Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (2015)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Ultrasonic Meter Flow Calibrations Considerations And Benifits
Author(s): Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement in todays natural gas pipeline systems encompasses many challenges. Measurement departments are faced with tighter system measurement balances than they were ten short years ago. Ultrasonic meters are the meter of choice to help with these challenges. Pipeline companies have pushed USM manufacturers to advance the USM technology to help with the challenges of measurement. Manufacturers have improved the ultrasonic technology greatly over the past 15 years
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Document ID: 7D720C87

Clamp-On Ultrasonic Flow Meter Application And Performance
Author(s): William E. Frasier Joseph H. Nettleton
Abstract/Introduction:
his paper is directed to ultrasonic natural gas meters using transit time across the gas pipe as the measurement variable. Custody transfer meters using sensors wetted with gas are the more familiar meter format. Clamp-on meters are quite similar.
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Document ID: DE3134E6

An Overview Of AGA 9 - Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Jim Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association published Report No 9 Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters 2nd edition in April 2007. Report No 9 details recommended practice for using multi gas ultrasonics.
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Document ID: 9C667272

An Overview Of Industry Standards Related To Natural Gas Measurement
Author(s): Barry Balzer
Abstract/Introduction:
What are the organizations that have developed or currently are developing standards for the gas measurement industry? The majority of the adopted standards that cover gas measurement have been developed by AGA (American Gas Association), API (American Petroleum Institute), ISO (International Organization for Standardization), and GPA (Gas Processors Association). Other organizations such as ANSI (American National Standards Institute) and NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) are also involved. Many times these organizations jointly sponsor or indorse a common standard. One example of this is a booklet named Orifice Metering of Natural Gas. This booklet is referred to as ANSI/API 2
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Document ID: F5BF1B46

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Paul J. La Nasa
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents methods for determining the uncertainty of both differential and linear metering stations. It takes into account the type of meter, number of meters in parallel, type of secondary instruments, and the determination of physical properties. The paper then relates this information to potential influence on system balance
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Document ID: 790DAEE0

A Review Of API Mpms Chapter 14.3/AGA Report No 3 Part 2
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles
Abstract/Introduction:
THIS Paper describes the current contents of the United States orifice flow metering standard.
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Document ID: 7BDC170F

How Not To Measure GAS/ORIFICE
Author(s): Dee Hummel
Abstract/Introduction:
Measuring natural gas is both a science and an art. Guidelines and industry practices explain how to accurately measure natural gas. The art comes in trying to minimize errors and prevent measurement problems. However, sometime its easier to explain how not to measure gas when reviewing measurement errors
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Document ID: 48095B49

Production Equipment Effects On Orifice Measurement
Author(s): Stormy Phillips
Abstract/Introduction:
The condition of gas as it presents itself in the pipeline is often not ideal for accurate measurement, by an orifice flow meter. It is the requirement of the American Gas Association (AGA) that the natural gas be in a single phase and with a swirl-free fully developed profile as it passes across the orifice plate to meet the standard of measurement to provide acceptable uncertainty for the flow calculation
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Document ID: 98360256

Ami For Gas Utilities
Author(s): David Anglin
Abstract/Introduction:
There was once a time when you could get a car in any color...as long as it was black. They had frames, running boards and 15 horsepower engines. Who could ever need more? Just like the auto industry has adapted from this original approach to meet the demands of consumers, regulators and shareholders, the gas industry must do the same. Automated meter reading - also known as AMR or AMI - provides that opportunity
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Document ID: 40344556

Research Topics Influencing Changes To The API 14.1 Standard
Author(s): Acob L. Thorson Dr. Darin L. George
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) Chapter 14.1, Collecting and Handling of Natural Gas Samples for Custody Transfer , provides practical guidance for gas sampling in custody transfer applications. It is intended as a collection of lessons learned and best practices, and as such, it is a living document
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Document ID: DF25E4E9

Field Inspection And Calibration Of Volume Correcting D E V I C E S
Author(s): George E. Brown Ill
Abstract/Introduction:
Timely , diligent field testing and calibration of gas volume recording and correcting instruments ensure that measurement information fairly represents actual volumes. The instruments save a company capital and operating costs because they can record or integrate volumes at pressures and temperature above the normal pressure- base conditions specified in contracts for volume calculation. This allows the company to use smaller and fewer meters
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Document ID: 4823E0AE

Improving Flow Measurements With Improved Calibration And Data Handling Procedures
Author(s): Duane Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas measurement analyst requires a completely different set of skills to interpret and understand the information documented by the field regarding testing and calibration procedure s. The task for the measurement analyst is to ab sorb the wealth of information presented, and utilize their extensive knowledge base in determining when a current month adjustment or even a prior month adjustment is warranted. Each time an analyst reviews data from the field, a question should be asked, Did the technician follow the correct procedures in performing the calibration?
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Document ID: 9E7F28C9

A Current Prospective Of Measurement
Author(s): Dave Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
THE MEASUREMENT OF HYDROCARBONS HAS EVOLVED SIGNIFICANTLY THROUGH THE YEARS, FROM BOTH A BUSINESS AND TECHNICAL APPLICATION PERSPECTIVE.
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Document ID: 10015935

Efm Data Communications - Problems And Solutions
Author(s): Rusty Fields
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas companies in all segments - upstream, midstream, transmission and distribution - have dep l oyed Electronic Flow Measurement ( EFM ) devices on a massive scale. Since the information con ta ined within the EFMs is crucial to the companys operations , robust and reliable systems to communicate with EFMs are required
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Document ID: 4BF63762

Ultrasonic Meters For Residential And Commercial Applications
Author(s): Paul Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic meters fall into classification of inferential meters. unlike positive displacement meters that capture volumne to totalize volumne.
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Document ID: C5512B8D

Unaccounted-For Gas Study In Distribution Networks
Author(s): Jay Shiflet
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Gas Distribution business Unaccounted Gas is referred to by various names or terms such as: Lost and Unacco unted-For, LUG, L&U, and UAF. In simplest terms, Unaccounted Gas is the result of the formula gas receipts minus gas deliveries . For the Measurement Group the process amounts to a gas inventory reconciliation based on the recorded volumes into the system(s) less the sum of the volumes out of the system(s). This can be a town by town or a total-system reconciliation.
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Document ID: A84894EE

Effects And Controls Of Pulsation In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Ray G, Durke Edgar B Bowels Darin L George Robert J Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
ONE OF THE MOST COMMON MEASUREMENT ERRORS AND THE MOST DIFFICULT TO IDENTIFY IN NATURAL GAS METERING SYSTEMS IS THAT CAUSED BY PULSATING FLOWS.IT IS IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND THE EFFECTS THAT PULSATION HAS ON COMMON TYPES OF FLOW METERS USED IN GAS INDUSTRY POTENTIAL ERROR PRODUCING MECHANISMS CAN BE IDENTIFIED AND AVOIDED
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Document ID: 9500C3F8

An Overview Of The AGA Gas Quality Management Manual
Author(s): Terrence A. Grimley
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides an overview of the recently released Gas Quality Management Manual 1 that was developed by the American Gas Association Transmission Measurement Committee over a period of roughly seven years. The manual pulls together a wide range of information and provides con text that allows both the expert and the novice to understand the why, how and what needed to develop a plan for managing gas quality
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Document ID: A956F8FD

Fundamentals Of Pressure Relief Valves In Natural Gas Installation - Operation - Maintenance
Author(s): Gary S. Beckett
Abstract/Introduction:
What Are They and Why Are They Needed What: A stand-alone device that opens and recloses at a pre-selected pressure, containing an orifice sized to flow a required capacity to prevent / avoid overpressure. Why: All natural gas equipment (pipelines, pressure vessels, air-cooled heat exchangers, compressor cylinders, odorant tanks, instrument control lines, valves, underground storage, industrial-residential-commercial system supply) has a maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) rating. Pressure ratings (MAOP) of each piece of equipment may be different. Pressure relief valves with proper application will prevent overpressure above MAOP. Set point is dictated by the lowest MAOP equipment in the system
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Document ID: 61F2C6ED

Fundamentals Of Gas Laws
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters
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Document ID: 35A17492

Onsite Proving Of Gas Meters
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increased use of Natural Gas as a fuel, and higher natural gas prices buyers and sellers of natural gas are seriously looking at ways to improve their natural gas measurement and reduce the error in natural gas measurement.
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Document ID: 5FBF8EEB

Methods For Certifying Measurement Equipment
Author(s): Scott Crone
Abstract/Introduction:
Like any other piece of equipment, a measurement artifact must be maintained. Obviously, it has to be in working order in genera l. However, what is more important is that it be operating within specified parameters and providing measurements that are traceable to a known source or sources. This paper provides a general overview of calibration and certification. It also discusse s some key terminology and methods
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Document ID: C1228645

Fundamental Principles Of Diaphragm Displacement Meters
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the U.S., The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat rate basis. Its growth was slow with the charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority. By comparison, the New York Gas Light Company, founded in 1823, prospered and expanded. They had built their system on the use of gas meters to measure the supply of gas to customers, and a large one to register the quantity made at the station before it is conveyed to the gasometers
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Document ID: ED19805D

Fluid Flow Conditioning And Its Effects On Meter Accuracy And Repeatability
Author(s): Danny Sawchuck
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow conditioning is one of the most critical aspects dealing with any type of volumetric flow metering. Flow conditioning is the final buffer between the flow meter and the upstream piping layout and is responsible for eliminating swirl, restoring flow symmetry and generating a repeatable, fully developed velocity flow profile. Even though modern advancements have resulted in low uncertainty, high repeatability devices that are effective across a range of flow rates, proper utilization of flow conditioner is still required to maximize the meters performance, diagnostics and en sure the most stable long term flow measureme
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Document ID: 73E7B671

Fundamental Principles Of Rotary Displacement Meters
Author(s): Cristina Alfonso
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classifications of gas meters. The first consists of inferential type meters, including, orifice, ultra-sonic and turbine meters, and the second is the positive displacement meters, which consist of diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferential type meters are so-called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas flow and calculating the volume based on the measurements. The positive displacement type meters are so-called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them.
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Document ID: 0908FB4A

Auditing Electronic Gas Measurement Per API Chapter 21.1
Author(s): Keith Fry
Abstract/Introduction:
Auditing evolved as a business practice as owners began to realize a standardized form of accounting must exist to prevent fraud. Financial audits made their way into businesses during the late 1700s. The industrial revolution brought about the separation of job duties beyond what a sole proprietor or family could oversee. Managers were hired to supervise the employees and the business processes. Businesses began to expa nd geographically where previously they were all local. Owners, who could not be in more than one place at a time or chose to be absent, found an increasin g need to monitor the accuracy of the financial activities of their growing businesses
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Document ID: 984F6EA2

Problems Unique To Offshore Gas Measuremen
Author(s): Jackie R. Tims
Abstract/Introduction:
Some major problems and unique solutions will be addressed with gas measurement on offshore platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. This presentation will show the major roll safety, transportation, and weather play in the technicians ability to verify the accuracy of the gas measurement facility. Proper operation, design, and installation will ensure accurate measuremen
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Document ID: D69C12EE

Fundamental Principles Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement in the U.S. and around the world is dominated by diaphra gm, rotary, turbine, and orifice meters. Each serves a different segment of the gas industry and each has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. These four main types of meters can be broken into two distinct categories: positive displacement, and inferential. Diaphragm and rotary meters fall into the positive displacement group because they have well-defined measurement compartments that alternately fill and empty as the meter rotates. By knowing the volume displaced in each meter revolution and by applying the proper gear ratio, the meter will read directly in cubic feet or cubic meters
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Document ID: C166852B

Methods Of Gathering Electronic Gas Measurement Data
Author(s): Russell m Fields
Abstract/Introduction:
To understand and improve success in collection of SCADA and EFM data you must first understand what in in the field, there frequencys and communication methods.
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Document ID: F70D414E

Fundamentals Of Multipath Ultrasonic Flow Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Dave Seiler
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of Liquid Ultrasonic Meters for liquid petroleum application such as custody transfer or allocation measurement is gaining world wide acceptance by the oil industry.
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Document ID: F9CCE45A

American School Of Gas Measurement Dew Point Wet Gas And Its Effect On Natural Gas Sampling Systems
Author(s): Philip A Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
Wet gas measurement is becoming widely used in the modern oil and gas markets. The effect of entrained liquid in gas and its impact in measurement systems is being researched world wide by various laboratories and JIP work groups.
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Document ID: 247BB181

Fundamentals Of Volume Measurement Turbine( Meters)
Author(s): Tony Petitto
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine meters have been used for custody transfer of refined petroleum products and light crude for over 40 years.
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Document ID: 3C61B522

Fundamentals Of Mass Measurement Coriolis( Meters)
Author(s): Marsha Yon
Abstract/Introduction:
The first flow meter utilizing the Coriolis force to measure mass flow was patented in 1978. Today, hundreds of thousands of Coriolis meters are in service in the hydrocarbon industry to measure mass, volume, and density of a wide variety of fluids. The American Petroleum Institute published Chapter 5.6 entitled Measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbons by Coriolis Meters in October 2002 and reaffirmed the standard in 2013. The standard describes methods to achieve custody transfer levels of accuracy when a Coriolis meter is used to measure liquid hydrocarbons.
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Document ID: 9C09CC8B

Meter Selection For Various Load Requirements
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to provide meter station designers with a basic methodology for selection of an appropriate flow meter (or meters) for a given application. Since many applications require that a meter station operate over a broad range of flow rates or loads, an example is provided on how to address system rangeability while maintaining accurate flow measurement. Detailed technical descriptions of th e functionality of the various available gas metering technologies is beyond the scope of this paper, but information of that type can be found in other papers in these Proceedings
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Document ID: FABC1CDA

Fundamentals Of Meter Provers And Proving Methods
Author(s): Greg Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will verify the history, requirements and operation of all Provers accepted for liquid pipeline meter uncertainty verification in the Liquid Oil/Gas Industry. It will continue with an explanation and the industries wide acceptance of the Uni-directional Captive Displacement Prover (UDCDP). This document will supply the reader with information regarding meter types and the flow volumes that can be used with the UDCDP and will look at the opportunities for the use of a UDCDP as a mass prover. It will also provide the information for field verification of provers known as a water draw
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Document ID: 858DD70A

Factors Affecting Digital Pressure Calibration
Author(s): Scott A. Crone
Abstract/Introduction:
n the past it was a standard practice to use a primary standard for pressure calibration. That standard was normally a dead weight tester or a manometer. Today with more accurate secondary standards available there is a larger choice in what can be used for pressure calibration. What is used normally will depend on the requirements that have to be met and the equipment that is available
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Document ID: 73AA03BE

Real Time Electronic Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jim Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years now, flow computers have been implemented in gas measurement systems to utilize technology, to improve measu rement accuracy, provide far more efficient data acquisition, and provide better control resources for remote interface through telemetry.
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Document ID: 5253D4C4

Basic Electronics For Field Measurement
Author(s): Jesse Steiner
Abstract/Introduction:
ELECTRICITY HAS BEEN USED FOR MORE THAN A CENTURY AS A SOURCE OF MOTIVE POWER AND MEANS OF CONVEYING INFORMATION.
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Document ID: A12E0ABA

Flare Measurement According To API 14.10
Author(s): Eric Estrada
Abstract/Introduction:
With the recent release of the Green House Gas Regulations, the increased visibility of flaring natural gas and increased awar eness of royalty owners, the ability to accurately measure and account for the amount of product flared from a facility has become increasingly important to regulators, royalty owners and operators. In the past, flare gas was not considered a necessary measurement, so the measurement of flared product has often been overlooked or not given the same attention as custody transfer measurem
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Document ID: 5C3CE6C8

Basic National Electric Code Applicable To Measurement
Author(s): Gerry Pickens
Abstract/Introduction:
The National Electrical Code (NEC) defines hazardous locations as those areas where fire or explosion hazards may exist due to flammable gases or vapors, flammable liquids, combustible dust, or ignitable fibers or flyings. A substantial part of the NEC is devoted to the discussion of hazardous locations. Thats because electrical equipment can become a source of ignition in these volatile areas. Articles 500 through 504, and 510 through 517 provide classification and installation standards for the use of electrical equipment in these locations
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Document ID: DFB09C0F

Orifice Plate Meter Diagnostics
Author(s): Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
ORIFICE PLATE METERS ARE POPULAR FOR BEING RELATIVLEY SIMPLE, RELIABLE AND INEXPENSIVE.
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Document ID: 7D9D165D

Training Office Personnel
Author(s): Perry Dee Hummel
Abstract/Introduction:
Training office personnel offers many new challenges for the back office measurement supervisor. As the industry changes, the office supervisor is tasked with the responsibility of training office personnel on many aspects of the industry. New methods of measurement, along with advances in communication and business practices need to be included in training office personnel
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Document ID: EA8987CC

Continuous Monitoring Of Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Randy Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many in our industry who would consider the advancement of the ultrasonic meter to be the greatest improvement in gas measurement in the past twenty years. Its my opinion that the immense improvement in gas measurement is not so much the ultrasonic meter itself. Instead, I believe it is the meters ability to detect conditions that would compromise its own accuracy and ability to communicate those conditions to the user. It is in the area of communicating thos e conditions, that we often under-utilize the meters capabilities
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Document ID: 9E97469C

Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics - Basic
Author(s): Dan Hackett
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses fundamental principles of ultrasonic gas flow meters used for measurement of natural gas and the available basic diagnostic capability to assess meter operation and performance. The basic requirements for obtaining good meter performance, when installed in the field, will be reviewed. Most of this information can be generalized to other manufacturers transit time ultrasonic flow meters however, these examples provided, particularly with respect to some diagnostic features, are based on the Daniel SeniorSonic ultrasonic flow meter. Advanced diagnostic data, in conjunction with gas composition, pressure and temperature, that provides diagnostic benefits beyond that of other primary measurement devices is outside the scope of this paper, though these topics will be covered in the companion paper, Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics - Advanced.
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Document ID: 42DA5D78

Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics - Advanced
Author(s): Dan Hackett
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses advanced diagnostic features of ultrasonic gas flow meters used for measurement of natural gas which are generally used to assess dynamic meter operation and performance. The basic diagnostic features of most gas ultrasonic flow meters were covered in the companion paper Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics - Basics which covered diagnostics that relate to meter health or validation that the meter is operating properly. Advanced diagnostics are typically those that provide operators information regarding flowing conditions that may affect optimum meter performance.
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Document ID: 4A26597B

Application Of Flow Computers For Gas Measurement And Control
Author(s): Al Majek
Abstract/Introduction:
the measurement of oil & gas production has progressed considerably since the days of paper charts and manual integration
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Document ID: 4A884D74

Fundamentals Of Pressure Regulators
Author(s): Na
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry, there are two basic types of regulators used for both pressure reducing and back pressure (relief) control. The two types are: 1.) Self Operated Type 2.) Pilot Operated Type The primary purpose of this paper is to discuss the basic principle of Self Operated and Pilot Operated Regulators including components of the system, principles of operation, advantages and disadvantages, and some maintenance and inspection procedures.
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Document ID: 0477185E

Pressure, Temperature, And Other Effects On Turbine Meter Gas Flow Measurement
Author(s): Paul W Tang
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper explains the general working principles of gas turbines and the common causes of metering errors.
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Document ID: 7737896B

Training Field Measurement Personnel
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The knowledge base expectation that exists today for the measurement technician is extremely demanding. From the latest in electronic controls to pneumatic controls...from communication system support to dual- disciplined or even tri-disciplined technicians...from the measurement equipment they support to the procedures that must be followed...from the regulatory requirements governing the facilities to the training of field personnel... all create a tremendous and ongoing challenge to meet these demands.
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Document ID: 7E834168

Advance Communication Designs
Author(s): Bob Halford
Abstract/Introduction:
We say Advanced Wireless Data Radio Communication Systems Design Process not because this is a more in- depth and more technical process, but because the systems involved are complex in nature and must be carefully designed and programmed. If anything, what I want to do is teach you a more simplified approach and technique to design a SCADA or Telemetry project, but one which you do the same whether the system is large or small
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Document ID: 4C2A2506

Communication Between The Office And Field
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Transferring the knowledge base regarding the measurement equipment between a field measurement technician and a corporate measurement analyst can be extremely challenging. A Field technicians skill set is tested on a routine basis therefore, the technician must be knowledgeable in:
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Document ID: A4713A19

Ethics
Author(s): John L. Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the discussion of ethics the first issue is always nomenclature. Sadly, this is often the topic that gets the least attention and frequently those involved in the conversation conduct deep insightful discourses in which there is virtually no understanding exchanged, although the participants will all agree that the quality of the rhetoric was outstanding
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Document ID: 2893211F

Electronic Gas Measurement Auditing
Author(s): Perry Dee Hummel Gary P. Menzel
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic gas measurement auditing or EFM auditing is a very important process in the natural gas industry. Within the last twenty years, the natural gas industry has changed from the dry flow chart recorder to the Electronic flow Computer(EFM) as the primary method of recording the measurement data for custody transfer
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Document ID: 4797B66E

Utilizing Wireless Instrumentation In Well Optimization
Author(s): Denis Rutherford
Abstract/Introduction:
The Natural Gas and Oil industry is continually driven by cost cutting measures and the need to gain more operational efficiencies and visibility to regulatory requirements. This paper summarizes a solution in which wireless instruments integrate with other conventional equipment to offer a rapidly deployable advanced well optimization system.
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Document ID: D436B3E5

Fundamentals Of Ngl Sampling Systems
Author(s): Dominic Giametta Jim Klentzman
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to discuss in depth the systems we use as a standard to sample natural gas liquids, or NGLs. Before we discuss the systems and methods used to sample these products, we must first clearly define what NGLs are. NGLs can be a combination of any fluid in liquid form that is taken from the pipeline under pressure. Typically, NGL refers mainly to ethane, propane, butanes, and natural gasolines (p entanes) & condensates. Because of the broad range of products that can be claimed as NGLs, there are many different approaches to the methods by which we sample them. The common thread among all NGLs is that these products in order to be maintained and properly sampled, require the use of specific sampling techniques unique to light liquid and NGL sampling.
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Document ID: 5F613013

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Don Sextro Dan Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of Natural Gas liquids is similar in many respects to that of other hydrocarbons liquids but is markedly different in other aspects.
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Document ID: 2E93296D

Operational Experience With Densitometers And Pycnometers
Author(s): Paul Mullen
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss pycnometers used to calibrate densitometers. In using a pycnometer, you must have the correct scales, pressure gauges and thermometers. You will learn the steps necessary to install, operate and calibrate the instrument. The use of Densitometers is wide spread over many different industries. These range from food & beverage industries to petro-chemical & pipeline transmission.
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Document ID: 326FD7D1

Fundamental Overview Of An Ngl Meter Station Design
Author(s): Tony Lockhard
Abstract/Introduction:
In this paper I will attempt to give a fundamental overview of an NGL meter station design however, it is not a straight forward, one size fits all scenario. There are multiple considerations that influence the meter station design and all must be taken into account. Major considerations are: what product or products will be measured, what meter technology to utilize, and the process design limitations
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Document ID: 73F72655

Upstream Natural Gas Sales Verification
Author(s): Mark B. Fillman, Jayson A. Payne
Abstract/Introduction:
Within the upstream sector of the oil and gas indus- try, the custody transfer of natural gas is usually de- termined by orifice measurement which is governed by a sales agreement between the producer and pipeline company. In most cases, the gas sales agreement references a combination of American Gas Association (AGA), American Petroleum Insti- tute (API), and Gas Processors Association (GPA) standards which are to be incorporated into the cus- tody measurement procedures. Verification that the physical deliveries of natural gas are accurate and accountable, for both parties, is fundamental to the business cycle that occurs each month
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Document ID: DE8E5B77

Verification / Calibration Of Devices Used In Static Liquid Measurements
Author(s): Robert Maze
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of verifying or calibrating liquid measurement devices is to ensure the accuracy of quantities being reported. With millions of dollars at stake, fractions of an inch or tenths of a degree Fahrenheit can make quite an impact to bottom line. At its most basic, the static (as opposed to dynamic, the use of meters) quantity determination of liquid hydrocarbons is generally obtained by measuring the depth of the liquid in a storage tank and obtaining a representative temperature. Through the use of volume tables and volume expansion factors the quantity at a standard temperature can be stated.
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Document ID: 69D60131

Auditing Liquid Measurement Facilities
Author(s): Galen Cotton
Abstract/Introduction:
The word Auditing is often used to imply that activities related to a review of general business practices, and procedures for an asset or business unit, are under way. The objective of those activities is to assure compliance with corporate policies and procedures, industry and government standards, and sound management principles. Additional objectives may include review of accounting and financial transactions for accuracy, completeness and timeliness. The Institute of Internal Auditing defines the process as:
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Document ID: 965BF342

Understanding The Advantages Of Ip Networks
Author(s): Burke P. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
The key to developing a successful enterprise- wide networking strategy is to recognize that it is only part of a larger strategy-one in which modern oil and gas facilities must literally reinvent themselves.
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Document ID: 82EC0D92

Gas Contracts Impact On Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): T. Dean Graves
Abstract/Introduction:
Much effort is spent to achieve accurate measurement. Up to date measurement standards, modern meter station design, high quality equipment, and proper measurement operations are all necessary for measurement accuracy. Unfortunately these processes do not assure measurement accuracy if the contract does not also support accurate measurement. The contract impacts measurement accuracy by what it addresses and what is left unaddressed. More focus needs to be applied to the measurement sections of the contracts. Hopefully this paper will help the reader better understand the relationship between the contract and accuracy
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Document ID: E023FAD1

Applied Ngl Metering Station Design
Author(s): Roger Thornton
Abstract/Introduction:
A liquid measurement station can be as simple as a single meter run allocation measurement or as complex as a multi meter run station with a multi- tasking control system. Regardless of complexity the measurement quality is no better than the quality of the system design. Utilizing a state of the art meter technology will not yield any better results than allowed by the system design
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Document ID: 0ACACBFD

Get It Right The First Time - Field Data Capture Without Paper Forms
Author(s): Bruce Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter inspections, configuration changes, calibration verification, troubleshooting, and gas sampling generate important subsets of measurement data. Automated computer systems capture, process, store, and report this data better than manual, paper-based systems minimizing effort, time, resources, and error for field and office workers
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Document ID: 34ABA5AF

Gas And Liquid Me Asurement Validation New Audit Requirements Expand The Focus On Measurement Data Integrity
Author(s): Mike Squyres
Abstract/Introduction:
Fundamental to all electronic gas measurement (EGM) and electronic liquids measurement (ELM) systems is the ability to accurately measure, review, correct, and report data. Any weakness in this chain undermines the accuracy and data integrity in the system. Recent industry standards and practices have greatly expanded the emphasis on data integrity. The Sarbanes- Oxley (SOX) Act of 2002 focuses on the integrity and consistency of all financial-based transactions for an organization
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Document ID: BAE2A0B2

Auditing Gas Analysis Labs
Author(s): Joe Landes
Abstract/Introduction:
The data produced by Gas Chromatograph (GC) laboratories is used for many purposes, including product specification, accounting, safety and environmental compliance issues. The accuracy of this data has direct impact on all of these areas. Auditing laboratories responsible for producing this da ta is prudent business practice. The audit will provide a means of process improvement, through proper identification of deficiencies and a precise plan for corrective action. The level of confidence in analytical results will increase when the appropriate corrective actions are implemented. The amount of financial and legal exposure can be reduced from a properly executed audit program
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Document ID: F2739DC6

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Chemistry
Author(s): Steve Whitman
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to understand the chemistry of natural gas, it is important to be familiar with some basic concepts of general chemistry. Here are some definitions you should know
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Document ID: AE9213C7

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): David Courtney
Abstract/Introduction:
The history of orifice metering began in the early 1900s. The first test date was done by the U.S. Geological survey in 1913 the first handbook of natural gas was published.
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Document ID: 23D6CDA1

Sampling Challenges Associated With Unconventional Gas Sources
Author(s): Mark Firmin
Abstract/Introduction:
Advances in exploration, drilling and production technologies make it feasible to extract natural gas from sources that in the past have been regarded as unconventional and so, such sources are becoming a larger percentage of the gas supply. The feasibility of producing gas from a source is the primary factor in determining whether that source should be categorized as conventional or unconventional. What has been unconventional in the past may be considered conventional in the future
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Document ID: E2CEDA60

Fundamentals Of Pressure And Temperature Measurement
Author(s): Jeff Goetzman
Abstract/Introduction:
The correct measuring of Pressure and Temperature is one of the most important elements in the accurate measurement of Natural Gas. The basic principles were established many years ago by two men, Robert Boyle an Anglo Irish philosopher, chemist, and physicist and Jacques Charles, a French Inventor, scientist and mathematician
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Document ID: 960C9774

Effects Of Wet Gas Flow On Gas Orifice Plate Meters
Author(s): Josh Kinney Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice plate meters are one of the most widely used technologies in the industry for gas flow metering. This is due to their relative simplicity, the extensive publicly available data sets that led to several orifice plate meter standards.
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Document ID: D65D23B3

Fundamentals Of Electronic Flow Meter Design, Application & Implementation
Author(s): Jim Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic flow measurement as applied to the natural gas industry has advanced considerably over the last 30 years. Applications to address Upstream, Midstream and Downstream gas measurement technologies have become more complex. Over time it has become necessary to understand the fundaments that make up this ever changing environment. This paper will discuss the important fundamental parameters to consider when designing an Electronic Flow Measurement (EFM) system. Please be aware of the many variances to each specific design and understand this is only a fundamental paper to give new gas industry members a first look at the technologies that are required when considering an EFM design
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Document ID: 4B5A6BD4

Verifying Gas Chromatographs At Custody Transfer Locations
Author(s): Shane Hale
Abstract/Introduction:
Verifying the correct operation and accuracy of the Gas Chromatograph (GC) is an integral part of a custody transfer metering system, and involves ensuring the accuracy of the analyzer at the time of testing, as well as confirming that the GC performed properly during the periods between validations and assessing the likelihood of continued proper functioning until the next validation. Because the GC will be offline during much of a validation procedure, the validation should only be performed at a time when the composition of the gas flowing through the metering station is relatively stable.
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Document ID: D1B776FB

Fundamentals Of Multipath Ultrasonic Flow Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Martin Schlebach
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic meters have been used in gas custody transfer measurement worldwide for over 25 years with varying degrees of success. Initial atte mpts proved unstable and maintenance intensive, this was contrary to the initial expectations which foresaw a device with little or no obstruction, limitless turndown and little to no required maintenance. The advent of higher speed, more robust electronics enabled the use of digital signal processing which eliminated the need for analog threshold levels and the constant problem of peak skipping and lost timing. The improved electronics also enabled the implementation of large internal logs, advanced diagnostics, improved communications and overall stability, all of which increased user confidence in the ultrasonic technology
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Document ID: A1FB3B95

Measuring Hydrocarbon Dew Point
Author(s): Sohrab Zarrabian Mahmood Moshfeghian
Abstract/Introduction:
Extraction of natural gas from shale formations has increased the focus on determining the quality of the gas extracted and processed. One of the key attributes of natural gas during its various stages of processing is its Hydrocarbon Dew point. This figure refers to the temperature at which the gas stream undergoes a phase transition to liquid at a given pressure. The knowledge of this figure is essential in the operation of natural gas pipelines, storage, as well as gas-powered turbines
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Document ID: A06C2F53

Automating Gas Measurement
Author(s): Richard L. Cline
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address concepts of SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) Systems and their application to the measurement industry. An important focus of the paper is to provide the reader with an understanding of the technolog y and with guidelines to be used to evaluate this equipment as part of an automation project
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Document ID: 85A7AA8C

Devices For Field Determination Of H 2 O In Natural Gas
Author(s): Sam Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
H 2 O vapor is an undesirable component of natural gas. It takes up space in the pipeline and provides no fuel value. In higher concentrations it can condense into liquid water in the pipeline and cau se corrosion, especially in the presence of carbon dioxide or H 2 S. Liquid water can also cause damage to turbines. Because of this, most gas transfer tariffs include a limit on the acceptable concentration of H2O in the gas stream. This paper reviews the devices that can be used in the field to determine the amount of water vapor present in a natural gas stream.
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Document ID: 52634778

Lightning-Free Automation
Author(s): Jim Gardner
Abstract/Introduction:
Historically, oil & gas automation has relied heavily on the direct burial of cable for signal communication from remote devices back to a central controller. This cable acts as a copper conductor for power tran sients (indirect lightning strikes). A majority of all automation damage is caused by indirect lightning strikes
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Document ID: 682444E3

Considerations For Sampling Wet, High Pressure, And Supercritical Natural Gas
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux Shannon m. Bromley
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the problems encountered when sampling wet, high pressure and supercritical natural gas for on-line BTU analysis, and provides solutions and comments on how they relate to the API and GPA industry standards for natural gas sampling. It also discusses the use of phase diagrams in the design and operation of a natural gas sampling system.
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Document ID: 67670A4F

Fundamentals Of Coriolis Meters AGA Report No. 11 Asgmt 2015
Author(s): Marc Buttler
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early 1980s, Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in gas, liquid, and slurry applications with an installed base of more than one million units. Through significant design, enhancements in the early 1990s Coriolis meters have rapidly gained worldwide acceptance in gas phase applications with over 100,000 meters installed worldwide and most notably the publication of the second edition of AGA Report Number 11, Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis Meter
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Document ID: CA9BB8B2

Fundamentals Of Energy Determination
Author(s): J. David Hailey, Ph.D
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents fundamental information necessary to understand and appreciate the concept of total gas energy in a natural gas pipeline. That is, to be able to converse with peers within the natu ral gas industry and understand basic concepts and terminology. Discussed is the historical transition from volumetric measurement to total gas energy including some of the basic terminology, physics, measurement, as well as the reasons for changes in methodologie
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Document ID: 16D87A69

Determination Of Hydrogen Sulfide And Total Sulfur In Natural Gas
Author(s): Marshall T. Schreve
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is a gas composed of one Sulfur Atom and two Hydrogen Atoms. H2S is formed by the decomposition of organic matter and is therefore, found naturally in crude oil and natural gas deposits. H2S is a highly toxic, transarent, colorless and corrosive gas . Due to the toxic and caustic properties of this gas and its natural presence within natural gas, it is imperative to measure and control the concentration levels of H2S within natural gas pipelines. This paper will discuss the Properties, Purpose of Measurement and Measurement Technologies for H2S and discuss how these technologies can be adapted for measurement of Total Sulfur
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Document ID: 26DF227D

Use Of Equations Of State And Equation Of State Software Packages
Author(s): Adam G. Hawley Darin L. George
Abstract/Introduction:
Determination of fluid properties and phase conditions of hydrocarbon mixtures is critical for accurate hydrocarbon measurement, representative sampling, and overall pipeline operation. Fluid properties such as compressibility and density are critical for flow measurement and determination of the hydrocarbon due point is important to verify that heavier hydrocarbons will not condense out of a gas mixture in changing process conditions
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Document ID: D3EDF5CF

Operations Of Online Gas Chromatographs
Author(s): Shane Hale
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas chromatograph (GC) is an integral component of the natural gas custody metering station and has a large impact on the accuracy of the fiscal flow calculation. For this reason it is imperative that you install, operate and maintain the GC with the goal of maximum reliability and accuracy
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Document ID: 07FABA9B

Techniques Of Composite Sampling
Author(s): Marielle Verot
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays up and down, sometimes struggling but always competitive market, a producer of natural gas must strive to maximize their market value, and achieve the highest return of invested income. The fluctuations seen recently in pricing make this an increasingly important goal. In order to accomplish this goal one must ensure they are receiving maximum value for the natural gas products they produce. In addition to the producer, it is extremely important for the other stakeholders whether they be government, gathering system operator, processor, or transporter to do their due diligence to ensure they are also receiving or properly accounting for the true and full value of the natural gas products that pass through their system
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Document ID: 93263FC6

Basic Electrical Concepts For Field Measurement Technicians
Author(s): Gerry Pickens
Abstract/Introduction:
The efficent operation and maintenance of electrical and electronic systems utilized in the natural gas industry is substancail determined by the technicians skill in applying the basic concept of electrical circuitry.
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Document ID: 672A4271

Common Control Signals And Communications Protocols For Field Measurement Technicians
Author(s): Gerry Pickens
Abstract/Introduction:
A number of control signals have been developed and used as technology has evolved and been applied to the natural gas industry. Control signals are a standardized method of conveying information from one device to another. A control signal is the data sent from one device to another by a specific method. In industrial process instrumentation, transmitted information is data. Data can be transmitted in many formats and over many different types of media. In addition, the data may be analog or digital in form
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Document ID: B2E29B81

Calculation Of Natural Gas Liquid Quantities
Author(s): Keith Fry
Abstract/Introduction:
There is no substitute for well maintained, properly installed, and properly performing measurement equipment. Provisions for measurement equipment installation, operation, and maintenance deliver the raw data required for those dealing with natural gas liquids (NGLs) to transact business. Then, this raw data can be adjusted or converted to values suitable for transactions to take place and be accounted for.
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Document ID: 0175B055

LNG Supply Chain & Custody Transfer Measurement In The U.S.
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 4FB31A25

Wellhead Liquids Measurement, Whats An Industry To Do?
Author(s): Mark V. Goloby
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquids measurement in the oil patch is suddenly getting a lot of attention. Some are dismayed at the low level of technology used to measure liquids. Today, custody transfer of 80 to 85% of onshore crude and condensate production is still documented by a hauler climbing to the top of the tank and strapping it. That would be a fair estimate, concurs Mark Davis Staff Engineer Shell Exploration and Production. The hauler straps the tank before loading his truck and again when he finishes. The producer is paid on whatever that hauler writes on the ticket.
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Document ID: 408C9D88

Overview Of AGA 7 Revision
Author(s): Angela Floyd
Abstract/Introduction:
Just when you thought you knew everything there was to know about Turbine meter measurement, wham, out comes a revised AGA 7 standard. Now those basic principles are all still valid but maybe those operating practices we have built into our operating procedures need a little review. Rather than proceed as generations have done before us, research has been completed on the meters, their installation and operating practices and the way we calibrate and field test them. So now we ha ve some data to back up our methods and madnes
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Document ID: AC0A1752

Differential Meters Other Than Orifice
Author(s): Kenneth Reed, III
Abstract/Introduction:
Cone Meters differ from other differential pressure type meters, such as Orifice Meters and Venturi Meters, basically by design only. They are all required to meet API Chapter 22.2 test criteria developed and published in 2005 and still being updated today. The Cone Meter is designed to measure liquid or gas. Cone Meters are proprietary in design and have limited third party testing due to patented designs and length of use in the Industry. The Orifice Meter is the oldest meter of the three that we will discuss and has the most third party flow lab test data available
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Document ID: ECD3DA5D

Coping With Changing Flow Requirements At Exsisting Metering Stations
Author(s): James m. Doyle
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays competitive gas market, utility companies must meet aggressive market strategies or suffer the consequences. All industries have cash registers, and gas distribution is no exception. Our measuring stations are our cash register. The problem is, these stations were designed 10, 20, 30 or even 50 years ago, and are now performing tasks they were not designed for. Therefore, changes must be made
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Document ID: C4741579

Calculating The Speed Of Sound In Natural Gas Using AGA Report No 10
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith Joel Clancey
Abstract/Introduction:
The speed of sound is the velocity in a sound wave travels in the gas natural gas. There are a number of gas properties that affect the speed of sound and they include the composition of the gas, the pressure of gas and the temperature of gas.
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Document ID: 607A2BBC

Protection Of Natural Gas Measurement Equipment Against Moisture And Corrosion
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry relies very heavily on sensitive electronic equipment utilized in the production, gathering, transportation, and distribution phases. There is an increasing reliance on the use of electronics for performing important tasks relating to measurement, control, and safety. Coupled with increased reliance is the demand by users for increased reliability.
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Document ID: 9809334F

How To Perform A Lost & Unaccounted-For Gas Program
Author(s): Na
Abstract/Introduction:
Many gas pipeline companies struggle with lost and unaccounted for gas and can be a significant cost to the bottom line
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Document ID: 454A94FC

Transient Lightning Protection For Electronic Measurement Devices
Author(s): Leon Black
Abstract/Introduction:
We have all heard of or seen the devastating effects of a direct lightning burst. Communication equipment destroyed. Transmitters and EFM devices vaporized into slag metal. Complete process and measurement systems down with extended recovery times. These effects are the most dramatic and the easiest to trace. However, these kinds of events are rare. The more prominent events are those that occur on a day-to-day basis without we, the user, even knowing
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Document ID: 14D6A15C

Coriolis Mass Flow Meters For Gas And Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Michael Keilty
Abstract/Introduction:
A mass flowmeter is a system that provides a measurement of fluid flow in units of mass pounds, tons. The Coriolis flowmeter is a type of flowmeter which measures the mass of the fluid flow directly. Coriolis mass flowmeters were first introduced more than 30 years ago. Global acceptance has spread across all industries where precision flow measurement is needed. Today, installations number in the hu ndreds of thousands of measurement points including those in li quid hydrocarbon and natural gas applications.
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Document ID: 70864468

Techniques For Natural Gas Sampling A Discussion Of Field Methods For Obtaining Spot Samples
Author(s): Mariella Verlla
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas sampling is preformed for many reasons. Primary sampling is is preformed to determine total gas composition, gas quality and gas value.
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Document ID: A96BCB6D

Principals Of Odorization
Author(s): Kenneth S. Parrott
Abstract/Introduction:
In the one hundred and thirty years, or so that we have known natural gas as a fuel source in the United States, the demand for natural gas has grown at an astounding rate. There is virtually no area of North America that doesnt have natural gas provided as an energy source. The methods of producing, transporting, measuring, and delivering this valuable resource have advanced, and improved in direct relation to the demand for a clean burning and efficient fuel. While todays economic climate determines the rate of growth the gas industry enjoys, in a broad sense, natural gas is certainly considered essential and a fuel of the future
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Document ID: 13FF57F4

D.O.T. Requirements For The Transportation Of Sample Cylinders
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The United States Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) is a department of the U.S. Federal Government which oversees all issues regarding transportation within the United States of America and U.S. Territories. Its influence around the world is great and widely respected, but its jurisdiction and power of enforcement is limited to the USA and its territories. As regards this paper, we will discuss the D.O.T. and its in volvement surrounding sample cylinders for the hydrocarbon industry and the rules regarding the movement of these cylinders from point to point in the United States.
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Document ID: A06E8646

An Overview Of Pipeline Leak Detection Technologies
Author(s): Jonathan Fielder
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will provide you with a fundamental understanding of operating principles of currently available pipeline leak detection technologies.
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Document ID: A672D720

Field Testing By Transfer Proving
Author(s): Larry K. Wunderlich
Abstract/Introduction:
Transfer proving was initially developed to provide an easier and more accurate field meter proving method. Because of the capacity capabilities of transfer provers (2000 CFH to 80,000 CFH) transfer provers are utilized in meter shops where bell prover capacity is limited and allow for shop testing of the larger capacity meters
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Document ID: 5EE9EFB9

Control Room Management And Related Best Practices
Author(s): Russel W. Treat
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper summarizes a SCADA implementers perspective regarding the intent of the Pipeline Hazardous Materials Safety Administrations (PHMSA) Control Room Management (CRM) rule. In addition, this paper provides a fresh approach to CRM, describing why companies should use the CRM process to go beyond compliance requirements and implement operating best practices that would significantly enhance operations reliability and pipeline safety
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Document ID: A9E641AD

Design And Installation Of A Complete Measurement & Control Facility
Author(s): Thomas G. Quine
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation is intended to illustrate the implementation of a successful project. These principles can be applied to measurement and control projects, LNG projects, and LPG projects. The strategy presented involves performing through preliminary engineering, performing final design and procurement, qualification of ins tallers, construction, testing, commissioning and finally, training and documentation
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Document ID: 1978F133

Periodic Inspection Of Regulators And Relief Valves
Author(s): James m. Doyle
Abstract/Introduction:
Inspections and tests on regulators and relief valves is a Department of Transportation Compliance rule. The sections within the DOT manual stating the rule include 192.351 through 192.359, 192.751, 192.4 79, 192.481, 192.739, and 192.741. Keep in mind these rules are the minimum required tests. Your Company or Regulatory Agency may be more stringent and require more or detailed testing. You must also keep in mind that the Manufacturer of your equipment will also provide a guideline pertaining to maintenanc
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Document ID: 3DAD2887

Comparing Plug & Seat Regulators & Control Valves
Author(s): Lamar Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper will be to compare a plug and seat regulator to a control va lve for high-pressure natural gas installations such as: power plants, city gate stations, large industrial customers, compressor stations, and storage fields. The features, benefits, capabilities, and differences of both devices will be outlined, to enable the reader to make an educated selection. In addition, acceptable design practices will be reviewed concerning sizing, gas velocities, noise levels, equipment layout, and performance. The ball valve is the most commonly used type of modulating valve for natural gas pipeline applications, for that reason, we will limit this discussion to comparison between the plug and seat regulator and versions of a 1/4 turn ball valve.
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Document ID: 383B6779

Scada And Telemetry In Gas Transmission Systems
Author(s): Russel W. Treat
Abstract/Introduction:
SCADA systems provide are combinations of field devices, communications infrastructure and software integrated into a system that provides for safe, reliable, and effective operation of remote facilities. Producers, gatherers, midstream operators and pipelines use SCADA system for operations. In addition, SCADA gathers data used by advanced applications such as measurement accounting. SCADA is key for highly profitable operation
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Document ID: 420BABA9


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