Measurement Library

South East Asia Flow Measurement Conference Publications (2016)

The Appropriate Calibration Requirements Of Liquid Custody Transfer Meters - A Low Uncertainty Multi Viscosity Calibration Facility
Author(s): Terry Cousins J Caldwell D Flournoy J. Reiner
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years it has been the normal industry pract ice to calibrate meters, for whatever end purpose, on water. The reasons are very clear: Water is a much easier process fluid to produce cali bration facilities resulting in cheaper calibration of meters. Very little thought has been given to the fact that many meters are not linear over their operational range, particularly with regard to Reynolds number, and that water calibrations do not represent the true nature of the meter performance on site. Constructing and operating oil facilities that can re ally simulate the Reynolds number operation on site is expensive, so few are construc ted and the cost of calibration is often high
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Document ID: 034C1D74

Setting The Standard - Integrating Meter Diagnostics Into Flow Metering Standards
Author(s): Terry Cousins Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
When industry requires to me ter a flow, it requires that flow to be metered correctly. A trusted flow meter which is subsequently found to have given an errone ous flow rate prediction can cause financial penalties, legal arguments, and / or the process to become inefficient. Verification of a flow meter s performance has always been a major aspect of the flow meter engineer s art. Traditional diagnostic methods to verify a flow meter s serviceability are still widely used today, such as mass balance checks, and the associated liquid prov er / check meter techniques. However, these methods have long been known to have severe limitations. T he latest generation of flow meters tend to have diagnostic systems that carry out internal checks on the meter s health. Although imperfect these diagnos tic systems are a great advance over the traditional check methods.
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Document ID: A766E668

Sustainability And Competency Assurance In The Life Cycle Of Measurement
Author(s): Charles Johnson Gerry Inglis Gordon Fish Jim Reekie
Abstract/Introduction:
his paper explores the options for Measurement Tra ining and Sustainable Competency Assurance even in this era when budgets are constrained and the price of oil and gas is below the peaks of 2013/14. However consider that Education, Training, and Competency are the main ingredients in ensuring sustainable, accurate measurement. In the current environment of low oil, gas and LNG prices and lower returns on oil and gas assets the accuracy of measu rement is as important as in the days of high prices, probably more so. This paper d evelops the theme of training and competency assurance for those people engaged in th e maintenance and calibration of measurement equipment throughout the lifecycle of t he equipment. Shows the value of the Vocational Qualification (VQ) in Metering Maint enance, initially this was developed in Scotland and accredited as a Scottish Vocational Qualification (SVQ) but has been accepted by all the major operating companies, beco me a Global VQ, and has been adopted as the basis for in House Competency Assu rance programs in major oil companies
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Document ID: 4670B321

First Malaysian Manufactured Venturi Meters Supplied For Off - Shore Wet Gas Service
Author(s): Hafidz m, Dermega Kim Lewis Josh Kinney
Abstract/Introduction:
The Malaysian company partnership Dermega and Data Intelek, in partnership with the US co mpany DP Diagnostics , have designed, manufactured, gas calibrated , made diagnostic ready, and multiphase wet gas flow tested seven ISO compliant 6 , schedule 80, 0.6 beta Venturi meters . These meters are for multiphase wet gas flow service i n the Malaysian PETRONAS BESAR project. These Venturi meters are the first locally supplied flow meters for a PETRONAS off shore project. The seven Venturi meters were manufactured entirely within Malaysia, and then dry gas calibrated and multiphase wet gas flow tested at Colorado Engineering Experiment Station Incorporated (CEESI).
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Document ID: F21C04A3

Hydrate Management: Managing Uncertainty & Risk Through Enhanced Measurement
Author(s): Alexandre Lupeau Michael Thomas Smith Leong Yit Seng Eric Grzelak
Abstract/Introduction:
Deepwater gas field development has been growing tr emendously in Asia and East Africa region for the past five years. Hydrates management has been identified and ranked by operators as the number one flow assurance issue im pacting design and operation. Current hydrate management methods to address these risks e ntail large capital expenditure (CAPEX) and operating expenditure (OPEX), in over-s pecifying hydrate inhibitor injection and reclamation capacity and in actual usage of the inh ibitor and reclamation capacity in field operation. The major reason for accepting this cost is to avoi d risks related to hydrate formation that result in an interruption of production and perform ing expensive interventions on the production system. Enhanced measurements significan tly improve an operators ability to manage these risks, while enabling more efficient a nd cost effective ways to operate gas and wet-gas fields
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Document ID: 41F5CDF9

Modular Multiphase Flow Meter - Wetgas Test At CEESI
Author(s): Enrico Feltresi, Federico Lucchini, Alessio Tonell
Abstract/Introduction:
Pietro Fiorentini Totem HS, is a 0-100% GVF Multi phase Flow Meter (MPFM) that has been working in regular service onshore and off shore in Multiphase regime through major O&G companies. This paper presents the comparison of the performan ce obtained with different sensor/model combinations of Wetgas test performed at CEESI Colorado in October 2015. The improvements of reliability and cross diagnostic benefits guaranteed by a modular solution are also presented . The MPFM Totem HS MPFM uses a combination of 5 inde pendent measurement principles: Venturi tube, Gamma densitometer, Near Infrared (NIR) Water Liquid Ratio (WLR) detector, Impedance sensor, array Cross Correlation velocity sensor. In order to maximize the Gas/Oil/Water flow rates a ccuracies, the control system selects the optimal sensor combination and the appr opriate mathematical model according to the flow regime
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Document ID: 27125F64

Monitoring System Uncertainty In Real-Time
Author(s): Sjoerd Diepen Mohammed Asraf Bin Jeinie
Abstract/Introduction:
In custody transfer it is of the upmost importance to know the amount of hydrocarbons that passes through a metering system, as this directly translates into a monetary value. Ideally, the exact amount of the quantity being passed from seller to buyer is assessed. However, all kind of (external) factors like installation effect s, product quality, wear and tear, calculation precision and others contribute to a level of uncer tainty. Buyer and seller acknowledge these uncertainties and assume the systems reading being correct, as long as the total system uncertainty remains under a certain limit value ty pically 1 % or less. During the design stage of the system, the uncertai nties are already modelled in an uncertainty budget. After commissioning, it will b e verified that the total uncertainty is indeed according to the budget and within the acceptable l imit value
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Document ID: BE911820

An Innovative Salinity Tracking Device For Multiphase And Wet Gas Meter For Any Gvf And Wlr
Author(s): Dr Bruno Pinguet Dr Cheng Gang Xie Dr Massimiliano Fiore
Abstract/Introduction:
In the multiphase metering business, there is an increasing market need to monitor changes in the produced water salinity - taking place due to formation water breakthrough and/or water injection, or commingled oil - gas production, posing challenges to some multiphase flow mete r s with technologies which are more prone to salinity change than others. N ucleonic fraction measurement has weak sensitiv ity to salinity change specifically when the WLR is below 30%. Meanwhile t here are some need s of salinity tracking for watery wells to improv e water cut measurement and flow rate performance in some limited and specific cases .
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Document ID: 9FDA31F7

Evaluating And Improving Pressure Loss Estimations
Author(s): Chris Mills
Abstract/Introduction:
The vast majority of the worlds remaining oil rese rves are categorised as heavy / unconventional oils (high viscosity). Due to dimini shing conventional oil reserves and the need to secure future energy supplies to a rising world population, the exploitation of unconventional oils is essential. As the development of these visc ous deposits grows, so too will the challenges posed by heavy crude oils and other visc ous products. One such issue is pressure loss. Pressure loss is a critical consideration in high viscosity oil applications, since frictional losses increase with increasing viscosity. There is therefore an incentive to better understand and possibly reduce pressure loss to avoid excess pumping power requirement / operational costs. At present, the uncertainties in calculated pressure loss can be significant and as such could potential ly result in either over or under predictions of the actual pressure loss in a circular pipe
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Document ID: D4558631

Contribution To Economic Upstream Gas Metering With A Dual-Path Ultrasonic Metering Solution
Author(s): Sebastian Stoof, Dr. Andreas Ehrlich, Dr. Olaf Stawicki, Dr. Volker Herrmann,
Abstract/Introduction:
The increasing global demand for energy implies a d iversification in gas production and puts a stronger focus on the development of unconve ntional natural gas sources, such as shale gas and coal seam gas. As a direct consequenc e, the number of unconventional gas wells increases worldwide. Monitoring of unconventional gas production is comm only governed by gas flow meter close to the wellhead or at the gathering station. Depending on the reservoir and the quality of the gas treatment equipment on the wellh ead, the gas may contain liquids and contaminants. They can, depending on their volume f raction, degrade the flow meter measurement performance and, therefore, the monitor ing reliability. Furthermore, the output of the gas well may fluctuate unpredictable on relatively short time scales and will, depending on the maturity of the gas producti on, generally decline over longer time periods. Monitoring of a time varying production ra te requires a robust flow meter with high turn-dow and with minimized operational costs to cope with economic requirements
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Document ID: 312E14D1

Orifice Plate Flow Meters - A Century Of Success Hidden In Plain Sight 100 Years Of Experience And Development
Author(s): Steve Ifft, Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
With more than a century of development, improvement and use industry has a vast amount of experience with orifice plate meters. The well known and widely understood physical principles on which the orifice meter operates are fundamental, reliable and beautifully simple. With orifice meter sales in 2014 exceeding sales records, the orifice meter remains one of the most popular and capable flow meters used throughout industry. Todays orifice meter technology is truly modern, with the development of the technology having kept pace with alternative advances in flow metering technology.
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Document ID: BC3B57EB

Non - Intrusive Mpfm Case Study: Challenges And Way Forward
Author(s): Anish Gupta Dahlila Kamat Nor Aisyah Borhan Ratan Singh Bahrom Madon
Abstract/Introduction:
Though there are many types of well testing set ups across PETRONAS , there are gaps in getting proper well test data due to ? P ractical difficulties in maintaining the meter s. ? Large number of w ells on a platform with one tests separator, leading to less than one test per month for a well. Non - availability of multi - rate tests or continuous well monitoring or some times long time gaps between well tests, makes it difficult to optimise gas lift or even normal production from the wells leading to the loss in production. Thus, a need has been felt to look into the possibility of enhancing the well testing capabilities at the platforms.
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Document ID: 3096B963

Maximising Oil And Gas Recovery Through Next- Generation Flow Visualisation Monitoring Strategies
Author(s): David Millington Andrew Hunt
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper investigates the applicability of a mode rn electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) system to provide a real-time, vis ual representation of two phase horizontal, gas-oil flow. A test matrix was d eveloped to target various flow patterns in the NEL flow rig and assess the ECT ima ging output in comparison to a reference high speed video logger. Due to the su bstantial temporal resolution of ECT, post-processing of the data allowed detaile d analysis of the flow structure and identifiable features, including the occurrence of a gas-core within a selection of liquid slugs.
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Document ID: 51A7906D

Mature Field Facing Sand Production: An Innovative Solution To Mitigate Erosion And Ensure Pipe Integrity
Author(s): Bruno Pinguet Samia Bifout Chris Trebuchet Christophe Rojas
Abstract/Introduction:
The multiphase metering bu siness is shifting over the last few years from conventional 3 - Phase metering (i.e. only Water, Oil, and Gas measurement) to m ore complex combination of 4 phases. With well ageing, the reservoir strength is becoming weaker and then sand production is starting and happening at the time of the well life where usually upgrade/intervention and/or large CAPEX cannot be afforded to maintain production, and it need s to be balanced with economics. This is a generic concern in brown field, where in some areas it is not uncommon to have at least 50% of t he wells, for a given field, h aving sand production /management issue
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Document ID: C9352724

Magnetic Resonance Multiphase Flowmeter: Practical Experience
Author(s): Ankees Hogendoorn Andre Boer Mark Van Der Zande Rick De Leeuw
Abstract/Introduction:
In the upstream oil and gas industry, there is a ne ed for realtime information on the flowrate of oil, gas and water in multiphase mixtures flowing f rom the well. With an inline multiphase flowmeter this valuable information on flowrates ca n be collected, which enables for example efficient well testing, flow assurance and product ion allocation. In the past years Krohne has developed a new type of multiphase flowmeter based on the magnetic resonance measurement principle. The introduction of magneti c resonance brings benefits such as a large turndown ratio on the flowrate, no need for a radioactive source and the possibility of in- line fluid characterisation (without the need of ta king samples). In a previous publication, we introduced the measurement principle and the design of the flowmeter 1. Furthermore, results have been presented of extensive tests on v arious independent multiphase flow loops. In the current presentation, we will focus on exper ience gained from application of the MR multiphase flowmeter in a field trial in the Nether lands.
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Document ID: 8DDE8C16


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