Measurement Library

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (2014)

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course

Pressure Control Automation
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
Federal DOT code provides the requirement for inspect - ing and testing pressure reduction equipment. The code states that each district regulator station must be inspected at least once, every calendar year, and the period between inspections can not exceed 15 months. These tests include a regulator Lock Up test. This is a critical performance cri - teria for every regulator. The lock-up test insures the regula - tor will provide bubble tight shut off when the downstream pressure is above the regulators set point. Charts are changed, set points verified, filters inspected, and emer - gency valve operated. Annual inspections maintain the in - tegrity and reliability of pressure reduction stations
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Document ID: C15C17CA

Measurement Of Natural Gas By Coriolis Flow Meter
Author(s): Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early 1980s, Coriolis meters have gained world - wide acceptance in gas, liquid, and slurry applications with an installed base of more than one million units. Through significant design, enhancements in the early 1990s Co - riolis meters have rapidly gained worldwide acceptance in gas phase applications with over 100,000 meters installed worldwide and most notably the publication of the sec - ond edition of AGA Report Number 11 , Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis Meter
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Document ID: 9C90463D

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): John A. Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
today is performed by two basic types of meters, posi - tive displacement and inferential. Positive displacement meters, consisting mainly of diaphragm and rotary style devices, generally account for lower volume measure - ment. Orifice, ultrasonic and turbine meters are the three main inferential class meters used for large volume measurement today. Turbines are typically considered to be a repeatable device used for accurate measurement over large and varying pressures and flow rates. They are found in a wide array of elevated pressure applica - tions ranging from atmospheric conditions to 1440 psig
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Document ID: 01425CF0

Basics Of Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): Jerry Kamalieh
Abstract/Introduction:
65 INTRODUCTION The first gas company in the United States, The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat-rate basis. Its growth was slow, its charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority. By comparison, the New York Gas Light Company found - ed in 1823 prospered and expanded. They had built their system on the use of gas meters to measure the sup - ply of gas to customers, and a large one to register the quantity made at the station before it is conveyed to the gasometers.
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Document ID: 589C1829

Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meter Basics
Author(s): James W. Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the operating principal and applica - tion of ultrasonic gas flow metering for custody transfer. Basic principals and underlying equations are discussed, as are considerations for applying ultrasonic flow meter technology to station design, installation and operation. These applications are illustrated based on operating experience with the Instromet 3 path and 5-path Q.Sonic custody transfer flow meter, however, many of these is - sues may be generalized to devices manufactured by others
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Document ID: 2308EFE8

Rotary Displacement Meters Basics
Author(s): Todd Willis
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classes of gas meters. These are inferential type meters, which include orifice and turbine meters, and positive displacement meters, which include diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferen - tial type meters are so-called because rather than mea - suring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas flow and calculating the volume based on the measurements. The positive displacement type meters are so-called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them
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Document ID: 79C35384

Non-Intrusive Ultrasonic Flowmeters In Liquid And Gas APPLICATIONS-TECHNOLOGY And Installation Techniques
Author(s): Ron Mccarthy
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas and Oil are different in their physical, chemical, and ultrasonic properties. Nevertheless, each fluid state can use Widebeam technology that uses the pipe wall as a Sonic Waveguide, permitting accurate, repeatable and reliable non-intrusive flow metering. This paper explains non intrusive gas ultrasonic metering, providing field and laboratory test data demonstrating the ability of Clamp- On Ultrasonic meters to provide accurate Measurement. It also explains the importance of correct installation
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Document ID: 52D5DFAD

Ultrasonic Meters For Commercial Applications
Author(s): Paul Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
An ultrasonic meter falls into the classification of inferen - tial meters. Unlike positive displacement meters that cap - ture volume to totalize volume, inferential meters measure flowing gas velocity to totalize volume. Ultrasonic meters use sound waves to measure flowing gas velocity to infer volume. Ultrasonic meters have been around for many years, primarily in liquid measurement. However, we are seeing more and more applications in the natural gas industry
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Document ID: 118371C1

In-Situ On-Site() Gas Meter Proving
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas flow rate measurement errors at field meter stations can result from the installation configuration, the calibration of the meter at conditions other than the actual operating conditions, or the degradation of meter perfor - mance over time. The best method for eliminating these or other sources of error is with in-situ (on-site) calibration of the meter. That is, the measurement accuracy of the field meter station should be verified under actual operating conditions by comparing to a master meter or prover. Comparisons of flow meters in the field have been per - formed for nearly as long as flow meters have been in ex - istence.
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Document ID: B19CC016

Advanced Application Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): Ron Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will examine and explain several common characteristics of rotary meters and their use in the natu - ral gas distribution, transmission and production markets. The selection, proper installation, start-up procedures and regular maintenance routines will be covered, as well.
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Document ID: 998A2AA7

Wet Gas Measurement
Author(s): Philip A. Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject is quite large and encompasses many differ - ent concepts, meter types and opinions, with many new ideas being brought to the forefront each year as more re - search is done. From upstream applications to midstream measurement issues caused by liquid drop out in the pipelines were gas gathering systems are used
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Document ID: C1DDA37F

Appalachian Gas Measurement
Author(s): Pat Donnelly
Abstract/Introduction:
The basis of orifice measurement is that a calibrated re - striction creates a resistance to flow and causes a pres - sure drop, which is indicative of the quantity of the gas flowing. The primary elements are the meter-piping run, straightening vanes, orifice fitting, orifice plate and pres - sure and temperature taps. In addition, a recording sec - ondary element is necessary to record pressure differen - tial, upstream pressure and gas temperature
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Document ID: 33F4ACFC

Low Pressure Gas Measurement Using Ultrasonic Technology
Author(s): Dr. Volker Herrmann Toralf Dietz John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
The utilization of ultrasonic metering as a cost effective form of measurement has grown dramatically over the past 10 years. A growing portion of this market is in cus - tody transfer applications. This growth is primarily due to growing acceptance in industry, advances in the technol - ogy, extensive self diagnostic capabilities and industry/ regulatory standards and recommendations related to their use in custody transfer applications.
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Document ID: 89A3011C

Distribution Gas Meter Proving: The Equipment And Methodology Used Today In The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): Gregory A. Germ
Abstract/Introduction:
To determine the accuracy of a natural gas meter, a known volume of air is passed through the meter, and the meter registration is compared against this known volume. The known volume of air originates from the meter prover. In earlier times, the gas meter prover was a stand-alone device (usually a bell-type prover), manually operated without any electronics or automation. Today, the majority of gas meter provers are fully automated computer controlled and operated, and responsible for other job functions besides the proving of gas meters. The bell-type meter prover
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Document ID: 11C0808C

Differential Testing Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): Ron Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the introduction of rotary meters in the 1920s, gas distribution companies have used the differential pressure across the meter as an indication of meter condition and performance. Using manufacturers recommendations in concert with industry and regulatory standards differential testing is a cost effective method to verify the condition of a rotary meter while in service.
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Document ID: 7134CCAD

Calculating The Speed Of Sound In Natural Gas Using AGA Report No. 10
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
The speed of sound in natural gas is the velocity a sound wave travels in the gas. There are a number of gas prop - erties that affect the speed of sound and they include the composition of the gas, the pressure of the gas and the temperature of the gas. The American Gas Associa - tion Report No. 10 Speed of Sound in Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbon Gases provides an accurate method for calculating the speed of sound in natural gas and other related hydrocarbon fluids
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Document ID: 22ECD0C5

Ultrasonic Flow Meter Calibraiton Considerations And Benefits
Author(s): Wayne Haner
Abstract/Introduction:
The increased use of natural gas as the primary source of energy in countries all over the world combined with the increased market price for natural gas is creating an intri - cate network for gas transportation and trade of energy that is demanding more accurate measurements of gas flows. To ensure the fair gas transaction at custody trans - fer locations, pipeline companies are looking towards the credibility and excellence of meter calibration as the main parameter to ensure the reliability of the gas invoiced
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Document ID: 5EB4CC71

Diagnostics For Large High Volume Flow Orifice Plate Meters
Author(s): Mark Skelton Simon Barrons Jennifer Ayre Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
In 2008/9 DP Diagnostics disclosed a proprietary dif - ferential pressure (DP) meter diagnostic methodology 1,2. Swinton Technology (ST) has subsequently devel - oped software named Prognosis in partnership with DP Diagnostics. Prognosis allows these generic DP meter diagnostic methodologies to be applied in flow comput - ers thereby making these principles available for field applications
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Document ID: 69EC7D96

Practical Solution For Ultrasonic Flow Measurement In High Co 2 Natural Gas Applications
Author(s): Marcel Vermeulen Jan Drenthen Hilko Den Hollander
Abstract/Introduction:
Having it over the past decade established as one of the preferred measurements for high pressure natural gas, the application range of ultrasonic flow meters is also shifting towards the more difficult applications. One type of these applications is natural gas with a high content of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The concentration of CO 2 varies considerably over the various reservoirs. A few examples of this are shown in table 1
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Document ID: B26BC32C

Understanding Gas Ultrasonic Meter DIAGNOSTICS-ADVANCED
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses advanced diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USMs), and how capabilities built into todays electronics can identify problems that may have gone undetected in the past. It primarily discusses fiscal- quality, multipath USMs and does not cover issues that may be different with non-fiscal meters as they are often single path designs. Although USMs basically work the same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in AGA 9 Ref 1.
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Document ID: 88013631

Recognition & Resolution Of Problems With Gas Ultrasonic Flow Meters
Author(s): Jim Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline Operators have used Ultrasonic meters commer - cially for gas custody transfer applications since the late 90s. These meters combination of operating features, including superior rangeability and on-board diagnostics have made this the technology of choice for most high vol - ume gas metering applications. As user comfort with, and capabilities of, the technology has increased and the size and cost of ultrasonic meters has decreased, Operators and Manufacturers continue to stretch the envelope of ap - plication possibilities. This includes use in upstream, cor - rosive and high CO 2 applications, where the technology previously couldnt work or didnt make economic sense
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Document ID: 242FF6BE

Large Coriolis Meters And The Applicability Of Water Calibrations For Gas Service
Author(s): Tonya Wyatt Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
in the late 1970s, the first Coriolis mass flow meter was introduced. By the early 1980s, the use of Coriolis me - ters gained popularity for liquid applications, but few were used for gas applications. In the 1990s major design en - hancements were made to the technology improving its usability in gas applications. Driven by the need for a stan - dard industry practice to guide its use in gas applications, the American Gas Association (AGA) published the first edition of AGA Report Number 11, Measurement of Natu - ral Gas by Coriolis Meter in 2003. Today, with an installed population of over 100,000 Micro Motion Coriolis meters in gas applications and the 2013 publication of the second edition of AGA Report No. 11, many users are applying Coriolis meters in gas custody transfer applications.
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Document ID: CD8106EC

From The Wellhead To The Burner Tip: A System Overview
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is presented at the Appalachian Gas Mea - surement Short Course - Fundamentals Section. The paper is designed for the first year student to understand the basic flow of natural gas and the terminology utilized from Production and Storage areas to end use by con - sumers. Specific focus is given to history of natural gas, gas transmission, city gate stations, and distribution sys - tems
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Document ID: CE973CAE

High Volume Measurement Using Turbine Meters
Author(s): John A. Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
For over one hundred years the turbine meter has been servicing large volume applications of the natural gas market. During this time the turbine has continuously evolved into a device that offers the industry new and unique features. This paper will focus on the significant advancements of this technology as well as how they are applied in the field today.
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Document ID: B93BD418

Regulator Sizing And Application
Author(s): Rick Schneider
Abstract/Introduction:
The first step in properly sizing a regulator is to under - stand the design parameters for the application where it is being installed. This requires knowledge of the customers requirements and the limitations of the distribution and transmission system in the area that are feeding it. It is es - pecially important to understand what the flow and pres - sure requirements are of the customer and to make sure that the distribution and transmission system can satisfy those requirements.
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Document ID: 1FCE662E

Indirect Heaters Basic Overview And Practical Application
Author(s): Cris Buckley
Abstract/Introduction:
242 In the oil and gas industry there has been a long history for the need to heat combustible products for many ap - plications. These applications range from heating of crude oil to maintain its temperature above paraffin point to heating of a flowing well stream to maintain it above its hydrate forming temperature. There are several types of heaters, for purposes here we will limit our discussion to the Indirect Water Bath Heater i.e. Indirect Heater.
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Document ID: B0231505

High Pressure Services
Author(s): George Levesque
Abstract/Introduction:
246 GOVERNING CODE The code governing pressure control of gas delivered from high-pressure distribution systems is 192.197. This part of the code has been updated several times (11/07/1970, 07/13/1998, and 09/15/2003) since its inception on August 19, 1970. 192.197 details when overpressure protection is required and lists some acceptable methods of overpressure protection. For distribution systems with MAOPs over 125 PSIG, the code is pretty clear on the requirement for, and the ap - plication of, overpressure protection.
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Document ID: A824D08C

Gate Station Design
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
The City Gate station is one of the more complex designs a natural gas engineer will deal with in the course of a ca - reer. Like all projects, a properly designed and constructed gate station begins with good preliminary engineering. In preliminary engineering, all of the major project goals and hurdles are defined. If the preliminary engineering docu - ment is written properly, it will serve as the backbone for the entire project
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Document ID: FE28A25B

Fundamentals Of District Regulator Station Design
Author(s): James P. Davis Scott A. Laplante
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the fundamental steps necessary to begin and complete a district regulator design. It will focus on the techniques NSTAR uses to develop target loca - tions and the subsequent designs. This paper will cover replacements and new installations
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Document ID: D558F82B

- Overpressure Protection Basics
Author(s): Dennis Landrum
Abstract/Introduction:
The goal of this course is an introduction to various types of Overpressure Control Devices and Schemes. The dis - cussion will include Operation and Advantages/Disadvan - tages of each method.
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Document ID: CE602B5E

Basic Application Of Flow Computers And Telemetry Systems
Author(s): Bill Herndon
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to the evolution of flow computers being commonly used in the measurement of hydrocarbons, most telem - etry systems were used to collect control information and real time data and provide control commands to a Remote Terminal Unit at major pump and compressor stations. Most of the local metering was being handled by chart recorders and local data collection by operations. These charts and reports were sent to a central facility where the information was used to provide custody transfer reports and or operations reports
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Document ID: 36454026

Basics Of Using Modbus Rtu In Monitoring And Control Production
Author(s): Ed Smigo
Abstract/Introduction:
MODBUS is a common industrial Communication proto - col that has been around for decades. It is widely avail - able either as a standard or option in industrial control and monitoring equipment and can be easily utilized. While it is simple, it is slow in comparison to some of todays available networking architecture, but has been so widely adopted because that simplicity
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Document ID: B8279104

Fundamentals Of Pressure Control
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure control is the fundamental operation of all natu - ral gas delivery systems. It provides a safe and reliable energy source for manufacturing and heating systems throughout the world. Pressure control is utilized to bal - ance the system supply demands with safe delivery pressures. Pressure control is used in all phases of the delivery sys - tem
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Document ID: FDE8F6B3

Network Analysis - Part 1 Gas Flow Equation Fundamentals
Author(s): Tim Bickford
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past 25 years engineers in the natural gas in - dustry have come to depend on the computer as a tool to perform complex hydraulic network analysis. Analysis, which would take weeks to perform by hand or by punch- card machines 30 years ago, can now be accomplished in mere hours or sometimes seconds. Today gas net - work analysis software, though complex and extremely sophisticated, has become very user friendly. Low cost PCs, inexpensive software and flexible software licensing now make it possible for almost anyone to have access to these powerful engineering tools. Today, more and more non-technical persons are using this cutting edge tech - nology to perform analyses that were once performed by specialists.
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Document ID: 112D1C9F

Basic Gas And Instrumentation For Gas Detection
Author(s): George Lomaxeric Six
Abstract/Introduction:
In this class we will review what we need to know about how natural gas, and other gases, works in order to bet - ter understand how to detect leakage and unintended releases. We will then look at the operation, maintenance and cali - bration of the instrumentation available for gas detection. The class will conclude with a demonstration of the Explo - sion Chamber.
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Document ID: CC681DB9

Project Management Fundamentals
Author(s): John Jay Gamble, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
A temporary, non-routine endeavor to create a unique prod - uct or service limited by time, budget, and specifications. How does it differ from Operations? Operations are on-going, permanent, and repetitive. The purpose of operations is to sustain or maintain the business
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Document ID: 010A9024

Using Gps Technology To Enhance Pipeline Safety
Author(s): Sam Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
have a conversation about the capabilities, expec - tations, and feasibility of GPS tech - nology for pipeline safety. Discuss: The case for GPS GPS grades, accuracy, and cost Barriers to deployment Expectation management Example of GPS field deploy - ment for gas records
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Document ID: EE701655

Natural Gas Storage And The New World Of Shale
Author(s): Rich Fulcher
Abstract/Introduction:
ROLE OF UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE Historically Absorb seasonal demand fluctuations Absorb daily/hourly swings on pipelines Alternative to firm transport - reduce pipeline costs Emergency supply security (peaking) Over the past decade All of the above... plus... Summer power demand Gas futures -
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Document ID: 0C08A9B0

Compressor Station Design Basics And An Overview Of The Design Process
Author(s): G. Mitchell Mazaher
Abstract/Introduction:
Production - Move gas from wells into transmission pipelines Storage - Move gas in and out of storage fields to and from transmission pipelines Transmission - Move gas through a pipeline SYSTEMS Main Gas The BIG pipe. Much of it is often buried except at equipment
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Document ID: 3DB19103

The Use Of Electronic Flow Measurement For Natural Gas Storage Field Optimization
Author(s): Ben Updyke
Abstract/Introduction:
ou just drilled a natural gas well. If you have not already thought of the next step you might be in trouble. Where do I send all the gas thats trying to push its way out the ground? If you had an oil well obviously you would of built a liquids storage tank. You could pump natural gas into a storage tank but it wouldnt take long before you had a dangerous situation on your hands. What do you do with this gas? At this point the gas is worthless and is more of a burden than a product. You need someone who can help you send the gas to people who want to buy your gas.
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Document ID: FFECB78C

Horizontal Drilling
Author(s): Ellen Montgomery
Abstract/Introduction:
329 OPTIONS AND POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF HORIZONTAL WELLS IN CBM PROJECTS Benefits of Horizontal Wells
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Document ID: 39406391

How Is Your Gas Quality Applied?
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Every company involved in the natural gas industry must reckon with the issue of how to determine and apply gas quality throughout their measurement systems. Pro - duction, gathering, midstream, pipeline and distribution companies are all impacted in this area even though the metering conditions and gas flows swing significantly. The issue of accurate gas quality has an impact on report - ing an accurate volume and energy to each customer, managing the unaccounted for (UAF) gas loss, determin - ing potential operating condition impacts on the pipeline system, and the potential fugitive emissions impact
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Document ID: 7D78E163

Understanding Hydrocarbon Dew Points In Natural Gas Mixtures
Author(s): James N. Witte,
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will present a discussion on the hydrocarbon dew point of a gas, and is intended as an introduction for operations technicians to the conditions that determine a hydrocarbon dew point value, operating concerns gener - ated when the hydrocarbon dew point is reached, and approaches to the management of gas quality to control hydrocarbon dew point in pipeline systems. The hydrocar - bon dew point is one of the most important parameters defining the quality of a natural gas mixture
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Document ID: 41550361

Practical Considerations For Gas Sampling And Gas Sampling Systems
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to be able to take a representative sample of a hydrocarbon product is necessary to ensure proper ac - counting for transactions and efficient product processing. The various sampling methods that are available and the options and limitations of these methods are investigated the most appropriate equipment to use the reasons for its use and correct installation of the equipment are also addressed.
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Document ID: 45EB5CA4

Fundamentals Of Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Shane Hale
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chromatography is one of the most widely used tech - niques for analyzing hydrocarbon mixtures. Some of the advantages of chromatography are the range of measure - ment (from ppm levels up to 100%), the detection of a wide range of components, and the repeatability of the measurements. Chromatography is used in the labora - tory, in permanently installed online systems, and in the field with portable systems. No matter the location, style or brand, all gas chromatographs are composed of the same functional components that are the sample handling sys - tem, the chromatograph oven, and the controller electron - ics (refer Figure 1)
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Document ID: 7C1CB21A

Fundamentals Of Water Vapor Measurement In Natural Gas
Author(s): Ken Soleyn
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of moisture in natural gas is an impor - tant parameter for the processing, storage and transpor - tation of natural gas. Natural gas is dehydrated prior to introduction into the pipeline and distribution network. For interstate custody transfer of natural gas maximum allow - able levels are set by tariff, normally expressed in terms of absolute humidity in pounds per million cubic feet (lbs/ mmscf). The dew point temperature (C or F T d ) is of interest to insure that liquid water or ice does condense in the system.
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Document ID: F08B5B92

Fundamentals Of Hydrocarbon Dew Point Measurement
Author(s): Jack Herring Bob Kenney
Abstract/Introduction:
365 INTRODUCTION Measuring Hydrocarbon Dew Point (HCDP) accurately is critical to the profitability of producing/processing natural gas. End users want a quality product and when HCDP limits are written into the gas contract the producer/pro - cessors and pipeline operators each play a role in deliver - ing that quality product. Accurately measuring HCDP in order to satisfy the customer touches every link in this vital supply chain.
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Document ID: 7CCC8AD3

Tdlas Operational Methodology
Author(s): Samuel C. Miller, Ryan Hamilton
Abstract/Introduction:
Online determination of vapor phase moisture concentra - tion in natural gas using a tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) analyzer also known as a TDL analyzer. Pressure: Process stream pressures can range from 100 to 4000 psig however TDL measurement is performed at pressures near atmospheric , therefore pressure reduc - tion is typically required. The vent line (outlet) of a TDL analyzer is tolerant to small pressure changes on the or - der of 50-100 mbar (1-2 psi) but it is important to observe the manufacturers published pressure constraints. Large spikes or steps in backpressure may affect the analyzer readings.
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Document ID: 492B8932

H 2 S And Total Sulfur Measurement Applications
Author(s): Byron Larson Marcus Bauerle
Abstract/Introduction:
In the natural gas industry, there are thousands of con - tinuous analytical systems, ensuring H2S and total sulfur tariff limits are not exceeded at receipt and sales points on the transmission line. Typical measurement ranges are 0-20 ppm for H2S and 0-100 ppm for total sulfur. There are also a fast growing number of sites with continuous H2S monitoring on field gas treating gas systems where the target is 1 to 5 ppm as a result of the more recent shale gas development . The industry stan - dard for these low level applications is the lead acetate tape analyzer.
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Document ID: 417A6235

Basic Electronic Communications For The Gas Industry
Author(s): Ken Pollock
Abstract/Introduction:
The recent several years have shown remarkable chang - es in the communications field. New methods and digital techniques have allowed the Communications Techni - cian to solve communications problems that previously required unusual solutions or required manual data col - lecting. There are now methods to get the required data automatically and without human intervention that are proving to be reliable and cost effective without requiring high costs or constant maintenance. This paper will dis - cuss the basics of many of these concepts and provide a basic knowledge of solutions that may be employed to provide telemetry for data collection
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Document ID: 9078FD3E

Understanding OPC-OPEN Connectivity Via Open Standards: The Opc Foundation
Author(s): Russel W. Trea Tony Paine
Abstract/Introduction:
In the mid-1990s, a group of vendors convened to address the growing concern regarding connectivity to the plant floor-referred to as the Device Driver Problem. At that time, HMI and SCADA vendors were responsible for building their own driver libraries. This approach created great solutions when it all the connectivity requirements were provided by a single vendor. However, often when multiple vendors were involved, solutions were incomplete or unreliable across vendors.
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Document ID: 51BF2F03

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement
Author(s): Pat Donnelly
Abstract/Introduction:
Samuel Clegg made the first practical gas meter in Eng - land in 1815. It was a water-sealed rotating drum meter that was improved in 1825 however, it was still very costly and very large. Thomas Glover developed the original diaphragm meter in England in 1843. It consisted of two diaphragms, sliding valves and linkage. T. S. Lacey patent - ed the pre-payment meter in 1870. The most significant change to diaphragm meters over the years has been in the materials of construction. Brass parts have been replaced by plastic, and leather diaphragms have been replaced with synthetic rubber.
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Document ID: 6A2AA915

Scada Data Collection And Data Distribution
Author(s): Phillip Heim
Abstract/Introduction:
Different data collectors such as Mechanical Chart me - ters, Electronic Measurement with and without commu - nications, Hand Held devices, and smart phone technol - ogy are just a few data collectors used by ECA. Including chart integrators, third party, sales points (think pipeline interconnects). Gathering is only the beginning, sharing (breaking old habits), integrators and third party require - ments along with owner reporting are but a few of the data wants and needs. One aspect of data collection that should not be overlooked is of course, the visual one. Our well tenders can input comments in a hand held computer about observations they make while on location.
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Document ID: 56B50BB4

Principles Of Odorization
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
Odorization injection and monitoring technology has ad - vanced dramatically in the past 15 years. A former Chair - person of the Appalachian Short Course, Harold Englert of Columbia Gas Virginia, used to refer to odorization as, A little bit of science, and a whole lot of magic. The in - tent of this paper is to provide the reader with practical solutions to develop a solid Odorization program, even in dense urban environments, in the hope of removing the, Magic, to a successful Odorization program.
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Document ID: C40BD196

2 Rules For Specifying A Successful Scada System
Author(s): Steve Hill
Abstract/Introduction:
407 As a supplier of SCADA Systems and Software, we see a lot of specifications for SCADA systems. We also often help customers in determining their requirements as they develop specifications. The specification is probably the most important part of your SCADA system - it determines the products and ser - vices you are going to receive, and it will be the reference against which you measure the final delivered product
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Document ID: C5A43461

Radio Path Studies 101
Author(s): Dan Steele
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of computer generated software to predict radio frequency (RF) path studies has been around for several years. Combined with the latest GPS and Google map data you can determine how well your network will work, RF path link reliability, link budgets, Fresnel zones, multi- path and if you may need to invest in different towers, use more repeaters or add additional technologies to try to cover the area you need communication. The following is a discussion of the real benefits of the software. Like anything else regarding computers and GPS coordinates, the best information will provide the best results and poor information will provide poor results.
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Document ID: F8F60E23

Remote Monitoring And Control - Impact Of Evolving Communication Technologies And Protocols
Author(s): Na
Abstract/Introduction:
REMOTE MONITORING AND CONTROL - IMPACT OF EVOLVING COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES AND PROTOCOLS Monitoring of remote assets has been in practice since the 19th century. Since then, there has been many quan - tum changes including the type of assets that are being monitored, remote control of instruments and processes, type of media and the protocols used. There is a plethora of information available on the World Wide Web that docu - ments and explains these changes, in detail, including a number of white papers. So, why another white paper?
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Document ID: 15F02104

Guidelines For Evaluating Scada Systems
Author(s): Joe Castillo
Abstract/Introduction:
SCADA has the ability to perform an immense complex number of functions. Given the sheer volume of SCADAs potential benefits, how do you ensure your organization receives the full extent of SCADAs value? The evaluation of complex systems is both difficult and risky this is espe - cially true if you are learning the new technology while at the same time keeping up with daily responsibilities.
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Document ID: 0D0AF320

Odorant Spills: Prevention And First Response
Author(s): Juraj Strmen John Beighle
Abstract/Introduction:
tation shutdown - business disruption 2. Public at risk - negative perception 3. High environmental cleanup costs Sources of odor leaks and spills Storage/burial of contaminated material Equipment malfunction (leaky gaskets, seals, corrosion...) Decommissioning of odorization stations Odorant transfers, filtration, transport of odorization equipment Maintenance of odorization systems Natural disasters (hur - ricanes, floods) Operator error Construction projects involving odorization equipmen
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Document ID: 1D9DCA13

Gas Odorants - Safe Handling , Health, And Environment
Author(s): Daniel E. Arrieta David C. Miller, Eric Van Tol,
Abstract/Introduction:
Thiols (i.e. mercaptans), sulfides, and tetrahydrothiophene (THT) have been widely used in the odorization of natural and liquefied petroleum gas due to the fact that natural gas does not possess an odor. Mercaptans, for example, have proven to be very effective in odorizing because of their low odor threshold and therefore, immediate impact on the olfactory system (Roberts, 1993)
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Document ID: 61E24F24

Self-Operated Regulator Basics
Author(s): Trent Decker Steve Ludtman
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accus - tomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a ten - dency to take them for granted. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application that we need to look more deeply into the fun - damental of the regulators operation
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Document ID: 68DA4599

Natural Gas Odor Level Testing Programs
Author(s): Mark E. Gunsalus
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas odor level testing programs are an important part of delivering safe and reliable natural gas. We will review olfactory biology basics, regulations, odor fade, program development, program execution and training. As an operator and Director for 28 years responsible for this process, we have developed and refined processes and procedures that ensure proper odor levels and iden - tify deficiencies so they can be quickly rectified.
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Document ID: B113DE1A

Decommissioning Of Obsolete Odorization Equipment
Author(s): Juraj Strmen Wesley Lucas
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas industry is a fast growing segment of our en - ergy industry and there is a need to keep the operations safe and environmentally friendly. Obsolete odorization equipment needs to be removed and disposed of in an environmentally sound and odor-free manner in order to avoid business disruption or potential liquid/vapor odorant leaks from obsolete equipment
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Document ID: 0123BAA3

Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meters For Custody Transfer Measurement
Author(s): Mike Saunders
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the operating principals and applica - tion of ultrasonic gas flow metering for custody transfer. Basic principles and underlying equations are discussed, as are considerations for applying ultrasonic flow meter technology to station design, installation, and operation. These applications are illustrated based on operating experience with the Instromet 3-path and 5-path Q.Sonic custody transfer flow meter however, many of these is - sues can be generalized to meters manufactured by others
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Document ID: 8FE7F481

Condition Based Monitoring - A Fully Automated Station Solution
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
The traditional method of verifying whether the USM is operating accurately essentially requires using the USM manufacturers diagnostic information to help understand the meters health. This is usually accomplished by having a technician visit the site periodically (typically monthly) to collect a maintenance report. This report is analyzed by the technician while onsite, and often analyzed a sec - ond time by office measurement specialists at a later date. However, if a problem has occurred during the month, and isnt present at the time of the site visit, added measure - ment uncertainty may be the result
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Document ID: 6054A1D8

Marcellus Shale Measurement Station Design Considerations
Author(s): Dan Manion
Abstract/Introduction:
The development of the Marcellus Shale play has gener - ated a significant increase in the need for an expanded gas takeaway system. As the pipeline system continues to expand, so does the need for custody transfer mea - surement stations. This significant increase in demand is impacting station design parameters and the means by which they are constructed. This paper is intended to ex - plore the current trends and challenges associated with the Marcellus development, review how those trends have affected station design and investigate potential future trends that may impact future station design.
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Document ID: CD0BEAD1

Determining Lost And Unaccounted For - Product Loss
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Every company involved in the natural gas industry must deal with the issue of determining lost and unaccounted for gas loss. Production, gathering, midstream, pipeline and distribution companies are all impacted with manag - ing the unaccounted for (UAF) gas loss. For years, the cost and impact of the UAF was passed directly to the customer with no direct requirements to manage and re - duce the costs associated with this loss. Now, numerous individual companies strive to manage the impact of UAF for their customers.
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Document ID: B5DC3599

Hazardous Location Wiring Solutions For Natural Gas
Author(s): Brad Larson
Abstract/Introduction:
New flexible cable types and associated code under which to install them in hazardous (classified) locations have appeared in the National Electrical Code (NEC) in every code cycle since 1984. This evolution has largely been driven by companies and individuals in the oil and gas and petrochemical industries seeking to solve problems not practically addressed by traditional methods. These included, in part
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Document ID: 1764B89E

Wet Gas Defined
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas drilling activity into Ohios Point Pleasant and Utica Shale formations has unearthed a prized commod - ity know as Wet Gas. These two formations, and others like them across the nation, have attracted Producers and Midstream operators to garner this value-added Wet Gas product. Improved exploration and drilling techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, continue to reveal new Wet Gas shale opportunities, and challenges, around the world.
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Document ID: 00A44750

Best Practices For Mass Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): Marsha Yon
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas liquids (NGL) are the by-product of natural gas production or processing and are a mix of ethane, propane, butane, isobutane, pentane, and pentanes plus (natural gasoline). An NGL mix may be referred to as con - densate but generally condensate is heavier than most NGL and has a lower vapor pressure. The term conden - sate differs among users of the term and may be treated like an NGL or like a light crude oil. Y grade is another term that falls in the category of NGL except there is a limited amount of ethane content. The specific gravity of NGL is normally less than 0.65 gm/cc
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Document ID: EF45DDA5

Wet Gas Test Comparative Results: Orifice Vs. Usm
Author(s): John Lansing Toralf Dietz Dr. Richard Steven Jim Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
The CEESI Nunn Wet Gas facility consists of a closed- loop test stand with up to 650 horsepower that permits flow rates from about 83 to 620 ACMH. This corresponds to 3 to 23 m/s in 4-inch Schedule 80 piping. Pressures can range from 1,380 kPa up to 7,500 kPa (13.8 Bar - 75 Bar). Gas flow is measured using a calibrated 6-inch turbine meter, and the injected liquid is measured using one of 2 different Coriolis meters (1/2 and 2 sizes). The liquid typically used is Exxsol D80, but water, or a mixture of both can also be used
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Document ID: AF231876

Basic Principles Of Pilot Operated Flexible Element Regulators
Author(s): Michael Garvey
Abstract/Introduction:
Pilot Operated Flexible Element Regulators are capable of providing very accurate control in natural gas trans - mission and distribution pipelines. The Pilot Operated Regulator provides advantages over both self-operated regulators and control valves. Primary benefits include simplicity of operation and elimination of any fugitive emissions caused by atmospheric bleed gas. However, it is important to recognize the limitations of the pilot operated flexible element regulator and apply it accord - ingly.
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Document ID: 4477F88E

Overview Of An Appalachian Shale Gas Processing Plant
Author(s): Ryan Savage Jim Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this class is to provide an overview of a typical northeast Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) processing plant. The Marcellus and Utica Shale play in the Appala - chian Basin area has brought the need for new substruc - ture, compressor stations, facilities and processing plants. The natural gas production in Appalachia has historically been lower pressure Devonian gas which is considered dry when compared to the rich Shale gas. The terms dry, wet, lean and rich are industry terms for describ - ing the physical state and composition of the gas as it is produced from the earth.
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Document ID: 5E97E64F

Multiphase Flow Measurement
Author(s): Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of unprocessed hydrocarbon flows is becoming more prevalent in the hydrocarbon production industry. Multiphase meters are now often integral in the design plans for new developments. However, the phrase multi-phase flow covers a huge range of flow conditions and metering these varied flows has proven a major chal - lenge to engineers. Furthermore, due to the relatively re - cent arrival of these technologies on the market, and, the relatively complex and proprietary nature of the products leading to the finer details of operation not being divulged, there is often a lack of technical understanding amongst the multiphase meter users
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Document ID: A3E11F5B

Obtaining Natural Gas Liquid Samples And Laboratory Handling
Author(s): Na
Abstract/Introduction:
510 SAMPLING EQUIPMENT Safety Equipment should be periodically inspected and de - fective equipment should be repaired or replaced. Never tamper with safety devices on sampling equip - ment. These devices are there for your protection. Use proper Personal Protective Equipment A sample cylinder is not a wrench or a hammer. Using sampling equipment for purposes other than the intended purpose can damage the equipment causing an unsafe condition. TRANSPORTATION CASE TYPICAL AUTOMATIC SAMPLING SYSTEM
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Document ID: 502BEC6F

Liquid Turbine Meters: Proper Sizing And Installation
Author(s): Kenneth Murawski
Abstract/Introduction:
OUTLINE Liquid Flow Meters Liquid Flow Meter Selection Types of Turbine Meters (standard and paddle wheel) Benefits & Limitations Proper Installation Proper Sizing Typical Applications Common Problems Questi
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Document ID: EF39FA20

Fundamentals Of Control Valves And Pressure Controllers
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry utilizes two devices to reduce gas pressure and control gas flow. The first is the regula - tor and the second is a control valve. The control valve is utilized for high volumes and it can perform flow control as will as pressure control. This paper will provide the funda - mentals of control valve types, sizes, and the controllers that are utilized to operate the control valves. We will also investigate the differences between the regulator and the control valve and the advantages and disadvantages of each
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Document ID: E8DC0301


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