Measurement Library

International Symposium on Fluid Flow Measurement Publications (2015)

North American Fluid Flow Measurement Council

Numerical Assessment Of Discharge Coefficient And Wall Temperature Dependence Of Discharge Coefficient For Critical - Flow Venturi Nozzles
Author(s): Blent nsal Utkan aliskan Tbitak Gebze Yerleskesi Baris Mah. Dr. Zeki Acar
Abstract/Introduction:
Series of two dimensional axisymmetric and adiabatic CFD (computational fluid dynamics) simulations were carried out for C ritical - F low Venturi N ozzles (CFVN) to investigate dis ch arge coefficient dependency on Reynolds number (Re) and wall temperature . Ten different nozzle diameters were considered in the range of 1 to 30 mm. Nozzle shapes were according to standard ISO 9300. As boundary conditions, nozzle inlet pressure was varied from atmospheric to higher values and the nozzle o utlet pressure was kept constant at atmospheric conditions. For some of the nozzle diameters, nozzle inlet pressure was kept constant at atmospheric conditions and the nozzle outlet pressure was varied from atmospheric to lower pressures. Extracted dischar ge coefficients from the simulation results showed good conformity with literature and ISO 9300
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Document ID: 86F37667

Numerical Investigation Of Effects Of Geometry On Cavitation In Herschel Venturi-Tubes Applied To Liquid Flow Metering
Author(s): S. Brinkhorst E.von Lavante G. Wend
Abstract/Introduction:
Although cavitating nozzles are a long time subject of experimental as well as numerical investigations, they represent a fairly new way of metering liquid flow and are only recently being considered in more detail concentrating on their metering capabilities ( 3 ). The choked mass flow condition that goes hand in hand with the onset of cavitation shows a great analogy to the critical flow Venturi-nozzles known from gas metering
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Document ID: 3DDB6261

Oil And Natural Gas Sampling - Where Are We Today?
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past 35 years, sampling systems have been refined to meet more exacting requirement s of the industry and sampling standards have been revised to reflect the latest reliable knowledge and techniques. The equipment available today is truly state of the art. Samplers, cylinders, containers, probe regulators, protective filtration system s, separators, membranes, protective shut in devices for analyzers, mixing or stream conditioning systems, insulated and heated enclosures and the like are available from a number of known manufacturers
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Document ID: B4556658

On The Water Tariff Specification S For Pipeline Quality Natural Gas
Author(s): Kamal K. Botros Grady Hunt
Abstract/Introduction:
Before natural gas is delivered to a pipeline at receipt points it must be conditioned and adhere to certain specifications pertaining to the maximum allowable water content . Additionally, water is naturally present in gas as it is produced from the reservoir, and in some cases, natural gas is directly introduced into the pipeline with little conditioning. Because of the adverse impact of water content on the operation and in tegrity of the pipeline, water tariff specifications are always imposed at receipt points to limit the maximum amount of water content in the gas admitted to the pipeline. In the gas pipeline industry, water specifications can be defined either by the max imum amount of water (mass or mole) per unit mass of gas, or by the water dewpoint at a given pressure.
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Document ID: FCCA766F

Pass / Fail / Inconclusive Criteria For Inter - Laboratory Comparisons
Author(s): John Wright Blaza Toman Bodo Mickan Gerd Wbbeler Olhabodnar Clemens Elster
Abstract/Introduction:
Inter - laboratory comparisons use the best available transfer standards to check the participants uncertainty analyses, identify underestimated uncertainty claims or unknown measurement biases, and improve the global measurement system. For some measurands (e.g., flow) instability of the transfer standard can lead to an inconclusive comparison result. If the transfer standard uncertainty is large relative to a participating laboratorys uncertainty, the commonly used standardized degree of equivalence ?? ? ?1 criterion does not always correctly assess whether a participant is working within its uncertainty claims. We show comparison results that demonstrate the problem and discuss the loss of explanatory power in terms of statistical hypothesis tests
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Document ID: 4FE6CC8B

Performance Of An 8-Path Ultrasonic Meter Downstream Of A Ptb Disturbance Plate
Author(s): Dr Gregor J Brown William R Freund Jn
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic meters are now commonplace for custody transfer measurement of natural gas, with several established manufacturers and some new entrants. For the end-user the competing claims in terms of meter design can be difficult to unravel, with the result that differentiation between one manufacturer and the next will often come down to knowledge gained from laboratory testing and experience in the field
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Document ID: D161E0F1

Achieving Better Liquid Measurement Using A Different Perspective
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
Custody Transfer Measure ment in the Oil and Gas Industry has been described many ways. It has been called An accuracy in measurement that both the buyers and sellers can agree upon, or T he best that can be achieved to meet the contract conditions plus many others . Bu t in reality it is The Search for the Truth.
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Document ID: BFBA3182

Performance Evaluation Of Ultrasonic Flow Meters In Nists Smok E- Stack Simulator
Author(s): Liang Zhang
Abstract/Introduction:
ccurate flow measurements are necessary to quantify the level of hazardous emissions from the smokestacks of fossil fuel burning power plants. Typical smokestack flow measurements are made using an ultrasonic flow meter (USM) with either a single diametric path or a symmetrica l- ly oriented dual path orientation. Due to the size of smokestacks the flow performance of USMs has not been quantified at the industrial scale. NIST designed and built a Scale - Model Smok e- stack Simulator (SMSS) that is 1/10th the industrial size to use as a test bed for researc h pu r- poses. In this study, we use CFD to simulate the flow field in the SMSS. The results show that the SMSS generates asymmetric, swirling flows typical of industrial smokestacks
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Document ID: D251F89E

Potential Of Laser-Doppler Velocimetry For Applications In The Flow Measurement Industry
Author(s): Denis F. Hinz Christian Bombis
Abstract/Introduction:
aser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) is commonly used at academic research institutions and national metrol- ogy institutes. Likewise, the method has potential to support the industrial development of commercial flow meters and the associated calibration and verification facilities. In this paper, we assess the potential of laser-Doppler velocimetry (LDV) for applications in the flow measurement industry. After reviewing the current capabilities and limitations of LDV with emphasis on industrial applications, we present results from new research initiatives involving experiments with a commercial LDV system (Optolution/ILA) at Kamstrup A/S. In the first part, we show how we use LDV for the quantification of flow profiles and perfor- mance indicators for different flow conditions by discussing two illustrative examples.
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Document ID: 2AC5F5E9

Primary S Tandard In m Icro F Low For T Raceability In Steady And P Ulsating F Low R Egim E
Author(s): Hugo Bissig Martin Tschannen Marc De Huu
Abstract/Introduction:
Micro and nano flow calibrations are important in several applications such as volumetric dosage or drug delivery where the exact amount of the delivered volume or a stable flow rate is crucial for the efficient operation. METAS develops in the framework of the EMRP pro ject HLT07 Metrology for Drug Delivery a primary standard to cover the flow rate range from 1 ml/min down to 100 nl/min with uncertainties in the range from 0.1 % to 0.6 % ( k2 ) for steady flow and from 1 ml/min down to 1 ? l/min with uncertainties in the range from 0.2 % to 2.7 % for pulsating flow. Moreover, METAS develops a homemade syringe pump as flow generator to cover the flow rate range from at least 5 ml/min down to 100 nl/min for water and other liquids. The design of the micro flow facility and the syringe pump will be discussed as well as measurement results of flow meters and flow generators
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Document ID: 5527FF16

Primary Standards For Liquid Flow Rates From 2 mg/h To 1000 g/h
Author(s): Peter Lucas Harm Tido Pette Erik Smits
Abstract/Introduction:
Micro and nanoflow rate calibrations are important in several applications such as liquid chromatography, (scaled down) process technology and health care for special applications. However, international traceability for micro and nanoflow rates is not properly taken care of. Therefore, the EMRP project Metrology for drug delivery (MeDD) was started in 2012 to develop and validate several primary standards for micro and nanoflow rates. The development focused on extending the flow rate down to nanoflow rates 1 mg/h, whereas the validation focused on validating primary standards in range of 600 g/h down to 1 mg/h. In this paper the two primary standards of VSL are discussed. One conventiona l primary standard based on the gravimetric method to cover flow rates from ( 0.25 to 1 5 00 ) g/h (uncertainty ranging from 0.1% to 0 .3%) and one less conventional standard based on volume expansion to cover flow rates from ( 2 to 100 ) mg/h (uncertainty around 2.5%) . Also the results of a near complete intercomparison (EURAMET project 1291) are discussed
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Document ID: C8A23EB2

Real Gas Corrections For High Beta Ratio ( 0.25) Critical Flow Venturi Cfv() Installations
Author(s): Aaron N. Johnson Eric Lemmon
Abstract/Introduction:
For almost 50 years, flow measurement applications usi ng critical flow venturis (CFVs) have relied exclusively on the critical flow function ( * C ) to correct for real gas effe cts. This work shows that * C does not account for all real gas effects. For high beta ratio ( ? 0.25) CFV installations, real gas effects can result in significant mass flow errors even after * C corrections have been made. These errors are attributed to the idealized thermodynamic models (ITMs) used to calculate the st agnation temperature and pressure. The errors in the stagnation temperature and pressure cause errors in * C , and ultimately in the CF V mass flow. For methane gas the mass flow errors exceeded 0.1 % for ? 0.5 at 10 MPa, and are larger than 0.3 % for ? 0.6 at 20 MPa. For CFVs these errors are comparable with the uncertainty of the flow measurement.
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Document ID: 8713C137

Reduce Curve Fitting Error In Paddlewheel Turbine With Roshko/Strouhal Coefficient - Based Equations
Author(s): Richard Fertell
Abstract/Introduction:
Curve fitting errors are reduced to 0 .1 % of reading (O.R.) from 1 to 3% of full s cale by using Rosko/Strouhal Coefficient Equations for Paddlewheel Turbine Meters for viscosities from 0.2cSt to 150cSt. This finding was reproduced with several meters at two different flow laboratories . This technology behavior will be added to the Technical Report for ASME (The Flow Technology Cross Index as referred by Dr. M. J. Reade r - Harris ) that is in draft by Richard Fertell , in the Turbine Meter Section of the Flow Technology Application, Selection, and Use with Cross Index to Flow Technology Standards and Technical Report Documents (previously presented at FLOMEKO 2011 and CFM 20 09).
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Document ID: 093431AD

Reducing The Uncertainty Of The Ceesiowa Calibration Facility
Author(s): Thomas Kegel William Johansen
Abstract/Introduction:
The CEESIowa test facility has been in operation for sixteen years. Periodically the traceability path is adjusted to reduce uncertainty or improve efficiency. This paper discusses the evaluation of two options being considered for a planned change in the traceability path. The new process will be based on a turbine meter based package calibrated in the CEESI Colorado facility. The two options a single twelve inch meter or two four inch meters installed in parallel.
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Document ID: 16B678C1

Remote Monitoring Of Gas Usm Facilities
Author(s): Ed Hanks John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
During the past sev eral years the use of ultrasonic meters (USMs) has gained worldwide acceptance for fiscal applications. The many benefits of USMs have been documented in papers at virtually every major conference. The significance of knowing the ultrasonic meter is operat ing accurately has never been more important. The use of diagnostics to help identify metering issues has been discussed in several papers at many conferences Ref 1, 2 & 3.
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Document ID: 9CE67F80

Results Of The Second Round Of International Comparison For Volume Of Liquids At 20 L And 100 Ml
Author(s): Roberto Arias John Wright Christian Lachance Elsa Batista Erik Smits Olle Penttinen Andrea Malengo Wang Jintao Dominic Ondoro Dalni Malta
Abstract/Introduction:
By agreement a t the 10th WGFF meeting , the international comparison , for Volume of Liquids at 20 L and 100 mL, was performed during 2012 - 2014. Specially designed stainless steel pipettes were used as transfer standards for 20 L, whereas commercially available pycnomet ers were used for 100 mL. Only one measurement result, out of 39, was qualified as non - consistent. The average degree of equivalence ? ? , ? , for artifacts at 20 L (TS 710 - 04 and 710 - 05) resulted in 0.000 1 % and 0.000 44 %, respectively. As for the 1 00 mL artifacts, the average degree of equivalence ? ? , ? , for artifacts TS 03.01.12, 03.01.16 and 03.01.17 resulted in 0.000 54 %, 0.000 17 % and 0.001 1 %, respectively.
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Document ID: 6E97EDC2

A Data-Driven Predictor Of The Discharge Coefficient Of Orifice Plates
Author(s): James R. Whetstone Antonio Possolo
Abstract/Introduction:
We have developed a new functional relationship to predict the value of the discharge coefficient of an orifice plate used to measure volumet- ric flow rate in cylindrical pipes, as a function of the beta ratio of the orifice and pipe combination, and of the Reynolds number of the flow. This relationship is empirical, resulting from fitting a data-driven uni- versal approximant to a large collection of experimental data gathered at the National Institute of Standards and Technology during the 1980s, within the scope of a collaborative project with the American Petroleum Institute (API), and published as NIST Technical Note 1264. The perfor- mance of this new relationship compares favorably with the conventional Reader-Harris / Gallagher equation originally developed for the American Gas Association (AGA), and it is more widely applicable, achieving typical relative accuracy in the range of 0.05 % to 0.2 %.
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Document ID: 9CCB8E93

Round Robin Testing For The New Euroloop Liquid Flow Facility
Author(s): Jos Van Der Grinten Bart Van Der Stap Pico Brand
Abstract/Introduction:
fter the initial calibration of EuroLoop a comparison between the EuroLoop and Trapil facilities was performed using an 8 7 path ultrasoni c flow meter. Both labs find calibration results in a band of 0.15%. The curves obtained with different products connect well in the Reynolds domain . However in the range of 1000 Re 10000 there are significant differences of the deviations obtained wi th different liquids. As a first step of the evaluation of the Reynolds compensation in the meter, the calibrations will be repeated with EuroLoops big piston prover. The normalized difference of the two labs was evaluated at 31 Reynolds numbers between Re 1000 and Re 3000000. 16 values are smaller than 0.5 and 4 are bigger than 1. The h igh est values are observed around Re 10000 where significant differences are found between the calibrati on p oi nt s ob ta in ed w it h di ff er en t li qu id s.
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Document ID: 5B3AA78B

Sampling Challenges Associated With Unconventional Gas Sources
Author(s): Mark Firmin
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas sources that in the past have been rega rded as unconventional are becoming common. This paper will discuss gas sampling system design fundamentals highlight key aspects of current industry standards explore the challenges associated with sampling unconventional sources such shale formations, deep- water offshore wells and enhanced recovery systems. Methods for the continuous sampl ing natural gas that is wet, at high pressure or even supercritical will be presented. T he primary focus of this paper is on minimizing the error associated with sampling for c ompositional analysis. Sampling considerations associated with the measurement of s ingle components will however also be discussed.
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Document ID: 3EECA7A0

Alternate Calibration Methodology F Or Point - Velocity Devices ( Pitot - Tube S, Anemometers, Hot - Wire Probes ) Using NIST Traceable Mass Flow Measurement Standards
Author(s): Eric Harman William Johansen
Abstract/Introduction:
An alternate methodology for calibrating Pitot tubes, Anemometers, Hot - Wire Probes, and other Point - Velocity Devices is described utilizing NIST Traceable Mass Flow Measurement Standards, velocity profile conditioning, velocity pr ofile mapping and normalization techniques. This methodology wa s used to determine three Pitot - static flow coefficients. The r esulting average of the three experimentally determined flow coefficients w a s within 0 . 4 % of a theoretical ly calculated flow coefficient . An uncertainty analysis of the experimenta lly determined flow coefficients produced an estimated uncertainty of 0 .62 % at one sigma
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Document ID: 50A3AB4E

Systematic Error Of Gas Flow Rate Measurement Caused By Flow Pulsation
Author(s): Roman Fedoryshyn Fedir Matiko Ihor Kostyk Yevhen Pistun
Abstract/Introduction:
This work deals with investigation of influence of flow pulsation on the accuracy of gas flow rate and volume measurement by means of the differential pressure flow meters. Experimental studies of the step response curves of an impuls e line with a pressure transducer (PT) were carried out with application of a high - frequency analog - to - digital converter of the pressure signal in the PT chamber. Mathematical model of an impulse line with a PT was built. This model provides simulati o n and investigation of the transient processes with high accuracy. The influence of the impulse line design (length, diameter) on the step response curves and on the frequency response curves as well as on the resonant frequency of the oscillating system (an im pulse line with a PT chamber) was studied.
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Document ID: 260363D9

Technology And Application Of Ultrasonic Gasflow Meters For The Measurement Of Steam In Process And Custody Transfer Applications
Author(s): J. Van Klooster A. Huijzer E. Funke D. Laan
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of steam is quite common in the process industry, power plants and oil and gas production. In many cases primary elements like orifice, venturi, pitot tubes or nozzles are used for this in combi nation with a DP transmitter. For smaller diameters also vortex flowmeters are used. However this measurement can be complicated due to the harsh conditions provided by steam . At the same time demands on the performance of steamflow measurements are incre asing with regards to long term stability, accuracy, range abi lity and periodic verification.
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Document ID: 14B5C1D1

Temperature Effects On The Performance Of Tunable Diode Laser Moisture Analyzer S
Author(s): John Geerligs Jeff Crowe Robert Mcbrien
Abstract/Introduction:
Measuring water content in natural gas is critical to operating a pipeline system. High water content can lead to the formation of gas hydrates and increased corrosion of the pipeline. Measuring water vapor down to the ppm range in natural gas is a difficult technical challenge. The objective of this work was to test the AMETEK 5100 HD and SpectraSensors SS2000e gas analyzer for measurin g water content in natural gas . Each device employs T unable D iode L aser A bsorption S pectroscopy (TDLAS) to detect water in natural gas . W ater was added to a steady gas flow to test the analyzer accuracy and response time . The response to a 20% ethylene glycol (balance water) and a 20% methanol (balance water) solution (by weight) was also evaluated. Baseline accuracy was established with a Scott moisture standard distributed by Air Liquide. Each analyzer was subjected to changes in sample gas temperature and an alyzer environment temperature
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Document ID: 5E08EA9B

The Diverse And Unsteady Characteristics Of Premature Unchoking Phenomena For The Sonic Nozzles
Author(s): Chunhui Li Lishui Cui
Abstract/Introduction:
The critical back pressure ratio is the key parameter for the sonic nozzle. The occurrence of the premature unchoking phenomena had seriously influence on the CBPR. In 2012, Mickan et al.,s research showed the phenomena might be depressed by the lower turbulent intensity resulted from the porous media of upstream flow condition
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Document ID: E8E7FAC4

The Effect Of Liquid Kinematic Viscosity And Drain Time On The Volume Delivered From A Test Measure
Author(s): John D.Wright Sherry D.Sheckels Christian Lachance Farhad Sharifi Adam Falick Dominic Ondoro
Abstract/Introduction:
Volumetric test measures are used for calibration and traceability of petroleum measurements and their low uncertainty is important for the equitable trade of valuable liquids. The volume delivered from a test measure depends in part on the volume of liquid retained on the test measure walls after the draining procedure is complete. Mixtures of propylene glycol and water with kinematic viscosity ranging from 1 mm 2 /s to 55 mm 2 /s were used to measure the delivered volumes of three test measures (19 L, 20 L, and 38 L) for 30 s drip times
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Document ID: AD6560DC

The Hydrometric Calibration Facility From Metas: A Primary Standard For Liquid Flow Speed
Author(s): Marc De Huu Beat Wthrich
Abstract/Introduction:
Watercourses can only be monitored and controlled if the prevailing water flow rates are known. These velocities are regularly determined on site using hydrometric measuring instrumen ts like mechanical current meters or acoustic Doppler current meters. The data sets gathered from these measurements are indispensable for flood prevention or to protect watercourses against overexploitation. Calibrated hydrometric measuring instruments ar e therefore of vital importance for the energy and water sectors as well as for the upkeep, monitoring and maintenance of waterways
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Document ID: EF1C3B25

The Introduction Of The Multipurpose Pvtt Gas Flow Fac
Author(s): Yi Zhou
Abstract/Introduction:
The PVTt facility is under construction and will be operated as one primary nation al standard in the following months. This facility is located in Zhenjiang , China with innovation structure, outstanding accuracy, large rangeability, automatically, low power consumption, good efficiency and various applications. The relative extend uncert ainty (Urel) will reach 0.07% (k2 ) at standard vessels in 1 m 3 and above , and 0.1% below 1m
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Document ID: 6332BBCC

The Practical Application Of Multi - Point Piecewise Linear Interpolation Pwl() And Other Developing Trends With Coriolis Meters For Natural Gas Custody Transfer Applications
Author(s): Marc Buttler Ron Gibson Gary Mccargar Karl Stappert Tonya Wyatt
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides an update on the growing use of Coriolis flow meters for natural gas wholesale custody transfer measurement . Practical application s of provisions found within the 2 nd Edition of the American Gas Association Report No. 11 (AGA 11) will be covered that deal with calibration fluid flexibility, compensation for the effect of pressure on the meter, automatic multi - point piecewise linear interpolation , and in - situ secondary verificat ion methods that can be used after meters are installed in service as an ongoing check of the calibration accurac
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Document ID: 88D894AE

The Real History Of Custody Transfer Ult Rasonic Flow Meters
Author(s): t.cousins
Abstract/Introduction:
Previous presentations on history of high Accuracy Ultrasonic flow meters have always made the assumption that everything started with the British gas meter. In fact this is far from the truth we have to go back to the early 1960 s to see the beginnings of such meters, and these were generally liquid meters. One of the first pioneers was Al Brown, initially he used the sing around method to give a frequency proportional to velocity, to avoid the need for high resolution timing. Later he refined his me ters to used analogue timing methods.
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Document ID: AB82CE96

Thermal Effects On Critical Flow Venturis
Author(s): John D.Wright Woong Kang Liang Zhang Aaron N.Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
Critical flow venturis (CFVs) are widely used as working and transfer standards for gas flow measurement because of their long - term calibration stability ( 0.06 %) and well developed physical model. At Reynolds numbers Re 2.5 x 10 5 ( e.g. , a 2 mm throat diameter flowing air at 1 MPa), CFVs exhibit sensitivity to the environmental temperature of approximately 200 parts in 10 6 / K, primarily due to the difficulty of measuring the temperature of the gas entering the CFV (temperature sampling errors) and thermal boundary layer effects. For example, during the CCM.FF - K6 2002 key comparison 2, the temperature sensitivity of the CFV transfer standard accounted for as much as 40 % of the transfer standard uncertainty
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Document ID: 6A4717CF

Towards A Cryogenic Ldv Fluid Flow Measurement Stan Dard
Author(s): A. Strzelecki O. Valet R. Maury J.P. Vallet
Abstract/Introduction:
A very promising alternative to the state-of-the-ar t static volume measurement for Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) custody transfer processes is the dynamic principle of flow metering. In the frame of the first (2010-2013) & second (2014-2017) Joint Pr oject Research METROLOGY for LNG , CESAME EXADEBIT explored a novel cryogenic flow metering technolog y using Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), as alternative to ultrasonic and Coriolis flow metering . The study focused on the technological challenges a nd solutions for extending the LDV method to cryogenic temperatures, and on the estimation of the uncertainty that can be realistically achieved with such a measurement system to measure the LNG flowrate
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Document ID: F603480C

Ultrasonic Flow Meter Compliance With API 14.10 Measurement Of Flow To Flares
Author(s): Wil Camara Ekkehard Riedel Sven Holzbacher
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic flow meters have been used for over 3 0 years to measure flow to flare stack s. Due to changes in plant construction philosophies to more compact building, environmental regulations , and an increased offshore activity the demands to these measurements have changed during recent years. New regulations implemented in Europe and Nor th America requires the measurement of fuel and flare gas to calculate CO2 and VOC emissions
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Document ID: 946D6AF9

Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meter - Evaluations On Co 2 Rich Natural Gas
Author(s): Joerg Wenzel Ekkehard Riedel, Sebastian Stoof, Dr. Volker Herrmann,
Abstract/Introduction:
n the last 15 years, ultrasonic gas flow meters (U SM) have become state-of-the-art technology for fiscal gas metering. Today, ultrason ic meters are moving beyond the realms of fiscal metering and into upstream applica tions like allocation metering, along with less conventional applications like biogas, po wer-to-gas operations and carbon capture and storage (CCS), as well as the measureme nt of natural gas from marginal gas fields with carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) rich natural gas
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Document ID: 448F17FD

Advanced DP Meter Diagnostics - Developing Dynamic Pressure Field Monitoring (& Other Developments)
Author(s): Jennifer Rabone Kim Lewis Bob Peebles George Kidd Andrey Safonov Josh Kinney
Abstract/Introduction:
Differential Pressure (DP) meters have a full diagn ostic suite. These diagnostics appeared suddenly and unexpectedly. Due to the DP m eters simplicity there was a long standing axiom that DP meters could have no diagnostics. For more than a century DP meter operators were blind to the inform ation contained in a DP meters pressure field. Operators of DP meters trad itionally knew of only a small proportion of the information available from each D P meter. However, DP meter technology has now evolved the ability to see and u nderstand the pressure field. This crucial DP meter evolutionary step has diverte d the DP meter from the slow road to obsolescence and placed it firmly back in t he forefront of modern flow meter development
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Document ID: F8BD92EA

Uncertainty Analysis Of Stack Gas Flowrate Measurement With S - Type Pitot Tube For Estimating Greenhouse Gases Emission
Author(s): Woong Kang Yong Moon Choi Nguyen Doan Trang Hee Soo Jang
Abstract/Introduction:
Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), all countries concerned are required to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission for mitigating climate change. In order to reduce GHGs emission, accurate and reliable GHGs emission estimate with proper uncertainties should be carried out first. GHGs emission estimate have been based on an activity - based method (i.e., fuel consumption and emission factor) and a continuous emission measurement (CEM). CEM directly measures GHGs emission through monitoring GHG concentrations and volumetric flow rate at a stack. In the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), GHGs emission by CEM was classified as a highest quality tier (IV) with lowest uncertainty lev el.
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Document ID: 0D7B79F1

Unidirectional Capt Ive Displacement Prover F Or Inline Measurement Verification Of All Metering Technologies
Author(s): Greg Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will verify the history, r equiremen ts and operation of all Provers accepted for liquid pipeline meter uncertainty verification in the Liquid Oil/Gas Industry. It will continue with an explanation and the industries wide acceptance of the Uni - directional Captive Displacement Prover ( UDCDP ) . Th is document will supply the reader with information regarding meter types and the flow volumes that can be used with the UDCDP and will look at the opportunities for the use of a UD C DP as a mass prover. It will also provide the information for field verific a tion of provers known as a water draw
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Document ID: 070920FB

A Modified En Numbers For Verifying The Long Term Stability Of The Reference Flow Meters
Author(s): Yong Moon Choi Woong Kang Hae Man Choi Byung Ro Yoon
Abstract/Introduction:
A reference flow meter is used in NMI (national measurement institute) or calibration laboratories in many countries. Even if the primary standard system has more accurate measurement capability, the reference flow meter has many advantages. The main criteria to select a reference flow meter are accuracy and stability. In this study, calibration data of 37 reference flow meters of 11 calibration laboratories were analyzed because those have been calibrated by the same primary standard system of the KRISS (Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science). The long term stability of the reference flow meter is estimated by the variation of deviation from the flow rate value of the primary standard system for several years. Also uncertainty is modified at each flow rate point including the annual variance of deviation. Finally, a modified En number is propose d to check the performance of reference flow meters. The long term stability suggested in this study can be used to make a decision of working flow range, calibration period, repair or replacement of the reference flow meter
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Document ID: BBC688DC

The Benefits Of Ultrasonic Gas Measurement In Upstream Applications
Abstract/Introduction:
While ultrasonic meters are widely accepted in larger pipeline transportation applications ultrasonic meters (USMs) are not as commonplace as you move up into the gathering and production pad metering points. This paper will present the benefits that ultrasonic measurement technology can bring to this segment
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Document ID: 8D4D1929

Measuring Collected Gas With Microwave A Nd Acoustic Resonanc Es
Author(s): K A Gilli J W Schmidt J B Mehl m R Moldover
Abstract/Introduction:
With calibrations of large flow meters in mind, we established the feasibility of determining the mass M of argon gas contained within a 0.3 m 3 commercially manufactured pressure vessel (tank) with a rel a- tive standard uncertainty of u r ( M ) 0.0016 at 0.6 MPa by combining the measured argon pressure and the measured microwave and acoustic resonance frequencies withi n the pressure vessel with an accurate equation of state for argon
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Document ID: 09C44EB9

Micro-Flow Calibration Facility At NIST
Author(s): James W. Schmidt
Abstract/Introduction:
The Fluid Metrology Group (FMG) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is developing a primary, dynamic gravimetric liquid flow standard for use in the range 100 nL/min to 1 mL/min (and eventually lower). An elevated reservoir of water with a pressure head of a few centimeters provides a flow to the meter under test and the discharged water from it flows to a micro-balance. The flow is collected in a beaker which is weighed at intervals while it fills. The time-rate-of-change of the buoyancy-corrected mass of the beakers contents gives the mass flow. The FMGs implementation of the flow standard will allow accurate measurements of non-steady flows and heterogeneous flows (liquids with cells, proteins, and other soluble and non-soluble components). Evaporation of the water from the beaker is a significant effect and must be measured or controlled accurately. Intermittent liquid wetting or patchy wettability of the pipette by the water in the beaker is also a significant effect. At present we are exploring two techniques: 1) using an oil film to limit evaporation, and 2) using a porous glass element to control capillary forces and evaporation losses. We present an uncertainty analysis for the first iteration of the flow standard. A preliminary calibration of a commercial flow meter was within 3 % or better down to 2 ?L/min of the unofficial calibrations conducted by the Danish and Swiss National Metrology Institutes.
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Document ID: 9B769BBE

Analysis Of Flow Meters Calibration
Author(s): Pier Giorgio Spazzini Francesca Pennecchi Enrica Pessana Aline Piccato
Abstract/Introduction:
Calibration data of flow meters are often reported using the so called c alibration c oefficient, i.e. the ratio between the reference flow rate (or equivalent quantity, e.g. airspeed, accumulated volume etc.) and the corresponding quantity as indicated by the instrument to be calibrated. The main reasons for this choice are twofold: - First of all, this approach is very practical for the end user of the instrument, who can get t he corrected flow rate by simple multiplication of the readout times the coefficient - Second, this representation allows to highlight the non - linearities of the instrument, which usually show up in the lower end of the range and might be hidden by a direct representation
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Document ID: D9951653

A New Approach To High Flow Rate Bilateral Hydrocarbon Laboratory Comparison Testing
Author(s): Fernando De Lis Pablo Carmona Loeches Ray Kalivoda Mark Martin Mitchell Reckner
Abstract/Introduction:
Located in Erie, Pennsylvania, FMC Technologies Flow Research and Test Center recently performed a bi lateral comparison test with Compaia Logistica de Hidrocarburos CLH, S.A. of Spain using liquid hydrocarbon products. The comparison test was based on an 8 inch (203 mm) Smith Meter Sentry conventional turbine meter with flow conditioner in series with a Smith Meter Ultra 8c 8 - path liquid ultrasonic meter located upstream. The intention of the ultrasonic meter was to use its advanced diagnostic capabilities to provide a window into the flow stream and perform flow profile analysis. Installation effect s can have a profound influence on the performance of turbine and ultrasonic flow meters due to changes in flow profile between two different systems. The following technical paper discusses the testing approach and results, investigating the effects of th e flow profile characteristics on the turbine meter performance as observed at both facilities
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Document ID: D6D5135A

A New Pvtt Primary Gas Flow Standard At Cms
Author(s): Ching-Yi Kuo Yi-Lin Ho Wen-Ti Lin Chun-Min Su
Abstract/Introduction:
Center for Measurement Standards (CMS) has finished constructing a new pressure, volume, temperature, and time (PVTt) primary gas flo w standard at the end of 2013. The PVTt gas flow standard spans the flow range of 0.01 L/mi n to 300 L/min using three gas collection tanks with an expanded uncertainty ( k 2) of 0.10 %. Each gas collection tank has an in dividual three-way diverter valve composed of a specially-des igned reduced-bore ball valve and a pneumatic cylinder. The collection tanks are immerse d in a circulated water bath and the uncertainty of the collected gas temperature after ac hieving thermal equilibrium is 0.05 K. The design of this flow standard and the strategy to redu ce the uncertainty of the flow measurements are introduced in this paper. In addit ion, an intra-comparison between the PVTt gas flow standard and the existing three other prima ry gas flow standards, i.e. a piston prover and two bell provers, were conducted. Results showe d the three systems agreed within deviation of 0.05 %
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Document ID: ADAADB2C

An Experimental Study Of The Near Wake Of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines
Author(s): Mina G. Mourad Samir S. Ayad Osama E. Abdellatif Ali A. Abdelaziz
Abstract/Introduction:
The present work considers an experimental investigation of wind turbine near wake by using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) visualization technique. The PIV technique gives a complete picture of all poin ts at the domain under consideration. The study is focused on the effect of tip speed ratio ( ? ) and Reynolds number (Re c ) on the near wake characteristics. A three - blade model of wind turbine with airfoil SG 6040 16% is tested in water channel at Re c range between 1.28 10 4 and 7.68 10 4 . Various tip speed ratios are tested between ? 2 and ? 12. Experiments are also performed at constant ? 8 and variable Re c in the range between 2.56 10 4 and 5.12 10 4 .
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Document ID: 8D0F9BE7

Novel High Accuracy Delay Time Estimation Algorit Hm To Compute Vortex Convection Velocity
Author(s): Kaluri V. Ranga Rao A Venugopal A Yegneswaran
Abstract/Introduction:
Conventional vortex flowmeters suffers performance dete rioration at low Reynolds number ( Re D 30000) owing to piping vibrations and hydrodynamic n oise. Under these conditions the strength of the shed vortices is not sufficient enough to be captured by conventional frequency detection techniques. The present study employs a pair of piezoelectric sensors located downstream the bluff body to capture the convection of the shed vortices. The convection velocity of the shed vortices is computed using a novel de lay time estimation algorithm. Conventionally the delay time is estimated using correla tion methods.
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Document ID: F4A9659A

Are Legacy Requirements Still Essential In Hydrocarbon Custody Measurement Systems?
Author(s): Chandulal Bhatasana
Abstract/Introduction:
Technology applied to accurately measure the quantity and quality of hydrocarbon fluids has continually evolved since the inception of flow measurement. Over the years, oil and gas flow measurement has been pe rformed using various technologies, such as a differential pressure meter, propeller type turbine and displacement meters. The instrument technology, installation and maintenance, calibration, process operating conditions, etc., ha ve a direct bearing on flow measurement with the lowest uncertainty. W ith the latest state - of - the - art electronics and techniques for better diagnosis of measurement parameters - by c oriolis and ultrasonic flow meter (UFM) technology - the question can be ask ed if performance is still adversely affected by variation in process operating parameters ? In addition, does the method of field installation have an effect? A nd have advances in flow measurement technologies made some of these criteria irrelevant or dim inished their importance?
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Document ID: CD3F8599

Asymmetric Flow Measurement In Space Constrained Cooling Water Ducts Using A Traversing Probe
Author(s): Rudzani Mutshinya Dr Wim Fuls Dr Francois Du Preez
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of Eskoms coal - fired po wer stations utilize surface condensers and wet cooling towers to discard the waste heat from the steam cycle. The cooling water (cw) flow rate to the cooling tower affects the temperature at which condensation takes place inside the condenser. This in tur n affects the back pressure of the turbine as well as the overall plant efficiency
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Document ID: 7E7D3463

Automated 3D Traverse System Design And Pitot Tubes Calibration In The Wind Tunnel
Author(s): Hsin Hung Lee Jian Yuan Chen
Abstract/Introduction:
Greenhouse gas emissions have been regarded as a global challenge and it is even more serious in A sia Pacific region. Smokestack emissions are one of the main pollution sources and its flow measurements draw much attention due to the unstable flow conditions and complex gas composition. Pitot tubes have been widely used for flow measurements in the env ironmental analysis. However, the traditional pitot tube s (L type or S type ) can only provide one - dimensional flow velocity and the measurement locations also require to be arranged with care. The EPA in the USA already announced that 3D pitot tubes (prism type, spherical type) can be used for three - dimensional swirl flow measurements in the smokestack and could provide more detailed flow information
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Document ID: 7F421C7A

Bi-Comparison For High Te Mperature Water Flow Between Ptb And Nmij
Author(s): Noriyuki Furuichi Yoshiya Terao Leopoldo Cordove Thomas Lederer
Abstract/Introduction:
Bi-comparison for high temperature water fl ow is performed between PTB and AIST, NMIJ using differential pressure meters. Flowrate range in the comparison is from 250 m 3 /h to 740 m 3 /h and temperature range is from 20 ? C to 80 ? C. Reynolds number based on the pipe diameter ranges from 4.4 ? 10 5 to 3.6 ? 10 6 . The transfer meters are a throat tap type flow nozzle based on ASME standard and an orifice with corner tap. The transfer meters are calibrated by a static gravimetric method using weighing tank in PTB and a volumetric method using prover system in AIST, NMIJ. The results of the discharge coefficient are agreed well between the labs. Especially, the results by the orifice with flow conditioner are excellently agreed. The differences of discharge coefficients given by the both labs are less than 0.03%
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Document ID: 0D114F92

Blockage Effect Of Different Types Of Anemometers I N A Closed Wind Tunnel
Author(s): Sabelle Care Herve Miler
Abstract/Introduction:
Airspeed measurements are of increasing relevance f or efficiency and safety related subject areas. The intrusion of an anemometer in a duct may lead to a measurement error because of the change in flow profile and blockage effect. Thi s impact has to be taken into account when performing measurements of air speed. It is therefore important to understand the phenome na, to be able to analyze and quantify them at all levels of the traceability chain, from Natio nal Metrology Institutes to on site measurements, from calibration test rigs to industrial measuremen ts in duct. The research project led in 2012 by EDF R&D and CET IAT about the comparison of experimental and numerical results for different ty pes of anemometers in a closed wind tunnel has been extended to different sizes of closed wind tunnel. The new results were obtained by numerical simulati on using a CFD code, named STAR CCM+
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Document ID: 720DE3B3

Calibration Lab Flow Characteristics As Measured By Ultrasonic Flow Meters
Author(s): Nicholas J. Mollo Kristina G. Berardi Thomas Ballard
Abstract/Introduction:
Calibration of most flow meters is considered to be an important and necessary step in delivering a high quality and accurate meter s to end user s . Such calibrations are crucial for ultrasonic flow meters which will be used in custody transfer applications. Selecting the correct facility for the calibration has historically involved finding a lab that could match both the pipe size of the meter as well as cover the range of flow rates necessary to verify the meter over the application range
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Document ID: FD14543E

CFD Analysis For Ultrasonic Flow Meter Accuracy Improvement In Flare Gas Applications
Author(s): Isaac Sadovnik Jed Matson Selvakumaran Senthamizhchai Venugopal Arumuru Lei Sui
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic Flow Meters (USM) rely on Fully Developed flow profile (FD) for the accurate measurement of flow rate in Flare Gas or, in general, for any application. T he US M are loaded with meter factors or K - factors which correspond to the conversion from the measured Ultrasonic Path Line velocity average, to the flow cross - section area average velocity which is the Bulk velocity of the flow. In o rder to produce a suitable FD flow profile prior to entering the flow meter, one may need to have a length of straight pipe upwards of 50 pipe diameters. Most Flare Gas Flow Meter installations dont typically have this kind of length of straight pipe upst ream of their installation locations. As a result, the meters will read bulk flow velocities that can be inaccurate by typically 5 - 10% of reading . CFD Analysis can improve the meters accuracy by predicting the flow profiles for a particular installation and thus providing the meter with more accurate correction factors or, Meter Factors (MF). The meter fa ctors that CFD analyses provides , are decomposed into two separate factors: the fully developed flow meter factor (FDMF) and the meter correction factor (MCF) that is multiplied to the FDMF in order to obtain the final Correction F actor s (Installed Correction Factors) to be loaded into the meters software
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Document ID: 4600E7FA

CFD Analysis For Ultrasonic Flow Meter Accuracy Improvement In Flare Gas Applications
Author(s): Isaac Sadovnik Jed Matson Selvakumaran Senthamizhchai Venugopal Arumuru Lei Su
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic Flow Meters (USM) rely on Fully Developed flow profile (FD) for the accurate measurement of flow rate in Flare Gas or, in general, for any application. T he US M are loaded with meter factors or K - factors which correspond to the conversion from the measured Ultrasonic Path Line velocity average, to the flow cross - section area average velocity which is the Bulk velocity of the flow. In o rder to produce a suitable FD flow profile prior to entering the flow meter, one may need to have a length of straight pipe upwards of 50 pipe diameters. Most Flare Gas Flow Meter installations dont typically have this kind of length of straight pipe upst ream of their installation locations. As a result, the meters will read bulk flow velocities that can be inaccurate by typically 5 - 10% of reading . CFD Analysis can improve the meters accuracy by predicting the flow profiles for a particular installation and thus providing the meter with more accurate correction factors or, Meter Factors (MF). The meter fa ctors that CFD analyses provides , are decomposed into two separate factors
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Document ID: 6A64B15B

Hoking Pressure Ratio Guidelines For Critical Flow Venturis And The Study Of Diffuser Pressure Distribution
Author(s): Michael S. Carter Bradford W. Sims Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
he ratio of maximum exit pressure to inlet pressure that maintains sonic velocity at the throat of a Critical Flow Venturi (CFV) is referred to as the Maximum Back Pressur e Ratio (MBPR). Current standards provide MBPR equations for CFVs operated at throat Reynolds Numbers (Re d ) above 200,000 and previous research has provided a MBPR equation for specific diffuser geometries down to a Re d of 12,000 and at inlet pressures of 100 and 150 kPa. This paper will present unchoking test results for additional inlet pressures ranges and provide MBPR guidelines for s pecific diffuser geometries operated from 20 to 500 kPa. Thi s previous research also demonstrated that CF Vs with lon g er diffuser s were less susceptible to Diffuser Performance Inversion, DPI, or what has previously been known as premature unchoking. This paper will present testing and analysis regarding DPI, optimal diffuser length, diffuser pressure stab ility , and the effects of a small diffuser step downstream of the CFV throat.
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Document ID: 9633B41A

Compact Installation Testing Of A Hhr Propak Meter
Author(s): Adam Hawley Jacob Thorson Richard Wakeland
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas flow testing was conducted on a High Head Recovery (HHR) ProPak, a differential pressure meter manufactured by Flui dic Techniques (FTI) , at the Metering Research Facility (MRF) at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) . The purpose of the testing was to determine the coefficient of discharge and the minimum upstream length required for various upstream and downstream piping disturbances. The test plan was designed based on the recommendations in American Petroleum Institute ( API ) Manual of Petroleum Measurement (MPMS) Chapter 22.2. The testing included meters of different beta ratios and line sizes, flow testing at different pressures and flow rates, and installation testing with various upstream and downstream disturbances. The results identified a compact installation that provided high meter performance while minimizing the overall footprint of the flow meter run
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Document ID: 009F02D6

Mprovements On Clamp - On Accuracy Using Advanced Installation Methods
Author(s): Bob Fritz Ron Mccarthy
Abstract/Introduction:
Clampon Ultrasonic Flowmeters have been commercially available for more than 45 years and have become an accepted method of measuring flow. Over the past 15 to 20 years several improvements have moved the technology forward. First the change from analogue transducers to Piezo ceramic (digital) transducers Se cond the change from analogue timing to digital timing. methods. Third the change from transit time to differential transit time.
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Document ID: 8521A768

Design And Capabilities Of Nists S Cale-Model Smokestack Simulator Smss(
Author(s): Aaron N. Johnson Joey T. Boyd Eric Harman Mark Khalil Jacob R. Ricker Chris J. Crowley John D. Wright Rodney A. Bryant Iosif Shinder
Abstract/Introduction:
The amount of CO 2 emitted from a coal-fired power plant (CFPP) is measured by continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) permanently installed in the exhaust smokestack. Both the CO 2 concentration and the bulk flow are cont inuously measured by CEMS, and the product of these measurements gives the CO 2 flux. The EPA requires CEMS to be calibrated yearly using a test procedure called a relative accuracy test audit (RATA). This calibration procedure links the concentration measurement to the SI through reference gas standards. However, establishing flow traceability is more difficult because the CE MS flow meter and the flow meter used to perform the RATA can be adversely affected by the complex velocity fields (i.e., swirling flow with a skewed velocity profile) prevalent in smokestacks. As a result the RATA only provides relative accuracy instead of flow traceability to a primary standard. In order to quantify the uncertainty of smokestack flow measurements, and to establish a calibration platform with documented tracea- bility to the derived SI unit of flow, NIST constructed a 1/10 th scale model smokestack simulator (SMSS). The test section of the SMSS will have the same velocity range and similar flow distor- tions found in to a typical CFPP smokestack.
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Document ID: 9FCD5736

Design And F L O W Field Simulation Of A Rotary Flat Valve With Linear Flow Characteristics
Author(s): Xu Zhipeng Ding Fenfen Xie Dailiang
Abstract/Introduction:
A rotary flat flow valve with linear characteristics is proposed to overcome the disadvantages like poor linearity, lack of repe atability and so on. First ly , the structure and working principle o f the valve are introduced. Secondly , the function of the flat curve is deduced within Matlab. Finally, the 3D CFD model of the valve is built up and detailed simulation is carried out. The results show that the linear correlat ion coefficient reaches 0.9985
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Document ID: 568C1864

Design Of Photonic Vortex Flow m Eter For m Easurement Of W Ide D Ynamic Range Of V Elocities At High T Emperature S And P Ress Ure S
Author(s): Henrik Krisch Ali Gediklib Benedikt Niermann Ernst Von Lavante Pouya Mirzaei
Abstract/Introduction:
he present publication describes a new solution of flow meter for metering fluids using fiber sensing methods. Mach - Zehnder interferometer is implemented for the detection of the vortices . The signal generation is based on the frequency detection of a vibrating diaphragm placed in a measuring chamber optimized for this purpose . The stress of the vibrating diaphragm is sensed using a Mach - Zehnder (MZ) fiber interferometer , w ith fiber arms fixed t o the diaphragm. This solution allows measuring flow rates of liquids, gases and vapors having temperature s up to + 700 C and pressures up to 300bar
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Document ID: 26778F44

Design And Uncertainty Estimation Of A Calibrator For The Feedwater Flowmeter At High Reynolds Number
Author(s): Ki Han Nam Kye Hyeon Ryu
Abstract/Introduction:
Calibration system at high Reynolds number flow was designed and fabricated, for calibrating the flowmeter used for fee dwater flow measurement in a nuclear power plant. Conditions of the feedwater flow are under 230 C of t he temperature and 8 M Pa of the pressure . Four ultrasonic flowmeters, which have 3000 m 3 /h maximum flowrate respectively, were used as the master flowmeter for calibrating the feedwater flowmeter . We have achieved the maximum flowrate 12000 m 3 /h with parallelly connected four ultrasonic flowmeters. To get the high Reynolds number flow, the temperature of the working fluid was controlled up t o 90 C . Then we can get Reynolds number 2.5x10 7 , which was coincide with that of Advance Power Reactor 1400 MW (APR 1400 ) nuclear power plant model.
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Document ID: DBABE481

Development Of A Dealiasing Method In Ultrasonic Pulsed Doppler Method For Flowrate Measurement
Author(s): Hideki Murakawa Ei Muramatsu Katsumi Sugimoto Nobuyuki Takenaka
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic pulsed Doppler method has been developed mainly in medical field for blood flow measurement. The technique has several desirable characteristics, and it has been utilized for engineering field. Furthermore, the method has been applied for me asuring flowrate. However, the maximum detectable velocity is limited by the Nyquist sampling theorem. The longer measurable distance is, the lower maximum velocity is. Therefore, the pulsed Doppler flowmeter is generally limited for measuring lower flowra te condition comparing to the ultrasonic time - of - flight flowmeter
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Document ID: C77427E3

Development Of Prototype Low - Flow Rate Test Rig Applicable For Highly Volatile Liquids
Author(s): Ryouji D Ihara Takashi Shimada Kar-Hooi Cheong Yoshiya Terao
Abstract/Introduction:
A prototype flow rig has been developed, of wh ich flow rate range is from 60 L/h down to 0.02 L/h. The test rig has consisted of a gravimetric weighing tank and a syringe pump. A flowmeter has been calibrated using the syringe pump to overcome issues on low - flow rate of volatile liquids and on a standing method. For this purpose the syringe pump system was designed employing a servo - motor, a precise ball screw and a linear encoder. The gravimetric sy stem has been improved to reduce influence of evaporation and outflow pipe contact. The syringe pulse factor s ha ve be en calibrated using the gravimetric system in all flow rates with light oil and in dustrial gasoline and they all agree within 0.02%. Preliminary expanded uncertainties of the prototy pe test rig are estimated to be 0.060% for mass flow and 0.068% for vo lumetric flow
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Document ID: A6B420B7

Development Of A Reciprocating Double - Pistons Gas Prover
Author(s): Zhi-Peng Xu Jia-Yin Dai Hui-Yun Chen Dai-Liang Xie
Abstract/Introduction:
Piston prover is widely used as a standard gas flow device for its advantages of high accuracy in standard volume, flow stability and repeatability . T he applic ations of the conventional piston provers are limited by the maximum calibration flow generated by the piston cylinder volume. I n the current paper, a reciprocating double - pistons gas prover was proposed, which can provide a continuous standard flow to cal ibrate meters like critical nozzles and so on. There are two pistons within the proposed prover, which could be operated in three modes: single - piston mode, double - pistons parallel mode and double - pistons reciprocating mode
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Document ID: 98EFEE59

1 Direct Test Comparisons Of Ultrasonic And Different Ial Pressure Meter Responses To Wet Natural Gas Flow
Author(s): Richard Steven Josh Kinney Charlie Britton
Abstract/Introduction:
Wet natural gas flow metering is important to natur al gas producers. Whereas there are multiphase wet gas meter designs available, due to economic constraints the majority of wet natural gas flows world-wide are still metered by s ingle phase gas flow meter technologies. Gas meter manufacturers have to varying extents res earched their respective meters wet gas performance, sometimes made limited modifications, and promoted the pros and played down the cons to their best advantage. Due to limit ed experience or education in this relatively new, specialised and complex subject of wet gas metering many operators find themselves largely reliant on the advice of flow me ter salesmen
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Document ID: DF63BD6A

Effect Of Shape Of Critical Flow V Enturi Nozzles On The Transitional B Ehavio U R
Author(s): Ernst Von Lavante Harun Kaya
Abstract/Introduction:
The flow fields in several toroidal Venturi nozzles operating at critical conditions have been inves tigated using numerical flow simulation. The present study focused on the transitional effects in the boundary layer, occuring in critic al flow Venturi nozzles (CFVN) with shapes that do not confirm to the ISO 9300 standard. Here, several intake geometries were studie d, with various transition crite ria being applied. The nozzles displayed in most cases delayed transition at Reynolds numbers much higher than indicated in the ISO 9300 standard
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Document ID: ECE7CD9F

Effect S Of Vibration And Flow Pattern On Coriolis Flow Meter
Author(s): Chun-Lin Chiang Chun-Min Su Yi-Lin Ho Yi-Huan Kao
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis flow meter is widely used to measure the mass flow rate in many fields of research and industry because of its highly accurate measurement performance and superbly repeatable characteristic . The working principle of Coriolis flowmeter relies on the Coriolis Effect generated by the fluid flowing through the v ibrating tubes. Therefore, the measurement accuracy of a Coriolis flow meter might be influenced by the vibration surrounding a Coriolis flow meter , the flow pulsation, and the fluid distribution between the vibration tubes . The presented work studies the impact s of possible vibration , and asymmetric flow pattern induce d by the water flow ing through a partially closed ball valve on a Coriolis flow meter . W hen a partially closed ball valve and the Coriolis flow meter are installed in series , the vibration caused by the water flow hitting a partially closed ball valve would result in a clear measurement error and a negative effect on the short - term repeata bility of the Coriolis flow meter is observed . The installation of two rubber sections surrounding the C oriolis flow meter is effective to isolate the vibration as a n oise on the measurement result. A
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Document ID: 6025945D

Effect Of Vibration And Asymmetric Flow Pattern On Flow Measurement Using Coriolis Flow Meter
Author(s): Chun-Lin Chiang Chun-Min Su Yi-Lin Ho Yi-Huan Kao
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis flow meter is widely used to measure the mass flow rate in many fields of research and industry because of its highly accurate measurement performance and superbly repeatable characteristic . The working principle of Coriolis flowmeter relies on the Coriolis Effect generated by the fluid flowing through the v ibrating tu bes. Therefore, the measurement accuracy of a Coriolis flow meter might be influenced by the vibration surrounding a Coriolis flow meter and the fluid distribution between the vibration tubes . The presented work studies the impact s of possible vibration an d asymmetric flow pattern induced by the water flow ing through a partially closed ball valve on a Coriolis flow meter . W hen a partially closed ball valve and the Coriolis flow meter are installed in series , the vibration caused by the water flow hitting a partially closed ball valve would result in a clear measurement error and a negative effect on the short - term repeata bility of the Coriolis flow meter is inferred
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Document ID: 166B293E

European Research Project On Microflow Measurements - Medd
Author(s): Elsa Batista Eduarda Filipe Hugo Bissig Harm Tido Petter Peter Lucas Florestan Ogheard Anders Koustrup Niemann
Abstract/Introduction:
Micro and nano flow rate calibrations are important in several applications such as volumetric dosage or drug delivery. Particularly, for drugs with a very short half - life (order of 1 minute) or for drugs that require a very small bloo d concentration for reason of toxicity, such as vasoactive drugs and anesthetics, the exact amount of the delivered volume or a stable flow rate is crucial for the effective operation of the drug delivery. However, international traceability at the micro a nd nano flow scale is not validated up to date in Europe for flow rate ranges below 16 l/min.
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Document ID: D502B493

Expansion Of Calibration Flow Ra Nge Of Small Liquid Hydrocarbon Flow Facility At Nmij
Author(s): Kar-Hooi Cheong Ryouji Doihara Takashi Shimada Yoshiya Terao
Abstract/Introduction:
Lower limit of calibration flow range of small liquid hydrocarbon flow facility at NMIJ has been expanded from 1 L/h to 0.02 L/h corresponding to about 0.016 kg/h for mass flow rate. The upper limit remains unchanged at 100 L/h. Working liquids include kerosene and light oil. Calibration and measurement capacity (CMC) is estimated to be 0.078 % for volumetric flow range (0.02 L/h 1 L/h) and 0.050 % for mass flow range (0.016 kg/h 0.8 kg/h) (coverage factor: k 2). To cover the expanded flow range, a new gravimetric weighing system employing a smaller weighing scale (maximum liquid collection of 100 g) was installe d in addition to the current weighing system (maximum liquid collection of 2 kg). Uncertainty analysis shows that liquid mass measurement and dead volume effect become more significant in terms of contribution to the overall uncertainty compared with estimation of liquid density which is still the largest uncertainty source. Comparison was also carried out between the smaller (100 g) and the larger (2 kg) weighing systems over their overlapping flow range using a volumetric flow meter as a transfer standard.
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Document ID: 8B43C815

Experimental And Numerical Investigation Of Detection Chamber Of A Photonic Vortex Flow Meter
Author(s): E. Von Lavante S. Brinkhorst H.Krisch A.Gedikli P. Mirzaei G. Delannoy S. Lassalle
Abstract/Introduction:
In the present investigation, a vortex flow meter based on Mach - Zender sensor for pressure detection and photonic signal transfer has been investigated numerically as well as experimentally in order to obtain better signal linearity (constant K - factor) wh en liquids are to be metered. To this end, the design of the pressure detection chamber has been optimized to achieve quicker bleeding of air partially contained in the chamber. It has been found that reducing the volume of the pressure chamber by approxim ately 20% resulted in significantly shorter times required to fill the chamber with liquid
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Document ID: B5D4A70F

Extended Type Examination Tests For High - Pressure Ultrasonic Meters Used In Outdoor Metering Stations
Author(s): Jos G.M. Van Der Grinten
Abstract/Introduction:
As metering stations are often located in the open air a series of tests were performed to check the actual performance of a number of ultrasonic meter s for a new metering station. A flow distortio n test using a perforated perturbation plate, simulated the mild flow distortion caused by two out - of - plane bends followed by an expander. Mounting the perturbation plate is as simple as installing a flow conditione
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Document ID: EAD45E02

Extension Of The Flow Rate Range Of A Calibration F Acility For Liquids Combining A Gravimetric Reference With A Couple Of In-House Calibrated Master Meters
Author(s): Hans-Joachim Baade
Abstract/Introduction:
n order to reduce expenditures for the installatio n or refurbishment of a calibration facility, simplifications and minimization of the equipment o f the rig are considered, especially with respect to the realization of the requirement of ma jor flow rates as well as for the minor flow rate range. Sometimes minimum realizable measurement uncertaint ies are not requested to cover the entire flow rate range of the facility. In particul ar for the upper range major uncertainties are accepted often. This fact can open remarkable optio ns.
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Document ID: 5C456A92

Flow Disturbance Effects On The Performance Of The Elster - Instromet Q . Sonic - Plus Ultrasonic Meter
Author(s): John Geerligs Jeff Crowe Robert Mcbrien
Abstract/Introduction:
he objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of flow disturbances on the performance of the Elster - Ins tromet Q . Sonic - plus 200 - mm (8 - inch) ultrasonic meter . The Q.Sonic - plus has a reduced bore with custom machined inlet and outlet tapers that match the meter run piping. Testing was performed with high pressure (5000 to 6000 kPa) natural gas to evaluate the performance of the meter in baseline and single - elbow installations . Due to concern that liquid may collect in front of the reduced - bore meter at low flow rates, meter performance was also measured during the onset of, and recovery from, liquid loading. An 80:20 mix, by weight, of compressor oil and glycol was injected approximately 75 pipe diameters upstream of the flow conditioner. The liquid load ranged from 0.08 % to 0.26% , by weight, of the gas flow
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Document ID: E986FC89

Flow Stability Of Critical - Flow Venturi Nozzles
Author(s): Blent nsal Utkan aliskan Tbitak Gebze Yerleskesi Baris Mah. Dr. Zeki Aca
Abstract/Introduction:
Series of CFD (computational fluid dynamics) simulations were performed for C ritical - Flow Venturi N ozzles (CFVN) to investigate the stability of transonic and supersonic shock structures forming within the nozzle geometries. 5 and 1.56 mm throat diameter nozzle s with ISO 9300 form . Investigations we re performed by means of two sets of simulation s . For the fi rst set, nozzle inlet pressure wa s varied from atmospheric to higher values and the nozzle outlet pressure was kept constant at atmospheric conditions. For the second set, nozzle inlet pressure was kept const ant at atmospheric conditions and the nozzle outlet pressure wa s varied from atmospheric to lower pressures . The results fro m both sets of simulations show ed that at high ba ck pressure ratios (BPR) there we re pressure and corresponding flow rate fluctuations exist. While decreasing BPR, amplitude and frequenc y of the pressure fluctuations we re increasing but t he flow rate pulsations disappear at some certain BPR
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Document ID: 20B1B679

Fluid Flow Conditioning For Meter Accuracy And Repeatability
Author(s): Danny Sawchuk
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow conditioning is one of the most critical aspects dealing with any type of volumetric flow metering. Flow conditioning is the final buffer between the flow meter and the upstream piping layout and is responsible for eliminating swirl, restoring flow symmetry and generating a repeatable, fully developed velocity flow profile. Even though modern advancements have resulted in low uncertainty, high repeatability device s that are effective across a range of flow rates, proper utilization of flow conditioner is still required to maximize the meters performance, diagnostics and ens ure the most stable long term flow measurement
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Document ID: F4041FD0

Gas Mass Flow Metering - An Alternative Approach
Author(s): Eric Sanford Jim Storer Kim Lewis Richard Steve
Abstract/Introduction:
Metering a fluids mass flow rate in a pipe with me thods that do not require an external fluid density prediction is an attractive option in many flow meter applications. Such meter designs tend to be describ ed as mass flow meters. The development of a simple, robust and compact gas mas s flow meter concept is described here
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Document ID: 0F155019

Gas Turbine Meter Operating Characteristics, Results From A Large Database
Author(s): Thomas Kegel Walter Seidl
Abstract/Introduction:
CEESI has published a number of similar papers where flow measurement experience is applied to the analysis of calibration results. Meter technologies include ultrasonic, Coriolis, subsonic ven - turi, and the critical flow venturi. A typical analysis involves a mix of calibrations: 1) a large quantity of data from one meter, or a few meters, and 2) a smaller quantity of data from many meters. This paper represents a continuation of the effort, the topic is gas turbine meter
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Document ID: B28F2952

Gas Ultrasonic Meter Installation Effects & Diagnostic Indicators A History Of Naffmc Installation Effects Testing Including Current Testing
Author(s): Randy Miller Ed Hanks
Abstract/Introduction:
For nearly a decade the North American Fluid Flow Measurement Council has investigated a variety of ultrasonic meter effects on both low and high pressure ultrasonic meters . Our research studied effects ranging from low flow, flow conditioner rotation, header designs, various meter tube end - treatment s , flow conditioner s , and inline filters . While this paper examines the history of the NAFFMC research , much of our focus will encompass our examinations into the use of an ultraso nic meters diagnostics to determine the hea l th and uncertainty of the meter.
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Document ID: 07FFDEEB

Hydrogen Field Test Standard: Laboratory Performance
Author(s): Jodie G. Pope John D. Wright
Abstract/Introduction:
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed a prototype field test standard (FTS) that incorporates three test methods that could be used by state weights and measures inspectors to periodically test retail hydrogen dispensers, much as gasoline dispensers are tested today. The three field test methods are: 1) gravimetric, 2) Pressure, Volume, Temperature ( PVT ), and 3) master meter. The FTS was tested in NISTs Transient Flow Facility with helium gas. All three methods agree within the expected uncertainty of 0.57 % for all test drafts of helium gas in the laboratory setting. The time required to perform six test drafts is similar for all three methods, ranging from 5.8 h for the gravimetric method to 7.5 h for the PVT method. The estimated cost of equipment to perform each method ranges from 18K ( PVT method) to 29K (master meter method).
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Document ID: 692C1FC6

Implementation Of Uncertainty - Based Measurement In The Regulation Of Oil And Gas Meters Used To Determine Federal And Indian Royalty
Author(s): Richard Estabrook
Abstract/Introduction:
The United States Bureau of Land Management (BLM) manages about 700 million acres of Federal and Indian mineral estate, which contributes a significant portion to domestic oil and gas produ ction. BLMs role in oil and gas measurement is to ensure that volumes and qualities are accurately measured and properly reported, as Federal and Indian royalty is derived from these measurements. BLMs measurement requirements are dictated by Federal law s, from which BLM develops regulations, Onshore Orders, and Notices to Lessees, as well as policy to implement measurement standards and guide Field Offices.
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Document ID: D635D832

Improvement An D Measurement O F Velocity Distribution I N A Wind Tunnel
Author(s): Tolentino-Eslava R., Tolentino-Eslava G., Snchez-Silva F
Abstract/Introduction:
In this paper the changes made to improve the behavior of the flow in the wind tunnel of the Thermal Engineering and Applied Hydraulics Laboratory (LABINTHAP), like the design and construction of a settling chamber whit five screens and a honeycomb, and a contraction nozzle with an area ratio of 9: 1 are pres ented. The original wind tunnel configuration was a bell mouth follow by a test section and a diffuser, with this arrangement the flow quality was poor as result of an inadequate entrance section, the mean velocity variation was greater than ? 2% in the tes t section at 30 m/s and the turbulence was 4.5%. These conditions were not acceptable for research purpose. To improve the flow behavior the above modifications were made
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Document ID: 11DBB68A

I Nfluence Of Non - Developed Flow Condition On Uncertainty Of Flowrate Measurement Using Ultrasonic Doppler Velocity Profile Method
Author(s): Sanehiro Wada Noriyuki Furuichi
Abstract/Introduction:
To obtain an uncertainty of flowrate measurement using ultrasonic Doppler velocity profile method (UVP) , experiments are carried out in a disturbed flow. Flowrate measurement is based on a multi - path measurement using three ultrasonic transducers. To gener ate the disturbed flow, obstacle plates are installed upstream of the test section. The maximum difference from the reference flowrate given by the national standard calibration facility of water flowrate is over 2% when the measurement is performed at 8 D downstream of the obstacle plate. At 25 D downstream of the obstacle plate, the deviation is within the fundamental uncertainty level. The relative expanded uncertainties ( k 2) are estimated to be 1.2% for 25 D , 2.4% for 16 D and 2.9% for 8 D , respectively
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Document ID: ED19DC94

Investigation Into Flow Rate Dependency Of Small Volume Prover For Hydrocarbon Flowmeters
Author(s): Takashi Shimada Ryouji Doihara Yoshiya Terao
Abstract/Introduction:
A small volume prover (SVP) has been calibrated using some commercial and mechanical flowmeters, namely, turbine meters and positive displacement flowmeters, which have been calibrated using the primary standard for hydrocarbon flow measurement in Japan, in order to investigate the performance of the SVP. The deviations of the calibration factor s of the SVP are within 0.1 % although they were changed by repair of the SVP. Furthermore, the calibration factors of the SVP are dependent on the flow rates through the SVP, while it is independent from the types of flowmeters and the flow rates through the flowmeters, which were set in parallel. These results indicate that the SVP sho uld be calibrated in the all flow rate range instead of a constant displacement of volume in order to achieve a lower uncertainty
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Document ID: 9255EB14

Laboratory Testing Of Chordal Path Ultrasonic Gas Meters With New Noise Reduction Tee Designs
Author(s): Philip A Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of chordal path ultrasonic meters is becoming more prevalent as the technology is maturing. Using these types of electronic measuring devices requires some thought regarding the installation conditions and factors that may affect the meters in-field performance. This paper discusses the recent testing performed using high pressure Natural Gas at the CEESI Iowa Natural Gas Test Facility on a chordal path transit time Ultrasonic Flow Meter. Enable Midstream Partners flow calibrate every ultrasonic meter used for fiscal purposes at the CEESI facility
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Document ID: F5612C44

Large Eddy Simulation And Laser Doppler Velocimetry On A Vortex Flow Meter Model
Author(s): Olle Penttinen Hakan Nilsson
Abstract/Introduction:
The present work compares the results from a Large Eddy Simul ation (LES) and the result of two Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) measurements. The work focuses on a model of a vor- tex flow meter, a common flow meter type in process industry. It s measuring principle is that the frequency of a vortex street, generated by a shedder bar, is acquired by pressure or velocity sensors. The shedding frequency is proportional to the bulk flow rate. Tests are performed at a Reynolds number of 61400, based on the pipe diameter. A compl ementary LDV measurement is also performed at a Reynolds number of 62800. All results are normalized with the bulk velocity to be comparable to each other. A comparison of the mean strea mwise velocity profiles shows excellent agreement between the numerical and experimenta l methods. The variance of the two velocity components is also in good agreement between the in vestigated results.
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Document ID: E53A2A99

A Proposed Simplified Technique For Accurate Calculation Of Flared Gas Volume. Case Study Of An Oil And Gas Processing Plant In Niger Delta
Author(s): Umeh Ebuka Abonyi Chukwunonoso Nwanna Nnaemeka Ikpeka Princewill
Abstract/Introduction:
In Nigeria, a lthough the regulatory agencies in the oil and gas industry has placed some financial and cost measures to minimize the amount of standard cubic feet of gas flared per day by operating companies yet some operators and contractors can t still keep an accurate measure on the actual amount of gas they flare from their production fac ilities. These shortcomings are partially caused due to lack of technologies, equipment malfunctions/ in efficiencies, human resource deficiencies among others. However, gas flaring is by no means a simple measurement process on its own.
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Document ID: 7C023917

Magnetic Resonance Multiphase Flowmeter: Novel Technology For Direct Oil, Water And Gas Measurement In Multiphase Production Streams
Author(s): Marco Zoeteweij Olaf Bousche Rutger Tromp Mark Van Der Zande Jankees Hogendoorn Andre Boer
Abstract/Introduction:
Theupstreamoilandgasindustryrequiresmulti-phaseflowmeteringcapabilityforwellheadinstal- lation, to replace the test separators and related infrastructure. These instruments should satisfy the need in terms of accuracy and reliability across a broad range of operational conditions and (hydrocarbon) fluid properties. This paper describes a Magnetic Resonance (MR) based multi- phase flow meter, developed in a joint project with KROHNE and Shell, which allows for accurate and real-time measurement of the flow rates for oil, water and gas. Unlike the conventional multi- phaseflowmeters,theMRmeterhasnointrusivesensorsorradioactivesources. Nexttotheflow rate measurement per phase, the MR measurement principle can, similar to MRI used for medical application, identify different hydrogen containing fluids (like water, oil and gas) each with its own velocity and distribution profiles
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Document ID: 208C2121

Measurement Of Flow In Viscous Fluids
Author(s): Chris Mills
Abstract/Introduction:
The vast majority of the worlds remaining oil rese rves are categorised as heavy / unconventional oils (high viscosity). Due to dimini shing conventional oil reserves and the need to secure future energy supplies to a risi ng world population, the exploitation of unconventional oils will increase. As the development of these viscous deposits grows, so too will the requirement for acc urate flow measurement of heavy crude oils and other viscous products
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Document ID: 76BC7F2C

Mechanism Analysis And Estimation Tool Of I Nstallation Effect O N Multipath Ultrasonic Flowmeter
Author(s): Heming Hu Liang Zhang Tao Meng Chi Wang
Abstract/Introduction:
Multipath ultrasonic flowmeters are widely used for accurate large diameter flow measurement. Their performance is sensitive to flow filed in conduits which can be disturbed by adjacent installations . This paper focus es on numerical approach to estimate flow error related to disturbed flow filed. Lots of CFD codes can simulate flow field in ultrasonic flowmeter pipeline. I t is more critical to calculate flow error efficiently and reliably afte r obtaining the numerical flow filed. We have analyzed influence mechanism of disturbed flow filed on i nstallation effect , and developed a post - processing tool to calculate flow error for flowmeter with any configuration based on FLUENT flow filed. In the calculation, decomposition of installation effect in to integration error and transverse error is beneficial to analyze the flow error mechanism, and some special treatments of indication flow - rate and standard flow - rate can decrease estimation bias due to nume rical discretization
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Document ID: FA2CA465

Meter Factor Traceability Coriolis Mass Flowmeter Water Calibration And Use In Gaseous Hydrocarbon Applications
Author(s): Michael Keilty
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis mass flowmeters that are gravimetrically calibrated on water have been proven to be capable to satisfy the specifications and requirements of national and international standards for the m easurement of natural gas in custody transfer applications
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Document ID: 70561C90

Methodology Of Proving Liquid Flow Meters
Author(s): Dave Seiler
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of a liquid flow prover is to provide a precise means for calibrating flow meters. Provers are most commonly used to calibrate turbine, displacement, coriolis and ultrasonic meters although they may also be used to calibrate other types of meters. A prover provides a known standard for comparison to the meter out put, and, in application, is used to establish factors for correction of the indicated volume of the meter being proved, thereby resulting in more precise measurement. The most common types of provers include
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Document ID: 71681DBC

New Facility For Anemometer Calibrations In Air - Speed Range Of (0.05 - 1) m/s
Author(s): Jan Sluse Jan Gersl
Abstract/Introduction:
Increasing demand on calibrations of anemometers for low air - speed motivated development of a new device for calibrations in air - speed range of (0.05 - 1) m/ s at Czech Metrology Institute. The device is based on an aerodynamic towing tank, i.e. the meter under test is towed through a closed tube with calm air. The motion of the meter is ensured by a high stability linear motor. An optical scale is used for position measurement of the trolley with the meter. The tube of a square cross - section is 12 m long and its walls are covered by acoustic pyramid foam to prevent reflections and acoustic noise . The stability of the air inside of the tube is controlled by a thermal probe. Inter - co mparison of the towing tank with the wind tunnel standard of CMI was performed in the velocity range overlap (0.3 - 1) m/s
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Document ID: 5D04A63F

Nists New 3D Airspeed Calibration Rig Addresses Turbulent Flow Measurement Challenges
Author(s): Iosif I. Shinder Vladimir B. Khromchenko Michael R. Moldover
Abstract/Introduction:
Outdoor air flows and flue - gas flows in large conduits and large stacks have significant swirl and turbulence. Accurate measurements of such complex flows are needed by weather services and diverse industries ( e.g. automotive, aircraft, wind - power, fossil - fueled electricity - generating). T he instruments used for accurately measuring complex flows must be calibrated under conditions similar to the conditions encountered wh en these instruments are used in the field. To meet th is requirement, NIST developed a 3 - dimensional (3 - D) calibration rig that orients test instruments at user - selected pitch angles ( - 45 to 45 ) and yaw angles ( - 180 to +180 ) with a resolution of 0. 1 with respect to the air flow in NISTs wind tunnel. The rig accommodates probes up to 2.5 m long and achieves an expanded air speed uncertainty of approximately 1% (95 % confidence level) over the range 5 m/s to 45 m/s.
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Document ID: 8FF44DFF

Nists Fully Dynamic Gravimetric Liquid Flowmeter Standard
Author(s): Jodie G. Pope Aaron N. Johnson James B. Filla Joey T. Boyd Christopher J. Crowley Vern E. Bean
Abstract/Introduction:
We describe a new dynamic, gravim etric, liquid flow standard (LFS) that determines flow by measuring the rate of change of the liquid mass accumulating in a collection tank. The LFS is a fully- automated,15 kg/s system that uses a pr oportional-integral-derivative (PID) control loop to achieve liquid flows with a stability that is the smaller of 0.001 % or 0.1 kg/s. The expanded uncertainty (corresponding to 95 % confidence level) is 0.021 % for the flow range of the standard 15 kg/s to 0.22 kg/s. We verify the uncertainty budget by comparing the LFS results with two well-established NIST primary flow standards.
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Document ID: AB3C05A9

Non - I Ntrusive Measurement Of Steam Flow Rate In A Steel Pipe By m Eans Of A Clamp - O N Ultrasound Flow Meter
Author(s): Tatsuya Kawaguchi Taiki Aiba Keisuke Tsukada Nobuyoshi Tsuzuki Hiroshige Kikura
Abstract/Introduction:
T he flow meter ing of the steam in pipe applied to a various kinds of industrial facilities suc h as chemical plants, nuclear reactors, power station s and production process is one of the significant technique that enable us to visualize, diagnose and control the working fluid, and to operate the entire fluid systems. In order to optimize the aforementioned systems, the precise measurement of the flow rate is required. The co nventional f low meter , however, needs the installation of the spool section that disturbs the stable and continuous operation of the working plant. i.e., the undesirable and destructive set - up process of the test section is require
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Document ID: 75308BAD

Non-Iterative Calculation Of Com Pressibility Factors And Isentr Opic Exponents Of Natural Gases Complying With AGA8-92DC Method At Decent Uncertainties
Author(s): Masahiro Ishibashi
Abstract/Introduction:
A simple 2D numerical table was created in order to calculate c ompressibility factors of natural gases of various compositions only by simple arithmetical opera tions without iterative calculation at temperatures from -10 C to +80 C and pressures up to 10 MP a. The table uses two variables similar to pseudo-reduced critical pressure and temperature. Th e pseudo critical temperatures and pressures of each component to calculate the pseudo-reduced parameters were modified from the values opened in literatures to make the table error f rom the calculation results by AGA8-92DC method smaller than 0.5% for pipeline quality gases comprised of CH 4 and other 14 important components. More than 65.5 thousands natural gases within the pipeline quality were virtually created and all t he compressibility factors were calculated by AGA8-92DC method to determine the table values and estimate their errors
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Document ID: 33E49D4D

Not Just Surviving Wet Gas, Measuring Through It
Author(s): Martin Schlebach
Abstract/Introduction:
As part of new product development and joint industry projects, adaptive path configurations have been designed as standalone devices or to work in conjunction with the original British gas design. Developmental designs are intended to help meters survive and provide data to help predict liquid volume fractions (LVF). Tests were conducted at multi-phase loops in Groningen, Netherlands and CEESI Nunn. The results from both tests have and will be used to further develop ultrasonic meters and associated algorithms that will help indicate and predict liquid loading, contamination and ultimately the effects on uncertainty. These designs will be useful in off shore installations and shale gas sites where higher LVF are expected to be higher and on aging wells that are starting to produce higher levels of liquid
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Document ID: 7AA54BE4


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