Measurement Library

South East Asia Flow Measurement Conference Publications (2015)

Advances In Multiphase/Wetgas Meter Technologies Wh Ich Aid The User In The Real World
Author(s): Gordon Stobie Arnstein Wee Richard Streeton
Abstract/Introduction:
Multiphase and wet gas meters have been used succes sfully for more than 20 years. Whilst there have been a number of technologies use d by a variety of manufacturers, they have nearly all required regular fluid (oil, g as and water) samples with which to define the fluid end points to provide good measure ment. The need for fluid samples has placed a load on the Operators in terms of both cos t and safety. In some deep-water subsea and remote - and some not so remote - topsid e operations, regular fluid sampling has not been possible and this has had a d etrimental effect on the meter performance. This paper outlines some techniques t hat largely overcome these fluid sampling requirements and still provide fluid end p oint data commensurate with the technologies utilised in the meter.
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Document ID: C3BEBB6D

The Challenge Of Obtaining Acceptance For The Cmf C Oriolis Meter As A Master Meter
Author(s): Charles Johnson Aart Pruysen Cheekng Heng
Abstract/Introduction:
The paper describes the challenge of convincing pet roleum management that an electronic meter could prove to be as accurate and have less u ncertainty than a mechanical meter given the same operating conditions. The requiremen ts for long term stability, repeatability and reproducibility are discussed. In addition to the more generic requirements we discuss the specific testing that was done by Emerson to ex tend the rangeability of the meter to address the low flow challenge on assets in Malaysi a without compromising operational constraints, the criteria that must be applied to e nsure that the recertification of the meter is applicable, the preparation of the test laboratory, the control of the test criteria including ambient conditions
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Document ID: 1B81AAEE

What We Have Learnt From Gc Conditional Based Monitoring
Author(s): Anwar Sutan
Abstract/Introduction:
Online gas chromatograph (GC) is frequently used wi thin fiscal and custody transfer measurement systems. The accuracy of the analysis f rom the GC is of the utmost importance since the resultant analysis is frequent ly used as the core parameter in economic transactions. The modern GC is an extremely repeatable device. Ho wever, sources of measurement error do not always arise from the GC itself. More frequently errors appear due to non- representative sample provided by the sampling syst em. Ensuring accuracy and repeatability of the system requires that suitable monitoring and maintenance is in place
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Document ID: 88EEA061

Advanced DP Meter Diagnostics Developing Dynamic Pressure Field Monitoring ( & Other Developments )
Author(s): Mohd Hafidz Jennifer Rabone George Kidd Andrey Safonov Josh Kinney
Abstract/Introduction:
Differential Pressure (DP) meters have a full diagnostic suite. T hese diagnostics appeared suddenly and unexpecte dly. Due to the DP meter s simplicity there was a long standing axiom that DP meters could have no diagnostics. For more than a century DP meter operators were blind to the information contained in a DP meters pressure field . Operators of DP meter s tradit ionally knew of only a small proportion of the information available from each DP meter. However, DP meter technology has now evolved the ability to see and understand the pressure field. This crucial DP meter evolutionary step has diverted the DP meter fr om the slow road to obsolescence and placed it firmly back in the forefront of modern flow meter development
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Document ID: 4F586E61

Gas Mass Flow Metering - An Alternative Approach
Author(s): Eric Sanford Jim Storer Kim Lewis Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Metering a fluids mass flow rate in a pipe with me thods that do not require an external fluid density prediction is an attractive option in many flow meter applications. Such meter designs tend to be describ ed as mass flow meters. The development of a simple, robust and compact gas mas s flow meter concept is described here. Gas flow must ultimately be metered by mass flow. A steady gas flow throughout a pipeline has a constant gas mass flow rate but a varying volume flow rate. A gas mass flow rate reading is an absolute statement of the gas mass flowing in the system.
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Document ID: 77E9FC32

Correcting A Coriolis Meter For Two Phase Oil & Gas Flow
Author(s): Chris Mills
Abstract/Introduction:
In the oil & gas industry, the requirement for flow measurement of two phase oil and gas flow is prevalent. This stems from the fact that the output characteristics of production wells can alter significantly over ti me and the level of entrained gas within an oil flow can vary. It is also common for flowmeters to be installed do wnstream of a two or three phase separator. If the well conditions change or t he separator has been incorrectly sized, then it is possible that the oil liquid outlet may have some gas carry under. The effects of gas entrainment on the output of ultrasonic and Coriolis meters has been reported previously 1 2 . It is already known that gas entrained in flowing liquids has the potential to l ead to a substantial mis- measurement of the flow
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Document ID: 2B6EB444

Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meter - Evaluations On Co 2 Rich Natural Gas
Author(s): Joerg Wenzel Ekkehard Riedel, Sebastian Stoof, Dr. Volker Herrmann,
Abstract/Introduction:
n the last 15 years, ultrasonic gas flow meters (U SM) have become state-of-the-art technology for fiscal gas metering. Today, ultrason ic meters are moving beyond the realms of fiscal metering and into upstream applica tions like allocation metering, along with less conventional applications like biogas, po wer-to-gas operations and carbon capture and storage (CCS), as well as the measureme nt of natural gas from marginal gas fields with carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) rich natural gas. For most of these applications, ultrasonic gas flow measurement technology is the ideal solution since they typically require large turn-do wn ratios with minimal pressure drop and little to no maintenance effort and thus can ta ke advantage of the major benefits of this technology
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Document ID: BD881F86

The New Paradigm In Subsea Business: An Innovative Early Water Detection Solution With Excellent Water Volume Fraction Trending And Improved Gas- Condensate Measurement
Author(s): Leong Yit Seng Bruno Pinguet Christophe Joly Michael Thomas Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Oil and gas exploration operators are increasingly moving into deep and ultra deep waters to explore and develop new fields. Longer ti e-back, increased water depth, and unpredictable reservoir conditions will ultimately increase the technical challenges in all aspects. Produced water management is one of the main challe nges for operators, especially in deep and ultra-deepwater gas field developments. It requires not only highly skilled and experienced engineers, but also more complex water treatment processes and associated expensive equipment. Improper produced water manage ment could lead to costly production flow assurance problems and even result in a project that is no longer economically or technically viable
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Document ID: 2B700ED3

Live Versus Reference Fluids - The Calibration Debate
Author(s): Norman Glen Brendan Robson
Abstract/Introduction:
Proponents of the use of live fluids (i.e. natural gas, crude oil and brine) for calibrating flow meters argue that they are more re presentative of the conditions that meters will encounter in service. However, th e measurement of multiphase flow poses particular difficulties when calibrating and testing flow meters. This means that there is less confidence in the properti es of these fluids, ultimately resulting in higher uncertainty in the reference fl ow rate for a meter under test. Conversely, reference fluids are stable and predict able, thereby delivering consistent and reliable measurements, resulting in lower uncertainty in the reference measurements before the flow meter goes i nto the field. Once in the field, overall measurement uncertainties can be der ived using PVT data along with fluid sampling and physical properties modelling, a s well as testing against test separator systems
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Document ID: EAD8FA92

Analysis Of Gas Ingress In The Liquid Stream With Ultrasonic Reflection Correlation Method.
Author(s): Satoshi Fukuhara, Yuichi Hayashi, Mohammad Ubaid Ullah,Brunei Lukman Hakim Ramli
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic meters based on transit time technology have been in use for liquid flow measurement in the upstream application for so me time. However results are highly susceptible to the presence of solids, gas i ngress, flow profile etc. BSP and Yokogawa have been involved in a collaborat ive field study to test Reflection correlation method (RCM) based clamp o n meter developed by Yokogawa. The ambition is to check capability of th e instrument to address upstream flow measurement challenges like bubbly li quid flow, production separator performance, indication of sand and gas i ngress and highly viscous flow metering fluid application
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Document ID: E6B6A6A0

Calculation Implementation And The Potential For Bias
Author(s): Mark Hay James Speight,
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to discuss common issu es which are encountered when implementing calculations in flow computer sys tems and calculation verification software. There are two main parts to this paper. The first d eals with factors which should be considered when developing calculations and is i llustrated with a number of examples where mismeasurement resulting from calcul ation error was either detected or prevented
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Document ID: 357A5495

The Performance Of Coriolis Meters In Two- Component Oil/Water Mixtures And Multiphase Flow
Author(s): Terri Leonard Richard Harvey,
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis mass meters offer the advantage of direct mass flow measurement (as well as independent density information), which has led to the increasing adoption across a variety of industrial sectors. I n the hydrocarbon sector, the apparently low sensitivity of Coriolis meters to in creasing fluid properties positions them as key enabling technologies in the worldwide shift from light to heavier crude oil production. Coriolis mass meters are also widely utilised as reference meters in multiphase flow test and calibr ation facilities worldwide, relying on the accuracy of the density measurement to determine the level of oil- in-water and water-in-oil cross contamination.
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Document ID: 8600037E

Direct Test Comparisons Of Ultrasonic And Different Ial Pressure Meter Responses To Wet Natural Gas Flow
Author(s): Richard Steven, Josh Kinney, Charlie Britton
Abstract/Introduction:
Wet natural gas flow metering is important to natur al gas producers. Whereas there are multiphase wet gas meter designs available, due to economic constraints the majority of wet natural gas flows world-wide are still metered by single phase gas flow meter technologies. Gas meter manufacturers have to varyi ng extents researched their respective meters wet gas performance, sometimes m ade limited modifications, and promoted the pros and played down the cons to their best advantage. Due to limited experience or education in this relatively new, spe cialised and complex subject of wet gas metering many operators find themselves largely reliant on the advice of flow meter salesmen
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Document ID: DB3278A0

Salinity Measurements To Prevent Hydrate And Corrosion Build-Up And For Production Optimization
Author(s): Svein Eirik Monge, Oyvind Bjorkhaug, Svenn Haugen
Abstract/Introduction:
Theres no doubt that operators developing subsea w et gas fields today face a number of significant challenges relating to the co mplexity of their fields, operating conditions, and the need to maximize prod uction and flow assurance, particularly in an era of declining oil & gas price s. Theres also a need to develop cost-effective development and operational concepts and pre-empt threats to production, such as water build-up, hydrates and co rrosion
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Document ID: D7F4ECBA

Magnetic Resonance Multiphase Flowmeter: Measuring Principle And Broad Range Test Results
Author(s): Jankees Hogendoorn Andre Boer Marco Zoeteweij Olaf Bousche Rutger Tromp Rick De Leeuw Piet Moeleker Matthias Appel Hilko De Jon
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes a magnetic resonance based mul tiphase flow meter. During the last decades, magnetic resonance technology has enabled many industrial applications. One of the most well-known developments can be found in medical imaging. High resolution, three dimensional body scans can provide crucial in formation for medical diagnosis with many innovations being published every year. Anoth er important field of application is the oil and gas industry. For many years, magnetic resonance based logging tools have been successfully used for detailed formation evalu ation 1 . A scan of the vicinity of the bore hole provides important information about the reservoir rock structure and saturation condition with pore fluids, which is ver y important for oil production optimization
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Document ID: AF8C0856


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