Measurement Library

North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop Publications (2016)

Diagnosis And Mitigation Of Contamination Build-Up In Multipath Liquid Ultrasonic Meters On The Danish Oil Pipe
Author(s): Gregor J Brown Lars Bach
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes an investigation and remedial work carried out on multipath liquid ultrasonic meters installed on the Danish Oi l Pipe, owned by DONG Oil Pipe A/S (DOP). The meters in question were installed i n an effort to improve the performance of the onshore metering system at the r eceiving end of the pipeline. When the second of two replacement meters was insta lled, 10 months after the first, and the two meters operated in series, it wa s discovered that the first replacement meter was not in good agreement with th e second meter. Investigations revealed that the problem was the re sult of contamination build-up inside the first meter and work began to understand and to attempt to resolve the problem
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 8266B647

Application Of Data Validation And Reconciliation To Production Allocation
Author(s): Amin Amin Robert A. Webb, Boris Kalitventzeff Georges De Vos
Abstract/Introduction:
Generally, upstream oil and gas export measurements are made on separated and depressurized bulk oil and gas flow streams collected from a group of wells. In depressurized conditions, where phase separation can be ensured, single phase measurements can be made with the best possible accuracy. These measurements follow measurement standards and recommended practices, such as from the API MPMS, Chapter 20, Section 1
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 46E14AEF

Determination Of Optimal Calibration Intervals - A Risk Based Approach
Author(s): Nadezhda Pashnina, Paul Daniel
Abstract/Introduction:
The current economic challenges facing the upstream oil and gas sector has driven an urgent need to reduce costs and improve efficien cy. A reduction of operating costs may be achieved through the extension of the calibration intervals. The maintenance strategies associated with fiscal and c ustody transfer measurement systems have traditionally been based on a time-ba sed approach (maintenance activities are scheduled at fixed intervals), witho ut much consideration to past equipment performance and the introduction of ever more intelligent diagnostic capabilities of modern instrumentation. However, c ustody transfer, fiscal and allocation metering are essentially the cash regist ers of the company and their performance must be assured to minimise financial e xposure. Similarly, complying with EU regulation for the monitoring, re porting and verification of greenhouse gas emissions requires the operators to have in place a measurement plan defining the calibration and maintenance regim e required in order to meet the specified uncertainty levels for activity data for the applied tiers
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 78B8AFDA

Reynolds Number, The Correct Calibration, Characterization And Proving Of Flow Meters
Author(s): T. Cousins
Abstract/Introduction:
The flow world has forgotten the importance of Reyn olds number for determining the performance of flow meters. Many users and even man ufacturers do not understand the meaning or implication of this concept. The implica tion of the reality that flow meter performance is dictated by the Reynolds number is t hat meter manufacturers with in- house water calibration laboratories have to send t heir meters to third party independent calibration facilities in order for many of their m eters to be properly calibrated for their applications. In turn operators have to pay more fo r a correctly calibrated meter. This has resulted in some cases as total denial by the f low meter manufacturers who do not want their meters to be dictated by Reynolds number , with the consequent extra calibration expense. API MPMS chapter 4, one of the better standards assiduously avoids any mention of Reynolds number by saying the meters should be reproved if there is a significant change in viscosity.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: ADB28468

Estimating Gas Ultrasonic Meter Field Error
Author(s): Randy Miller, Ed Hanks, John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
For nearly a decade the North American Fluid Flow M easurement Council (NAFFMC) has investigated a variety of ultrasonic m eter effects on both low and high-pressure ultrasonic meters. The NAFFMC is com prised of 5-6 industry experts that request testing be performed and subse quently published at the annual CEESI Ultrasonic Conference. During the 10+ years of the NAFFMCs existence, res earch has studied effects ranging from header designs, upstream piping config urations, various meter tube end-treatments, and inline filters. While this pap er examines some of the history behind the NAFFMC research, much of the data used f or the final analysis is not included in order to keep the paper to a manageable length. Thus this paper will summarize some of the tests, and then focus on the use of an ultrasonic meters diagnostics to determine the health and predict the meters uncertainty based on the diagnostic parameters
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: D74D4978

Clamp On Ultrasonic Flow Meters Vs A Fiscal Orifice Station. How Accurate Are Clamp On Meters Out Of The Box?
Author(s): Andrew Runcie, Paul Daniel
Abstract/Introduction:
Total E&P operated the St Fergus Gas Terminal and A ssociated Pipelines from 1977 till March 2016 when operations were transferr ed over to PX limited on behalf of North Sea Mid stream Partners. There are 2 pipelines that feed the terminal where Natural Gas is processed, Metered and Exported to the National Grid Network
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: E4B66A39

Diagnostics And Orifice Plates: Experimental Work
Author(s): Michael Reader-Harris David Addison, Julian Barnett Ketan Mistry
Abstract/Introduction:
Differential-pressure meters, including orifice pla tes, Venturi tubes and cone meters have been and remain the group of flowmeters most commonly used in industry. Orifice plates in particular provide the mainstay of gas fiscal metering systems worldwide. While ultrasonic meters have be en installed in many installations in recent years, orifice plates conti nue to serve a useful function owing to their advantage of not requiring flow cali bration and of having a dependence on the square root of density to provide mass flow (rather than the mass flow being directly proportional to the densit y).
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: D502EE0C

Errors Due To Use Of The AGA8 Equation Of State Outside Of Its Range Of Validity
Author(s): Norman Glen, David Mills, Douglas Griffin, Steinar Fosse
Abstract/Introduction:
In any measurement system (apart from the most triv ial) the model(s) used to convert the basic outputs of transducers to the fin al quantity of interest form an integral part of the system and will have an impact on the overall uncertainty of measurement achievable. For example, a resistance- temperature device such as a platinum resistance thermometer makes use of an e quation relating the resistance of platinum wire to temperature. Simila rly, an ultrasonic flow meter makes use of a model describing the time of flight of the ultrasonic signal across the flowing fluid. In both these cases (and many o thers), the direct influence of the models are reduced, through calibration of the complete measurement system. However, in the case of gas metering syste ms, for example those used to account for production in the North Sea, this is not necessarily the case
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: E1836386

Venturi Vs. Ultrasonic Meter Comparisons - The Heretical Unauthorized Version
Author(s): Richard Steven, Gary Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
ndustry has a wealth of experience with Venturi Di fferential Pressure (DP) meters (e.g. see Fig. 1). Used for over a century their ph ysical principles of flow measurement are fundamental, well understood, relia ble and beautifully simple. The development of the popular Venturi meter techno logy has kept pace with competing flow meter technologies. However, there h as been virtually no marketing of Venturi meters in the last twenty year s. This has resulted in widespread Venturi meter performance misperceptions . The highly competitive modern Venturi meter performance specifications are hidden in plain sight, described clearly in standards, manuals and text bo oks for the few that care to look, but they are seldom directly compared to comp eting technologies. Venturi meters are therefore seen falsely by many as old st agnant technology
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 9ACD8F8C

Performance Of Coriolis Flowmeter For Metering Of Co 2 With Impurities In Ccs Applications
Author(s): Mahmoud Nazeri M.Mercedes Maroto-Vale Edward Jukes,
Abstract/Introduction:
Transportation of CO 2 by pipelines plays an important role in carbon cap ture and storage (CCS) operations, as the captured CO 2 from power plant / industries needs to be transported to the geological storage l ocations. However, the CO 2 stream may contains impurities, e.g. nitrogen, hydr ogen, argon, oxygen and other gases, depending on the capture technology us ed. The presence of impurities can impact the thermophysical properties of the CO 2 -rich mixture, particularly density and viscosity. This impact can be significant in the vicinity of the critical point of CO 2 -rich mixtures. The temperature and pressure condit ions likely to be experienced in the transportation of C O 2 with impurities by pipelines are close to the critical point of CO 2 -rich mixtures. Therefore, small gradients in pressure and temperature can significantly change t he physical properties of the mixture.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 225C8831

A New Approach To Measuring The Gas And Formation Water Flow Rates In Wet Gas
Author(s): Rolf Rustad Andrew Charles Baker
Abstract/Introduction:
Many gas wells are producing very little liquid. For these wells it is not uncommon to use a simple differential pressure flow meter to measure p roduction. Many correlations and correction factors are available to correct over-readin g caused by the presence of liquids. These require the liquid fraction, or some derivativ e of the liquid fraction like the Lockhart- Martinelli parameter to be known. As long as a gas w ell is not producing any reservoir water, it may be possible to calculate the liquid fraction f rom the water saturation pressure and PVT calculations. This allows the liquid fraction to be e stimated and the gas rate to be corrected
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 27D2EA6F

Using An Ultrasonic Flowmeter In The Transition Zone
Author(s): David Mills, Julien Porre
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid flow measurement is essential throughout the oil and gas industry. Ideally a flow measurement system would have high turndown an d low measurement uncertainty, maintained over the complete flow rang e. Unfortunately velocity based meters such as turbine and ultrasonic meters can sh ow significantly degraded linearity at low flows. Provided the measurements are repeatable this non-linearity can be defined and corrections applied in order to maintain a good turndown. If repeatability is not good, the overall uncertainty of measurement will be worse at the low flow end and may not be acceptable. This will result in much higher costs for metering as more meter tubes will be required t o cover the overall flow range. These turndown effects become more and more signifi cant as viscosity increase
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 2DF3690F

Modelling Of Wet Gas Flow In Venturi Meters To Predict The Differential Pressure
Author(s): H.R.E. Van Maanen, H. De Leeuw
Abstract/Introduction:
Fossil fuels will remain to provide a large fractio n of the worlds energy needs in the decades to come. As natural gas is a relativel y clean fuel and because of its abundance, it is expected to be a major contributor . However, virtually all gas- wells produce not only gas, but also liquids, both hydrocarbon condensates as well as water. The latter consists of condensed wa ter and often also formation water. Such flows of gas and liquids are usually re ferred to wet-gas. In this paper, we will use the term wet-gas for such flows where the Lockhart-Martinelli (LM) parameter is below 0.35 and the flow is not sl ugging or unstable (e.g. churn flow).
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 7E42B8CA

Evaluation Of The Sonar Meter In Wet Gas Flow For An Offshore Field Development
Author(s): Angela Floyd Siddesh Sridhar Gabriel Dragnea
Abstract/Introduction:
The ABC project is a high pressure gas condensate development currently in the implementation stage. Platform top-side surveillan ce is considered critical for better reservoir management, production optimizatio n and flowline integrity management. After investigating different options, the SONAR clamp-on meter was identified as the solution to provide individua l, real time production surveillance for ten flow lines (12-inch pipe) upst ream of the production manifolds and the high-pressure (HP) separator.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 8E7DC65E

Wet Gas Flow Facility Inter-Comparison
Author(s): D Van Putten, R Steven J Kinney
Abstract/Introduction:
Multiphase wet natural gas flow metering is require d throughout the natural gas production industry. However, there are only a few industrial grade multiphase wet gas flow test facilities worldwide. Industry p ractice tends to be to test and / or characterise multiphase wet gas meters at one of these test facilities. The inherent assumption is that all multiphase wet gas test facilities give the same result and the same result as the meters subsequen t performance in the field.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 22F60D38

ISO/AWI 21354 Measurement Of Multiphase Fluid Flow
Author(s): Michael Reader-Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
t has been recognized for some time that standards are an important enabler of innovation and international technology transfer. They have an important role in national and international trade and in wealth crea tion. Standards contributed to about 13 per cent of the growth in labour productiv ity in the UK over the period 1948-2002 1, and contribute u2.5 billion annually to the UK economy. Many other national economies have benefited similarly.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 8163DFAD

Investigation Of Multiphase Flow-Regimes After A Blind-T Mixer And At The Throat Of The Venturi - Using Gamma-Ray Tomography And CFD Modelling
Author(s): Stein-Arild Tjugum Teerachai Leeungculsatien Bjrn Tore Hjertaker Rachid Maad Anders Hallanger
Abstract/Introduction:
Multiphase flow meters (MPFMs) are often installed in a vertical section at a given distance downstream of a blind-T to provide a more predictable flow regime. Placing the measurement section at the throat of a venturi or downstream of a venturi is another method used in some MPFM designs to condition the flow regime. In this work the multiphase flow has been s tudied at different distances from the blind-T, at the throat and downstream of t he venturi using gamma-ray tomography. The objective was to investigate the fl ow-regime and flow mixing quality at different locations required to optimize MPFM performance. This was done using high-speed gamma-ray tomography and CFD flow simulations. This work was a collaboration between the University of Bergen, CMR and Roxar - Emerson Process Management.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 92AC8CB8

Compressible Fluid Calibration Of Coriolis Meters
Author(s): Thomas Kegel
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents and discusses new research resu lts that represent an update of data and analysis as part of an ongoing program. The objective of the program is to gain a better understanding of Coriolis meter operation in compressible fluid flow measurement. Two types of data are available from a commercial calibration laboratory. First, numerous calibrations provides limited data on a relatively large number of meters. As part of the analysis the massed calibration data are classified into groups depending on the calibration curve shape. The second data category arises from more extensive testing of a sm aller number of meters that allow for the variation of both mass flowrate and p ressure. The results indicate dependence on one or more variables in addition to mass flowrate. The relevant secondary parameter appears to be either pressure o r velocity. Test design and some results are discussed in detail in 1 and 2 , this paper presents new data
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: AD24F4CE

Are We Barking Up The Wrong Tree? Uncertainty Vs Er Ror And The Role Of Cbm To Measure Both
Author(s): Anwar Sutan
Abstract/Introduction:
What is the best way to maintain a GC? Should we en sure that we have the best calibration gas? Should we measure calibration gas as unknown and compare the GC result against calibration gas certificate? Should we be worried about the non-linear effect of the detector, should we compare spot samp le result against GC result? Various different operators have different maintena nce regime to ensure that their GC is maintained in the best way. As there are many ways of maintaining the GC, different operators perform their maintenance to comply with certain regulations or agreement. However, many times the type of maintenance adopted by operators may not be the one best suited for their pipeline conditions. Very oft en operators barking up the wrong tree trying to comply with certain regulations while com pletely overlooking the issue in hand which results in significant errors without operato rs even knowing or noticing tha
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 7E5BD939

Turbine Meters In Decline - Throwing The Baby Out With The Bathwater
Author(s): Terry Cousins,
Abstract/Introduction:
While there is no doubt that the new meters, Coriol is and USMs, have some great advantages, the fact that no single flowmeter is be st for all applications is being lost in the almost born again Apple like fervor to promote them. This results in missing the true advantages of older meter designs such as the turbine meter. The paper describes the design and operation of tur bine meters, concentrating, unlike past papers, on the methods used for linearizing th em by modifying the basic physics by changing the rotor aerodynamics. Thus unlike the Coriolis and USM their base performance does not require a base viscosity to be determined to correct them. Once linearised they find their own Reynolds number corr ection by virtue of the fluid dynamics.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 0A38708C

Proving Coriolis Meters With Small Volume Provers
Author(s): Tim Patten
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis meters have many advantages for mass flow and volumetric measurement in a wide variety of applications. Inh erent reliability, linearity and stable meter factor (MF) on a wide variety of produ cts make them an ideal choice for pipeline transfer. With the recent introductio n of high flow rate meters, Coriolis technology can now be used in line sizes u p to 16. Custody transfer of products is very common in these large pipelines i n many applications contractual requirements dictate that meters be pro ved in situ periodically to ensure accurate measurement over time and/or produc t changes.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 3140BEE8

In-Situ Validation Of Esmer Mpfms
Author(s): Haluk Toral Shiqian Cai Bahar Hosgor
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes a project for the implementati on of ESMER multiphase meters 1,2 for an entire oil field including the wellhead (one for each one of the 17 wells in the field) and the production lines (one for each one of the t hree production lines). Badra oil field situated in the Wasit Province in E astern Iraq and operated by Gazprom is estimated to hold reserves of over 3 billion barrel s. Current production rate stands at 64,000 bpd from 9 wells. Gazprom aims to raise the production capacity to 170,000 bpd by the end of 2017 when all 17 wells will be produc ing.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: FB92C22C

Application Of The Magnetic Resonance Multiphase Flowmeter To Heavy Oil
Author(s): Jankees Hogendoorn Mark Van Der Zande Andre Boer Lucas Cerioni, Stephanie Luik,
Abstract/Introduction:
In the upstream oil and gas industry, mixtures of o il, gas and water are produced. To measure these fluids simultaneously inline, KROH NE has developed and manufactured a multiphase flowmeter based on Magnet ic Resonance (MR). This measurement principle allows for a very direct meas urement of the hydrogen atoms present in the oil, gas and water, resulting in accurate values for the flowrates as well as in information on the flow reg ime and velocity profiles 1 2 3. The Magnetic Resonance multiphase flowmeter h as been extensively tested at international multiphase flow laboratories 3 a nd in applications in the field, as presented e.g. at last years North Sea Flow Mea surement workshop 4.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C2E675EB

Live Fluids Or Controlled Fluids: How Should We Calibrate A Multiphase Flow Meter?
Author(s): Norman Glen David Millington
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents findings on mass transfer-relat ed fluid properties errors that can occur during multiphase flow meter factory acce ptance testing (FAT). A dynamic FAT determines the optimum performance of a n MPFM before service in the field. Substantial uncertainties in this proces s can result in poor device qualification that consequently impacts their quali ty in the field. Two multiphase flow facility configurations, live h ydrocarbon fluids and controlled (inert) fluids, have been assessed using the PPDS t hermophysical properties software package. A test programme was constructed to determine fluid properties errors that occur due to component mass transfer between the gas and liquid hydrocarbon phases, thus causing a differenc e in measured fluid volumes between the reference measurement section and the l ocation of the device under test
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 09EB2A27

Analysis Of Field And Ownership Allocation Uncertainty In Complex Multi-Field Configurations
Author(s): Ranveig Nygaard Bjrk Astrid Marie Skalvi Armin Pobitzer Eivind Nag Mosland Camilla Stre Kjell-Eivind Frysa
Abstract/Introduction:
Current focus on cost-effective developments of new hydrocarbon fields aims at exploiting the capacity of existing production unit s to the maximum using a number of tie-ins to subsea developments. This res ults in increasingly complicated process flows, where individual multiph ase streams may or may not be measured. This increased complexity makes desig n and analysis of allocation systems a challenging task.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: DA98E693

When Allocation Back Out Agreements Can Become Lose Out Agreements
Author(s): Phil Stockton
Abstract/Introduction:
When a newly developed third party field is tied ba ck to existing infrastructure, such as a pipeline system, there is the potential f or the new fields production to cause an increase in back pressure and reduce the f low of the incumbent fields already producing through the system. This is terme d back-out and in effect defers some of the incumbent fields production.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 847160D5


Copyright © 2017