquid product received or delivered in order to track and determine if product is being lost or gained. Several fluid properties can change the accuracy of this measurement and knowing how they impact the measurement is crucial to its integrity. This paper focuses on dynamic measurement (measurement by metering ) and discuss es several fluid property effects on measured results involving the common types of metering technologies used today.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 8B7B79E4

Dense Phase Fluid Measurement
Author(s): Fred G. Van Orsdol
Abstract/Introduction:
Many people in the industry, including probably most measurement specialists, have no experience with the measurement of dense phase fluids (if you dont count water). When the un-initiated are asked to develop or operate such a system, they tend to repeat the same mistakes others have made over and over again, by trying to treat the streams like natural gas liquids or liquefied petroleum gases (NGLs or LPGs). Hopefully, this paper will assist the un-initiated reader avoid some of those mistakes. Although definitions can be boring, a few should be covered that will help the student be sure they understand the fluid properties unique to dense phase fluids and eventually clarify the reasons for the special handling requirements for these fluids.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 8BBB3E58

Evaporation Loss Measurement From Storage Tanks
Author(s): George L. Morovich
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Petroleum Institute Committee for Evaporation Loss Estimation (API CELE) operates under the Committee on Petroleum Measurement to perform research and produce the Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS), Chapter 19. API CELE is composed of Petroleum Company Representatives, Equipment and Instrumentation Manufacturers, Consultants, The Energy Institute (Europe) and is attended by the US EPA and State Air/Emission Regulators. The current Chair is Noel Strit of Kinder Morgan. The current API Staff person is Sally Goodson. API CELE is responsible for determining evaporation losses (emissions inventory) from storage tanks, vessels and transfer operations (loading racks/berths). The API MPMS Chapter 19 Standards are adopted by US EPA to determine Emission Inventory and widely used by petroleum industry and regulators in US, Europe, and other regions of the world.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 5D97850B

Fundamentals Of Liquid Measurement - Part 1
Author(s): David Beitel
Abstract/Introduction:
Correct measurement practices are established to minimize uncertainty in the determination of the custody transfer volume (or mass) of products. Understanding and evaluation of the fundamental cause and effect relationships with the liquid to be measured will lead to a volume determination that most closely matches the true volume at the referenced standard pressure and temperature. When designing a new measurement station it is up to us as measurement people, to understand the product to be measured, apply the correct equipment, and implement the appropriate correction equations.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 7912A553

Fundamentals Of Liquid Measurement II
Author(s): Anne Walker Brackett
Abstract/Introduction:
Dynamic measurement occurs when a liquid is flowing. This paper discuss es the measurement of fluids that are not moving, i.e. in a static condition. Static measurement uses various pieces of equipment (tools) to accomplish its mission and involves science and craft. Technicians must know not only the sequence in which to perform the prescribed measurements but also the proper toll to use, to make an accurate measurement for the custody transfer of hydrocarbons. This paper will discuss the API and ASTM standards that apply to those steps required to calibrate, gauge and sample tanks.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 88F860C9

Fundamentals Of Liquid Measurement III - Dynamic
Author(s): Peter W Kosewicz
Abstract/Introduction:
Weve learned when measuring crude oil or any hydrocarbon that liquids expand and contract with increases and decreases in temperature. The liquid volume also decreases when pressure is applied. All these effects are part of the physical properties of liquid petroleum fluids. In addition to the effects of temperature and pressure on the liquid and their indicated volume, the container in which the liquid is measured also changes the volume it contains at different temperature and pressures. These changes must also be accounted for in determining the true volume being transferred. We learned in Fundamentals of Liquid Measurement I how these physical properties effect the measurement of liquid hydrocarbons. The objective of either static measurement or dynamic measurements is to determine the quantity and quality of hydrocarbons transferred. However these measurements are rarely performed at the standard conditions discussed in Fundamentals I, therefore not only must temperature be measured, but also density, sediment and water, vapor pressure, flowing pressure and viscosity must be measured.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 92832CBD

Design Of Distribution Metering And Regulating Stat Ions
Author(s): Edgar Eddy() Wallace Collins Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
The design of natural gas distribution metering and/or regulating stations is a mixture of science and art, of knowledge and judgment. The process requires four areas of knowledge: product, application, components, and communication. The goal in design is to use judgment to select and combine compatible components to create a safe, effective, and economical unit.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 965EE108

Gauging, Testing And Running Of Lease Tanks
Author(s): John W Brackett
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of the oil gathered in this nation and abroad is collected from s mall lease sites that populate the oil rich regions that many of us call home. These lease tanks are a common site, and we often overlook their importance. While our industry has raced forward by adding technology and electronic systems, this one sector has remained steadfast. This great resiliency towards change in methods used to gauge a lease tank, may be at an end. It should be noted that this issue is being looked at by a newly formed API (American Petroleum Institute ) Committee with the explicit aim to remove the gauger from the top of a tank when hazardous conditions exist, such as H2S (hydrogen sulfide), which is a deadly natural nerve agent.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: E387826F

Helical Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Steven Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine meters have been used for the custody transfer of refined petroleum products and light crude oils for over 50 years. When correctly applied, they offer high accuracy and long service life over a wide range of products and operating conditions. Traditionally, turbine meters were used for the measurement of low viscosity liquids and positive displacement meters for higher viscosity fluids. However, new developments in turbine meter technology are pushing these application limits while increasing reliability and accuracy. This paper will examine the fundamental differences between conventional and helical turbine meter measurement. It will also discuss flow conditioning, helical meter proving and viscosity compensation to extend turbine meter application limits.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 2099A18A

Measurement Of Petroleum On Board Marine Vessels
Author(s): Juri Koern
Abstract/Introduction:
The process that calculates the volume of liquid petroleum loaded onto, or received from, a ship or barge is known as Custody Transfer Measurement. It is important to note that the custody transfer measurement is not determined by a single measurement. A series of measurements are taken, tests are performed and calculations are made before, during and after the transfer takes place in order to reach a Custody Transfer Measurement. The transferred volume is usually determined by calculating the difference between the volume measured before and after the transfer.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: AAE8A156

A Review Of The Criteria Used In The Design Of Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Roger Thornton
Abstract/Introduction:
A liquid measurement station can be as simple as a single meter run allocation measurement or as complex as a multi meter run station with a multi-tasking control system. Regardless of complexity the measurement quality is no better than the quality of the system design. Utilizing a state of the art meter technology will not yield any better results than allowed by the system design. Liquid measurement stations are found in all areas of the hydrocarbon industry from oil production to custody transfer to refining. A heavy emphasis is placed on the accurate measurement of product in each area of the industry. For this reason the design of a measurement system deserves a high degree of focus.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 4FB3BE5E

Marine Crude Oil Terminal Measurement Systems
Author(s): Harold E. Osborn
Abstract/Introduction:
Crude oil terminals are very important to our industry. We now import more than 50% of the raw material from which we make our gasoline, crude oil. This means that we must import several million barrels of crude oil per day. Since we have no pipelines running across the ocean floors of our planet, we have to transport that crude oil on marine vessels. This means that we have to be able to load and unload large vessels quickly and with a high degree of accuracy.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 74CF2410

Measurement Of Cryogenic LNG
Author(s): Alastair Mclachlan
Abstract/Introduction:
With depletion of conventional oil reserves, natural gas is becoming an increasingly important source of energy for many countries. While some of the demand for natural gas can be met by domestic production or pipeline imports, many countries are becoming increasingly dependent on natural gas imports in the form of LNG. In 201 4 the global production capacity of LNG was around 240 MT (Million Tonnes) and although this has remained essentially flat year on year for the last 3 years the production capacity currently under construction will deliver a 36% growth over the next 5 years.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 84BA77E4

Mass Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Michael Keilty
Abstract/Introduction:
A mass flowmeter is a system that provides a measurement of fluid flow in units of mass pounds, tons. Mass flowmeters could either measure the mass flow directly or derive the mass flow from a volumetric flow measure using the known density of the liquid. The Coriolis flowmeter is a type of flowmeter which measures the mass of the liquid flow directly. Coriolis mass flowmeters were first introduced more than 30 year s ago. Global acceptance has spread across all industries where precision flow measurement is needed. Today, installations number in the hundreds of thousands of measurement points including those in liquid hydrocarbon and natural gas applications.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: DA2968F0

Measurement Accuracy And Sources Of Error In Tank Gauging
Author(s): Dan Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
Upright cylindrical storage tanks are used not only to store liquid petroleum between custody transfers for inventory purposes, but to measure the quantities of those transfers. As in all measurements for custody transfer, it is essential to identify the sources of error in the measurement processes and to keep the impact of those sources to a minimum.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 4121C848

Measurement Methods For Liquid Storage Tanks
Author(s): Daniel Baldwin
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to provide, in general terms, an overview of the different technologies available to measure volumes in atmospheric storage tanks. There are typically four (4) volumes that are of interest to be calculated for atmospheric storage tanks: Total Observed, Gross Observed, Gross Standard, and Net Standard (see Fig 20 page 9). The basic measurements required for these volumes are: product level, observed temperature, water level, and the observed density of the product.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: EE2A6F63

Orifice Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Stephen T. Steve() Stark
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice meters remain very popular today despite the evolution of newer and much more fascinating measurement technologies. More commonly used to measure natural gas in the oil and gas industry, orifice meters perform very well in many liquid measurement applications and can produce excellent results well within acceptable uncertainty tolerances when they are carefully designed, properly installed, well-maintained and when calculations are performed correctly. Of course, these same requirements exist for all flow meter types. We know from our mistakes that absolutely any meter type that is poorly designed for the application, improperly installed, receives little or no maintenance, and is not set up with the correct flow calculations is doomed to fail, either immediately or in the not too distant future.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 6FAF4BF2

Witnessing Orifice Meter Verification/Calibrations
Author(s): Kyle Bates
Abstract/Introduction:
In the natural gas measurement industry, it is very common for companies to routinely witness or watch another company verify and/or calibrate a custody transfer gas meter. Witnessing another companys technician inspect their primary measuring device, secondary measurement equipment and tertiary equipment calculations is something that is often overlooked as routine and has historically lacked an emphasis on importance. If you look around your everyday world, there are a multitude of meters measuring commodities that are verified for accuracy on a regular basis. This verification may be required by a contract to buy or sell, a contract to ship or gather, state or federal agencys regulatory branches, or a gentlemans agreement. Each agreement is in place as a means to protect the interest of each respective party whether that is of a large company or the general public. As an agent for the company and responsible for implementing company standards around verifying metering points where large volumes of energy change hands on a daily basis, it is in the technicians best interest to insure these metering points are measuring correctly. In order to ensure the accuracy of a metering point in which there isnt contractual control, one must exercise the ability to witness.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 0B354108

Pycnometer Installation, Operation And Calibration
Author(s): Corky Atchison
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss pycnometers used to calibrate densitometers. In using a pycnometer, you must have the correct scales, pressure gauges and thermometers. You will learn the steps necessary to install, operate and calibrate the instrument.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 672AA4EB

Resolving Liquid Measurement Differences
Author(s): Deanne Strothers
Abstract/Introduction:
To measure is to estimate the relative amount of something by comparison with some standard. For measurement of liquid petroleum products in the US, the comparisons are set by a standard issued by the APIs Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS). These measurement techniques should be implemented along with any company standards that further enhance the industrys guidelines. Measurement is the cash register of the energy industry. The value of a liquid is determined by the parties involved in any transaction. Most of these values are determined through contractual means, with volumes, calibrations and tolerance levels for variances set forth before any product is moved. Its these variances that are the basis of much time and effort spent by technicians and analysts alike to track down, document and repair anything in the process that causes a discrepancy on a gain/loss sheet. Since the limits for these variances are predetermined, care and oversight must be used to control any aspect of the measurement process that can create values outside the tolerable levels. Some will say that no variance is the ultimate goal, but this isnt achievable due to limitations on all the equipment, technology and people that come into contact with the product or data somewhere in the process.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 2025B0CC

Statistical Control Of Meter Factors - A Simplified Approach
Author(s): Dan Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
Statistical control is a tool for discernment and communication. This paper will give a brief overview description of a simplified method for monitoring the performance of a flow meter and performing the same exercise on each meter in the system. The idea is to provide graphical assistance, through the use of meter factor control charts in: (a) developing preventive maintenance programs (b) heightening awareness of alarm situations and, (c) reducing risk to the financial bottom line. Meter factor control charts and logs make it easier to prepare reports to maintenance, operations, financial and executive managers from time to time and furthermore, they make it easier for the target audience to digest the points being made.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 7312E3FC

Troubleshooting Liquid Pipeline Losses And Gain
Author(s): Joseph T. Rasmussen Michael R. Plasczyk
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays pipelines are multi-dimensional systems providing multiple services for many shippers and customers. Pipeline systems may connect multiple origins and destinations, and carry various products across long distances with changing profiles, pipe dimensions and directions. Monitoring pipeline losses and gains employs tools and analysis methods developed specifically to troubleshoot pipeline variances. Examination of pipeline losses and gains uses basic statistical tools as well as intuitive and creative insight into what controls losses and gains.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: FB856364

Basics Of Ultrasonic Flow Meters
Author(s): David Crandall
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to explain the measurement of hydrocarbon fluid streams in pipelines for both custody transfer and leak detection applications through the use of ultrasonic meters. Specifically, this paper explains the operation of ultrasonic meters, issues surrounding their performance in liquids and gas es, calibration procedures, and proper installation considerations. Also, because the electronics making the measurements have a number of calculated values that relate to the operation of the meter, a very large database of operating data is available to analyze as it relates to ongoing performance of the meter. Meter health parameters can be evaluated to verify the meters operations and these principles are explained.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 3C6EA19D

Viscosity And Its Application In Liquid Hydrocarbon Measurement
Author(s): Terry Cousins
Abstract/Introduction:
The effect of viscosity takes a variety of forms in its relationship to flow measurement. As a general rule low viscosity has less effect on the performance of flowmeters, although this is not totally true, for example, with positive displacement meters. For most meters, as viscosity increases it has greater effects on meter performance, both in the operation and in the effect of the fluid passing through the meter. So, for example, as the viscosity of the fluid increases the chances of the fluid in the pipe being in the transition region or going into laminar gets greater. This can lead to measurement issues due to the variations in flow profile and turbulent noise affecting the meter performance.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: D66FA3E0

Measuring High Viscosity Liquids With Flow Meters
Author(s): T. Cousins
Abstract/Introduction:
Parts of this paper rely heavily on the input of Steve Stark, whose knowledge and testing of differential pressure meters at low Reynolds numbers forms much of the section on differential pressure meters. The high viscosity of heavy oils presents measurement challenges for most types of flow meter. For example it limits the maximum flow of PD meters, reduces the turndown of turbine meters, makes standard differential pressure meters non-linear and can result in measurement errors in Coriolis and Ultrasonic meters.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 4BB1A680

Proving Liquid Meters With Microprocessor Based Pulse Outputs
Author(s): Galen Cotton
Abstract/Introduction:
The advent of microprocessor driven flow meters in the late 1960s and early 1970s was heralded as a new frontier in flow measurement. Little did we anticipate the unintended consequence of adopting these new technologies or how our conventional verification techniques would be challenged? We are still playing catch-up in the realm of flow meter verification where manufactured or, computationally derived flow meter pulse outputs are concerned.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: D9D57819

Operational Experience With Coriolis Meters
Author(s): James C. Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis meters are being widely used in the petroleum business, measuring product as light as hydrogen up through something as heavy as vacuum gas oil. Imagine the flexibility that a meter has to be capable of accurately measuring a product that is made up of the lightest molecule in existence, hydrogen, and still be capable of measuring peanut butter at a moments notice. That is pretty amazing in itself. Coriolis meters have changed considerably since their introduction into the hydrocarbon business. Improvements in design, construction and the exponential improvements in electronics have made them one of the most popular meters in the hydrocarbon industry. I will explain some of the history of the meters, the selection, correct installations and operation, as well as some of my experience with them over the past 20 + years.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: B3583CD1

Accuracy Diagnostics Of Liquid Ultrasonic Flow Meters
Author(s): Andrew Soddy
Abstract/Introduction:
The diagnostic measurements of ultrasonic flow meters allow users the capability to assess measurement quality, identify problems and apply specific corrective actions. An understanding of the parameters that are used in this analysis is an important requirement to perform this analysis. In this paper the diagnostic capabilities for typical multi-path ultrasonic flow meters are reviewed to show users how to interpret diagnostic data. Meters with a differing number or arrangement of measurement paths will also differ in some diagnostic capabilities. Similarly electronic features such as diagnostic tools and on board memory can be an important consideration for how to take advantage of the available features. These factors will be reviewed to assist with the appropriate choice of metering technology. With this background we will be able to see how diagnostics were used to solve a mystery regarding the meter factors obtained from master meter proving an ultrasonic flow meter in a leak detection application.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 07F4E16C

Effects And Control Of Pulsation In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Ray G. Durke Edgar B. Bowles, Jr Darin L. George Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most common measurement errors and the most difficult to identify in natural gas metering systems is that caused by pulsating flow. It is important to understand the effects that pulsations have on the common types of flow meters used in the gas industry so that potential error-producing mechanisms can be identified and avoided. It is also essential to understand pulsation control techniques for mitigating pulsation effects. This paper describes the effects of pulsation on orifice, turbine, ultrasonic, and other flow meter types. It also presents basic methods for mitigating pulsation effects at meter installations, including a specific procedure for designing acoustic filters that can isolate a flow meter from the source of pulsation.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 79AC67D4

Offshore Liquid FPSO Measurement Systems
Author(s): Alastair Mclachlan
Abstract/Introduction:
Floating production, storage, and offloading systems (FPSOs) receive crude oil from deepwater wells and store it in their hull tanks until the crude can be pumped into shuttle tankers or oceangoing barges for transport to shore. They may also process the oil and in some later FPSOs to be used for Gas distribution. Floating productions systems have been utilized in remote offshore areas without a pipeline infrastructure for many years. However, they have become even more important with the push by the offshore industry into ever deeper waters. Floating production, storage, and offloading/floating storage and offloading (FPSO/FSO) systems have now become one of most commercially viable concepts for remote or deep-water oilfield developments. They also allow a company to develop offshore resources quickly between discovery and production. They have been shown to reduce this time as much as two to four years.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 4A2B0B44

Application In Liquid Measurement Using Clamp On Ultrasonic Technology
Author(s): Ron Mccarthy
Abstract/Introduction:
Clamp on ultrasonic flow meter technology (COUSMT) offers the advantage of providing a non custody transfer non intrusive method to obtain the pipe flow rate. The distinct advantage of the technology is there is no need to present access to the fluid flowing in the pipe. The method is quite robust and simple to implement. More and more measurement practitioners are looking to this technology to fulfill that aspect of the metering requirements in their company.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: D433AB3C

Volumetric Measurement Of Liquefied Petroleum Gases LPGs
Author(s): Paul Mullen
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is defined as butane, propane or other light ends separated from natural gas or crude oil by fractionation or other processes. At atmospheric pressure, LPG s revert to the gaseous state. This paper is intended to provide an overview of metering systems used for the volumetric measurement of LPGs. Operational experiences with measurement systems that degrade the performance of these systems will be addressed. It includes information for turbine, coriolis and positive displacement meters used in volumetric measurement systems. The basic calculations and industry standards covering volumetric measurement will also be covered.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 337E0231

Master Meter Prover Certifications Per API MPMs 4.9.3
Author(s): Kevin Fields
Abstract/Introduction:
When discussions about prover calibrations occur, they normally end with a disagreement about the accuracy of the different approved methods. This paper will discuss the procedures and advantages of the master meter method. This method was develop ed over 20 years ago to minimize difficulties in calibrating very large volume provers. In the fast pace world of today, where down time means money, many companies use the master meter method to save time and money on a variety of prover sizes. Accurate calibrations require good technique from a knowledgeable technician. Having the proper knowledge and equipment to perform the master meter method will improve the accuracy and minimize the time to complete the calibration. This paper will discuss the Master Meter Method (MMM) of prover calibration as described in API MPMS Chapter 4.9.3.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 63AEB8FB


Copyright © 2017