Measurement Library

FLOMEKO (An IMEKO Conference) Publications (2016)

Impact Of Swirl On Flow Measurement In Stacks - CFD Modelling
Author(s): J. Gerl S. Knotek Z. Belligoli R. Dwight R. Robinson
Abstract/Introduction:
In this paper we investigate a swirling flow in stacks which is generated by various shapes of supplyi ng pipe. We determine error s of flow rate measurement when the method with S - type Pitot tubes measuring gas speed in a grid of points is used. This research is motivated by increasing legal requirements for unc ertainty in emission monitori ng. The considered supplying pipes are - a straight pipe, pipe with single 90 elbow and pipe with double out - of - plane 90 elbow. The considered range of Reynolds numbers is 3.10 5 to 3.10 6 . The flow in stacks is investigated by means of CFD modelli ng using the OpenFOAM software. We show that the error of flow rate oscillates with changing height of the sampling plane in the stack. This is caused by a velocity profi le which is turned by the swirl . The span of the error oscillation can reach 3 % in th e considered cases.
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Document ID: 5CB44095

Experience With Calibration Of The Piston Prover For Cold And Hot Water Test Equipment
Author(s): Miroslava Benkova Frantisek Schweitzer
Abstract/Introduction:
The papers describes a piston prover with 30 litres volume, integrated into a test line with possibility to measure with cold and/or hot water, which by its innovative system of liquid deliv ery together with the sophisticated control system allows to reach higher accuracy and stability of measurement conditions. The contribution is focused on the presentation of method and results of the initial calibration of the piston prover by means of g eometrical assessment using 3D measuring equipment. Followed by a successful comparison with the results of next calibration realized automatically via the integrated software by means of volumetric method with a volume standard and an electronic measureme nt. Comparability of the traceability of the piston prover to the Czech National Standard of Length with traceability to the Czech National Standard of Mass is expressed. Further the experimental measurements of long - term stability especially in the field of low flow rates (0. 13 to 6 l/h) are described and determined. Results have shown that the developed equipment and method may successfully be spread to both higher and also very low flow rates
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Document ID: 1E4BDE72

Flomeko 2016, Sydney, Australia, September 26 - 29, 2016 Page 1 Intercomparison Between Multiphase Flow Test Facilities
Author(s): P.Lucas G.Kok H.de Leeuw T. Leonard D.van Putten L. Zakharov
Abstract/Introduction:
Currently a reference network consisting of test and calibration facilities for multiphase flow meter testing does not exist, in contrast to the broad network of accredited laboratories for calibrat ion of single phase liquid or gas flow meters. In order to improve this situation DNV G L, NEL, OneSub s ea and Shell are harmonizing their uncertainty budgets and conducting an intercomparison to validate these uncertainty budgets. This paper describe s the test protocol and the performed test matrix. Special attention is given to testing at co mparable dimensionless numbers , namely Froude and Reynolds numbers . Further, the harmonisation process of the uncertainty budgets is described. T he paper concludes with an outlook describing anticipated outcomes from the project and essential further work in subsequent projects.
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Document ID: 2394AD78

Influence Of Upstream Shape Factors On Discharge Coefficient Of Critical Flow Venturi Nozzles
Author(s): Ernst Von Lavant Bodo Mickan Harun Kaya Davut Gler
Abstract/Introduction:
The influence of the shape upstream of a throat of critical flow Venturi nozzles on the discharge coefficient in general and the transition of the character of boundary layer from laminar to turbulent in particular has been studied experimentally as well as numerically. Several nozzles of various throat diameters with intake radius of curvature of 2 D and 1 D (D being the throat diameter) have been investigated experimentally by the High Pressure Piston Prover of the Physikalisch - Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) located in Dorsten, Germany, at pressures up to 50 bar, resulting in Reynolds numbers larger than 2 10 6 . Two of the nozzles consisted of two parts divided axially to allow the visualization of the flow transition. Subsequently, the nozzle geometry was measured at the PTB and calibrated using low pressure air. In parallel effort, the flow field in the nozzles was simulated using different boundary layer treatment. The effect of the nozzle geometry on the transitional behaviour was discussed
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Document ID: B61926FF

Effect On Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meters Due To Operating Condition S Of Natural Gas Metering Station
Author(s): S.J. Lee M.S. Kwak Y.C. Ha W. Kang S.H. Lee S.S. Jung
Abstract/Introduction:
Preliminary study for applying ultrasonic flow meters to KOGAS(Korea Gas Corporation) s city - gas metering station is on - going . Presently orifice and turbine flow meters are operating at city - gas metering station following PCV(Pressure Control Valve). PCV r egulates high transmission line pressure(7 MPa) to aimed city - gas supply pressure (1 MPa) , and it leads to 2 disadvantages(low operating pressure, high noise) for ultrasonic flow meter application
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Document ID: 78C9632C

The Influence Of Stagnation Pressure On Discharge Coefficient Of The Sonic Nozzle
Author(s): Peijuan Cao Chunhui Li Han Zhang
Abstract/Introduction:
FLOMEKO 2016, Sydney, Australia, September26 - 29, 2016 Page 1 The i nfluence of stagnation pressure on discharge coefficient of the sonic nozzle Peijuan Cao 1 , 2 , Chunhui Li 1 , Han Zhang 1 1 National Institute of Metrology (NIM), caopj @nim.ac.cn , Beijing, P. R. China 2 Hebei University, Baoding, P. R. China E - mail (corresponding author): lich@nim.ac.cn Abstract W ithin the stagnation pressure of (0.12.5) MPa , t he discharge coefficients of the sonic nozzles with throat diameter of (1.92112.444) mm were investigated . T he experimental results showed that: ? T he discharge coefficient could be change d 2% for the same nozzle at d ifferent stagnation pressure ? Except for the smallest sonic nozzle , the boundary layer transition from laminar to turbulent all occurred. Unlike previous studies that the boundary layer transition tak ing place at the Reynolds number of between ( 1 E+062E+06) , t he boundary layer transition showed obviously advance for some nozzle s , which showed significantly relationship with the throat diameter. Based on the experimental results of 16 nozzle s , the curve fitting between the Reynolds number for the transition of the boundary layer and the throat diameter was conducted. When the curve fitting was extrapolated to NMIJ - 2013s results, the consistency wa s very good, as shown in
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Document ID: 09E21057

On - Site Calibration Of LNG Flowrate Measurement With A Cryogenic Ldv Standard
Author(s): Remy Maury Alain Strzelecki Yvan Lehot Jean-Pierre Vallet
Abstract/Introduction:
A very promising alternative to the state - of - the - art static volume measurements for Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) custody transfer processes is the dynamic principle of flow metering. In the frame of the first (2010 - 2013) & second (2014 - 2017) Joint Project Rese arch METROLOGY for LNG, CESAME EXADEBIT explored a novel cryogenic flow metering technology using Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV).
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Document ID: 7FE55A6E

Microfluidic Measurement Of An Infusion Pump Using A Loadcell
Author(s): Sejong Chun Hyun Wook Hwang Seok Hwan Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
An infusion pump is used for precise dosage control to patients using an IV - set. The infusion pump is integrated with more than fifteen fingers to generate sine waves to a compliant tube. Spatial movement of the sine waves squeezes the compliant tube to provide patients drug at very low mass flow rate down to 10 mL/h. Even though the infu sion pump is tested by gravimetric flow metering with a balance and a timer before its release, its performance is significantly influenced by the quality of the IV - set. However, the accuracy of the infusion pump has not been tested seriously during its op eration. In this study, a loadcell was used to measure the weight of the IV - set when the infusion pump was operating. Timed measurements using a DAQ provided mass flow rate in units of g/h. The measurement indicated that the accuracy of mass flow metering by the loadcell was within 3.6 %, compared with the gravimetric flow metering with the balance. It was found that the loadcell could be used to check the mass flow rate of the infusion pump irrespective of the type of the IV - set. Such instrumentation will be useful for feedback control of the mass flow rate with the infusion pump in the future
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Document ID: F1F62ED9

Establishment Of A National Primary Standard For Air Speed Up To 90 m/s At Nmij
Author(s): A. Iwai T. Funaki N. Kurihara Y. Terao
Abstract/Introduction:
NMIJ has established a high air speed standard facility and has been providing a calibration service since April 2015. The facility has an air spe ed range of 40 to 90 m/s with a relative expanded uncertainty ( k 2) of 0.63%. The purpose of this primary standard is mainly to contribute to the improvement of meteorological observation and research. The reference air speed is derived from the national p rimary gas flowrate standard of Japan. The contraction nozzle for conversion from flowrate to air speed is installed at the test line of the closed loop gas flowrate calibration facility. The standard air speed at the nozzle exit is obtained by comparing t he integral value of the air speed profile and the standard gas flowrate. The total pressure tube used as a transfer standard is then calibrated against the standard air speed at the nozzle exit. Using this total pressure tube, the Eiffel - type wind tunnel, which is a working standard for the daily calibration service, is calibrated. The present paper describes the calibration system, the traceability chain, and the uncertainty analysis of the new air speed standard.
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Document ID: 1E700905

Conditioning Of Swirling And Stratified Pipe Flow-: Analysis With Laser Doppler- Velocimetry
Author(s): Denis F. Hinz Simon Graner C Hristian Breitsamter
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow conditioning can be used for eliminating swirl, restoring flow symmetry, and generating a repeatable, fully developed flow profile upstream from flow measurement devices. In particular, the conditioning with tube bundles and straightening vanes has found many applications in flow mete ring. In this article, we use laser -Doppler velocimetry (LDV) to analyze flow profiles downstream from three different flow conditioners - a tube bundle conditioner, a Spearman conditioner, and a Zanker conditioner. We study the performance of these three devices with respect to conditioning swirling and thermally stratified pipe flows. For a quantitative comparison, we use selected performance indicators measuring the profile flatness , the asymmetry of the profile, the swirl angle of the secondary flow, an d the turbulence intensity in the core region with respect to a fully developed reference profile.
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Document ID: 4121121E

Lda Volume Flow Rate Standard For Water Using High Spatial Resolution Lda For Traceable Measurements In Power Plants
Author(s): m. Juling J. Steinbock m. Kraume , T. Lederer
Abstract/Introduction:
At the Physikalisch - Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) a laser o ptical volume flow rate standard ( LFS ) has been developed to calibrate flow meters on site within a power plant. The velocity profile within the pipe is measured with laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). The profile is integrated to calculate the volume flow rate. Since conventional LDA has a measuring volu me length of about 2 mm, the near wall region cannot be resolved. This leads to an offset of the volume flow rate of about 1. 3 %. To overcome this limitation high resolution LDA (HR - LDA) was developed. Therefore, a LDA measuring volume with constant fringe spacing is overlaid with a n LDA measuring volume with divergent fringe spacing. In t his way, the position of a particle passing the measuring volume can be determined with a resolution of 50 m . With the HR - LDA the influence of the near wall region on the volume flow rate wa s reduced from 1. 3 % to 0 . 04 %.
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Document ID: 3D30E4C2

Proficiency Test For Measurement Equivalence In Water Flow Metering With Coriolis Mass Flow Meters In South Korea
Author(s): Sejong Chun Byung-Ro Yoon Soo-Jin Kim
Abstract/Introduction:
There are more than twenty accredited laboratories for flow measurement in South Korea according to KOLAS, the Korea Laboratory Accreditation Scheme. Among them, twelve accredited laboratories participated in the proficiency test for water f low metering arranged by KASTO, the Korea Association of Standards and Testing Organization, in 2015. KRISS prepared for the proficiency test with the water flow standard system (WFSS), of which measurement range was between 3.6 m 3 /h - 200 m 3 /h. The participating laboratories were divided into three groups to test low flow range (3.6 m 3 /h - 12 m 3 /h) and high flow ranges (40 m 3 /h - 80 m 3 /h and 40 m 3 /h - 200 m 3 /h). The transfer standards were two Coriolis mass flow meters. All the participating laborato ries satisfied the measurement equivalence with the WFSS at KRISS. However, there was one example which demonstrated the importance of density measurement for volume flow metering with the mass flow meters.
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Document ID: D872C3BA

Calibration Of A Mems Anemometer
Author(s): Liji Huang Yenan Liu Changming Jiang Wenhong Deng Li Lei Pujun Zhao
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate calibration of an anemometer would often be required in a wind tunnel which can provide the reproducible metrology environment for the desired air velocity. However, such a calibration procedure is expensive and not suitable for mass production a s the demands of the HVAC or building automation related IOT shall have to deploy a very large number of the anemometers. In this paper, we discuss the comparison of the calibration for MEMS anemometers in a commercial wind tunnel and a specially designed closed conduit with a diameter of 19 mm . It is found that the MEMS anemometer packaged into a plate at the probe that is parallel to the air flow direction with a well - defined boundary layer can be accurately calibrated to a full dynamic range over 100:1 in the designed closed conduit with only a constant deviation to the values obtained in a commercial wind tunnel. This allows mass production of the anemometers at a very low cost which enables the current application demands. This paper will discuss the d esign principle, the test data, and the theoretical understandings.
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Document ID: C79383C5

Numerical Findings On The Boundary Layer Transition Of Critical-Flow Venturi Nozzles
Author(s): B. nsal K. R. Rathore E. Ko
Abstract/Introduction:
Presently available information on the boundary layer transition of CFVN (critical flow venturi nozzles) depends only on experimentally measured discharge coefficient variation with Reynolds (Re) number. The investigations reported here aims to add, fluid flow details information of CFVNs transition phenomena, to the exist ing knowledge for better understanding of the problem. Previous investigations of the authors have shown that various features, of CFVNs, such as discharge coefficient variation with Re number, conjugate heat transfer and flow instability, can be studied numerically by commercial CFD (computational fluid dynamics) packages and numerically obtained results were in good agreement with those of available corresponding experimental cases. For the present investigations, the new turbulence models which have the capability to predict the boundary layer transition were used to simulate the transition occurring within CFVNs. Series of simulation cases were performed for various Re numbers , back pressure ratios (BPR) and nozzle diameters.
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Document ID: 7779EA44

Dead-Volume Correction Dvc() For The Calibration Of Cfvns -- Differential Calibration And Optimum Estimation
Author(s): m. Ishibashi N. Kato H. Harada
Abstract/Introduction:
The paper introduces differential calibration that estimates the dead volume correction (DVC) of a diverter valve without ambiguity (termed DVC0/DVC1). DVC0 and DVC1 have to f ix the condition of the exhaust line before suction. It is then replaced by a regression method on the basis derived by DVC0 to reduce the number of the measuring points required for the estimation (DVC1b). The paper also proposes another regression method that allows any exhausting condition (DVC2). It bases on the fact that the discharge coe fficient of a CFVN depends on the inverse of the square root of the Reynolds number in the laminar boundary layer regim e. Another direct measurement method (DVC3) is also proposed that can be applied to any conditions. These methods a gree with each other very well even between two diverter valves of different sizes.
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Document ID: 2E0A2714

Diagnostics And Orifice Plates: Theoretical A Nd Computational Work
Author(s): m. J.Reader Harris W. K. Lee J. Barnett K. Mistry
Abstract/Introduction:
The ability to use diagnostics is not limited to ultrasonic meters: the same opportunity can arise with differential - pressure meters such as orifice plates. The diagnostic parameter considered in this paper is the pressure los s ratio (the quotient of the pressure loss from upstream of the orifice to 6 D downstream and the differential pressure) , which is used by Prognosis, produced by Swinton Technologies
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Document ID: 379C5A06

Worlds First LNG Research And Calibration Facility
Author(s): P. Lucas O. Bker A. Kenbar H. Kolbjrnsen K. Rasmussen G.Rathwell M.Safonova K. Stolt m. P. Van Der Beek
Abstract/Introduction:
A Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) flowmeter research and calibration facility is being built in Rotterdam by the Dutch metrology institute VSL. This cryogenic test loop will also be used to test and develop LNG analysers , new technologies and devices for measurement of LNG physical properties. The facility will consist of a Primary Standard Loop (PSL) that can measure the mass of LNG flows traceable to the Inte rnational Kilogram standard in Paris. The primary standard is capable of flow measurements up to 25 m 3 /hr. A second Midscale Standard Loop (MSL) will measure volume tric flow rate of up to 200 m 3 /h , expandable to at least 400 m 3 /h in the future. The Midsc ale standard is traceable to the PSL and scales the flowrate up using bootstrapping techniques. This paper describes the combined PSL and MSL facility, its objectives, and accomplishments to date
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Document ID: 608CF118

Study On T Ransducer P Rotrusion E Ffect Of U Ltrasonic F Lowmeter Using Wind Tunnel And Ldv
Author(s): H. Hu D.Zhu L. Cui C. Wang
Abstract/Introduction:
Transducer protrusion into the flow is one of the most important uncertainty sources of ultrasonic transit - time flowmeter s . It introduces a symmetric error by local ly distorti ng the velocity profile along the acoustic path, and incomplete sampling of velocity along the path that arises from the transducer not being flush mounted in conduit s or channels . Transducer protrusion effect depends on the protrusion ratio and t he shape of the transducer mount . It should be estimated and corrected for flowme ters without being calibrated using flow standard facility. A stretchable model transducer made of plexi - glass is mounted on a flat plate in wind tunnel. Local velocity distri butions are observed along possible acoustic paths using Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) technology. Three different positions of transducer protrusion are tested to analyse mechanism of protrusion effect a nd its correction method. Assuming that the transd ucer protrusion only distorts path velocity profile in a certain distance and velocity profile beyond this distortion distance stays the same, protrusion effect for different path lengths can be estimated using a three - zone (two distort ed velocity zones at both ends and one undistorted zone in the middle) distance - weighted averaging method.
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Document ID: 9A174F91

Bilateral Comparison Between Nmisa And Vtt - Mikes - Part Of The Nmisa Flow Laboratory Journey To Accreditation
Author(s): D. Jonker R. Hgstrm m. W. Dlamini
Abstract/Introduction:
The NMISA Flow laboratory is in the process of obtaining ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation. The laboratory is compelled to perform the majority of gas flow calibrations in South Africa, due to severely limited accredited gas flow calibration capacity in industry. This is resulting in unacceptable long lead times. The laboratory is equipped with a positive displacement piston prover as the highest - level standard. Traceability is obtained by sending this secondary standard to o verseas National Metrology Institutes for calibration. The necessity of sending the reference standard overseas for regular re - calibration in order to maintain sufficient confidence in the reliability of the results, means an absence of about two months fr om the laboratory, creating a further impact on the calibration lead times
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Document ID: C7E559B7

Evaluation Of A Gravimetric Calibration Facility Using A Double - Wing D Iverter With F Our Types Of Working Liquids
Author(s): R. Doihara K. H. Cheong, T. Shimada Y. Terao
Abstract/Introduction:
flow calibration facility based on the gravimetric method using a double - wing diverter for hydrocarbon flows from 0.1 to 15 m 3 /h was constructed as a national measurement standard at the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ). The original working liquids were kerosene and light oil. The calibration facility was modified to calibrate flowmeters with two additional working liquids, industrial gas oline (flash point 40 ? C ) and spindle oil, to achieve calibration over a wide viscosity range. The kinem atic viscosity range of industrial gasoline, kerosene, light oil, and spindle oil is 1.2 - 24 mm 2 /s. The contributions to the measurement uncertainty for the four types of working liquids were analysed experimentally in this study. The uncertainty due to dro plets from the diverter wings was reduced by a modified diverter operation. The diverter timing errors for all types of working liquids were estimated based on the method described in ISO4185.
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Document ID: 8216BD21

The Uncertainty Analysis And Capability Verification For The High Pressure Pvtt Gas Flow Facility Of Nim
Author(s): Chunhui Li Lishui Cui Chi Wang
Abstract/Introduction:
The high pres sure pVTt gas flow facility was built in NIM in 2014 . T he pressure could be changed with in (1002500) kPa. A t 1 000 k Pa, the maximum flow rate could be 87 m 3 /h, while the maximum flow rate could be 47 m 3 /h at 2500 k Pa.
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Document ID: C40D2498

Flomeko 2016 , Sydney , Australia , September 26 - 29 , 201 6 Page 1 Metrological Support For LNG Custody Transfer And Transport
Author(s): . Bker K. Rasmussen J. B. Kondrup P. Lucas N. Pelevic K. Stolt m. Van Der Beek
Abstract/Introduction:
In the framework of the ongoing EMRP Joint Research Project (JRP) ENG 60 Metrology for LNG (2014 - 2017), co - funded by the European Union, a number of metrological challenges associated with custody transfer and transport of LNG will be faced. The project consists of four technical work packages (WP), whereby the main objective is to reduce the measurement uncertainty of LNG custody transfer by a factor two. The focus in WP1 is the design and development of a traceable mid - scale calibration standard for LNG mass and volume flow. The goal is to provide traceable mass and volume flow calibrations up to 4 00 m3/h (18 0000 kg/h). In WP2, the emphasis is on the development and validation of a LNG sampling and composition measurem ent reference standard, consisting of sampler, vaporizer, gas standards, and gas chromatography (GC), which will be used to test and calibrate commercially available LNG sampling and composition measurement systems . The priority in WP3 is given to the development and validation of a metho d for the determination of the methane number, including correlations based on the LNG composition and corrections for traces of nitrogen and higher hydrocarbons
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Document ID: E943220F

The Uncertainties In The Critical Flow Functions Calculated With AGA8 DC92 And Gerg 2008
Author(s): Y. C. Ha S. J. Lee K. J. Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
n this paper, the uncertainties in the critical flow function s (CFF s ) calculated with the AGA8 - DC92 and the GERG - 2008 equations of state (EOSs for compression factor) were estimated. To this end, thermodynamic properties such as enthalpy, entropy, compression factor, and speed of sound, which are used in calculating CFF, were expressed in the form of dimensionless Helmholtz free energy and its d erivatives. In order to identify the influence of the uncertainty in compression factor on CFF , the form of Helmholtz free energy for each EOS and its derivatives were modified to have a deviation corresponding to a deviation (i.e., uncertainty ) in compres sion factor under each flow condition. For each independent uncertainty component of CFF, both a model and a method to estimate the uncertainty contribution were developed.
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Document ID: 6D62C0E2

Measurement Of Two Phase Hydrocarbon Spray Flows Using Laser Plasma Spectroscopy
Author(s): S.H. Lee J.J. Yoh
Abstract/Introduction:
Performance and emission characteristics of direct injection (DI) engines are greatly influenced by many factors such as the local fuel/air equivalence ratio and condensed - fuel concentration. Picturing the inhomogeneous distributions of the flow properties is essential in understanding the ignition processes in two phase hydrocarbon spray flows. Simultaneous laser ignition and spectroscopy is a scheme that enables rapid determina tion of the local equivalence ratio and condensed fuel concentration during a reaction in two phase spray flows. In parallel with laser ignition, the equivalence ratio and droplet characteristics such as the concentration, size, and distribution of hydroca rbon spray flows are simultaneously obtained for a feedback control system. The plasma characteristics of fuel droplets are evaluated initially by shadowgraph, and the high - speed imaging of air and spray breakdown provides visualization of the transition f rom the plasma to a flame kernel. The flow fields of the spray are obtained using the time - resolved PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) method during the laser ignition.
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Document ID: 496D106C

An Innovative Technology For Coriolis Metering Under Entrained Gas Condition
Author(s): H. Zhu A. Rieder Y.Lin
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis mass flow meter s are usually only used for single - phase fluids, i.e. either liquids or gases, since it has been found that their accuracies can be affected by two - phase flows, e.g. the existence of entrained gas in a liquid flow. It is now known that there are various error sources, among which the significantly increased compressibility due to the gas entrainment brings the most difficulty to the fi eld applications of Coriolis meters. The authors developed a new generation of Coriolis sensor together with an innovative technology, Multi Frequency Technology (MFT), which can compensate the measurement errors introduced by the elevated compressibility of an entrained gas flow. The new Endress+Hauser Coriolis sensor provides a novel hardware platform so that a higher natural mode of the measuring tube can be reliably excited, in addition to the basic working mode. Being driven at different frequencies, t he same two phase fluid in the measuring tube can have different influences on the primary mode (i.e. the basic working mode) and the auxiliary mode (i.e. the higher tube mode).
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Document ID: D6724E62

Development Of Vibration Tube Liquid Density Meter Standard In Xjmt
Author(s): Shun-Li Wang Xiao-Yu Li De-Fu Xu
Abstract/Introduction:
ibration tube liquid density meter ( on line ) standard facility is established at XJMT. The facility is constituted of d ouble seal thermostatic chamber with 8 workbench es of rotating disc type and High temperature & pressure digital density mete r that works as standard to calibrate vibration tube liquid de n sity meter on line. In the temperature range of (10 60) C , and the density range of (700 1400)kg/m 3 ,the standard device stability and the deviation of density distribution along profile are both less than 0.15%. T he calibrationg results and analysis suggest that the expanded uncertainty of Density measurements is evaluated to be: U 0.1kg/m 3 , k 2. Vibration tube liquid density meter is widely used to measure the crude density of China - Kazakhstan pipe laying on line,and is uesed as standard for hydrocarbon flow standard facility also
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Document ID: 721F853F

Application Of Earths Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance To Multiphase Flow Metering
Author(s): K.T. Oneill P.L. Stanwix M.L. Johns E.O. Fridjonsson
Abstract/Introduction:
Multiphase flow metering has significant potential in a number of indu stries particularly in the oil and gas industry in terms of assisting the development of marginal fields and monitoring subsea processing. We demonstrate the novel use of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) multiphase flow meter consisting of a pre - polari sing permanent magnet upstream of an Earths magnetic field NMR detection coil. The application of appropriate signal analysis in interpreting the 1 H NMR signal acquired from a flowing stream allows determination of the relevant velocity probability distr ibution. The accuracy o f such velocity distributions are verified using superficial velocity measurements obtained from an in - line rotameter. The ability to quantify multi - modal velocity distributions via regularisation is also demonstrated by applying the measurement methodology to a two pipe system. The flow metering system has also been successfully applied to two phase air/water flows in or der to simultaneously track both liquid holdup and liquid velocity with time in both the stratified and slug flow regimes
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Document ID: 37C97CAC

The Comparison Of Low Pressure Gas Flow Rate Among Nim , Ptb And Vniir
Author(s): Chunhui Li, Bodo Mickan Ilya Isaev
Abstract/Introduction:
The p eriodically compar ison among National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) is conducted to validate their claimed measurement capab ilities for their primary standards . For gas flow, the critical flow V enturi (CFV) or sonic nozzle is among the worlds best transfer standard and has been used successfully for numerous inter - comparisons between NMIs as well as between secondary flow cali bration laboratories
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Document ID: 138CE33D

Ensuring A High Level Confidence In Sonic Nozzle Test Equipment Used To Certify Domestic Gas Meters
Author(s): A.J. Cockshott
Abstract/Introduction:
he validation and verification of sonic nozzle test equipment are typically conducted on an annual basis. This involves the comprehensive calibration of multiple pressure, temperature and relative humidi ty t ransmitters, time measurement and the calibration of sonic nozzle factors to determine the overall system accuracy calibration. When manufacturing and certifying domestic gas meters to a very tight tolerance, it is common to utilise a check meter to ensure the continued accuracy of sonic nozzle test equipment since its last verification. Analysing the error percentage drift of the check meter over time, allows the organisation to determine the level of confidence of the test equipment between success ive equipment verifications. But when considering the uncertainty of the test equipment combined with the repeatability of a check meter, what variation in error percentage of the check meter does one consider acceptable?
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Document ID: CAF2E0C7

Low - Speed Jerking Motion Of The Reciprocating Double - Pistons Gas Prover
Author(s): Zhipeng Xu Jun Zhou Jiayin Dai Dailiang Xie
Abstract/Introduction:
Piston prover is widely used as gas flow standard for its advantages like high accuracy, flow stab ility , good repeatability , and so on . In our former research on the r eciprocating d ouble - piston g as p rover , obviously low - speed jerking motion wa s found when the flow rate wa s less than 0.064 m 3 /h. Sometimes the prover even stopped working due to overloaded torque of server motors . T o solve this problem, the mechanism of the low - speed jerking wa s carefully analyzed. And t he simple solution of stack ing a high frequency saw - tooth wave into the constant speed of the piston was proposed . As a result, t he mechanical structure could be avoid ed amending since there were only some change s within the control program. Detailed experiments ha d been carried out for the calibration of the venture nozzle whose flow rate wa s about 0.04 m 3 /h. And the results show ed that the torque of servo motors has been reduced from about 120% of their nomin al torque to only 60% when a 50 Hz wave has been stacked
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Document ID: 8EE40E49

Experimental Study On Velocity Representation Of Ultrasonic Transit - Time Discharge Measurement In Open Channel
Author(s): H. Hu Z. Wang D. Zhu X. Cheng
Abstract/Introduction:
It is very important to accurately measure the open channel discharge, especially for trade settlement involved in water transportation projects blooming in China. Ultrasonic Transit - time method is widely used for accurate open channel discharge measurement with many advantages. Due to complexity of op en channel flow, velocity representation is the main source of discharge uncertainty, including representation of cross - sectional average d velocity from measured acoustic path velocities and path velocity itself. We buil t a 25m long, 2m wide, 1.2m deep ope n channel facility with an over - fall head tank providing a very stable flowrate of 1.5m 3 /s in maximum. Two parallel - installed DN500 ultrasonic flowmeters calibrated by gravimetric facility are used as master meters, and two open channel flowmeters of diffe rent transducer mounting type are installed in series as test meters for velocity representation study. Both of the two test meters have cross - plane configuration with five acoustic paths on each plane
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Document ID: D0A4A853

Extended Data Analysis Of Bila Teral Comparisons With Air And Natural Gas Up To 5 Mpa
Author(s): Bodo Mickan Jean-Pierre Vallet Chunhui Li John Wright
Abstract/Introduction:
In 2015, the PTB, LNE-LADG, NIM and NIST performed informal bilateral comparisons using six critical venturi nozzles (CFVN). The goal of the comparisons was to prove the equivalence of reference standards for gas flow using pressurized air and natural gas at pressures from 0.1 MPa to 5 MPa. The evaluation of the data utilized a function for the discharge coefficient c D of critical nozzles as a function of the Reynolds number and real gas characteristics. The fitting function covers both laminar and turbulent boundary layer operating ranges of a nozzle with a single equation. The summary of all results of this comparison series shows that the proposed function for the discharge coefficient c D can represent single measurement values within 0.1 % with a 95 % confidence level
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Document ID: AC15DA96

Establishment Of Hydrocarbon Flow Traceability For A Large Ball Prover By Using Flowmeters Installed In Parallel
Author(s): T. Shimada R. Doihara Y. Terao Y. Ito S. Shiratori
Abstract/Introduction:
A large ball prover for hydrocarbon flow measurement has been c alibrated over the actual operating flow rate range by using a standard flowmeter and a positive displacement flowmete r installed in parallel. The operating flow range of the ball prover is from 100 m 3 /h to 1800 m 3 /h, and its volume is 10 m 3 . The standard flowmeter, of which maximum flow rate is 300 m 3 /h, was calibrated at NMIJ in order to be traceable to national standard. The calibrated flow rates for the ball prover were expanded from 300 m 3 /h to 1800 m 3 /h by the standard flowmeter and the PD meter installed in para llel. As a results, the calibration factors for the ball prover were obtai ned at all operating flow range. The deviation of the calibrati on factors against flow rates was l ess than 0.04 %, indicating goo d linearity of the prover. The detailed uncertainty analysis was carried out, resulting the uncertainty of the calibration f actors of the ball prover were evaluated to be less than 0.09 % . Furthermore the three flowmeters calibrated at NMIJ were mounte d in parallel and calibrated by the ball prover simultaneously in order to confirm the calibration results.
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Document ID: CFD853CC

Flomeko 2016, Sydney, Australia, September 26 - 29, 2016 Page 1 Investigation On Error Model Of Turbine Flowmeter S Based On The Reynolds Number
Author(s): Han Zhang Li Jia Chunhui Li Peijuan Cao
Abstract/Introduction:
The meter error is an important index of flow characteristics for the turbine flowmeter s , associated with flow rate and gas pressure. The model for meter error is the key link to decrease the fitting uncertainty faced by the non - fixed usage of turbine flowmeter s . 4 sets of turbine flowmeters (Dn 100) were selected as master meters applied in measurement high pressure (up to 2.5MPa) gas flow is developed at NIM by the method of close loop standard facility . The investigation were carried out by the 4 sets of turbine f lowmeters and the results showed that : the curve of meter error mainly shows a certain rule with the Reynolds number at different pressures but might be obviously spread at low flow rate but low pressure. Starting from the fact of the physical model that for a constant flow rate al l forces (torques) are in equilibrium, the error model of turbine flowmeter s (named NIM - 2015) was presented. It can reflect the characteristics of the curve of meter error . With comparison with the uncertainty based on the NIM - 2 014 model, the uncertainty based on the NIM - 2015 model of the 4 turbine flowmeter s for the non fixed point usage could be lower than 1% ( k 2). To prove the model the consistency of the turbine flowmeters was verified and the result suggests that the model is reasonable
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Document ID: B685C0EF

Back Pressure Ratio And The Transonic Resonance Mechanism Of Low Unchoking In Critical Flow Venturis
Author(s): J. D. Wright B. W. Sims R. J. Mckee K. A. Gillis A. N. Johnson m. S. Carter Ida I. Shinder
Abstract/Introduction:
Reliable Critical Flow Venturi (CFV) operation requires sonic velocity at the throat of the device. The maximum ratio of exit pressure to inlet pressure that ensures this so nic velocity is referred to as the maximum back pressure ratio (MBPR). Being able to accurately predict the MBPR for a sp ecific CFV as well as design a CFV to have a high MBPR allows diverse application and confidence in CFV flow measurements. At Reynolds numbers based on throat diameter below 50 000, CFVs can display low unchoking and the standard equation over-reports the flow by 1 % or more. We show that MBPR for a particular, 0.8 mm throat diameter CFV using dry air, argon, helium, and sulfur hexafluoride is well correlated by the fully expanded jet Mach number. Sound detected by microphones placed up and downstream from a CFV show high correlation between low unchoking and the presence of powerful transonic resonances (oscillations at audio frequencies in pressure and the position of a lambda shock in the CFV diffuser) described by Zaman et al. We propose a mechanism in which pressure fluctuations from the transonic tones lead to intermittent unchoking of the CFV throat
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Document ID: C4798936

Measurement Of The Air Flow Rate In An Engine Inlet Duct For Altitude Engine Tests
Author(s): W. Kang H-M. Choi Y-M. Choi S-H. Lee Y-G. Kim C-T. Kim K-J. Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
An altitude engine test was carried out to measure the performan ce of the gas turbine engine of a flight vehicle at a high altitude and in a fligh t speed environment prior to a flight test. The a ir flow r ate in the engine inlet is one of the most significant parameters to consider when calc ulating the typical performance values such as the net thrust and the specific fuel consumption of a gas turbine engine. In the altitude engine test facility of the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI), air flow rate s are calculated by the static pressure , the total pressure and the temperature measured in an engine inlet duct. In the present study, in order to verify the air flow rate measurement at the engine inlet duct of the KARI altitude engine test facility, the inlet flow measurement devices of a total pressure rake, a total temperature rake and a boundary - layer rake were tested in the high pressure gas flow standard system of the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS).
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Document ID: 0DEBF0CC

Numerical Simulation Of Multiphase Flow In A Vertically Mounted Venturi Flow Meter
Author(s): A. Fiebach E. Schmeyer S. Knotek S. Schmelter
Abstract/Introduction:
The objective of the European research project Multiphase flow metrology in Oil and Gas production (MultiFlowMet) is to explain and reduce the uncertainty in multiphase flow metering. A comparison of measurements using multiphase metering systems with corresponding results from computational fluid dynamics is used to achieve this goal. In this contribution, a two-phase flow through a vertically mounted Venturi flow meter is presented. According to the experimental set-up within the project, the simulations focus on the flow of oil and gas in large pipes of diameter D 0 . 104 m . The simulations represent the whole configuration including a 154 D long inflow section, where the flow pattern is formed. After a horizontal bend the flow is turned upwards through a blind-T in the vertically mounted measurement unit. This leads to swirl and turbulence and thus another pattern is observed in the Venturi flow meter. The simulation results are compared with experimental data obtained in the projec
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Document ID: 12A5C0D9

Improvements Of The Dynamic Gravimetric Flow Standard Dgfs() Below 0.2 mgs- 1 N2 (10 Sccm)
Author(s): J. Barbe C. Rombouts
Abstract/Introduction:
In 2011, Laboratoire National de Metrologie et dEssais ( LNE ) installed a primary gas flow standard (dGFS) based on the dynamic gravimetric method. The dGFS developed by Fluke Calibration - Phoenix (FCP) was initially designed to calibrate molbloc laminar flow elements in the range from 0.2 mgs - 1 to 200 mgs - 1 of nitrogen (10 sccm to 10 slm) with a manufacturers expanded uncertainty ( k 2) on the order of 0. 06% of reading (variant with mass depleted). An LNE uncertainty analysis of the dGFS components using the GUM approach has given an expanded uncertainty ( k 2) on the reference mass flowrate of ( 0.06 % of reading + 3 10 - 4 mgs - 1 ) in this flow range. This uncertainty has been validated through different international comparisons using commercial transfer standards such as molbloc LFEs or portable volumetric devices.
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Document ID: 007B9905

Volume Comparison O N Calibration Of Micropipettes - Gravimetric And Photometric Method
Author(s): Elsa Batista Isabel Godinho George Rodrigues Doreen Rumery
Abstract/Introduction:
Micropipette calibration can be performed by two different methods: the gravimetric method , described in ISO 8655 - 6:2002 , and the photometric method , described in ISO 8655 - 7:2005. In order to verify the degree of agreement between these methods and with different operators in each labor atory, a n EURAMET bilateral comparison between IPQ - Portuguese Institute for Quality (pilot laboratory) and Artel , accredited l aboratory according to ISO 17025 was performed (project 1353). Four different micropipettes from 1000 ? L to 0,1 ? L volumes were calibrated by six different operators, one from IP Q and five from Artel. Two runs were performed for each micropipette. IPQ acting as the pilot laboratory determined the reference value.
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Document ID: 3C31BA63

Laboratory Inter - Comparison Measurements - Means Of Proving Traceability In Liquid Flow Metering
Author(s): R. Engel
Abstract/Introduction:
Traceability in liquid flow measurement - or, in general , in fluid flow measurement - is practiced as the so - called component - by - component approach, i.e. the flow measurands of fluid flowrate (volumetric or mass flowrate) and totalized flow (total volume or total mass ) are determined by tracing the units mass (or volume), den sity, temperature and time measurement separately back to the corresponding SI units. This represents the state of the art and this approach basically relies on the assumption that the measurement process of flowmeter calibration is a steady - state process and no dynamic changes in fluid flowrate occur. Due to this attitude, it seems to be sufficient, for traceability purpose, to take into account solely those SI units - as steady - state quantities - which represent the composing elements of the flow measuran ds. But it has already be en shown that d ynamic flow effects , definitely, have an impact on the accuracy of flowmeter calibration .
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Document ID: 14FC0608

An Intercomparison Of Water Flow And Gas Flow Laboratories Using ISO 5167 DP Devices
Author(s): Jos Van Der Grinten Roy Van Hartingsveldt Stefan Knfel Eberhard Gralla Johann Kolar
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes an intercomparison that has been organized b etween August 2013 and March 2014 , using a ISA 1932 nozzle, a long radius nozzle and a Ventu ri tube , which were made in stainless steel for the purpose of the project. The device s were calibrated on water, hot water and natural gas by 7 laboratories. The calibration results obtained with water, hot water and natural g a s connect well in the overlappin g range of Reynolds numbers. For the ISA 1932 nozzle and the long radius nozzle the results of all laboratories agree with at least 95% confidence. The results of the Venturi tube shows significant differences between laboratories at a number of calibratio n points. The discharge coefficients C d observed at the A and B tappings generally agree within 0.1%, with the least differences for the ISA nozzle and the hig h est for the Venturi tube. One of the remarkable outcomes was the low scatter of C d for water calibrations of the long radius nozzle and the close agreement to the literature value .
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Document ID: 60E42517

Calibration Models And Uncertainty Analysis Of The Euroloop Liquid Hydrocarbon Flow Facility
Author(s): Jos Van Der Grinten Bart Van Der Stap
Abstract/Introduction:
fter initial experiences with the EuroLoop Liquid Hydrocarbon Flow Facility the initial uncertainty analysis was re - evaluated according to the GUM . Successive substitution was used to compute the deviation of a meter under test as a function of all input parameters. A number of uncertainty sources that requires specific attention are discussed. Compared to the current accreditation the achievable CMC values are at least 30% lower for volumetric calibrations and 4 0% lower for mass flow calibrations. The reason s for the lower uncertainties are the utilization of the triple set of detectors in the piston prover, which results in three independent measurement results, and the stability of the measurement process that is better than originally anticipated. The CMC obtained for the big piston prove r is 0.008%.
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Document ID: 37BFBAEB

Pitot Tubes Calibration And System Integration Of Automated 3D Traverse Stage With The Wind Tunnel
Author(s): Hsin-Hung Lee Chun-Min Su
Abstract/Introduction:
Smokestack emissions are one of the main pollution sources and already become a global challenge . Owing to the unstable flow conditions , complex gas composition s and selection of suitable instrumentation , stack flow measurements have drawn much attention . 3D pitot tubes can be used for three - dimensional swirl flo w measurements in the smokestack and could provide more detailed flow information. To provide 3D pitot tube calibration service, automated traverse stage design integrated with wind tunnel system is necessary in order to decrease the operation time and lab ours
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Document ID: 0B68BF9E

Reducing The Uncertainty Of A High Pressure, High Flowrate Calibration Facility
Author(s): T.M. Kegel W.R. Johansen
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes data acquisition and analyses underway with the objective of reducing the uncertainty of the CEESI Iowa high pressure natural gas calibration facility. The current uncertainty is 0.23%, the target is a value less than 0.20%. Three programs are described: The first is intended to reduce the uncertainty associated with the traceability to the Colo - rado high pressure air facility. A new transfer standard package has been calibrated at both facilities. The second program involves the detailed analysis of extensive check meter data. The analysis results will quantify facility reproducibility. The third program indirectly inter-compares individual standards on a periodic basis. The initial agreement between program results and historical calibrations is encouraging.
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Document ID: 7A425239

Uncertainty Analysis Of A Multi-Viscosity Liquid Hydrocarbon Calibration Facility
Author(s): T.M. Kegel
Abstract/Introduction:
In September 2015 CEESI began operation of a new multi-viscosity liquid hydrocarbon calibration facility. Calibrations can be made by comparison with either a prover or one or more master meters. Also, calibrations can be based on mass or volume flowrate. This paper documents the uncertainty analysis. It begins by deriving the four operating equations from first principles. Next each component of uncertainty is described and estimated. The estimates are combined expanded. Finally some examples from the CEESI Measurement Assurance Program are presented.
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Document ID: 0EA78BEE

A Facility For The Calibration Of Flow Meters Using Lpg At Near - Boiling Conditions
Author(s): Simon Dignan Mark Ballico Salam Matalka
Abstract/Introduction:
Propane and Butane and transported and metered in liquid phase by ensuring a sufficiently high overpressure is maintained. However in real installations if the supply pipework passes through a higher temperature environment, the product is being dispensed into a lower pressure tank, or experiences strong turbulent flow conditions, the fluid may experience local boiling. NMI has recently developed a system for the calibr ation of flowmeters used for liquid Propane and Butane, under conditions of near boiling continuous flow.
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Document ID: 412C8A0F

An Automated System For Flow And Pressure Contro L At Nmias Liquid Hydrocarbon Flow Facility
Author(s): Simon Dignan Mark Ballico Salam Matalka
Abstract/Introduction:
NMIAs liquid - hydrocarbon flow facility at Londonderry has the capability to calibrate flowmeters in Propane and Butane up to 1700 L/min with an uncertainty of 0.04%. (k2), using a flow loop equipped with a 40 L prover , 4 000L LPG tanks and mechanically variable 30 kW pumps. Flow rate and line pressure are set by the adjustment of pump speed and throttling and pump bypass valves. Although the collection of calibration d ata is fully automated, adjusting the system to a new set - point of pressure and flow has, until now, been performed manually, to ensure that the system does not inadvertently pass through an unsafe operational regime
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Document ID: E5CDAA4B

Development Of Vibration Tube Liquid Density Meter Standard
Author(s): Shun-Li Wang Xiaoyu Li De-Fu Xu
Abstract/Introduction:
Vibration tube liquid density meter ( on line ) is used widely in the fields of industrial production, the international oil trade settlement, and hyrocarbon flow standard facility . To solve the problem of vibration tube liquid density meter calibration it is the tusk for Xinjiang Institute of Measurement & Testing Technology(XJMT) to establish standard facility
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Document ID: 48D9D19C

Flow Metrology At Nmia : Current And Future Projects
Author(s): Mark Ballico Khaled Chahine Simon Dignan
Abstract/Introduction:
ccurate flow measurement is essential for the reliable and efficient operation of transport, manufacturing, energy and biomedical industries in A ustralia. To underpin the operations of the many Australian ISO - 17025 accredited calibration and testing laboratories that support these industries, NMI has established a broad range of calibration capabilities for both liquid hydrocarbon and gas flows. An overview of NMIs existing primary standards and calibration services at both NMIs Linfield and Londonderry sites will be presented, covering NMIs interferomet ric Bell and glass - tub e provers, ultra - fine flow - discrimination nozzle arrays, and facilities for high - flow propane, butane, petrol and diesel flowmeter calibration . The rationale and status of several new projects arising from Australias increasing adoption of gas as an energy source will also be discussed, including
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Document ID: 8A82C2FC

- Contributions To Method Improvement In Syringe Pumps Calibration
Author(s): Elsa Batista Isabel Godinho Maria Do Ceu Ferreira Andreia Furtado Peter Lucas
Abstract/Introduction:
For more than 25 years, multi - infusion has been known to cause severe dosing errors. A great percentage of these errors can be avoided if the users of infusion technology have a better understanding of th ese equipment s. T herefore , it is very important to create awareness and understanding by users of infusion technology. The goal of this EMPIR SIP project SIP - HLT07 (15SIP03) - Infusion Uptake, is to maximize the uptake of the key outputs of the previous project JRP MeDD - Metrology for Drug Delivery . One key output of JRP MeDD has been the realization of calibration services for infusion devices. These services followed the design, construction and validation of several calibration facilities. Furthermore, following the sho w cases of calibration of infusion systems, JRP MeDD has generated a vast experience on how to calibrate infusion devices with the best possible uncertainty . While this knowledge has been presented at various scientif ic conferences and published many times in magazines , it has not yet been formalized via amendments on the actual standards
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Document ID: B07162A8

The Influence Of Ultrasonic Transducer Temperature Adaptability On The Measurement Results
Author(s): Xiaoyu Li, Jun Mu , Dunli Liu
Abstract/Introduction:
Portable ultrasonic flowmeter used to measure the fluid flowmeters,it take the advantage of the propagation characteristics of the ultrasonic . With its advantage of touch free measurement,wide measuring range, ease to install, simper operation of testing,its is considered to be a better measuring device in reducing runoff . Its widely used in electrical power, petroleum,hemical industry, especially the water supply system . This article discusses the change of temperature effect on the results of the measurement conclusion have realistic meaning for research to improve measurement accuracy
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Document ID: 8D7D3A56

Numerical Simulation Of Flow Metering S Ystem For Liquefied Natural Gas
Author(s): J. Sluse R. Maury J. Gersl A. Strzelecki
Abstract/Introduction:
Increasing usage of liquefied natural gas (LNG) hand in hand with the decreasing price makes this green fuel accessible. Higher c onsumption of LNG opened gate for development of new facility for measuring of flow rate with lower uncertainty. The new equipment for measuring the LNG flow rate developed at CESAME Exadebit uses a Laser Doppler Velocimetry technique. The principle of the equipment is based on the velocity measurement in one point behind convergence nozzle and then solving the flow rate. It is convenient to create nearly flat velocity profile behind the nozzle throat (like piston velocity profile) to reduce the shear region influence on the mass flow rate calculation. The a im of th is article is validation of numerical model s of LNG flow in the new flow metering system in OpenFOAM software by comparison with experimental data and analytic formulas. This is the first ste p for the nozzle shape optimisation. The numerical simulation study is divided into following parts:
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Document ID: E815B3B8

Water Flow Meter Calibration In Nmi Laboratory Of Finland
Author(s): m. Huovinen P. Koponen
Abstract/Introduction:
The water flow laboratory of VTT MIKES Metrology in Kajaani is the national standard laboratory for water flow in Finland. There are three different calibration rigs in the laboratory. The gravimetric calibration rig acts also as the national standard and two other reference based calibration rigs are used in daily calibration activities. Table 1 summarises the calibration services.
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Document ID: E7F6EFCB

Numerical Simulation Of Multiphase Flows In Large Horizontal Pipes
Author(s): S. Knotek A. Fiebach S. Schmelter
Abstract/Introduction:
The aim of the European project Multiphase Flow Metrology in the Oil and Gas Sector is to reduce the measurement uncertainty under field conditions by an intercomparison study. In this context multiphase flow simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) should help to understand the differences between the different flow loops. According to the experimental setup within the project, this contribution focuses on the flow of water, oil, and gas in a 12 m long horizontal pipe of diameter D 0 : 104 m . Different superficial gas and liquid velocities lead to different flow patterns, namely stratified, stratified wavy and slug flow. The paper shows the dependence of the flow pattern characteristics on the superficial velocities, fluid properties, mesh and boundary conditions used in the CFD model.
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Document ID: D3ABCF22

Nims Research Progress On Flue Gas Flow Rate Measurement
Author(s): L. Zhang C. Wang H. Li X. Liu
Abstract/Introduction:
The p oint source greenhouse gas emissions direct measurement approach is an effective complement to Chinese carbon trading market accounting methods. The main source of uncertainty in greenhouse gas emissions direct measurement is flue gas flow rate measurement . China does not have flue gas flow rate standard facility , moreover f lue gas flow rate measur ement method s need to be improved. In order to study flue gas flow rate accura te measurement methods and calibration methods, NIM buil t a Smoke S tack S imulator (SMSS) . Th is facility can generate different swirls to simulate stack gas flow field s , which can be used to study flue gas flow rate measurement method s . This facility can also be used for standard pitot tube s calibration . Early in the design, Computational Fluid Dynamics ( CFD ) numerical simulation was used to evaluat e the effect of environmental conditions on the performance of the SMSS. T h e structure s and function s of main parts of SMSS were d escribed in detail.
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Document ID: DCA9DE96

Comparison Of Test Methods For Measuring Flow Stability
Author(s): T.Meng C. Koglin K. Richter T. Lederer C. Wang
Abstract/Introduction:
The technical quality of water flow facilities is defined by the quality of their pumps and valves, the methods used for creating a stable flow and the design of the pipeline layout and it is directly reflected in the flow stability. However, using existing methods it is difficult to differentiate between the actual flow fluctuations and the flow meters noise. The test results can be affected by the working principle, the sample rate and the response time of the flow meter used
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Document ID: 41AD181D

The Influence Of Ultrasonic Transducer Temperature Adaptability On The Measurement Results
Author(s): Xiaoyu Li Jun Mu Dunli Liu
Abstract/Introduction:
Portable ultrasonic flowmeter used to measure the fluid flowmeters, it take the advantage of the propagation characteristics of the ultrasonic.With its advantage of touch free measurement, wide measuring range, ease to install, simp er operation of testing, its is considered to be a better measuring device in reducing runoff.Its widely used in electrical power, petroleum, chemical industry, especially the water supply system.In the process of using ultrasonic flowmeter to measure th e flow, the accuracy of the measurement results is impacted to some extent due to the difference of the transducer temperature adaptability. By analyzing the experimental data set, this article discusses the impact of the measuring result caused by the imp roper use of the transducer
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Document ID: 32C2D76B

New Gravimetric National Standard For Water Flow Measurements In Finland
Author(s): m. Huovinen P. Koponen
Abstract/Introduction:
Centre for Metrology MIKES has accomplished a state- of-the -art gravimetric device for water flow calibrations in Finland. This new calibration rig will serve also as a national standard for water flow. Flow rate in the rig is possible up to 720 m /h and the largest accommodated pipe size is up to DN200. Lowest measurement uncertainty achieved is 0.03 % ( k 2). This presentation will show in detail the construction and the performance of the national standard. Comparison measurements are agreed between PTB and will be conducted in near future. These comparison results will give a solid base for the CMC -submission. Pa rt of the CMC process is also the detailed academic presentation of the measurement capabilities
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Document ID: 01F058E7

Pitot Tubes Calibration And System Integration Of Automated 3D Traverse Stage With The Wind Tunnel
Author(s): Hsin-Hung Lee Chun-Min Su
Abstract/Introduction:
Smokestack emissions are one of the main pollution sources and already become a global challenge . Owing to the unstable flow conditions, complex gas compositions and selection of suitable instrumentation, stack flow measurements have drawn much attention . 3 D pitot tubes can be used for three - dimensional swirl flow measurements in the smokestack and studied to evaluate its capability
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Document ID: 1D114BC3

Numerical Simulation Of The Gas Mixing Behavior In A Soot Conditioning System
Author(s): G. Lindner A. Nowak S. Schmelter
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to establish a primary soot aerosol standard for automotive exhaust measurements, a high-accuracy soot generator as well as a well-defined aerosol conditioning, dilution, and homogenization unit is needed. In this contribution, the mixing behavior of different gases under different junction conditions was numerically investigated to gain insight for favorable setup geometries and flow conditions of soot measuring systems. The overall goal was to find the design that leads to the fastest mixing of the different incoming gas components for a given pipe length. For this purpose, a main pipe with two symmetrically arranged side inlet pipes was considered, where the angle of inclination of the side pipes as well as the inflow conditions were varied.
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Document ID: 6BCCC19C

Development Of A Calibration Process For Water Meters Close To Real World Conditions
Author(s): D. Schumann G. Wendt J. Tranckner
Abstract/Introduction:
A g rowing awareness of environment as well as consumption is leading to rising and novel requirements for flow metering technology , e. g. higher flow rate ranges , smaller measurement uncertaintie s and calibration procedures more orient e d to the actual requirements of further use . This means a changeover from ideal stationary calibrat i on conditions to realistic measurements and a demand for meters which operate precisely und er real working conditions. As an example, realistic conditions, especially the profil e s of real water demand, d eviate fundamentally from the existing test procedures of water meters at well - defined, constant and reproducible reference flows as prescribed , for instance, in the existing documents in legal metrology like OIML R49 1 or ISO 406 4 2 . In the real world, a daily profile of water consumption is c haracterized by short water tapp ings, overlays of different tapping events, varying flank increases, leakage and stagnation.
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Document ID: DC172177

Discharge Coefficient Prediction Through A N Orifice Plate In A Round Pipe : Experimental And Numerical Investigation
Author(s): N. Lancial, m. Arenas, H. Gamel, E. Thibert, N. Dessachy, J. Veau
Abstract/Introduction:
A square - edged orifice is a pressure differential device commonly used for flow measurements in EDFs nuclear power plants. The present study presents experimental data obtained on EDF R&D test bench for an orifice plate and computational fluid dynamics ca lculations (CFD) using the k - e turbulence model to predict velocity fields, pressure loss and discharge coefficient around this device . Investigations focus on flow rate through the circular square - edged orifice in a round pipe at a Reynolds number close t o 8.69 E+05 . T wo pipe configurations have been tested : one with 44D upstream straight length and the second with 9.4D upstream straight length. Velocity profiles are obtained from Laser Doppler Velocimetry measurement (LDV). S imulations presented are only p erformed for 44D configuration with an open source CFD package developed by EDF ( CodeSaturne ). Numerical s ensitivity studies are carried out u sing different mesh refinements of the k - e turbulence model . Discharge coefficient prediction from CFD are compared with ISO 5167 value for 44D upstream straight length.
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Document ID: FE309DE2

Discharge Coefficient Prediction Through A N Orifice Plate In A Round Pipe : Experimental And Numerical Investigation
Author(s): N. Lancial, m. Arenas, H. Gamel, E. Thibert, N. Dessachy, J. Veau
Abstract/Introduction:
A square - edged orifice is a pressure differential device commonly used for flow measurements in EDFs nuclear power plants. The present study presents experimental data obtained on EDF R&D test bench for an orifice plate and computational fluid dynamics ca lculations (CFD) using the k - e turbulence model to predict velocity fields, pressure loss and discharge coefficient around this device . Investigations focus on flow rate through the circular square - edged orifice in a round pipe at a Reynolds number close t o 8.69 E+05 . T wo pipe configurations have been tested : one with 44D upstream straight length and the second with 9.4D upstream straight length
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Document ID: 877B069B

Flomeko 2016, Sydney, Australia, September 26 - 29, 2016 Page 1 Research On Calibration Device Using Plunger Metering Cylinder For Turbine Flowmeter
Author(s): B. Wang L.Y. Wang Q.W. Cao
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate fuel rate acquisition is one of the basic requirements to improve the reliability and confidence of testing results for aero - engines. Because of its high precision and good repeatability, turbine flowmeter is widely used in flow measurement of fuel or fuel system. However, due to the influence of wear and corrosion, the meter coefficient is bound to change. To accurately evaluate the current meter coefficient of turb ine flowmeter, we developed a calibration device using a plunger metering cylinder for turbine flowmeter. Considering the mathematical model of turbine flowmeter, the stability of fuel pushing was researched through system modelling and simulation. As a re sult, the consistency between the calculated flow and the output flow rate of the calibrated meter was proved, which indicates the effectiveness of the device
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Document ID: 821C165B

Inter-Laboratory Comparison Of Small Water Flow Calibration Facilities Between Ehj And Nmij
Author(s): N. Furuichi Y. Terao T. Shimada S. Ogawa L. Cordova
Abstract/Introduction:
Comparison between facilities at E ndress+Hauser Japan and NMIJ was carried out according to three transfer standards, using a Coriolis flowmeter. The range of flowrate was from 30 k g/h to 36000 kg /h. Comparis on results showed excellent agreement for both standard s, at less than 0.018%. En values are also less than 0.52 for all examined flowrate point s. These results demonstrate the consiste ncy of facilities at both labs
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Document ID: 47974C48

Experiences With Use Of A Gravimetric Flow Standard In Vacuum
Author(s): Denek Krajicek Dominik Prak Martin Vicar Jiri Tesar Ladislav Peksa Tom Gronych Martin Jerb
Abstract/Introduction:
The range of the low gas flow (litres per minute at the standard conditions and lower) are of increasing importance which must be reflected by the national metrology institutes. The Czech national standard of low gas flow is based on a gravimetric flow sta ndard (GFS) principle. Hence this instrument defines the flow as a time function of a loss of gas from a pressure bottle which is continuously weighed. This weighing is performed in ambient air causing that the main source of uncertainty results from the b uoyancy correction. A precise determination of this correction is complicated by the instabilities of the atmospheric environment and by a fact that volume of the weighed pressure bottle is dependent both on temperature and internal pressure
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Document ID: 82D2326E

Experimental Investigation Of Cavitating Herschel Venturi - Tube Configuration
Author(s): S. Brinkhorst E. Von Lavante D Gler G. Wendt
Abstract/Introduction:
he flow in cavitating Venturi nozzles (CV) is a lon g time subject of experimental as well as numerical investigations. If the pressure d ecreases due to the local acceleration to the respective vapour pressure, a chocked flow condition similar to the well - known critical flow Venturi - nozzles (CFVN) develops . For the purpose of gaining further insight into the chocked flow condition with respect to liquid flow measurement, high - speed camera investigations of a transparent Herschel Venturi - tube configuration were performed. Together with pressure and flow rate measurements, they demonstrate d the overall stable flow behaviour under chocked conditions. With additional numerical investigations, phenomena during the onset of the chocked condition were clarified. Furthermore, a simple correlation for the calculation of the actual flow rate during chocked condition, as well as a temperature corre ction is proposed.
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Document ID: DED9395E

Analysis Of Coriolis Flowmeters Effected By Cryogenic Fluid Based On Stiffness Model
Author(s): Yueming Lu Yuming Shen
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis Mass Flowmeter (CMF) is investigated in this paper. Based on stiffness model, which is a simply supported beam simplified by the Euler - Bernoulli beam, the mass flow rate expression contained dimensionless function can be deduced. Then, due to the relationship of stiffne ss parameters and material temperature, the theoretical calculation expression of Flowmeter relative error is reached . The calculation expression is shown by material linear expansive coefficient and temperature difference. Finally, the Flowmeter relative error with the temperature range from - 197 C to +7 C is calculated.
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Document ID: 08C83BC5

Calibration Guideline For The Infusion Pump Analyzer Applied In Secondary Laboratories In Thailand
Author(s): T. Chinarak K. Leetang P. Wongthep
Abstract/Introduction:
he flow laboratory of the National Institute of Metrology, Thailand (NIMT), in cooperation with the department of medical sciences, and the department of health service support, ministry of public health developed the periodic testing and maintenance procedures of the infusion pumps according to the international standards, IEC 60601 - 2 - 24 particular requirements for the safety of infusion pumps and controllers, and requirements from the authorities in Thailand. The testing procedures are now widely used in hospitals across country. Since the infusion analyzer is used as a tester in one of the methods applied in the infusion pump testing pr ocedures
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Document ID: 24D3706F

Should Reynolds Number Correction And Linearization Of Flow Meters Be Standardized
Author(s): T. Cousins
Abstract/Introduction:
Flowmeters are without exception controlled in their performance by Reynolds number. For example for many years it was considered that Positive Displacement meter performance was only viscosity related, but now it is accepted that the real criteria is Reynolds number. The same is true of turbine meters. Modern meters such as USMs and Coriolis meters have for years hidden the fact tha t Reynolds number has an influence on meter calibration and performance by using sophisticated computational techniques, and presenting the user with a black box output. Unfortunately , this approach hides from the user a number of important issues that c an affect the meter performance.
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Document ID: 89B46FFD

The Residual Oil Film Adhering To The Rough Inner Wall Of Bell Prover
Author(s): Yiping Liu Chao Chen Jinchuan Wu, Jinmimg Zhang
Abstract/Introduction:
Oil film adherence is one of sources of uncertainty for bell prover since it occupies the part of calibrated volume after bell is withdrawn from the bath at a constant velocity. Surface tension should be considered in determinin g uniform thickness of oil film entrained by the lifted bell casing at low speed. Drainage of oil film results in the decreasing thickness until the thickness reaches practically stable during the bells dwell period. The falling film flow equation with lu brication approximation is employed to obtain the time evolution of film profile. In order to consider the effect of rough surface on drainage behavior, the falling film is separated into the interconnected two layers, and rough surface is modelled as the structure of micropillar arrays. The computational results show that the drainage on rough surface is slower than that on smooth surface because of the increased viscous resistance inside liquid film. The time evolution of film profile not only presents th e time when the film thickness at a certain location starts to decrease but also show how long it takes to approach the final stable thickness. Thus, it is useful for examiner s to interpose a substantial dwell prior to running test to obtain state stabilit y and to reduce emptying error.
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Document ID: EEFE45F2

Experimental Study Of Buoyancy And Surface Tension Effects Of An Immersed Capillary Gravimetric Micro - Flow Facility
Author(s): F. Ogheard S. Margot J. Savary
Abstract/Introduction:
LNE - CETIAT reference micro - flow rate facility uses the start/stop gravimetric method to determine the reference flow rate. The flow range of this facility is between 1 g . h - 1 and 10000 g . h - 1 . The method requires the weighing of a liquid mass over a measured interval of time in order to calculate the reference mass flow rate. To insure the continuity of the flow (i.e. to avoid dripping effect) for flow rates down to 1 g . h - 1 , a capillary, from which the liquid flows out, is constantly immersed in the water in the container on the scale during the measurement time. The main drawback of this method lies on the consideration of two additional biasing effects on the we ighed mass, which has to be included in the uncertainty budget. The first one is the buoyancy effect due to the additional volume of the capillary immersed in the weighed mass of water in the container. The second one is the possible variation of the surfa ce tension effect during the rise of the water along the capillary. This article presents the experimental set up developed and used to quantify those uncertainty sources, as well as the results obtained
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Document ID: 44FA9B6D

Development Process And Third Party Test Results Of A Coriolis Mass Flow Meter With Superior Density P Erformance
Author(s): A. Rieder H Zhu M.Wiesmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis metering in general is in favour over older mechanical based technologies such as orifice, positive displacement and turbine metering. Additionally to mass flow this multi - variable process sensors also determine density, temperature and some even viscosity. A new type of Coriolis mass flow meter is presented which combines the tremendous technological progresses of the recent years. Among other highlights like ne w lows for both zero point and the pressure drop which equates to highest usable flow range and drastic improvements in measurement performance on applications w h ere entrained gas is present the focus of this paper is on fluid density measurement. The exce ptional density measurement performance under real world process conditions is ideally suited to serve the highly demanding application of volumetric custody transfer in the Oil & Gas Industry and also high end concentration measurement in Food & Beverage Industry. It will be explained how all aspects of the meter design have been optimized to ensure robust density performance in the field
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Document ID: 63A277A1

Wet Gas Flow Facility Inter - Comparisons
Author(s): R Steven J Kinney Dennis S Van Putten
Abstract/Introduction:
Many wet gas meters have their performance characterized or acceptance tested at one of the few a vailable wet gas test facilities . The inherent assumption is that a wet gas meter tested at any wet gas flow t est facility will have the same performance as at any other wet gas test facility, and the same performance as in the field. An inter - laboratory comparison would be beneficial in helping prove this. However, compared to single phase flow facilities there i s a dearth of wet gas flow test facility inter - comparisons. In this paper such an inter - comparison is discussed. A fter reviewing some previous evidence, the results of a horizontally installed 6, 0.6 ISO compliant Venturi meter tested at the CEESI and DNV GL multiphase wet gas test facilities are reviewed
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Document ID: CB2ADB5A

The Development And Performance Of A Low Uncertainty Flexible Multi - Viscosity Calibration Facility
Author(s): W.R. Johansen T. Cousins D. Flournoy J. Reiner
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow measurement for custody transfer is required to be very accurate. The accuracy of custody transfer flow measurement is directly affected by the calibration of the custody transfer flow meter. Custody transfer flow meters may be calibrated onsite or they may be calibrated at an offsite calibration facility. In either case it is very important to hav e a characterization of the meter performance over the Reynolds number range the meter is to be us ed. The characterization of meter performance will vary from meter to meter even though the manufacturer is careful to maintain control of the meter geometry. This means that every custody transfer meter should be calibrated over its entire operating Reyno lds number range to achieve the most accurate flow measurement possible. This paper describes the development and performance of a low uncertainty multi - viscosity hydrocarbon liquid calibration facility.
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Document ID: 8A81F8D2

Owards The Improvement Of A Blow - Down Type High Pressure Air Flow Calibration Rig
Author(s): Wen- Bin Wang Fong-Ruey Yang Bodo Mickan Chun-Min Su
Abstract/Introduction:
A blow - down type high pressure air flow calibration rig has been established at Center for Measurement Standards (CMS) in Taiwan since 1996. The facility consists of a primary standard which adopts the gravimetric method and a secondary standard which utilizes master meter method using sonic nozzles, having a capacity of flow from 15 m 3 /h t o 12000 m 3 /h under standard condition and pressure from 1 bar to 60 bar. During flowmeter calibration, the air pressure in the upstream storage tank drops continuously due to the blow - down design, leading to the corresponding temperature drop. Measures hav e been taken to improve the facilitys performance and reduce the thermal effect during flow meter calibration. T he original sonic nozzle bank was replaced by a new sonic nozzle array consisting of seven nozzles which can be operated independently. The thro at diameters of the new nozzles range from 2.312 mm to 11.56 mm, having nominal flow rates of 3 m 3 /h to 75 m 3 /h, and the three largest nozzles have to be operated simultaneously to achieve the maximum flow rate. Two additional sonic nozzles were installed downstream of the nozzle array as the check meters
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Document ID: B2D4A64E

Development Of Water Flow Standard System For Calibrating Water Flow Meters Up To 2000 m 3/h In Kriss
Author(s): Sejong Chun Byung-Ro Yoon Yong-Bong Lee Hae-Man Choi
Abstract/Introduction:
There are a lot of needs for calibrating water flow meters with large - capacity in applications for st eam turbine, chemical processing and water resource management industries. Accredited laboratories have equipped with gravimetric or master - meter flow calibration systems to calibrate water flow meters up to 5000 m 3 /h - 12000 m 3 /h. KRISS had its water flow standard system only up to 400 m 3 /h. In this study, the water flow standard system (WFSS), of which measurement capacity was enlarged up to 2000 m 3 /h, was recently developed. Toward its ends, four weighing tanks (0.1 t, 1 t, 5 t, 25 t) were integrated int o one system with eight pipe lines (25A, 50A, 80A, 100A, 150A, 200A, 250A, 400A). Four pumps were applied to supply water to the head tank located at 20
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Document ID: 3842E9D3

Numerical Simulation For The Straight Pipeline After A Sonic Nozzle And Its Influence On The Discharge Coefficient
Author(s): Han Ke Luo Dong Shen Yuming
Abstract/Introduction:
By establishing models, the numerical simulations for the outlet and the straight pipeline after sonic nozzles with throat diameters of 10 mm and 0.96 mm were carried out by means of the CFD software respectively. The comparison of simulation results and e mpirical values and experimental tests are relatively consistent. According to the simulation results, pressure changes strongly from the nozzle outlet with the straight pipeline length increasing, the critical back pressure ratio increases firstly then d ecreases when the bac k pressure ratio is less than 0.507 and 0.449, the pressure in the pipeline appears fluctuations, and the pressure fluctuations re ach 54.12% at the nozzle outlet
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Document ID: 031F937E

Recent Innovations In The Field Of Traceable Calibration Of Liquid Milli - Flow Rates With Liquids Other Than Water
Author(s): H. Bissig m. Tschannen m. De Huu
Abstract/Introduction:
Milli - , micro - and nano - flow calibrations are important in several areas of pharmaceutical, flow chemistry and health care applications where volumetric dosage or delivery at given flow rates are crucial for the process. After developing a facility for the micro - flow range, METAS has developed a facility to extend its international traceability for flow rates up to 100 ml/min with an uncertaint y of 0. 07 %. The flow generators are homemade syringe pumps which allow measurements with liquids other than water in the range from 100 ml/min down to 100 nl/min. Traceability is guaranteed through the calibration of the generated flow rates of the syringe pumps by me ans of the dynamic gravimetric method where a liquid of well - known density and a well - controlled evaporation rate is used. Up to now, water has been used to perform these calibrations.
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Document ID: B36478CB

Wedge Meters With Low Reynolds Number Flow
Author(s): G Melendez D Myers R Steven K Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
CEESI calibrated 8 wedge & cone meter s across a low Reynolds number range on the new CEESI oil flow laboratory. Th is data was compared to similar 3 rd party 8 Venturi meter data. The data sets are compared and the problems of flow metering at low Reynolds numbers discussed. All meters were tested with the DP Diagnostics DP meter diagnostic system Prognosis installed. It is shown that once fully calibrated to be diagnostic ready, each meters Pr ognosis system could tell the operator the fluid viscosity, and hence the Reynolds number, discharge coefficient and flow rate.
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Document ID: 71ECCE71

Spindle - A New Type Of Differential Pressure Flowmeter
Author(s): Xiao Ming
Abstract/Introduction:
SPINDLE , a new type of differential - pressure flowmeter is described. T he pressure drop is generated via the primary flow element , a spindle - shaped body installed in the center of the pipe. Thus, a n annular channel is formed between the central body and the housing . Numerical simulation indicates that, as the central body will modify the pipe flow into an annular channel flow, SPINDLE i s ab le to condition the different flow characteristics upstream the meter , as present in industrial environments, into a very stable , repeatable and well characterized flow. Different from other primary flow elements, such as orifice plate, Venturi - cone etc, SPINDLE minimizes the drag of the central body as its shape has been optimized by genetic algori thms . As a result, no separation occurs , while keeping the differential pressure as high as possible.
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Document ID: 18E5A3D3


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