Measurement Library

Western Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (2015)

Western Gas Measurement Short Courses

Gas Odorants - Safe Handling, Health, And Environment
Author(s): Daniel Arrieta
Abstract/Introduction:
hiols (i.e. mercaptans), sulfides, and tetrahydrothiophene (THT) have been widely used in the odorization of natural and liquefied petroleum gas due to the fact that natural gas does not possess an odor. M ercaptans , for example , have proven to be very effective in odorizing because of their low odor threshold and therefore, immediate impact on the olfactory system ( Robe rts, 1993 )
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Document ID: 617BE71F

Considerations For M2M Hybrid Networking
Author(s): Dan Steele
Abstract/Introduction:
Organizations with geographically dispersed assets, such as those in the energy and utility industries, are continuously developing and implementing new ways to monitor and control all aspects of their business, especially for operations in remote locations. With company personnel and automated machinery constantly in motion, businesses have had to create smarter communicati on networks out of necessity.
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Document ID: EBC0793D

API - 1167 Pipeline Alarm Management
Author(s): Brady J. Kinsella
Abstract/Introduction:
With the implementation of Control Room Management , by the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) safety regulations (49 CFR Parts 190 - 199) , control rooms have seen a significant amount of change over the last few years. American Petroleum Institutes API 1167 is a recommended practice for operators
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Document ID: 70922266

Polyethylene Pipe Standards And Updates
Author(s): Karen Lively
Abstract/Introduction:
Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) was invented in 1933 by the Imperial Chemical Company in England. High density polyethylene (including both MDPE and HDPE) was invented by Phillips Petroleum Company in 1951. The first gas distribution system utilizing PE pipe was installed in Caney, KS in 1959
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Document ID: F9A32179

Introduction T O The Basic Gas Laws
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
Science interprets nature in terms of matter and energy. Energy is defined as the capacity to do work. There are many types of energy such as heat energy, electrical energy, chemical energy, kinetic energy (energy of motion), and potential energy (intrinsic energy of an object due to the position of the object). Matter is the material of which the universe is composed and is defined as anything that occupies space and has mass
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Document ID: 27511C7D

Fundamentals Of Gas Metering
Author(s): Paul m Dallapiazza
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will provide the reader with a general overview of the fundamentals of natural gas metering. I will describe the basic operation and characteristics of the natural gas meters used in the industry today. Natural gas is a compressible fluid. This fact presents challenges to natural gas metering not found in liquid measurement. Compressible fluid volumes are greatly affected by pressure and temperature.
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Document ID: 9D80B31F

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Paul Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of all gas measurement used in the world today is performed by two basic types of meters, positive displac ement and inferential. Positive displacement meters, consisting mainly of diaphragm and rotary style devices, generally account for lower volume measurement. Orifice, ultrasonic and turbine meters are the three main inferential class meters used for larg e volume measurement today.
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Document ID: C7A8FAE1

Fundamentals Of Flow Computers
Author(s): Jereme Stewart
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to give a high level overview of flow computers and their place in electronic gas measurement in the American Petroleum Institute ( API ) 21.1 standard for those who are new to the industry or a looking for a refresher of the basic app lication usage of flow computers. As natural gas and various hydrocarbons move from the well head to the burner tip, there are several electronic devices in the field used for measurement and control.
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Document ID: 6C364AB2

Ultrasonic Meter Operation
Author(s): Thomas m. Kegel
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasound is defined as sound waves at a fre - quency above the threshold of human hearing, generally considered to be 20 kHz. One common use of ultrasound is to provide a visual image, a sonograph, of a fetus in a human womb. This paper discusses the use of ultrasound to measure flow. While the ultrasonic meter represents a new technology to measure natural gas, it has been used to measure flow for quite some time
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Document ID: F621025C

Clamp On Ultrasonic Meter App L Ications And Installations
Author(s): Shane Dolar
Abstract/Introduction:
The adaptation of ultrasonic measurement from liquids to gas has changed the way natural gas producers, shippers, and distributors measure their product. These meters are taking the place of some of the more traditional natural gas measurement equipment and theyre adapting to new roles as well due to the inherent des ign qualities of the ultrasonic flow meter. This pa per will illustrate some of the more common clamp on ultrasonic measurement applications and also some of the not so common
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Document ID: 48F840E6

Practical Selection And Usage Of Coriolis Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Tonya Wyatt
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis meters have been commercially produced and gaining in popularity since the late 1970s. While Coriolis meters were more commonly used for liquid applications initially, they measure liquids, slurries and gases very precisely. Use of Coriolis meters for gas applications has become increasingly popular since 2003 when American Gas Association (AGA) Report No. 11/American Petroleum Institute Manual of Petroleum Measurement (API MPMS) Standards Chapter 14.9 , Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis Meter was published. The second edition of AGA Report No. 11/API MPMS Chapter 14.9 was published in 2013 and expanded the guidelines for the use of Coriolis meters for natural gas measurement.
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Document ID: A4AE7545

Odorant Transfer Systems And Safe Effic I Ent Deliveries
Author(s): Michael E. Leathers
Abstract/Introduction:
Odorant transfers are necessary to move odorant into storage tanks to await injection into gas lines. Odorant s are used as a safety device to warn anyone of a possible gas release. This procedure must be done with due diligence . T he public has been conditioned to go into a sense of heightened awareness when the smell of an odorant is present, so in order to prevent people from smelling the odorant and thi nking it is a possible release, the transfers must be made with the least amount of vapor exposure . These transfers are made by displacing the product from the t ransport to the storage vessel using a flare to reduce pressure in the storage tank and using pressure on the transport to push the product. Another method of delivery is to utilize a co mpressor to move the vapors between the two tanks, by increasing or de creasing the pressures, the liquid can be displaced to or from the storage tank
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Document ID: 96630CB5

Regulator & Industrial Meter Station Design
Author(s): Dave Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
A r egulator station is an arrangem ent of pipes, fittings, valves, pressure regulators, and other appurtenances designed to maintain a set outlet pressure while matching the flow requirements of a varying downstream demand. An industrial meter set shares many of the same features with the addition of a measurement device. This document refers to both types of facilities collectively as stations
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Document ID: 09570E40

Meter Run Switching
Author(s): Dean C. Vesco
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter run switching is a viable option for obtaining accurate gas measurement at a meter station that has real - time flow rates that fluctuate between very low and very high flows. Too often a single meter run station will measure gas very accurately at high flow rates and v ery poorly at low flow rates as well as, a single meter run station that will measure very accurately at low flow rates and not enough capacity at a high flow rate
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Document ID: 41E0A11F

Electronic Volume Corrector Basics And Installation Examples
Author(s): Madeline Corb
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past 20+ years, the capability, footprint and mounting styles of the electronic gas v olume corrector have evolved significantly. The use of electronic measurement equipment has increased tremendously over the past several years as cost has decreased at the same time that reliability and connectivity options have increased. The intent of th is pr esentation is a discussion of basic gas volume pressure and/or temperature correcting equipment.
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Document ID: C2831239

Distribution Gas Meter Proving: The Equipment And Methodology Used Today In The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): Gregory A. G Erm
Abstract/Introduction:
To determine the accuracy of a natural gas meter, a known vo lume of air is passed through the meter, and the meter registration is compared against this known volume. The known volume of air originates from the meter prover. In earlier times, the gas meter prover was a stand - alone device (usually a bell - type pr over), manually operated without any electronics or automation. Today, the majority of gas meter provers are fully automated computer controlled and operated, and responsible for other job functions besides the proving of gas meters
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Document ID: 6C781001

1 Di F Ferential Testing Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): Craig Lam
Abstract/Introduction:
A Differential Rate Test is an accurate and convenient method of comparing a meters performance to previous or original performance records. It is widely recognized that many State Utility Commissions or other regulator y agencies accept it as a means of periodically substantiating that the original accuracy of a meter has remained unchanged.
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Document ID: E3405ADD

Working With Combined Accuracy
Author(s): Paul T. Brunton
Abstract/Introduction:
In gas measurement field operations, the Technicians goal is to ensure each customers gas usage is measured as fairly and accurately as possible (close to 0.0% error, or as the Technicians call it... goose eggs). Combined Accuracy is another tool in the Technicians bag. He or she simply takes the accuracy test results from two gas measurement devices (meter and instrument) and a factor fr om the instrument configuration, then adds them together algebraically to produce a combined result.
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Document ID: 6561742C

Verif Ying Gusm Accuracy And Stability Usingadvanced Diagnostic Control Limits
Author(s): Martin Schlebach
Abstract/Introduction:
Advancements in the use and understanding of gas ultrasonic meters have been exponential over the last 5 - 6 years. GUSMs have the ability to provide a vast array of information due to the multiple measurement points and the ability to display flow patterns in three dimensions. These multiple measurements and the corresponding basic diagnostics were initially used to simply ensure that flow, even though distorted in some case s was measured accurately through the full velocit y range of the meter. Over time manufacturers and users realized that additional, so called advanced diagnostics were available, these were first discussed by Klaus Zanker at the 2003 NEL SEAsia conference 1
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Document ID: A8707E04

Measurement Standards Update
Author(s): Edgar B . Bowles, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
Standardization of the methods used to measure natural gas flowing through a pipeline is valuable for many reasons. It provides a framework for designing , constructing, operating, and maintaining the measurement equipment in a consistent manner, which helps minimize cost and ensures consistent performance of the metering systems. Those metering technolo gies that receive consensus recognition as a standard method typically are selected for custody transfer measurement applications.
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Document ID: 2534AD97

Ultrasonic Meter Station Design
Author(s): Thomas Kegel
Abstract/Introduction:
While the ultrasonic meter is well documented in the AGA 9 standard, there is no standard for the design of ultrasonic meter stations. A user must apply the AGA 9 information in combination with engineering judgement and an understand - ing of general flow measurement principles to evaluate or develop a meter station design.
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Document ID: BFAEBB5B

Fundamentals Of Gas Regulation
Author(s): Kevin Shaw
Abstract/Introduction:
A gas regulator is a device designed to reduce inlet pressure, which may vary, to a constant lower outlet pressure. It controls the flow of gas to meet downstream demand. The regulator will shut off bubble tight between the inlet pressure side and the outl et pressure side when there is no downstream demand. Safeguards against downstream over pressurization, such as an internal relief valve or internal monitor orifice, are built into many regulators
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Document ID: 3293F4A7

Principles Of Odorization
Author(s): Dominic Giametta
Abstract/Introduction:
Odorization is a process we are mandated to know about and deal with on a daily basis. So why is it that no one likes to work with odorant? Could it be the distinctive smell that gets on our clothing, causing problems with family, friends, neighbors, and the public in general?
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Document ID: 9DD2DF9C

Introduction To Overpressure Protection
Author(s): Robbie Swigert
Abstract/Introduction:
he scope of this paper is to cover methods available to prevent over - pressurization of downstream piping including 49 CFR Part 192 code requirements. Three Primary Modes of Regulator Failure: Blocked orifice: Debris becomes lodged between the orifice and valve seat not allowing the regulator to lock up. Lever disconnect: The regulators lever becomes disconnected from the sensing element (diaphragm) ta king away the regulators ability to regulate. Cut valve seat/nicked orifice: Usually caused by particles in the gas hitting the valve seat or orifice and actually cutting the material
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Document ID: 19DDC53E

Introduction To Regulator And Relief Sizing
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
INTRODUCTION TO REGULATOR AND RELIEF SIZING ROBERT BENNETT FIELD SERVICES ELSTER METER SERVICES Introduction The initial selec tion of a regulator to serve an application can be critical to the proper operation of the station afterward . This paper w ill cover some of the design considerations for sizing and selecting a regulator for pressure reduction applications and for s izing a relief valve for pressure protection. Sections to be covered include:
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Document ID: 78D87F86

Flexible Element Regulators
Author(s): Reese m. Dawes
Abstract/Introduction:
Flexible Element Regulators, also referred to as Unloading Design Regulators, utilize a rubber element that functions as both the actuator and valve of a self contained pressure regulator. This is in contrast to the more traditional style of regulators where a separate actuator, throttling valve and seat are used to regulate the pressure and provide shutoff. Traditionally in pressure control app lications using self - contained regulators, the restricting element of the regulator is a valve plug with an elastomer seat on the surface, which presses against a knife - edge orifice
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Document ID: 9A89596B

Industrial Pressure Control A Regulator Station Design For Natural Gas Pressure Control To Simple Cycle And Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine Engine Power Plants
Author(s): Jim Green
Abstract/Introduction:
Regulator station designs for pressure control to large Power Plants have always presented unique challenges that differ from standard pipeline pressure control applications. A large Combustion Turbine Power Plant load with little buffering between the regulators and the Turbine Engines requires a differe nt approach to station design. The design approach becomes even more complicated if the Power Plant also has additional small auxiliary requirements such as duct burners, waste heat recovery boilers, building heat requirements, etc. In this paper, the focus will be on a regulator station design philosophy for Simple Cycle and Advanced Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine (CT) Power Plants that meet the load requirements for power plant operation as well as for ancillary equipment
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Document ID: 48F82376

Noise Mitigation In Regulator Stations
Author(s): Ken Goodwin
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss noise and noise mitigation in natural gas pressure reducing regulator stations. We will look at what noise is, the types of noise, regulators/valves as noise generators and types of noise mitigation treatments. From this information one will be able to make an informed decision on how to treat noise and why
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Document ID: F5C4B786

Regulator Freeze Protection
Author(s): Chad Richards
Abstract/Introduction:
Freezing in regulators is an issue that affects many sectors of the gas industry. From reliability of measurements to keeping critical customers and plants on - lin e, freezing at any point along the natural gas process can be an expensive and resource draining problem. Fortunately, preventative measures can be taken to stay ahead of the potential problem
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Document ID: 084A38D5

Troubleshooting Regulators Causes And Cures Of Regulator Instability
Author(s): Paul Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the gas pressure reducing regulator installation and the issue of erratic control of the downstream pressure. A gas pressure reducing regulators job is to manipulate flow in order to control pressure. When the downstream pressure is not properly controlled, the term unstable control is applied. Figure 1 is a list of other terms us ed for various forms of downstream pressure instability. This paper will not address the mathematical methods of describing the automatic control system of the pressure reducing station, but will deal with more of the components and their effect on the sy stem stability.
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Document ID: 76FD9711

Troubleshooting Control Valves
Author(s): Jim Green
Abstract/Introduction:
Troubleshooting Control Valves is a very broad subject to cover given the vast array of Valves, Actuators, and Control Instrumentation available in the market today. We have Ball Valves, Globe Valves, Plug Valves, Butterfly Valves, and Segmented Ball Valves just to name a few. A ll of these Control Valves can be outfitted with various types of Valve Trim, Actuators, and Control Instrumentati on to characterize and fine-tune the performance of the valve to achieve a desired control effect. The possible pr oblems that can arise can be as simple as an external leak to a total loss of Process Control. Technicians are tasked to fix mechanical, electronic, and pneumatic issues as well as be qualified to perform complex tuning of the Control Valve System to achieve solid Process Control under many varying conditions.
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Document ID: 7381DCB5

Three Mode Control Pid() Tuning
Author(s): Casey Floren
Abstract/Introduction:
Today there are a vast number of 3 mode controllers available in the industry. There are also a vast number of ways to setup and tune a system. There are two types of Thr ee Mode Control: Open Loop and Closed Loop Control. Changes in an Open Control loop do not directly affect the process. Changes in a Closed Loop do directly affect the process. For this paper, we will be discussing Closed Loop Control.
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Document ID: 5E620DAB

Introduction To Gas Quality
Author(s): May Lew
Abstract/Introduction:
s an attendee to the Western Gas Measurement Short Course, when you think of measurement you think of meter s or CF and the n BTU or heati ng value , plus t o correct the volume measurement , the specific gravity (or relative density) , carb on dioxide and nitrogen is needed . But i s that all that s needed for gas transmission or distribution ? In order t o transport gas through the pipelines and to be consumed by customers, m easurement devices may also include gas quality monitors to ensure an a cceptable gas quality . A cceptable gas quality is specified in contractual agreement with the suppliers or in Tariffs. In this presentation we will go over the important natural gas p arameters that are specified
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Document ID: 71F518BE

Measuring Hydrocarbon Dew Point Accurately And Its Financial Impact
Author(s): Jack Herring
Abstract/Introduction:
Measuring Hydrocarbon Dew Point (HCDP) accurately is critical to the profitability of producing/processing natural gas. End users want a quality product and for good reason. When HCDP limits are written into the gas contract the producer/processors and pip eline operators each play a role in delivering that quality product. Accurately measuring HCDP in order to satisfy the customer touches every link in this vital supply chain.
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Document ID: 7E9EEA49

Gas Chromatograph Maintenance
Author(s): Burt Reed
Abstract/Introduction:
On line Btu gas chromatographs have become a vital part of the overall measurement of natural gas in todays market. The gas chromatograph is used to help calculate the energy value of a gas sample for use in the custody transfer application. As a vital cog in the overall application the chromatograph must be maintained in systematic way to avoid downtime. It must also have a capability of alerting the technician of impending or occurring problems for quick action
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Document ID: 7349F294

Use Of Portable LNG And Cng To Support Customers And Other Utility Operations
Author(s): Austin A. Hastings
Abstract/Introduction:
Portable (over - highway) trailer equipment that can transport compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG) has been developed to temporarily supplement or substitute for pipeline flowing supplies , to reduce or avoid gas customer curtailments . This paper describes a variety of portable equipment that can be built, t he various uses that can be made of portable equipment , and the benefits associated with these uses . It includes presentations of a range of actual operations situations in which p ortable supplies were employed , to help illustrate the applications for a broad range of types of portable equipment . This information is offered to help natural gas pipeline constructors and operators assess the merits of developing a portable supply component to their businesses
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Document ID: 6A90EF3D

Pulsation Mitigation And Its Effects On Metering
Author(s): Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate flow measurement is essential in todays custody transfer, transport , and allocation applications. H owever pulsations, which are frequ ently present at field sites, adversely affect flow meters and are one of the factors that must be mitigated in order to achieve accurate flow measurement. Pulsation is any periodic variation in pressure and flow velocity either at one location in a pipe or from point to point along the pipe. This paper not only discusses the sources of pulsation and briefly shows how pulsation adversely affects flow meters, but al so presents methods for mitigation of pulsation effects. Properly designed acoustic filters are the most effective means for eliminating pulsation and a design method for a simple acoustic filter is presented. Other methods to control the sources, reduce the effects, or attenuate the amplitude of pulsation are also discussed.
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Document ID: BBCC89C6

Hazardous Area Classification
Author(s): Alex Hicks
Abstract/Introduction:
Hazardous (classified) a rea s are defined and categorized by the N ational F ire P rotection A ssociation (NFPA) 70, t he National Electric Code (NEC). In particular, Articles 500, 501, 504, and 505 cover hazardous areas that are created by common gas utility processes. Although the NEC provides a general definition of h azardous a rea s and the installation requirements of electrical equipment loca ted within them , it does not classify specific n atural g as and p etroleum industry processes that can create a h azardous a rea , nor the extent of the h azardous a rea s created by such processes . Instead NFPA technical committees and the American Petroleum Ins titute (API),
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Document ID: 6D15B262


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