Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (2014)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 2014 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Auditing Electronic Gas Measurement Per API Chapter 21.1
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
API 21.1 is recognized as an international industry standard documenting the Electronic Gas Measurement (EGM) system audit and record requirements for differential and linear meter measurement. This standard is used by the meas urement community to reduce the overa ll EGM system uncertainty and improve measurement data integrity. Measurement data integrity plays a crit ical part in overall measurement accuracy for all organizations and has a direct impact to the financial bottom line. Measurement integrity is also vital for ensuring compliance with regulatory and industry standard requirements.
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Document ID: 499C6C9D

Basics Of High Pressure Measuring And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): James N. Witte
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will present a review of criteria necessary for designing high pressure natural gas measuring and regulating stations. For the purpose of this discussion, high pressure is assumed to be gauge pressure values above typical distribution mainline pressures (greater than 60 psig), and therefore, is most applicable to station designs of gathering, midstream, and transmission operations. The design engineer has many factors to consider when designing a metering facility. These factors must include considerations for their impact on measurement accuracy, facility capital cost, environmental stewardship, public stewardship, and long term maintenance cost. The successful designer will seek to achieve high accuracy at an appropriate capital cost, while minimizing the risks for environmental hazards, public nuisance such as noise, and provide the operator with a facility that minimizes maintenance requirements
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Document ID: CADAAE4A

Auditing Gas Measurement And Accounting Systems
Author(s): Johna m. Smothermon
Abstract/Introduction:
An audit is an investigation of records to determine t he accuracy of compliance and implementation. Performing an audit or getting audited does not need to be viewed as a negative but as a double check. Since there are human errors and technological errors, double checking or auditing the data is a precaution that is used by companies. Both parties want the gas that is being produced measured with the hi ghest accuracy possible. Auditing does just that and has the ability to benefit ei ther the producer or the buyer of natural gas.
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Document ID: AB4F0ADD

Auditing Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Lane Hedrick Linda A. Larson
Abstract/Introduction:
An effective audit of liquid hydrocarbon measurem ent is dependent upon a solid understanding of the measurement process combined with t he application of sound internal auditing principles. The quality of liquid measurement activities is contingent upon (1) the reliability of the measurement equipm ent and instrumentation used (2) the specific procedures and practices follo wed in performing the measurement activities (3) the adequacy of training and proper performance of the meas urement technician and (4) the proper documentation of transactions based on a measured va lue. All four components must be taken into consideration when auditing liquid measurement. In addition, to ensure the efficiency of the audit process, auditors must identify those areas which present the greatest risk to the organization to ac hieving its goals, and concentrate audit effort on those areas.
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Document ID: DA4B46A2

Compressibility Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Jeffrey L. Savidge, Ph.D.
Abstract/Introduction:
the accurate measurement of natural gas an d natural gas related fluids is diffi cult. It requires care, experience, and insight to achieve consistently accurate measurements that can meet stringent fiscal requirements. It is particularly difficult to measure complex fluid mixtures that are exposed to: (1) a range of operating conditions, (2) dynamic flow and fluid property behavior, and (3) changing equipment conditions. The compressibility factor is a ubiquitous concept in fl uid measurement. It is used throughout many measurement practices and standards. At its most practical level, the compressibility factor is another fluid measurement correction factor. Unfortunately the mathematical methods, tools, descriptions and d ata associated with the compressibility factor obscure much of its simplicity. The purpose of thi s paper is to provide background on the development of the compressibility factor and related meth ods. It discusses its use in natural gas measurement and provides examples of the behavior of the compressibility factor. Lastly it illustrates the level of uncertainty that current compressibility factor data, methods and related property standards provide
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Document ID: 2E3B5C4A

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Paul J. La Nasa
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents methods for determining the uncertainty of both differential and positive metering stations. It takes into account the type of meter, number of meters in parallel, type of secondary instruments, and the determination of physical properties. The paper then rela tes this information to potential influence on system balance
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Document ID: 99039816

Coping With Changing Flow Requiremen Ts At Exsisting Metering Stations
Author(s): Ronald Sisk
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays competitive gas market, utility companie s must meet aggressive market strategies or suffer the consequences. All industries have cash registers, and ga s distribution is no exception. Our measuring stations are our cash register. The problem is, these stations were designed 10, 20, 30 or even 50 years ago, and are now performing tasks they were not designed for. Therefore, changes must be made. Measurement personnel today must be trained and taught to cope with changing flow requirements. But, modifying a station to meet todays aggressive market can be very expensive. Equipment, such as regulators and the primary element (the meter tube, the orifice plate holder, and the orifice plate), must meet A.G.A. 3 requirements. The secondary element (the recording dev ice) can raise expenditures significantly. Sometimes modifications cannot be made to deliver the specified vo lume of product needed, and replacement of a complete station is even more expensive. Co mpanies today must watch money closel y, and work to reduce operating and maintenance costs.
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Document ID: 0AB5C5C3

Design Of Distribution Meteri Ng And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Edgar Eddy() Wallace Collins Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The design of natural gas distributi on metering and/or regulating stations is a mixture of science and art, of knowledge and judgment. The process requires four areas of knowledge: product, application, components, and communication. The goal in design is to use judgment to select and combine compatible components to create a safe, effective, and economical unit.
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Document ID: 6DBDDFBA

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted For Gas
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: ACE32104

Effects And Control Of Pulsation In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Ray G. Durke Edgar B. Bowles, Jr. Darin L. George Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most common measurement errors and the most di fficult to identify in natural gas metering systems is that caused by pulsating flow. It is important to under stand the effects that pulsations have on the common types of flow meters used in the gas industry so that potential error-producing mechanisms can be identified and avoided. It is also essential to underst and pulsation control techniques for mitigating pulsation effects. This paper describes the effects of pulsation on orifice, turbine, ultr asonic, and other flow meter types. It also presents basic methods for mitigating pulsation effects at meter installation s, including a specific procedure for designing acoustic filters that can isolate a flow me ter from the source of pulsation.
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Document ID: 5218FD1C

Effects Of Abnormal Conditions On Accuracy Of Orifice Measurement
Author(s): Effects Of Abnormal Conditions On Accuracy Of Orifice Measurement Class # 1100 Mr. Dean Graves
Abstract/Introduction:
Whenever one focuses on gas or fluid measurement, he or she will eventually discover an abnormal condition at a measurement station. Invariably someone will ask, What effect will it have on measurement? A student of measurement may spend years answering this question. This and similar questions have generated many research studies. This research has enabled us to better understand measurement abnormalities and to improve measurement procedures and standards. Even though we have made great strides in measurement, we will continue to ask this question. It is this question that has led to the development of this paper. Instead of focusing on certain specific abnormalities, this paper addresses the overall subj ect of measurement abnormalities and presents some investigative tools for the reader as they attempt to ans wer this question. However, before we can understand measurement abnormalities, it is important to review proper or accurate measurement.
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Document ID: AD121289

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement I
Author(s): Douglas Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
To truly understand gas measurement, a person must under stand gas measurement fundamentals. This includes the units of measurement, the behavior of the gas molecu le, the property of gases, the gas laws, and the methods and means of measuring gas. Since the quality of gas is often the responsibility of the gas measurement technician, it is important that they hav e an understanding of natural gas chemistry
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Document ID: 0296330C

API Mpms Chapter 22.2 - Testing Protocol For Differential Pressure Flow Measurement Devices
Author(s): Zaki Husain
Abstract/Introduction:
the Manuals of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) by API (American Petroleum Institute) are developed for the devices and systems installed for the measurement of oil, gas, and merchandisable petrochemical products by the oil and gas industry . Historically the API flowmeter standards are developed for devices that are accepted and installed by the industry to achieve precise and repeatable measurement for fiscal , material balance, and/ or process control applications . The operating principal of field accepted instal led flowmeters are based on laws of physics, where the sensors or transducers are designed to monitor the respon se of flow to the presence of the primary element in the flow stream or the response of the primary element or transmitted signal to the flow. Some common flowmeters that monitor response of the primary element to the flowing fluid are displacement meters, turbine meter, Coriolis meters , etc. and response of the signal to the flow are ultrasonic flowmeter, Magnetic flowmeter, thermal mass mete r, etc
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Document ID: 65D16F5C

Influencing Planning, Operations And Closing Of Commercial Business Through Efficient Measurement
Author(s): Bill Morrow
Abstract/Introduction:
Field measurement is the beginning, but not the only part of a complete measurement practice. Measurements are brought in to central locations, and ultimately used to determine customers bills and suppliers payments. But in between the two extremes of field metering and financial calculations, many steps are required to transform the initial data into its final form
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Document ID: A2502BE7

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement II
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
A knowledge of the Fundamentals of Gas Measurement is essential for all technicians and engineers that are called upon to perform gas volume calculations. These same people should have at least a working knowledge of the fundamentals to perform their everyday jobs including equipm ent calibrations, specific gravity tests, collecting gas samples, etc. To understand the fundamentals, one must be familiar with the definitions of the terms that are used in day-to-day gas measurement operations. They also must know how to convert some values from one quantity as measured to another quantity that is called for in the various custody transfer agreements
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Document ID: 82CED268

Overview Of Gpa 2172/API 14.5 Revision
Author(s): Don Sextro
Abstract/Introduction:
GPA Standard 2172-09 / API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards Chapter 14, Section 5, Calculating Gross Heating Value, Relative Density, Compressibilit y and Theoretical Hydrocarbon Liquid Content for Natural Gas Mixtures for Custody Transfer , Third Edition, January 2009 finds wide application in the natural gas gathering and processing business as well as related natural gas handling activities because it provides methods to calculate these often-used parameters from a gas analysis . Several important changes occurred in the recent revision of this standard that became effective January 1, 2009. The main changes comprised in this revision provide methods for incorporating water vapor into the analysis calculations, include theoretical hydrocarbon liquid content (GPM) calculations on a real gas basis in this standard, discuss characterizing heavy ends in the gas analysis as well as other analysis cautions and present a number of det ailed example calculations. Refer to the standard itself for requirements, proc edures, details and further explanation.
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Document ID: 19F97832

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement III
Author(s): Joseph J. Bauer
Abstract/Introduction:
to become proficient in all phases of gas measuremen t, one must fully understand what natural gas is and the theory of its properties. The theories about natural ga s properties are the gas laws, and their application is essential to gas measurement. Quantitie s of natural gas for custody transfer ar e stated in terms of standard cubic feet. To arrive at standard cubic feet from actual flow ing conditions requires applicatio n of correction factors that are defined by the gas laws
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Document ID: 07336520

Combining Intrinsic Safety With Surge Pr Otection In The Hydrocarbon Industry
Author(s): Dan Mccreery
Abstract/Introduction:
the Hydrocarbon Measurement Industry faces a rather unique combination of problems. First, many of the areas in and around pumping, custody tr ansfer and storage areas are classified, or hazardous, that must, according to the National Electric Code, be as sessed for explosion-proofing. This may be in the form of intrinsic safety barriers or isolators, explosion- proof enclosures and conduits, purged enclosures or non- incendive components. The second challenge facing the industry is the physical exposure of most of the electronic control and measuring systems, communications, and power subsystems, ea ch with their own sensitive, high-performance microprocessors, etc., to potentially devas tating lightning and electrical surges.
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Document ID: 51D0CD0F

Dot Qualification Training For Measurement And Control Technicians
Author(s): Joey Rockett
Abstract/Introduction:
The Operator Qualification (OQ) Program was mandated by Congress in 1992 , and again in 1 996. Congress became concerned by the occurrences of pipeline accidents and directed t he Office of Pipeline Safety to develop regulations addressing OQ. The intent of this qualification rule was to ensure a qualified work force , and to reduce the probability and consequence of incidents caused by human error. It established qualification requirements for individuals performing covered tasks, and amended certain training requirements in the hazardous liquid regulation. Also, it was emphasized that the ability to recognize and react to abnormal operating conditions is crucia
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Document ID: 63716918

Interface Detection In Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): Craig Mcwhorter
Abstract/Introduction:
The basic concept of interface detection is simple: detect and direct the flow of different fluids, or batches, through pipelines. The implementation, however, can be very complic ated. The goal of interface detection is to time the switching or cut of the product in such a way that deliv ers the maximum quantity of pr oduct to customers without downgrading the quality of the product. In the case of transmix, the goal is to minimize the quantity of fluid requiring re-refining. In order to av oid the potential contamination of any prod uct by the interface, operators tend to be conservative in cutting batches, but this can resu lt in increased product downgrade or sending some on- spec product to the slop tank. With the large mix and hi gh cost of todays specialty fuels, accurate interface detection is key to maximizing profits.
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Document ID: 79BD00EA

Multiphase Flow Measurement
Author(s): Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of unprocessed hydrocarbon flows is be coming more prevalent in the hydrocarbon production industry. Multiphase meters are now often integral in the design plans for new developments. However, the phrase multi-phase flow covers a huge range of flow conditions and metering these varied flows has proven a major challenge to engineers. Furthermore, due to the re latively recent arrival of these technologies on the market, and, the relatively complex and proprietary nature of the products leading to the finer details of operation not being divulged, there is often a lack of technical under standing amongst the multiphase meter users. In this paper, definitions of the phrases multi phase flow and wet gas flow will be discussed. There will be a discussion on the requirement for multiphase metering before multipha se flow patterns and the methods of predicting them are discussed. Finally, an overview of the common multiphase meter gen eric principles will be give
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Document ID: 7DF34446

Odorization Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Kenneth S. Parrott
Abstract/Introduction:
in the one hundred and thirty years, or so that we have known natural gas as a fuel source in the United States, the demand for natural gas has grown at an astounding rate . There is virtually no area of North America that doesnt have natural gas provided as an energy source. The methods of producing, transporting, measuring, and delivering this valuable resource have advanced, and impr oved in direct relation to the demand for a clean burning and efficient fuel. While todays economic climate determines the rate of growth the gas industry enjoys, in a broad sense, natural gas is certainly co nsidered essential and a fuel of the future
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Document ID: 52036264

Orifice Meter Tube Dimensional Tolerances
Author(s): Michelle Beckner
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter is one of the older devices that is utilized in the measurement and regulation of f luid flow. Romans regulated water flows to their homes by the use of orifice. Benoulli, Torricelli, and Venturi, discovered the original concept that the pressure of a flowing fluid varies as its velocity changes. When a flowing fluid is made to speed up by restricting the cross - sectional area of the flow stre am, a portion of the pressure energy is converted into velocity energy and the pressure drops. Using this relationship with the fact that the quantity of the fluid flowing is equal to the product of t he velocity times the cross - sectional area of the flow stream we can have flow measurement in the orifice meter. In order to correlate the theoretical flow with actual flow concepts there became a need for basic discharge - coefficient research to actually u tilize these theories in custody transfer of products. In the early part of the last century t he American Gas Association (AGA) established the Gas Measurement Committee to do just such
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Document ID: 56501D4A

Program For Training A Gas Measurement Technician
Author(s): Tracy Farkas
Abstract/Introduction:
Training is an essential part of any em ployees toolkit for their daily jobs an d without it employees will struggle to do their job in an efficient and successful manner. Historic ally, companies utilized one size fits all trainings to solve issues with underperforming employees. Presently, trai ning that is specifically tailored for job success is not only desired, but expected. Moreover, training is a key factor that drives organizational success. Accurate and consistent measurement of natural gas and liquids is a fund amental requirement of business, and it is core to safe operations, revenue, and credib ility with customers
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Document ID: 1E238574

The Effects Of Additives On Me Tering In Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): Joseph T. Rasmussen
Abstract/Introduction:
todays refined fuels are formulated using a recipe of chemical blending and complex processing. Current blends that make-up fuel & chemical s introduce new problems that challenge product quality and performance. Refined products can be altered or degrade prior use by secondary forces such as environment and handling. A wide range of performance and handling problems are minimized or resolved by use of chemical additives. Additives to fuel products are often included in the refining processes that addres s these problems. Fuels may require additional blending of additives separate from the refining process. The effect these additives have on liquid metering is variable based on their composition and concentration.
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Document ID: 8A92EF06

The Role Of Blm In Oil And Gas Measurement
Author(s): Richard Estabrook
Abstract/Introduction:
BLM manages about 700 million acres of Federal and Indian mineral estate, which contributes a significant portion of domestic oil and gas production. BLMs role in oil and gas measurement is to ensure that volumes and qualities are accurately measured and properly reported, as Federal and Indian royalty is derived from these measur ements. BLMs measurement requirements are dictated by Federal laws, from which BLM develo ps regulations, Onshore Orders, and Notices to Lessees. Most oil and gas measurement functions ar e carried out at the Field Office level through the approval of permits and variance requests. BLM inspects Federal and Indian measurement facilities to ensure compliance wi th regulations, Onshore Orders, and Notices to Lessees, as well as permit Conditions of Approval. BLM inspecto rs have various enforcement tools to ensure compliance. The public has the opportunity to comment on all proposed rulemaking, and parties adversely affected by specific deci sions have several avenues of appeal
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Document ID: 83F5C792

Meter Selection
Author(s): Robert Fritz
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to provide general guidelines & cr iteria for the evaluation & selection of a high pressure gas meter, including a discussion of the basic operating principles and installation and maintenance considerations. This paper will concentrate primarily on three high pressure/high volume custody transfer flow meters, Orifice, Ultrasonic and Turbi ne. A short discussion will be provided for other alternativ e types of flow meters and different gas stream conditions. When selecting a gas flow meter for pa rticular application remember that there is no one Panacea for flow measurement. No one meter is the right choice for all applications. The following general criteria need to be considered in evaluating which type of meter to select:
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Document ID: 857944E2

Cone Meters For Liquid And Gas Measurement
Author(s): Kenneth Reed, II
Abstract/Introduction:
cone Meters differ from other differential pressure type meters, such as Orifice Meters and Venturi Meters, basically by design only. They are all required to meet API Chapter 22.2 test criteria developed and published in 2005 and still being updated today. The Cone Meter is designed to measure liquid or gas. Cone Meters are proprietary in design and have limited third party testing due to patented designs and length of use in the Industry . The Orifice Meter is the oldest meter of the three that we will discuss and has the most third party flow lab test data available . The Venturi Meter history has mostly been utilized for liquids and steam. The Venturi is also known to preform very well in harsh flows, such as sewage, waste water and pulp due to its free flowing design . In rec ent years Venturis are more commonly being used for LNG & CNG due to the ability to construct them from a wide variety of materials
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Document ID: 42C16D2C

Measurement Scene Investigations
Author(s): Casey Hodges
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many ways to measure hydrocarbons. M easurements may be performed on liquids, gases, or multiphase fluids. Measurement may be made utilizing orif ice plates, ultrasonic meters, Coriolis meters, or a host of other meter types. After the actual meter, there is se condary instrumentation involved from transmitters to flow computers and SCADA systems. With so many components to a flow measurement system, determining the root cause of measurement discrepancies becomes a forensic exercise.
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Document ID: 2B9C8273

1 Measurement Policies And Procedures - Development And Implementation Considerations
Author(s): Bruce Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
With proper consideration and with buy-in from st akeholders, well designed and documented measurement practices help reduce company costs. Cost reducti ons include those associated wi th Lost-and-Unaccounted-for (L&U), asset maintenance, and labor. Furthermore, good measurement procedures help employees perform safely and effectively and help support stable, predictable measurement processes. In this paper, we will discuss: ? What happens when measurement practices are not effective? ? What are the metrics to determine if measurement practices need improvement? ? Why do policies and procedures fail? ? When should policies and procedures be reviewed and updated? ? Who is responsible for creating and maintaining policies and procedures? ? How do policies and procedures get effectively communicated?
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Document ID: 3C30CF7F

Benefits Around Timely An Alysis Of Measurement Data
Author(s): Lacey Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to have timely measurement data has grown cons iderably over the years due to the age of electronic flow measurement, contracts, and competition. Timely data allows companies to more effectively and efficiently operate their systems, determine shortfalls, and meet the needs of their customers. Electronic flow measurement reviewed on an hourly granular ity has 744 records per month on a 31 day calendar. If you process approximately 10,000 measurement sites, y ou could potentially review some 7,444,000 records. We will discuss various processes to identify potentially in valid or incorrect transactional data and push that data to those analyzing and review ing the information. This will reduce the time is takes to analyze the data, thus enabling internal and external customers down stream of measurement to use the data
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Document ID: 6D587F3A

Measurement Management Systems
Author(s): Duane Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Today the measurement system provid es the critical layer of measurement data integrity required to meet the overall measurement accuracy for an organization due to its direct impact on the bottom line. In addition, measurement management systems ensure compliance with both regulatory and industry requirements. The integrity of measurement data must re late directly to the validation of all data received and processed by the m easurement group. When validation parameters are configured properly, t hey can provide significant time savings for the measurement group. Many organizations, however, c onfigure validation limits too tightly, which may trigger an excessive number of exceptions and mask r eal issues. In the other hand, if the validation criteria limits are too wide, exceptions based on f aulty operations of the facility may go unrecognized.
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Document ID: 6CFFCB88

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Philip A. Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
he Turbine Flow Meter is a velocity measuring device that has been used for many y ears in natural gas service. This paper will focus on the basic theory, operating pr inciples, performance characteristics and installation requirements used in natural gas turbine meter applications. A discussion of fundamental turbine meter terminology is also included in the paper. The Turbine Me ter is a volumetric integrated device which means it does not measure the flow rate directly but infers it fr om the speed of rotation of a centrally mounted multi-bladed turbine rotor. It comprises of a bladed rotor either flat or helical multi-bladed, sometimes helical twin bladed designs are used usually for liquid applications and onl y as per the requirement of the fluid viscosity being measured
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Document ID: 02B1B11F

Contributors To Historical Advances In Natural Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jeremiah Gage
Abstract/Introduction:
To understand todays technical advances in natural gas fl ow measurement, it is important to know how and why certain technologies were developed. This paper recogni zes key contributors from a historical prospective and a tribute to these individuals who laid the foundation fo r others to succeed in the hydrocarbon industry. Gentlemen such as William Hart and Preston Barmore whom beg an the natural gas industry with a 27 foot well, the innovative mind of Thomas Weymouth and his tests wi th orifice plates, and Don Mayeaux whose hard work and creativity with gas sampling techniques, all made a vast contribution to the industry. These individuals will be the focus in this paper
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Document ID: 841B48B9

Fundamentals Of Catalytic Heaters In Measurement Applications
Author(s): Chad Richards
Abstract/Introduction:
Catalytic heaters are used in several areas within the natural gas industry. They are commonly used to prevent liquid distillation and freezing in natural gas, to heat a work space, to maintain operating temperatures on equipment or to maintain required measurement conditions of a natural gas sample. As relevant to measurement applications, this paper will cover the principals of catalytic heater function, installation and operation.
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Document ID: 50239453

Cyber Security
Author(s): Grant Van Hemert
Abstract/Introduction:
It seems like every day the news is talking about another cy ber security attack. But, are we truly vulnerable, or is this threat overblown? The truth is a little of both. In the areas we are vulnerable, how do we address this? Can we use the same techniques that are used by Informat ion Technology (IT) department s, or are control systems somehow different? If they are different, then how do we approach security? This paper answers all of this
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Document ID: EBF08377

Installation And Operation Errors In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr Dr. Thomas B. Morrow
Abstract/Introduction:
Installation errors may occur when an instrument is used in a manner different from how it was calibrated. For example, suppose that a temperature sensor is calibrated in a stirred, constant temperature bath. During calibration, the sensor is in thermal equilibrium with the circulating fluid, and the fluid and sensor temperatures are the same. Next, let the same sensor be used to measure the temperature of natural gas flowing through a pipe at low velocity. If the pipe wall temperature is different from the flowing gas temperature, convection heat transfer will occur between the gas and the pipe wall, radiation heat transfer will occur between the pipe wall and the sensor, and convection heat transfer will occur between the sensor and the flowing gas. In this example, the sensor would not be in thermal equilibrium with the flowing gas and the sensor temperature would be different from the flowing gas temperature.
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Document ID: 7F8EFCEF

Understanding Hazardous Area Classifications
Author(s): Irvin Schwartzenburg
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for increased workplace safety has created many regulations over the year s and perhaps one of the earliest, most beneficial and yet often confused regulations deals with the prevention of explosions. In the US, the development of a system to classify an area as hazardous, or not, is credited to the early needs of the mining industry. Tragic coal mine explosions around the turn of the century were directly related to companies deploying electrical devices in the mines. While today virtua lly everyone has a basic common knowledge relating to electrical safety, and to us it seems obvious that electr icity can cause sparks, one ha s to wonder what it was like to the common person over 120 years ago who may have never seen something as simple as an electric light. Thus, the area classification system we know today began with the need to deal with the use of electrical devices such as bells and lights in the presence of hazardous atmospheres found in coal mines rich with methane gas and carbon dust.
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Document ID: 9C1E3729

Low Pressure Gas Measurement
Author(s): Philip A. Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
Many regions of the USA have many natural gas wells t hat are declining in both flow and pressure due to extensive exploitation and production over many years, horizo ntal drilling has brought ne w life to these regions however some production sites in a region may not be cap able to be rejuvenated which leaves them in a state of low output. These traditional wells which are showing symptoms of reduced pressure and flow-rates, may need to change the scope and design criteria of the me tering station or central receipt point (CRP) usually being designed around the API 14.3 - AGA 3 measurement standard for pipeline quality gas
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Document ID: AE932776

Measurement Economics
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
Before we get waist deep into science and technology and economics and variability in return rates based upon the intransient effects of Federal Reserve interest rate and debt management policy on petroleum commodity markets and related no - fault based derivative securities: A neutron walks into a bar and or ders a drink. What do I owe you? the neutron ask s the bartender. For you ? N o charge ! An electron sitting at the other end of the bar jumps up with outrage and yells at the bartender .... Why does he drink for free and I have to pay? Because y oure always so negative ! barks the bartender . The electron turns to the attractive proton sitting next to him and asks .... Am I really negative ? Yes sa id the proton. Are you sure? Im absolutely positive
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Document ID: 3AE04DA1

Mass Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Stan Calame
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early 1980s, Coriolis meters have gained worldw ide acceptance in gas, liquid, and slurry applications with an installed base of more than one million units. Through significant design enhancements in the early 1990s Coriolis meters have rapidly gained worldwide acceptanc e in gas phase applications with over 120,000 meters installed worldwide and most notably the 2003 publication of AGA Report Number 11, Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis Meter. Having the ability to bidirectionally measure almost any gas phase fluid from -400 to +400 degrees Fahrenheit without concern of error or damage due to flow prof ile disturbances, pulsations, regulator noise, surges, compressibility change, and density change, Coriolis meters are becoming the fiscally responsible meter of choice in many applications
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Document ID: D9473E2F

Measurement Station Inspection Program And Guide
Author(s): Robert J. Rau
Abstract/Introduction:
oday, lets discuss an important phase of everyday planning for the Measurement personnel. A test and inspection guide is a corporations plan to meet government regulations. DOT requires pipelines to have a written operating and maintenance plan. This plan must meet the minimum federal standards and cover various phases of operations. A company may include items above the minimum federal standards but they must operate according to the plan they prepare. In plain words, what you write you must be ready to live and operate by whether they just meet the DOT minimums or exceed the DOT requirements and this becomes the company bible. The last item to remember is that as field personnel you must perform the required inspections, complete properly the administrative records to document and prove that required tests were made
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Document ID: D74812B7

Ultrasonic Meter Basics Class # 1220.1
Author(s): Martin Schlebach
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic meters have been used in ga s custody transfer measurement worldw ide for over 25 years with varying degrees of success. Initial attempts proved unstable and ma intenance intensive, this was contrary to the initial expectations which foresaw a device with little or no obs truction, limitless turndown and little to no required maintenance. The advent of higher speed, more robust el ectronics enabled the use of digital signal processing which eliminated the need for analog threshold levels and the constant problem of peak skipping and lost timing. The improved electronics also enabled the implementation of large internal logs, advanced diagnostics, improved communications and overall stability, all of which increased user confidence in the ultras onic technology.
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Document ID: 9C454D43

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): Arthur Farve
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to the cost of production and transfer of natural gas, the industry has demanded a higher level of accuracy and an economical method for measurement . Orifice fittings and meter tubes satisfy this demand for most natural gas measurement applications today. The level of accuracy achieved in orifice measurement has been continually refined and improved upon since it was first put to use for measurement of petroleum products. The accuracy of orifice measurement is controlled by published standards currently AGA 3 Part 2 / API 14.3 April 2000 that define the requirements to achieve a known level of accuracy and eliminate error in measurement. The intent of this paper is to focus on the basics of orifice measurement.
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Document ID: 06C60E73

Orifice Meters Operations And Maintenance
Author(s): Steve Ecklund
Abstract/Introduction:
As most of you are aware the orifice fitting has been ar ound for many decades and is still today the industrys leading method of accurately and cost effectively measuring natural gas. Now we have seen some dimensional changes, tolerance c hanges, and things of that nature but overall we are still able to use the same technology today as we did decades ago, and with great accuracy. Orifice Fitting and Meter Tube manufacturers have come up with a few really cool ideas that they have incorporated into their designs. Today we would like to run you through the proper operation of both the standard Dual Chamber (DC) unit as well as the newest offering of orifice meter to hit the industry, the Double Block and Bleed orifice fitting or (DBB).
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Document ID: 474E9554

Thermometry In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jorge A. Delgado
Abstract/Introduction:
The temperature in natural gas is dynamic, when gas molecules are compressed they heat up, and as they expand after flowing through a restriction it cools down. Ga s temperature it is also affected by external elements such as the temperature of the pipe. It is also good to note that the greater the temperature measurement error, the higher the measurement uncertainty becomes
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Document ID: 054FFE04

Wet Gas Measurement
Author(s): Philip A Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
Wet gas measurement is becoming widely used in the mode rn oil and gas market place. The effect of entrained liquid in gas and its impact on measurement systems is be ing researched world wide by various laboratories and JIP working groups. The impact can be very significant financially. The subject is quite large and encompasses many differ ent concepts, meter types and opinions, with many new ideas being brought to the forefront each year as more research is done. From upstream applications to midstream measurement issues caused by liquid drop out in the pipelines were gas gathering systems are used. The issue of entrained gas is becoming a big issue! Sma ll quantities of hydrocarbon liqui d in a gas sample stream can have a large impact on the BTU value analysis and cause large losses or gains depending on which side of the fence you are.
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Document ID: B82F995B

Flow Conditioning For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Blaine Sawchuk Rick Rans
Abstract/Introduction:
The most important aspects of flow measurement are the flow conditions within the pipe upstream of a meter. Flow conditions refer to: the velocity profile, irregularities in th e profile, varying turbulence levels within the velocity or turbulence intensity profile, sw irl and any other fluid flow characteris tics which will cause the meter to register flow different than that expected.
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Document ID: 2D0FDF4B

Contaminant Accumulation Effect On Gas Ultrasonic Flow Meters
Author(s): Ed Hanks
Abstract/Introduction:
eters, two Daniel meters and two Inst romet meters, that were recalibrated at the CEESI Iowa facility. From CEESIs experience with recalibrations of contaminated meters, the results of these four meters are typical. Due to the relative newness of the other brands of meters in the US market, CEESI does not have recalibration data available for this paper and thus other brands are not included. The four meters discussed in the paper are labeled me ters A through D. Meters A and B are Instromet Q3 meters. Meter A is an 8 meter and B is a 10 meter. Me ters C and D are Daniel SeniorSonic meters. Meter C is a 10 meter and D is a 12 meter. As with most cleaning and recalibration projects, the process was not as simple as collecting as found data, cleaning, and then recalibrat ing. The data includes changing a transducer on the C meter and changing the whole set of transducers on the D me ter. The data also includes the effects of debris in front of the flow conditioner on the B meter
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Document ID: CB374698

He Impact Of Greenhouse Gas Measurement How Recent Regulations Impact The Measurement Of Greenhouse Gases
Author(s): Jim Tangeman
Abstract/Introduction:
The regulatory environment affecting the oil and gas (O &G) industry over the last two years has been rapidly changing and expanding. Unfortunately, the majority of regulatory changes have generally not been favorable to the industry. Among these regulatory developments, a key one has been the issuance of the first ever federal greenhouse gas (GHG) mandatory reporting regulation (MRR). The first set of these federal regulations was issued by the US Environmental Pr otection Agency (USEPA) on October 30, 2009 under 40 CFR Parts, 86, 87, 89 et al. encompassing a large variety of industries ac ross the country. A subsequent set of regulations was issued on November 30, 2010 and this second set of regulations issued under 40 CFR 98, Subpart W encompasses all sectors of the O&G i ndustry from wellhead to burner tip
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Document ID: B931739D

Measurement And Regulation Of An Ldc Day-To-Day Operations Of An Ldc, Including Measurem Ent And Regulation Techniques
Author(s): Paul R. Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
aking a brief trip back in time, the first documen ted commercial utilization of natural gas happened around 1,000 B.C. The famous Oracle at Delphi on Mount Parnassu s in ancient Greece was built where natural gas see ped from the ground and used by the flame. In recent t imes, around 1785, the British used natural gas pro duced from coal to light streets and houses. In North America , William Hart dug the first successful natural gas well in the U.S. in Fredonia, New York. Eventually, the Fredon ia Gas Light Company was formed, which became the f irst natural gas local gas distribution company or also know today as LDC.
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Document ID: A6022205

Flare Measurement Using Advanced Ultrasonic Technology
Author(s): John Daly
Abstract/Introduction:
ltrasonic transit time technology has been established as the preferred method for Flare Gas flow measurement with thousands of units installed worldwide in process plants and refineries, both on and offshore. With new regulatory requirements around total emissions either im plemented or expected around the world, there is a requirement for more precise flare flow measurement report ing. This presents particular technical challenges for ultrasonic flowmeters when (1) there are extremely low fl are flow rates (0.3 m/s and below) during normal, or base load flaring and (2) upstream and downstream straight pipe lengths to manufacturers recommendations are either not possible or extremely costly to pr ocure. Low flare flow measurement is influenced by asymmetric convection flow and stratification. Limited upstream and downstream straight pipe lengths cause flow profile asymmetry and create inaccuracy of measurement
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Document ID: 40F45394

New Differential Producing Meters - Ideas, Implementation, And Issues
Author(s): Casey Hodges
Abstract/Introduction:
here are several relatively new differential producing meters that are available for end users. Each meter claims to have advantages over other meter types, specifically orifice meters. Meter types discussed include cone meters, Venturi meters, multi-ported averaging pitot tubes , multi-holed orifice plates, and diagnostic differential meters. This paper is intended to be used by purchasers of these meters to help them obtain the best meter for their application. The operating principles of these meters will be explored. Th is paper will look at the claims that the manufacturers of these meters make in terms of accuracy, required upstream lengths, and diagnostic capabilities. Another import ant aspect of these meters is industrys reaction to these meters. Should these meters be included in standards documentation? What dat a needs to be collected to properly develop standards, and what standards exist to help devel op these meters? Additionally, the implementation of these meters and metering systems is discussed with th e intent of developing syst em uncertainties. From a calibration facility perspective, many issues have been obser ved with differential metering systems. Several of these issues will be discussed in detail along with their associated implications
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Document ID: 1857BAE3

Effects Of Atmospheric Pressure On Gas Measurement
Author(s): Denis Rutherford
Abstract/Introduction:
ne of the often overlooked or misunderstood paramete rs in upstream gas measurement is the atmospheric pressure input. To correctly configure any Electronic Fl ow Measurement (EFM) device to calculate a corrected volume, the static pressure at the meter run must be input to the calculations as an absolute pressure value. Since the absolute pressure is defined as the sum of t he gauge pressure and the atmospheric pressure at the site, proper EFM setup requires that the atmospheric pr essure be accurately determined for each metering location. This paper discusses the differences betw een gauge and absolute pressure sensors, methods of determining the atmospheric pressure at a loca tion, and effects on measurement accuracy
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Document ID: 81B82205

Basics Of Gas Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses basic diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USM), and how capabilities built into todays electronics can identify problems that may have gone undetected in the past. It primarily discusses fiscal- quality, multi-path USMs and does not cove r issues that may be different with non-fiscal meters as they are often single path designs. Although USMs basically work the same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in AG A 9 Ref 1. However, some provide more advanced features that can be used to help identify issues such as blocked flow conditioners and gas compositional errors. This paper focuses on the Westinghouse and British Ga s configurations (both being chordal designs) and the information presented here may or may not be applicable to other path designs
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Document ID: D439BF02

Advanced Gas Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
his paper discusses advanced diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USM), and how capabilities built into todays electronics can identify problems that may have gone undetected in the past. It primarily discusses fiscal- quality, multi-path USMs and does not cove r issues that may be different with non-fiscal meters as they are often single path designs. Although USMs basically work the same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in AG A 9 Ref 1. However, some provide more advanced features that can be used to help identify issues such as blocked flow conditioners and gas compositional errors. This paper focuses on the Westinghouse and British Ga s configurations (both being chordal designs) and the information presented here may or may not be applicable to other path designs
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Document ID: 73525397

Condition-Based Monitoring Of Natural Gas Ultrasonic Measurement Facilities
Author(s): Ed Hanks
Abstract/Introduction:
During the past several years the use of ultrasonic mete rs (USMs) has gained worldwide acceptance for fiscal applications. The many benefits of USMs have been docume nted in papers at virtually every major conference. The significance of knowing the ultrasonic meter is o perating accurately has never been more important. The use of diagnostics to help identify metering issues has been di scussed in several papers at many conferences Ref 1, 2 & 3. USM technology has played a key role in reducing Los t and Un-Accounted For (LUAF) numbers. However, like any technology, the client must underst and the meters diagnostics in order to validate it is working correctly. Due to mergers, acquisitions, changes in technology and purchasing preferences within an organization, this can be extremely difficult as technicians often encounter multip le manufacturers equipment. Thus, what is needed is a system that can monitor the USMs health, regardless of manufacturer, and provide a single report to the client when problems occur.
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Document ID: CB32618A

Application Of Densitometer To Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Albert Herrera
Abstract/Introduction:
Density is a physical property of matter defined as mass per unit volume. Density is a vital indicator of properties used in measurement of gases, liquids, or solids. The m easurement of density is required in many applications in the hydrocarbon industry for mass and volume flow me asurement, interface detection, quality control, and concentration measur ement. This paper will address liquid dens ity measurement, sensor accuracy and performance, as well as its relationship to flow and totals.
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Document ID: 51EC8950

Application Of Turbine Meters In Liquid Measurement
Author(s): David Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine Meters are used successfully and applied worl dwide in the petroleum industry. Its compact size, rangeability, low cost of ow nership, superior accuracy, wide temperature and pressu re range makes it attractive for liquid hydrocarbon measurement. While there are many advantages there are also weaknesses of a turbine meter such as flow conditioning requirement, back pressure control, high viscosity liquids, and susceptibility to fouling and deposits. Turbine meters are often found measuri ng light crude oils, refined products (gasoline, diesel, jet fuel) and light hydrocarbons (LPG and NGL). This paper will discuss pipeline metering utilizing conventional Turbine flowmeters for liquid measurement.
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Document ID: AE80E69A

Automated Truck Loading
Author(s): Matthew Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
Bulk storage facilities, often referred to as distribut ion terminals, must load and unload liquid product between storage tanks, railcars, tank trucks, and barges. The transfer of petroleum products has become a conern in areas such as safety, security, measurement accuracy, and regulatory requirements. Due to the advancement of electronic systems, improvements have been made in thes e areas. This report will focus on useful preset features and the types of blending that are available using an electronic preset . Blending configurations that will be covered include the sequential blender, the ratio blende r, the side stream blender, and the hybrid blender
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Document ID: 58D17CED

Calculation Of Liquid Petroleum Quantities
Author(s): Calculation Of Liquid Petroleum Quantities Class 2050 Peter W Kosewicz
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Petroleum industry as hydrocarbons are purchased, sold or transferred there are two key elements that must be determined. These elements are the quantity and quality of the hydrocar bon in question. This paper will address one of those element s, the determination of the quantity of the hydrocarbon in the transaction. The determination of the quantity of hy drocarbon can be further subdivided into: Static quantity determination and Dynamic quantity determination Static quantity is determined when the hydrocarbon is measured under non-flowing conditions, such as when contained in a tank, rail car, truck or vessel. Conv ersely Dynamic quantity det ermination occurs when the hydrocarbon is measured under flowing conditions.
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Document ID: ED2E16F1

Crude Oil Blending
Author(s): Brian Betts
Abstract/Introduction:
Blending of Crude oils is a process of mixing two or more crude petroleum components together and is done to improve the overall value or quality of the blend. The reasons vary but may be done to improve pipeline capacity, improve the value of the blend or to help a refinery improve the product yield from its processes. Blending operations can be expensive requiring pumps, meters, tanks etc. Consideration must be given to the cost of infrastructure, cost of diluent, and what measureable property will you use e.g. Viscosity or API gravity. Questions that must be answered include: How will the pay back occur? Will the value of the product be increased? Will the pipeline work more efficiently? Can you blend on someone elses behalf and charge a blending fee?
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Document ID: BD918F4D

Crude Oil Gathering By Truck - Metering Versus Manual Gauging
Author(s): John W. Brackett
Abstract/Introduction:
Forty years ago Americans were entranced with a song that seemed to sum up the hopes and fears of the nations citizens. The lyrics ca rry the un-dying truth that ...the times they are a-changing. Mr. Dylans words remind us that things come and go and are at the heart of the debate regarding Manual Gauging versus Metering. The source of this change st ems from the need to limit or eliminate the release of toxins and other noxious gasses into the air from lease tanks. The debate must now focus on this new trend and find a method to enable crude gathering in a manner that is cost effective and workable for the producer and the buyer.
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Document ID: 956F178C

Design, Operation & Maintenance Of Lact Units
Author(s): Christopher Levy
Abstract/Introduction:
Reliable hydrocarbon transportation from supply to demand is among the most critical factors in sustaining our way of life. When entering or exiting a transportation network, hydrocarbons are measured for environmental protection and accounting systems. A Lease Automatic Custody Transfer (LACT) Unit is a metering point at a lease or production facility through whi ch hydrocarbons are being measured, while unattended, for sale from one party, such as a production company, to another party, such as a pipeline company. The purpose of the LACT Unit is to determine the volume of hydrocarbons inje cted into a transportation network. The term LACT Unit is predominantly used to refer to a unit at a production facility that automatically measures crude oil being injected into a pipeline system or storage terminal prior to do wnstream delivery to a refinery for processing however, much of the content covered in this paper applies universally to hydrocarbon flow metering.
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Document ID: 71F4A950

Displacement Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Dick Mathers
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper explores the strengths, weaknesses and inhe rent design principles that are relevant to positive displacement meters. It also highlights the parameters co nsidered in order to provide accurate meter & meter system selection
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Document ID: 98B89338

Effects Of Flow Conditioning For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Blaine D. Sawchuk
Abstract/Introduction:
the intent of this paper is to illumina te some steadfast paradigms or misconce ptions regarding flow measurement in liquids and gases. By educating our industry into the commonality and differences between the two phases, one can come away realizing that at a fundamen tal level, there are no differences. A fluid is a fluid , not gas phase liquid phase. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD ) and physics is utilized to explain. Flow metering standards are considered. A more comprehe nsive bibliography is provided as well to assist in reference material procurement. It is common i n introductory physics to divide materials into the three classes of solids, liquids, and gases, noting their different behavior when placed in a container. This is a handy classificati on in thermodynamics, for example, because of the strong differences in state relations among the three. In fluid mechanics, however, there are only two classes of matter fluids and non fluids (solids). Copied from Viscous Flui d Flow, Frank M. White, 3 rd edition page 15
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Document ID: 759065C1

Effects Of Petroleum Properti Es On Pipeline Measurement
Author(s): Jeff Lantz
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of liquid hydroc arbons in most pipelines is done on a stand ard volume basis or by mass. These dynamic measurement points typically are custody transfer and are the c ash register measurements between the two parties involved in the transactions. In this application measurement accuracy is critical. Additional product accountability can be achieved using Real Time dynamic measur ements. The volume or mass measurements must account for the entir e liquid product received or delivered in order to track and determine if product is being lost or gained. Several fluid proper ties can change the accuracy of this measurement and knowing how they impact t he measurement is crucial to its integrity. This paper will focus on dynamic measurement or measurement by metering and discuss seve ral fluid properties and their affects on measured results involving the common types of metering technologies used today
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Document ID: B6CFD9C6

Dense Phase Fluid Measurement
Author(s): Fred G. Van Orsdol
Abstract/Introduction:
Many people in the industry, including probably most me asurement specialists, have no experience with the measurement of dense phase fluids (i f you dont count water). When the un-initiated are asked to develop or operate such a system, they tend to re peat the same mistakes others have made over and over due to trying to treat the streams like natural gas liquids or liquefied petrol eum gases (NGLs or LPGs). Hopefully, this paper will assist the un-initiated reader av oid some of those mistakes. Although definitions can be boring, I would like to cover a few that will help the student be sure they understand the fluid properties unique to dense phase fluids and ev entually clarify the unique handling these fluids require. Dense Phase Fluids, often referred to as supercritical flui ds, by definition, are simply those fluids that are above their critical point at operating conditions.
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Document ID: CA5BB5A8

Evaporation Loss Measurem Ent From Storage Tanks
Author(s): Eric Stricklin
Abstract/Introduction:
Evaporation from fixed and floating roof storage tanks is a major source of product loss in the crude oil industry. Evaporation is a natural phenomenon describing when a liqui d turns into a gas. A liquid will tend to evaporate depending on its vapor pressure. A liquids vapor pr essure is dependent on the surface temperature and composition of the liquid. Evaporation losses should be minimized to help maximize company revenue, meet regulatory requirements, and reduce greenhouse gas emis sions. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), state, and local government s are implementing stricter regulati ons on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions which resu lt from storage tank evaporation. The accurate quantification of evaporative losses fr om storage tanks is imperative given the impact to the companys bottom line and the environment. The American Petroleum Instit ute Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (API MPMS) Chapter 19 details equations for estimating the average annual evaporation loss from storage tanks. These equations are based on test tank and field tank data and have been revised since initial publication for more accurate estimations.
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Document ID: 20D95257

Fundamentals Of Liquid Measurement - Part 1
Author(s): David Beitel
Abstract/Introduction:
Correct measurement practices are established to minimize uncertainty in the determination of the custody transfer volume (or mass) of products. Understanding and evaluation of the fundamental cause and effect relationships with the liquid to be measured will lead to a volume determination that most closely matches the true volume at the referenced standard pressure and temperature. When designing a new measurement station it is up to us as measurement people, to understand the product to be measured, apply the correct equipment, and implement the appropriate correction equations.
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Document ID: E44590A6

Fundamentals Of Liquid Measurement II
Author(s): Doug Arrick
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurements of liquid petroleum can be performed with the liquid in a static or dynamic state. Custody measurements are made in both states. Static measurements of petroleum liquids are made with the liquid in a tank. This paper will discuss the steps required to calibrate, gauge and sample tanks. These are the steps necessary to measure liquid petroleum in a static state
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Document ID: 2561824C

Fundamentals Of Liquid Measurement III - Dynamic
Author(s): Peter W Kosewicz
Abstract/Introduction:
Weve learned when measuring crude oil or any hydrocarbo n that liquids expand and contract with increases and decreases in temperature. The liquid volume also decrease s when pressure is applied. All these effects are part of the physical properties of liquid petroleum fluids. In addition to the effects of te mperature and pressure on the liquid and their indicated volume, the container in whic h the liquid is measured also changes the volume it contains at different temperature and pressures. These changes must also be accounted for in determining the true volume being transferred. We learned in Fundam entals of Liquid Measurement I how these physical properties effect the measurement of liquid hydrocarbons. The objective of either static measurement or dynamic measurements is to determine the quantity and qualit y of hydrocarbons transferred. However these measurements are rarely performed at the standard condi tions discussed in Fundamentals I, therefore not only must temperature be measured, but also density, sedim ent and water, vapor pressure, flowing pressure and viscosity must be measured
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Document ID: B32E6E34

Fundamentals Of Liquid Turbine Meters
Author(s): Andrew Barry
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine meters have been used for the custody transfer of refined petroleum products an d light crude oils for over 50 years. When correctly applied, they offer high accura cy and long service life over a wide range of products and operating conditions. Traditionally turbine meters were used for the measurement of low viscosity liquids and PD meters for higher viscosities. However, new developments in turbine meter technology are pushing these application limits while increasing reliability and accuracy. This paper will examine the fundamental principles of turbine meter measurement as well as new developments including: smart preamps for real-time diagnostics, helical turbine meters for higher viscosity applications, high performance flow conditioners to increase accuracy, and viscosity compensation to extend the application limits
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Document ID: C7A7EB72

Gauging, Testing And Ru Nning Of Lease Tanks
Author(s): Jane Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
Many production sites do not have metering facilities for custody transfer. Metering facilities require additional capital expenditures but minimize the labor costs over the lif e of the lease. If metering is not available at the field location the custody transfer measurement is generally performed by manual tank gauging. In this case, after gauging the tank can be emptied into a truck or into a pipe line. Another method which is used occasionally is to have a meter on the truck which serves as the custody transfer. However, t he majority of locations which do not have a LACT (Lease Automatic Custody Transfer) Unit utilize the tank gauge method as the means of custody transfer
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Document ID: 691A6857

Helical Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Jim Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine meters have been used for the custody transfer of refined petroleum products an d light crude oils for over 50 years. When correctly applied, they offer high accura cy and long service life over a wide range of products and operating conditions. Traditionally, turbine meters were used for the measurement of low viscosity liquids and positive displacement meters for higher viscosity fluids. However, new developments in turbine meter technology are pushing these application limits while increa sing reliability and accuracy. This paper will examine the fundamental differences between conventional and helic al turbine meter measurement. It will also discuss flow conditioning, helical meter proving and viscosity co mpensation to extend turbine meter application limits.
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Document ID: C76F0DFD

Installation And Operation Of Densitometers
Author(s): Corky Atchison
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of Densitometers is wide spread over many different industries. These range from food & beverage industries to petro-chemical & pipeline transmission. This pa per will be coveri ng installation and operation of densitometers with regards to the petroleum pipeline industry. In this area, the densitometer is used to determine various specifics of the transmitted product in the pipeline. They are used to monitor flowing density of non-custody transfer s, fluid mix interfaces, cu stody transfers, and other applications. This paper will mostly cover the recommended insta llation and operation of densitometers for custody transfer applications. We will review the standa rds for density measurement found in API Standards Chapter 14.8 and 14.6.
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Document ID: 75832A18

Leak Detection On Petroleum Pipelines
Author(s): Randall Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
Early interest in pipeline leak detection was probably born of a desire to prevent interruption of fluid delivery in early open conduits carrying water from its source at high elevation to its destination in the valley. As technology improved and wooden, then lead, pipes carried water under head pressure, the consistent behavior of the flow stream at the delivery point provided evidence of good pipeline integrity. Stepping forward many years, fluids have expanded in types and number, as has the cost of fluid loss in terms of its commercial value, damage resulting from its release, and cost of remediation. Hydrocarbons of many forms are transported safely and efficiently by pipelines compared to railroads or trucks over long and short distances. However, on occasions sufficiently rare that they are not expected, leaks occur.
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Document ID: A7DCF265

Liquid Measurement Field Surveys
Author(s): Miles Chaney
Abstract/Introduction:
A measurement field survey is an examination or research done to verify procedures, practices, equipment use, equipment installation, users training and user understanding of the importance of these things. It can be used to fix a problem or potential pr oblem as well as a health check of the asset. Unlike audits, which are merely done to verify that the co mpanys policies or contractual agreements are being followed, measurement field surveys are done as learni ng and teaching tools as well. Measurement field surveys can be performed by any qualified person or group, with the objective to understand and/or correct the things that are not satisfactory. We s hould also remember to give praise for what is being done correctly
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Document ID: 32ACE3E2

Liquid Measurement Station Design
Author(s): Al Odowd
Abstract/Introduction:
The industry continues to benefit fr om advancements in metering technol ogies, instrumentation and computer control systems applied to liquid measurement equipmen t. These advancements result in increasingly complex and sophisticated requirements for inte rfacing with the mechanical equipment. Complete compatibility of the instrumentation system with the mete ring components must be incorporated in the design to assure optimum functionality of the system. This paper outlines design considerations and other factors that should be considered in specification and construction of flow measurement stations for hydrocarbon liquids
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Document ID: 274A1122

Marine Crude Oil Termina L Measurement Systems
Author(s): Harold E. Osborn
Abstract/Introduction:
crude oil terminals are very important to our industry. We now import more than 50% of the raw material from which we make our gasoline, crude oil. This means that we must import several million barrels of crude oil per day. Since we have no pipelines running across the ocean floors of our planet, we have to transport that crude oil on marine vessels. This means that we have to be able to load and unload large vessels quickly and with a high degree of accuracy
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Document ID: A8B5518A

Mass Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquid Mixtures
Author(s): Eric Estrada
Abstract/Introduction:
the purpose of this paper is to review methods for dire ctly or indirectly determining the mass of Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) streams. NGLs by definition are hydr ocarbons liquefied by gas pr ocessing plants containing ethane, propane, butane, and natural gasoline.
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Document ID: F886579F

Coriolis Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Marsha Yon
Abstract/Introduction:
A meter utilizing the Coriolis force to measure mass flow was first patented in 1978. Today, hundreds of thousands of Coriolis meters are in service in the hydr ocarbon industry to measure both mass and volume of a wide variety of fluids. The American Petroleum Institut e published Chapter 5.6 entitled Measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbons by Coriolis Meters in October 2002. This standard describes methods to achieve custody transfer levels of accuracy when a Coriolis meter is used to measure liquid hydrocarbons. This paper will review the technology and convey differenc es in Coriolis meters and mechanical meters in an attempt to clarify some of the issues surrounding the use of Coriolis meters especially for custody transfer in the petroleum industry
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Document ID: CB90A6E6

Measurement Accuracy And Sources Of Error In Tank Gauging
Author(s): Dan Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
Upright cylindrical storage tanks ar e used not only to store liquid pe troleum between custody transfers for inventory purposes, but to measure the quantities of those transfers. As in all measurements for custody transfer, it is essential to identify the sources of error in th e measurement processes and to keep the impact of those sources to a minimum
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Document ID: 6FD82922

Shrinkage Losses Resulting From Liquid Hydrocarbon Blending
Author(s): J. H. Harry() James
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline integrity balance and custody transfer accuracy have been the focus of measurement specialists since the industry began trading and transporting liquid hydrocarbons . Even with the best volumetric measurement equipment, unaccounted for discrepancies still were occurri ng. Temperature, pressure and meter factor corrections were not enough to explain these discrepancies. Mathematicians have been telling us for centuries that one plus one equals two. In an ideal world of Newtonian physics this is the case but in the world of volume tric hydrocarbon measurement one plus one is usually less than two. However it can, in rare circumstances be great er than two. As stated in the Dec. 1967 edition of API Publication 2509C regarding the result of blending two different hydrocarbons, If the nature of the molecules of the components differ appreciably, then deviation from ideal behavior may be expected. This deviation may either be positive or negative that is, the total volu me may increase or decrease when components are blended. ..... Inasmuch as petroleum components contain molecule s of various sizes and weights, solutions of two separate components are seldom ideal. Consequently it is to be expected there may be a change in volume associated with the mixing or blending of petroleum co mponents of varying gravitie s and molecular structur
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Document ID: 5F5F513B

Measurement Of Cryogenic LNG
Author(s): Alastair Mclachlan
Abstract/Introduction:
With depletion of conventional oil reserves, natural gas is becoming an increasingly important source of energy for many countries. While some of the demand for nat ural gas can be met by domestic production or pipeline imports, many countries are becoming increasingly dependent on natural gas imports in the form of LNG. One county which is a very potent example of the importance of LNG, is Japan, which currently imports about 97% of its gas in the form of LNG. Imports to Japan, along with Korea, represent 53% of LNG supplied to the world market in 2012. In that year the largest producer of LNG was the State of Qatar exporting 77 MT or, almost 28% of global supply. . Figure 1 below shows the projected world trade flows lookin g forward to 2035. By then the projected volume of LNG traded will have increased 50% over the 2010 figure and account more than 25% of the worlds energy provision. In 2012 the world trade in LNG reached 282 MT
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Document ID: F951B2CC

Measurement Methods For Liquid Storage Tanks
Author(s): Robert Arias
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will provide, in general terms, an overview of the different technologies available to measure Net Standard Volumes in storage tanks. The Net Standard Volume (NSV) is used as the primary unit of measurement for custody transfer and/or Inventory Contro l. The Net Standard Volume (NSV) documents the agreement between the representatives of the interested parties (custody transfer) of the measured quantities and qualities of the transferred liquid.
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Document ID: 5A987EBA

Measurement Of Petroleum On Board Marine Vessels
Author(s): Juri Koern
Abstract/Introduction:
he process that calculates the volume of liquid petroleum loaded onto, or received from, a ship or barge is known as Custody Transfer Measurement. It is important to note that the custody transfer measurement is not determined by a single measurement. A series of measurements are taken, tests are performed and calculations are made before, during and after the transfer takes place in order to reach a Custody Transfer Measurement. The transferred volume is usually determined by calculating the difference between the volume measured before and after the transfer
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Document ID: F93A3839

Orifice Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Fred Van Orsdol
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice meters have been in common use for many decad es, but in the energy industry their use has been primarily in gas metering systems. This is interesting, in that much of the research to develop orifice meter factors (discharge coefficients) has been performed using oil, water, steam and air - as well as natural gas. Orifice meters used in liquid measurement systems pr ovide good accuracy without the requirement for meter proving as long as they are properly designed, installed, calibrated and maintained. If higher levels of accuracy are wanted, they can be proven using appropriate software and hardware and traditional meter proving systems
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Document ID: 6B4762C9

Pycnometer Installation, Operation And Calibration
Author(s): Paul Mullen
Abstract/Introduction:
this paper will discuss pycnometers used to calibrate densitometers. In using a pycnometer, you must have the correct scales, pressure gauges and thermometers. You will learn the steps necessary to install, operate and calibrate the instrument.
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Document ID: 97E3A7E7

Resolving Liquid Measurement Differences
Author(s): Jim Godbolb
Abstract/Introduction:
Before we begin a discussion resolv ing liquid measurement differences, lets take a quick and very basic look at what measurements are, and why they are so important to our industry. Websters defines measurement as: 1) th e act or process of m easuring 2) a figure, extent, or amount obtained by measurement. Mr. Webster could not have given us a better description of what we do as petroleum measurements technici ans. Our job is to obtain an accurate amount, or measurement, of a liquid using a process of measuring. The process used could be hand gauging a tank to determine liquid level, or using a turbine meter in a pipe line system to determine the amount of a liquid moved. We often say that measurements are the cash register of the industr y. Lets take a closer look at what is meant by measurements being a cash register
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Document ID: E8906CA7

Statistical Control Of Meter Factors - A Simplified Approach
Author(s): Dan Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
Statistical control is a tool for discer nment and communication. This paper will give a brief overview description of a simplified method for monitoring the performance of a flow meter and performing the same exercise on each meter in the system. The idea is to provide graphical assist ance, through the use of meter factor control charts in: (a) developing preventive maintenance programs (b) heightening awareness of a larm situations and, (c) reducing risk to the financial bottom line. Meter factor cont rol charts and logs make it easier to prepare reports to maintenance, operations, financial and executive managers from time to time and furthermore, they make it easier for the target audience to digest the points being made.
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Document ID: 6A167051

Troubleshooting Liquid Pipeline Losses And Gain
Author(s): Joseph T. Rasmussen Michael R. Plasczyk
Abstract/Introduction:
todays pipelines are multi-dimensional systems providing multiple services for many shippers and customers. Pipeline systems may connect multiple origins and destinations, and carry various products across long distances with changing profiles, pipe dimensions and directions . Monitoring pipeline losses and gains employs tools and analysis methods developed specifically to troubleshoot pi peline variances. Examination of pipeline losses and gains uses basic statistical tools as well as intuitive and creative insight into what controls losses and gains. The basic tool for evaluating system performance is Loss/Gain, a measure of how well receipts, deliveries and inventory match up over a period of time. The concept is similar to that used for leak detection, but usually covers a longer time period. Loss/gain is a measure of the quality of the overall measurement in a system, and excessive loss/gain can signal the need for an investigation to identify causes and develop corrective actions
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Document ID: 616E034A

Ultrasonic Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): David Dupuis Gary Astle
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic flow meter technology is becoming more and more prevalent in the market. As this technology is highly dependent on the flow profile during m easurement, one of the manufacturers main objectives is to calibrate in conditions as close as possible to the final installation c onditions. Factors to consider are but not limited to: fluid viscosity, temperature, pressure, flow rates and the piping geometry upstream of the me ter. For most Ultrasonic flowmeters, the performance requires the installation of a flow conditioning device upstream of the meter and operation in a specific Reynolds rang e. For some meters with a high number of ultrasonic paths or beams, the beam topology allows wider variation of flow conditions.
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Document ID: 1446A2DF

Viscosity And Its Application In Liquid Hydrocarbon Measurement
Author(s): Terry Cousins
Abstract/Introduction:
The effect of viscosity takes a variety of forms in its relationship to flow measurement. As a general rule low viscosity has less effect on the performance of flowmeters, although this is not totally true, for example, with positive displac ement meters. For most meters, as viscosity increases it has greater effects on meter performance, both in the operation and in the effect of the fluid passing through the meter. So, for example, as the viscosity of the fluid increases the chances of the fluid in the pipe being in the transition region or going into laminar gets greater. This can lead to measurement issues du e to the variations in flow profile and turbulent noise affecting the meter performance.
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Document ID: F208B2F5

Measuring High Viscosity Liquids With Flow Meters
Author(s): Stephen T. Steve() Stark
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquids having viscosities greater than around 100 centipoise (cP) are someti mes classified as high viscosity and present special measurement chall enges not found in lower viscosity liqui ds like water, natural gas liquids, gasoline, and many types of crude oil. Many different meter types are used to measure high viscosity fluids and their advantages and disa dvantages are fairly well studied and documented. However, one meter type, the quadrant-edged orifice meter, is not often discussed but offers advantages in some applications which should be considered. Compared to some of the more commonly used viscous flow meters, quadrant edges orifice meters offer a relatively inex pensive advantage especially in non-custody transfer and other non-crucial measurement applic ations because they do not require repeated flow calibrations and are completely non-proprietary
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Document ID: AF4865A8

Proving Liquid Meters With Microprocessor-Based Pulse Outputs
Author(s): Steve Whitman
Abstract/Introduction:
Meters with microprocessor-based pulse outputs or microprocessor-based meters (MBMs) have been on the market since late 1970. As each new meter was intr oduced to the industry, its technology was expected to revolutionize hydrocarbon measurement. There was no ex pectation that conventional verification techniques would challenge these new meters and limit their adoption by the industry. Yet, the procedures and processes to verify (prove) a meter with microprocessor-based pulse outputs have been the topic of discussion, contention, and development for more than thirty years. This paper will attempt to shed light on the merging of metering technologies with the proving process.
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Document ID: 7FCF7814

Operational Experience With Coriolis Meters
Author(s): James C. Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis meters are being widely used in the petroleum business, measuring product as light as hydrogen up through something as heavy as vacuum gas oil. Im agine the flexibility that a meter has to be capable of accurately measuring a product that is made up of the lightest molecule in existence, hydrogen, and still be capable of measuring peanut butter at a moments notice. T hat is pretty amazing in itself. Coriolis meters have changed considerably since their introduction into t he hydrocarbon business. Improvements in design, construction and the exponential improvements in electron ics have made them one of the most popular meters in the hydrocarbon industry. I will explain some of the hist ory of the meters, the selection, correct installations and operation, as well as some of my experienc e with them over the past 20+ years
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Document ID: 1D319DEB

Accuracy Diagnostics Of Liquid Ultrasonic Flow Meters
Author(s): Jim Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid ultrasonic flow meters are not new to the measur ement of crude oil, but over the last decade technology improvements have enabled liquid ultrasonic meters to meet the higher accuracy requirements needed for custody transfer measurement. The transit time principle of measurement has opened a window to allow observation and measurement of aspects of the flow stream that have never been visible to traditional measurement technologies such as PD meters and turbine meters but are critical to the proper operation of a liquid ultrasonic meter. This paper will discuss the specific diagnostic capabilities of the FMC Ultra 6 liquid ultrasonic flow meter and how this information can contribute to maintaining high accuracy custody transfer measurement.
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Document ID: E1AA8989

Offshore Liquid Fpso Measurement Systems
Author(s): Alastair Mclachlan
Abstract/Introduction:
Floating production, storage, and offloading systems (FPSOs ) receive crude oil from deepwater wells and store it in their hull tanks until the crude can be pumped into shuttl e tankers or oceangoing barges for transport to shore. They may also process the oil and in some later FPSOs to be used for Gas distribution. Floating productions systems have been utilized in remote offshore areas wi thout a pipeline infrastructure for many years. However, they have become even more importa nt with the push by the o ffshore industry into ever deeper waters. Floating production, storage, and offlo ading/floating storage and offloading (FPSO/FSO) systems have now become one of most commercially viable concept s for remote or deep-water oilfield developments. They also allow a company to develop offshore resour ces quickly between discovery and production.
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Document ID: 26CA4594

Ultrasonic Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Sid Douglass
Abstract/Introduction:
as and Oil are different in their physical, chemical, and ultrasonic properties. Nevertheless, each fluid state can use WideBeam technology that uses the pipe wall as a Sonic Waveguide, permitting accurate, repeatable and reliable non-intrusive flow metering. This paper explains non intrusive Liquid and Gas ultrasonic metering, providing field and laboratory test data demonstrating t he ability of WideBeam Clamp-On Ultrasonic flow meters to provide highly accurate Check Metering.
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Document ID: C6C24BFF

Volumetric Measurement Of Li Quefied Petroleum Gases Lpgs()
Author(s): Paul Mullen
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is defined as butane, propane or other light ends separated from natural gas or crude oil by fractionation or other processes. At atmospheric pressure, LPGs revert to the gaseous state. This paper is intended to provide an overview of metering systems used for the volumetric measurement of LPGs. Operational experiences with meas urement systems that degrade the pe rformance of these systems will be addressed. It includes information for turbine and positive displacement meters used in volumetric measurement systems. The basic calculations and industry standards covering volumetric measurement will also be covered.
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Document ID: 5A80BAE1

Viscosity Compensation Of Helical Turbine Meters
Author(s): Nicole Gailey
Abstract/Introduction:
Helical rotor turbine meters can provide signifi cant performance advantages over conventional rotor turbine meters for crude oil service. The us e of viscosity compensation (also referred to as Universal Performance Curve Compensation or Viscosity Indexing ) and the concept of Dynamic Similitude allows the application range of helical turbine meters to be extended even further.
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Document ID: A5A0C191

Dvanced Diagnostic Measurements And Verification With Coriolis Flow Meters
Author(s): Timothy J. Cunningham
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis flowmeters provide precision mass and volumetric flow and density measurement. The electronics needed for these measurements can be leveraged to provide diagnostic outputs to track and trend measurements and the processes in which the meters are used. This paper discusses these diagnostics. Coriolis flowmeters can be proven like any other type of flowmeter. Proving can be costly and difficult in some processes. Because of this, several techniques to verify the measurement of the Coriolis meter have been devel- oped. This paper discusses, compares, and contrasts these techniques. To better understand diagnostics and verification, Coriolis theory is first presented to provide background under- standing
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Document ID: 543DC859

Lpg Terminal Operations And Measurement
Author(s): Blake Stinson
Abstract/Introduction:
Surely one of the most difficult liquid petroleum products to store, handle, and measure with accuracy is natural gas liquid, or NGL. Historically thought of as a nuisance byproduct, many companies within the petroleum industry once ignored this product and the attention to detail that it requires. With todays ever expanding natural gas production, increasing volumes of NGL are demanding further consideration. In addition, as each penny of the industry becomes pinched, more companies are realizi ng the profit and extended cash flow that NGLs can produce. Natural gas liquids present several obstacles when trying to stor e, transport, and accurately measure the product. Most of the components t hat make up natural gas liquids are in a gaseous state at atmospheric conditions, and thus create the largest misunderstanding of the product.
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Document ID: 92EA77BF

Master Meter Prover Certifications Per API Mpms 4.9.3
Author(s): Kevin Fields
Abstract/Introduction:
When discussions about prover calibrations occur, they nor mally end with a disagreement about the accuracies of the different approved methods. This paper will discuss the procedures and advantages of the master meter method. This method was developed over 20 years ago to mi nimize difficulties in calibrating very large volume provers. In the fast pace world of today, where dow n time means money, many companies use the master meter method to save time and money on a variety of prover size s. Accurate calibrations require good technique from a knowledgeable technician. Having the proper knowle dge and equipment to perform the master meter method will improve the accuracy and minimize the time to comple te the calibration. This paper will discuss the Master Meter Method (MMM) of prover calibration as described in API MPMS Chapter 4.9.3
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Document ID: 19C31A4E

New Technologies In S&W Measurement
Author(s): Thomas m. Canty
Abstract/Introduction:
Detection of solids and water in crude has traditiona lly been done off line using gravimetric type analyses, for example. There are technologies available for use in m onitoring solids and water however they are fraught with difficulties that arise from the varying types of process fluid makeups existing within a crude flow. For instance, ultrasonic meters can be affected by the solid particles they are measuring. Air bubbles can also affect the accuracy and calibration of the instrument. In any event, t here is no direct, or immediate, method to confirm that the measurement shown is actually a measurement of th e crude or a skewed reading caused by some of these process factors.
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Document ID: EA606A0D

Advanced Application Of Liquid Flow Computers
Author(s): Brent H. Palmer
Abstract/Introduction:
A flow computer is an electronic computational device wh ich implements the required algorithms to turn the raw data received from flow meters to which it is connected into volumes at base conditions. A flow computer also audits changes that have been made to any of the parameters required to turn the raw flow meter data into volumes. It records events and alarms related to the flow meter (for example, loss of flow, loss of required electrical signals from measurement transducers, or transition of these electrical signals near their upper or lower range). It will keep a running tally of the volume for each flow me ter it monitors and perform a total of this volume on an hourly, daily or monthly basis. The flow data is made available externally through an electronic interface so that other co mputers can download the information for th e purposes of supervision, accounting or auditing.
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Document ID: 5010E66B

Application Of Flow Computers For Gas Measurement And Control
Author(s): Al Majek
Abstract/Introduction:
While still in use today, the technology has moved increasi ngly to microprocessor based flow computers. Such electronic measurement allows for gr eater accuracy and is readily int egrated into a companys enterprise computer networks
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Document ID: A1DBD6DC

Basic Applications For Flow Co Mputers And Telemetry Systems
Author(s): Denis Rutherford
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discuss the basics of Flow Computers and Telemetry Systems. Electroni c gas flow computers are microprocessor-based computing devices used to measure and control natural gas streams. There are a variety of configurations available from dedicated (integrated) single board computers to PL C-based multi-run (hybrid) systems.
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Document ID: B0B751E1

Basic Electronics For The Field Technician
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronics is the branch of physics, science, engineering, and technology dealing with electrical circuits that are controlled by electrical means rather than mechanical me ans. The main purpose of electronics is the processing and communication of information and signals. Vacuum tu bes were one of the ear liest electronic components when electronics technology was known only as radi o technology due to the primary application. Today, electronics is driven by micro-sized devices such as tr ansistors and diodes to form the integrated circuit. In comparison, about 400 X 10 17 transistors could fit into the space occupied by a single original vacuum tube. The microscopic size of electronic components make todays complex and powerful devices handheld realities. Device size is now limited by power and input/output interfac es rather than logic and computational electronics
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Document ID: CC023711

Scada Systems
Author(s): Asim Farooq
Abstract/Introduction:
Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) in its most simplified definition is the process of using computers to collect and then process data from multiple devices across various remote locations. A SCADA system is an integral part of any efficient a nd effective process at a facility. SCADA is used in water, oil, gas, el ectricity grids, and othe r industries. With its relative ease of implementation, usage has expand ed to data communication, transit systems and sprinklers, and continues to expand to nume rous other areas. With the growth in new technologies, companies are now able to control and run more of the day-to-day processes using computers which increase profitability, pr eempt dangerous conditions, and streamline performance
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Document ID: CC5681E7

Communication Systems For Gas Measurement Data
Author(s): Rusty Fields
Abstract/Introduction:
o understand and improve success in the collection of SCADA and EFM data you must first understand the world you operate in. I know most anyone in the industry ha s their concept of it but I want to introduce you some new ways of viewing this world from a somewhat non-technical stance. I always think of SCADA networks this wa y, what if there were no air traffic c ontrols on airports or any airspace? Busy airports would have constant airline crashes, mu ltiple airplanes trying use the same runway, multiple airplanes at the same altitude etc... In general it would be chaos.
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Document ID: 290A4074

Economics Of Electron Ic Gas Measurement
Author(s): John Renfrow
Abstract/Introduction:
y introduction into the natural gas industry was in 1984 as a Ga s Laboratory Analyst for Transok, Inc. The laboratory was part of the Measurement Departme nt and some of my responsibility was assisting the Measurement Specialists with installations and sp ecial projects. At that time, the most common gas measurement equipment was chart re corders and orifice meter tubes. In a few locations, Transok had rotary meters at Farm Taps and a few Turbine meters at Electric Plants. At plan ts and major sales points, Transok used automatic chart changers. Recording Gravitometers, Thermal Titrators and Calorimeters were used to determine gravity and BTUs. On-lin e Gravitometers, Thermal Titrators and Calorimeters had strip chart recorders initially. The first EF M was installed in 1985. By the mid 1990s, chart recorders were almost completely phased out.
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Document ID: CBFF9C97

Production Equipment Effects On Orifice Gas Measurement
Author(s): Stormy Phillips
Abstract/Introduction:
The condition of gas as it presents itself in the pipeline is often not ideal for accurate measurement, by an orifice flow meter. It is the requirement of the American Gas Association (AGA) that t he natural gas be in a single phase and with a swirl-free fully developed profile as it passes across the orifice plat e to meet the standard of measurement to provide accept able uncertainty for the flow calculation. Thus it is often necessary to condition the gas prior to measurement. Using the basic laws of gases we can control these conditions by altering the temperature, pressure, or component makeup of the gas. Neglecting these conditions will create a poor measurement environment and inaccurate measurement. It is therefore necessary for measurement personnel to be familiar with common production equipment, how that equi pment is utilized and what effect it can have on the overall ability for a system to pr ovide accurate measurement.
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Document ID: 58494BFC

Identifying And Eliminatin G Effects Of Induced Sign Als On Measurement System Electronics
Author(s): Peter P. Jakubenas
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement errors and other effects of induced signal s on measurement system electronic equipment can be quite profound. This paper will explore the sources and effects of induced signals and other phenomena including effects of cathodic protection systems, high voltage power lines, faulty gr ounds, lightning, RFI, and intermittent events. Information to prevent and eliminate undesirabl e signals and technical references are provided.
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Document ID: 7CA0A135

Ethernet For Scada Systems
Author(s): Grant Van Hemert
Abstract/Introduction:
Ethernet communications have been a viable medium for bu siness communications for close to 40 years now. Developed in the early 1970s by Robert Metcalfe at Xeroxs Palo Alto Research Center as a standard for connecting computers over short distances, this idea of connecting computers has grown into a worldwide network or web of connected computers and smart devic es. Through standardization and cooperative efforts, this system of digital communications has revolutioniz ed the way we conduct business, communicate with our friends and family, and now how machines communicate with other machines in factories, military systems and now industrial SCADA systems.
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Document ID: F23187A4

On-Line Flow Computers Fo R Liquid Custody Transfer
Author(s): Gail Powley
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow Computers for custody transfer are critical elements in running a pipeline - as each acts as either the Cash Register or the Toll Booth and therefore a financial focal point. Therefore it is key that Flow Computers be installed correctly for both technical and business purposes. New pipeline expansions have many elements, many players, and therefore many considerations to ensure that the Flow Computer portion of the overall project goes about smoothly. This paper will focus on effective practices of Flow Co mputer Project Management, based on over 30 years of experience on flow computer projects completed across North America, on oil liquids pipelines ranging from small to large.
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Document ID: 8D432022

Real Time Electronic Gas Measurement
Author(s): Rick Heuer
Abstract/Introduction:
Methods of gas measurement have unde rgone tremendous change during the last couple of decades. Electronic measurement devices that are signi ficantly more precise and contai n manageable flow file databases are replacing mechanical dry-flow meters. This is commonly re ferred to as electronic flow measurement or EFM. In addition, these devices can communicate remotely utilizing radios, landline or cellular telephones, hard wire and/or satellite links.
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Document ID: DF207935

Recent Innovations In Spread Spectrum Radio Technology Fo R Gas Measurement
Author(s): Roy Rosado
Abstract/Introduction:
During the last five years, we have seen important introdu ctions of innovative spread spectrum radio technologies that dramatically optimize the performance and reliability of a telemetry network, while at the same time lowering the total deployment cost of the same. By migrating to these newer technologies, gas companies can now, more than ever, seamlessly monitor and control all of their geographically dispersed gas measuring devices and gain unprecedented access to real-time info rmation, to enhance their ability to make just-in-time decisions.
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Document ID: 7BCFCA57

Smart Transmitter S Election, Calibration And Installation
Author(s): Leon Black
Abstract/Introduction:
ransmitter selection can be summed in general terms under a heading of application. Even though generically speaking pressure transmitters are all the same, the fitness of use for transmitters is not the same. The total accuracy statement of a transmitter that has been hardened to withstand extreme co rrosive effects will not appear equal to a reference class transmitter. This kind of information is not within the scope of a transmitter data sheets an d there in resides a challenge fo r users. The history of oil and gas measurement has followed dir ectly the advances made in transmitter technology. As close as 10 years past total sight error budget of 3 - 4% was more the norm than the exception. The transmitters used were for the most part analog and did not have the repeatabilit y or stability to support data where sight requirements were more stringent. Few of these sights were capable of meeting the TEB 1 over temperature and even fewer of the locations were able to meet the TEB when over pressure effects were added to the requirements
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Document ID: A5329FC1

Testing, Maintenance, And Operatio N Of Electronic Flow Computers For The Gas Industry
Author(s): Stephen T. Steve() Stark
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas flow computers came into much wider use fo r custody transfer (fiscal) measurement beginning in the late 1980s following their less common application in the 1970s and before. In the beginning, flow computers were us ed almost exclusively to calculate flow and the earliest models simply offered an alternative to chart recorders and a new way to handle and store measurement data. Thanks largely to improved microprocessors, field-hardened electronics, and better power systems, things improved rapidly. Along the way, multiple communications systems evolved as better pressure and temperature transducers and new meter types and other technologies arrived on the scene.
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Document ID: F52DDFA1

Transient Lightning Protection Fo R Electronic Measurement Devices
Author(s): Leon Black
Abstract/Introduction:
We have all heard of or seen the devastating effects of a direct lightning burst. Communication equipment destroyed. Transmitters and EFM devices vaporized in to slag metal. Complete process and measurement systems down with extended recovery times. These eff ects are the most dramatic and the easiest to trace. However, these kinds of events are rare. The more pr ominent events are those that occur on a day-to-day basis without we, the user, even knowing. With the advent of the transistor and today when surface mount electronics is the norm and not the exception, transient suppression ha s become a science of necessity. Tight tolerances of voltage requirements and limited current carrying capabilities makes the new compact integrated circuits much more susceptible to many types of transients
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Document ID: E53E9F3E

Data Validation - Requirements Of An Egm Editor
Author(s): R. Michael Squyres
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry has adopted EGM as a means of increasing the speed and accuracy with which measurement information is obtained. This has created the need for an electronic data management system. These systems, if not properly designed and implemented, could potentially render the entire process useless. Therefore, it is essential that the system add functionality that complements the power of the hardware. With proper implementation, such a system will not only facilitate operations in todays fast paced, post-FERC 636 environment, but also will establish a foundation for meeting tomorrows measurement challenges.
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Document ID: 5F263AEB

The Evolution Of Data Collection For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Dan Steele
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays oil and gas environment, production volumes are many times greater than they were just 10 years ago. The price of these resources is down significantly from where it was in 2008 so, for producers, it has become increasingly more important to run more cost-effective operations.
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Document ID: C99484E7

Calibration Of Liquid Provers
Author(s): Brad Young
Abstract/Introduction:
A meter prover is used to calibrate custody transfer mete rs to establish a meter factor. The volume that passes through the meter is compared to the prover volume during the time taken for a sphere or piston to pass between two detector switches. The prover volume must be accura tely determined by a calibration procedure known as the Water Draw method.
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Document ID: 50432F0E

Effective Use Of Dead Weight Testers
Author(s): Scott Crone
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most difficult problems fa cing the instrument engineer is the a ccurate calibration of pressure or differential pressure measuring instruments. The deadwei ght tester or gauge is the economic answer to many of these problems. This paper describes methods to select deadweight te sters and gauges. Also included are procedures for using pneumatic and hydraulic deadweight testers
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Document ID: 054785F2

Flow Calibrating Ultr Asonic Gas Meters
Author(s): Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
the primary method for custody transfer measurement has traditionally been orifice metering. While this method has been a good form of measurement, technology has driv en the demand for a new, more effective form of fiscal measurement. Ultrasonic flowmeters have gained popularit y in recent years and hav e become the standard for large volume custody transfer applications for a variety of reasons. Most users require flow calibrations to improve meter performance and overall measurement uncerta inty. The latest revision of AGA Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters , Second Addition Ref 1, now requires flow calibration for ultrasonic flow meters when being used for custody transfer applications. What considerations then, should be taken when choosing to flow calibrate an ultrasonic flowmeter? What are the benefits to the user? What should a user expect from a flow calibration ? What kind of performance should the customer expect or accept from an ultrasonic meter? What are the dia gnostic capabilities inherent in an ultrasonic meter? These areas, as well as others will be expl ored and considered.
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Document ID: F9F1960D

G Uide To Troubleshooting Problems With Liquid Mters And Provers
Author(s): Jerry Upton
Abstract/Introduction:
As one of my true and trusted friends says, Counting is eas y, but measuring is not so easy. What he means by this is, without establishing any rules you and I could agree on how many tanks there are in a tank farm. The difficulty comes in when we start to try and agree upon how many barrels or cubic meters are in the tanks. Measurement becomes more difficult when the things that we rely on to do the measuring, meters and provers, are not predictable in their performance. When this happens , quite often the reason for the unpredictability is not apparent. However, because of the value of todays li quid hydrocarbons, the problem must be corrected in a timely manner. Therefore someone must analyze the sit uation and eliminate each possible contributor to the problem until only one remains. This process is called troubles hooting. Thats what we will be talking about in this paper. Because of space constraints and knowledge limitatio ns, especially the later, this paper is not an exhaustive list of problems and solutions. But, hopefully we will discuss something that might be of some help to some people. We will start with the di fferent type of provers in use today.
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Document ID: 23F39EE6

In-Situ On-Site() Gas Meter Proving
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr. James N. Witte Adam Hawley
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas flow rate measurement errors at field meter stat ions can result from the inst allation configuration, the calibration of the meter at conditions other than the actual operating conditions, or the degradation of meter performance over time. The best method for eliminating th ese or other sources of erro r is with in-situ (on-site) calibration of the meter. That is, the measurement ac curacy of the field meter station should be verified under actual operating conditions by comparing to a master meter or prover. A number of field provers have been developed for operation at high line pressure s and flow rates. (For purposes of this discussion, a high gas flow rate is any flow greater than 3,000 actual cubic feet per hour or (85 m 3 /h) at pressures up to 1,440 psig (10 MPa).)
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Document ID: C7A0CD94

.A.C.T. Unit Proving - Th E Role Of The Witness Class
Author(s): C. Bynum Vincent
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid hydrocarbons removed from the grou nd must get to mark et via one of two ways. They are transported via pipeline or tanker truck from production facilities to pipeline systems, which transport the pr oduct to the refinery for processing. Once processed, the liquids are once again sent via tanker truck or pipeline to the distribution points downs tream. Whether these fluids are purchased or consigned to common carriers, there is transaction call ed a custody transfer conducted to transfer ownership of the prod uct for transportation or distribution. In each of these instances, a represent ative from each party involved in the custody transfer transaction is generally present to observe or witness the events of each transaction.
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Document ID: 5EDA914C

Liquid Flow Provers
Author(s): Nick Thurlby
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose for proving a meter is to calibrate the flow me asured by a meter. Usually there are multiple parties involved in any fluid transfer. There is a seller, a buy er, and usually a middle, nonbiased, third party. The necessity of proving a meter depends on the value of accurate measurement for the product being handled. The ability to test a meters accuracy is vital to petroleum measurement. The objective of proving a meter is to determine each individual meters factor.
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Document ID: DD2EB2C9

Liquid Meter Proving Techniques
Author(s): T. Brett Cameron
Abstract/Introduction:
Producers and shippers are becoming more and more aware of the importance of accurate measurement. Their bottom line depends on it. Not only does this relate to the actual product value, but in relation to environmental considerations it also has implications associat ed with regulatory compliance and integrity management. As a result, measurement accuracy is being scrutiniz ed more vigorously than in the past. Companies are being required by their stakeholders and regulator y bodies to Verify their metering a ccuracy. Therefore it is essential that all procedures and auxiliary equipment be operat ed in a consistent, accurate and defendable manner
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Document ID: 99B10A56

Operation & Problems Associated With Prover Detector Switches
Author(s): Warren A. Parr, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
In many parts of the petroleum industr y, sphere provers are used to dynamically calibrate volumetric meters. In order to accomplish this, sphere provers are requir ed to be accurate and repeatable. This accuracy and repeatability is largely dependent on performance of the pr over sphere detector. Any operational or design problems associated with the prover detector will affect t he provers performance. This paper will review critical parts of a prover sphere detector that must be checked in order to obtain accuracy reliability and repeatability
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Document ID: ED884E19

Operational Experience With Small Volume Provers
Author(s): Kevin Fields
Abstract/Introduction:
The following document will focus on experiences working with the Small Volume Prover and addressing common questions and concerns. Small Volume Provers (SVPs) have become the standard in most cust ody transfer applications . Today, there are over 500 SVPs located throughout the US and abroad. Ov er 35 years ago, the first small volume prover was placed into service. The small volume prover can be used on multiple fluids and over a wide range of flow rates. One of the most common reasons for choosing a small vo lume prover is its compact size and large flow rate capacity. Todays SVP can handle rates from 0.01 gpm to 18,000 BPH. With an SVP sized to handle 18,000 BPH, the total prover volume is approximately 120 gallons
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Document ID: A2101F2F

Proving Coriolis Meters
Author(s): Marsha Yon
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis meters are in use throughout the hydrocarbon industry for the measurement of fluids including crude oil, products such as fuel oil, g asoline, and diesel, and light hydrocarbons such as natural gas liquids, propane, etc. When used for custody transfer, it is most often required by contract between the buyer and seller that the meter be proven in the field on the fluid that is being meas ured and at the conditions under which it will be operating. This paper will utilize the American Petroleum Institute s Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) as the reference for industry practices for field proving methods and calculations
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Document ID: 4AD6ADD0

Theory And Application Of Pulse Interpolation To Prover Systems
Author(s): David J. Seiler
Abstract/Introduction:
The flow meter has long been established as the industry cash register. With the high cost of producing and the reduced selling price of products, the accuracy of the meter becomes increasingly important to ensure profitability. To this end regular proving of the meter is essential. Liquid meter proving is carried out by placing a Meter Prover in series with the meter under test the prover having a calibrated base volume. Proving of the meter is by comparing the quantity recorded by the meter with the calibrated quan tity displaced by the prover
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Document ID: 4C2B03D6

VERIFICATION/CERTIFICATION Of Devices Used In Liquid Measurement And Implications Of How Mercury Issues Will Impact These Processes
Author(s): Anne Walker Brackett,
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past the standards from the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the American Society for Testing and Measurement (ASTM) provided specifications for inst ruments and equipment. Simple compliance with these standards was not enough. Therefore, a system of verification and/or ce rtification of equipment used in measurement of liquids was in stituted. These requirements were written into the standards as they came up for review. An excellent example of such a standard is Chapt er 3.1.A. Standard Practice for the Manual Gauging of Petroleum and Petroleum Products of the APIs Manual of Petroleum Measurement. 3.1.A. calls for field verification of working tapes against against a National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable master tape when it is new and every year thereafter. This is an example of the requirements to insure the instrument and the equipment meets the specifications of each standa rd. It is important to understand the definitions of traceability, verification, and certific ation before discussing the specifications for equipment used in liquid measurement
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Document ID: 33CF651D

Witnessing Orifice Meter VERIFICATION/CALIBRATION
Author(s): Tom Cleveland
Abstract/Introduction:
The definition of witness (noun) is: 1. person who has witnessed something 2. one who gives testimony. The definition of witnessing (verb) is: 1. to see, hear, or know by personal experience 2. to testify 3. to attest by ones signature. The function of a witness is a very im portant one for companies involved in physical natural gas transactions, whether a producer, a midstream gathering service provider, a marketer, a transmission pipeline, or a distribution entity. The act of witnessing should be elevated to a high priority for these various entities and the competencies required to carry out this function should be documented and developed.
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Document ID: 0745C67D

Improving Flow Measurements With Improved Calibration And Data Handling Procedures
Author(s): Duane Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The knowledge base from a field measurement technici an to the measurement analyst is extremely demanding. Every field technician is tested in both knowledge and skills on a daily basis regarding: ? Electronic controls to pneumatic controls ? Communication system support ? Multiple technical disciplines ? Support of measurement equipment ? Procedures that must be followed (S OP) - Standard Operat ing Procedures ? Regulatory requirements governing the facilities ? Ongoing training of field personnel These factors and many more create a tremendous and constant challenge for every organization.
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Document ID: 2FB551D0

Proving Liquid Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Ernest m. Hauser
Abstract/Introduction:
In-Situ Proving is one of the processes by which a flow me ters accuracy can be assured in service. Alternatives to in-situ proving are transferring of lab calibrations to the field, or using a secondary transfer standard called a master meter. Proving is involved in all calibrations of all liquid meters at one point in the process, whether during initial calibrations or by proving a transfer standard and then comparing t he transfer standard to the meter in service or under calibration. In-Situ Proving has the advant age of providing the smallest uncertainty since it is a direct comparison of the working meter to the reference standard. A prover is a dev ice that provides a known reference volume, when a cylinder or a ball passes between two position switches, which can be compared to the volume measured by the working meter during the same period and in the same conditions. In this way other variables can be eliminated and the working meter can be co rrected to the reference volume by means of a meter factor.
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Document ID: 80B25394

Preparing A Prover For A Water Draw Calibration
Author(s): Herb Garland Richard Roberts
Abstract/Introduction:
he key to a successful calibration of a prover by the water draw method is thorough planning and organization followed by good execution of the plan. Th e primary goal is to get the prover as clean as possible and perform any replacements and maintenance needed prior to the arrival of the Calibration Company. This paper is intended to assist you attain an accurate calibration by presenting some things to consider for the planning, organization and execution phases. A more detailed Procedure for prover preparation is provided in API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards, Chapter 4-Proving Systems, Section 9, Part 2.
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Document ID: A311005E

Laboratory Versus In Situ Proving Of Liqu Id Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Terry Cousins
Abstract/Introduction:
The first issue to consider is what features do USMs claim that make such the concept of non-in situ proiving possible? A turbine meter for example should never be considered for use as an unproved system for good uncertainty measurement. This is because a turbine meter is so subject to installation effects, that the chance of the calibration at a laboratory transferring to the operat ional installation with any degree of confidence is low. Multi-path ultrasonic meters, however, it is claimed can transfer their calibr ation with more confidence, therefore removing the need for in situ proving. In fact at the introduction of USMs for custody transfer there was a concerted campaign to use them withou t provers, largely because they were so difficult to prove on site. This issue will be discussed in mo re detail in a later section on installation uncertainty.
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Document ID: F5E29305

The Uncertainty Of A Waterdraw Calibration Vs. Gravimetric Calibration On Small Volume Provers
Author(s): Gary Cohrs
Abstract/Introduction:
The focus of the API Petroleum Measurement Manuals is to reduce the uncertainty and improve the accuracy of all petroleum measurements. Many rece nt advances in weighing equipment and research and testing by various groups to improve volume calibrations have provided oppo rtunities to greatly reduce the uncertainty and provide increased confidence in displacement Prover calibrati ons. Both API and NIST have standards on both volumetric and gravimetric techniques. The purpose is to review the history, techniques, sim ilarities, advantages and disadvantages, and the uncertainty comparison between gravimetric and the traditional water draw method of Prover volume calibrations by NIST certified volumetric field test measures, focusing on hi gh precision captive displacement flow Provers, known more commonly as SVPs
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Document ID: CDEC18C6

Roles And Responsibilities Of Witnessing A Liquid Prover Calibration
Author(s): Carl Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
Welcome to the 89 th International School of Hydrocarbon Measurem ent. The purpose of this paper is to give direction to those that have little or no experience with liquid hydrocarbon prover calibration. The outcome of this procedure will impact the custody tran sfer of product and could conceivably influence the measurement accuracy of millions of transported barrels, so the acceptance of substandard perf ormance, equipment or processes must not be tolerated. It must be strongly emphasized that the wi tness job is to protect the precision of the process and, through this, ensure that uncertainties in measurement will be minimized.
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Document ID: D4B1E9A7

Methods For Certifying Measurement Equipment
Author(s): Scott A. Crone
Abstract/Introduction:
Like any other piece of equipment, a measurement artifact must be maintained. Obviously, it has to be in working order in general. However, what is more important is that it be operating with in specified parameters and providing measurements that are traceable to a known source or sources. This paper provides a general overview of calibration and certification. It also discusses some key terminology and methods.
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Document ID: E82A6618

Auditing Gas Laboritories
Author(s): Joe Landes
Abstract/Introduction:
The data produced by Gas Chromatograph (GC) laborator ies is used for many purposes, including product specification, accounting, safety an d environmental compliance issues. The accuracy of this data has direct impact on all of these areas. Auditi ng laboratories responsible for producing this data is prudent business practice. The audit will provide a means of process improv ement, through proper identif ication of deficiencies and a precise plan for corrective action. The level of conf idence in analytical results will increase when the appropriate corrective actions are impl emented. The amount of financial an d legal exposure can be reduced from a properly executed audit program
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Document ID: 768E6357

Natural Gas Analysis By Gas Chromatograph
Author(s): Dave Curtis
Abstract/Introduction:
The most equitable means of exchange of Natu ral Gas and Natural Gas Liquid products is by the measure of their energy. In order to determine the energy of the product, the individual components within the product must be measur ed. The most common and accepted means of measuring the amounts of each component with a Natural Gas or Natural Gas Liquid sample is by the use of a gas chromatograph (GC). The following is a description of basic GC operation for energy determination
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Document ID: BD6A8D22

Btu Determination Of Natural Gas Using A Portable Chromatograph
Author(s): Russell L. Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is meant to introduce new users to portable chromatography and reinforce collection theory and technique to existing users. It is intended to supplement rather than replace or divert existing practices in determination of BTU by portable methodology. Understanding and implementing proven sound engineering and operating practice improve reliable data acquisition and reporting. With the shift of natural gas pricing from a volume basis to an energy basis 1 , accurate and reliable composition based energy calculation has never been more important
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Document ID: 263DAEE0

Chromatograph Applications And Problems From A Users Standpoint
Author(s): Fred Ryel
Abstract/Introduction:
Chromatographs are available for all types of applications in the natural gas industry. The main applications that this class will discuss are: process monitoring of liquids and gases, environmental flares and ambient air, landfill gas and contaminates. These can also include corrosives such as H2S, C O2 and O2, etc. Regardless of the application, the main priority is to capture an accurate sample and not change the properties before it can be analyzed. Maintaining the sample integrity is by far the most difficult process. The procedure of acquiring the sample and the way it is analyzed depends upon the media being sampled.
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Document ID: E1AE573F

Chromatograph Maintenance And Troubleshooting
Author(s): Fred Ryel
Abstract/Introduction:
The GC System will perform accurately for long periods with very lit tle attention. However a bi-monthly record of certain parameters will assist greatly in assuring that your Analyzer is operating to specifications. The GC System Main tenance Checklist should be filled in bi-monthly, dated, and kept on file for access by maintenance technicians as necessary. See next page. This gives you a historical record of the operation of your Analyzer, enables a maintenance technician to schedule replacement of gas cylinders at a convenient time, and allows quick troubleshooting and repair when it becomes necessary. A chromatogram, a configuration report, and a raw data report should also be made and filed with the checklist, furnishing a positive dat ed record of the Analyzer. The chromatogram and reports will also prove valuable in comparison with the chromatograms and reports run during troubleshooting
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Document ID: 4D626981

Chromatographic Analysis Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): Bob Armbruster
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses basic components of the gas chromatograph. It directs the student to Gas Processors Association (GPA) analytical methods 2177 Method for the Analysis of Deme thanized Hydrocarbon Liquid Mixtures Containing Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide by Gas Chromatography and 2186 Tentative Method for the Extended Analysis of Hydrocarbon Liquid Mixtures Containing Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide by Temperature Programmed Gas Chromatography. This paper lists the critical steps to obtain accurate results.
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Document ID: 2DA94555

An Optical Hydrocarbon Analyzer For Real-Time Hydrocarbon Gas Speciation And Measurement
Author(s): Duane Sword
Abstract/Introduction:
A unique all-optical, real-time, unattended sensor platfo rm has been developed for hydrocarbon gas composition analysis enabling speciation and quantification of the indi vidual light hydrocarbon components such as C1 - C5 of alkanes and carbon dioxide. This all-optical sensor performs real-time speciation without requiring physical separation of the compounds as performed in traditional chromatography. Trace level monitoring through percent level compositi on monitoring have been performed on alkanes, alkynes and alkenes in natural gas and biogas applications. The fl ow-through optical sensor pr ovides unattended, real- time and consumable-free analysis suitable for on-line fuel gas analysis, combustion control, pipeline gas quality monitoring, BTU/heating value measurement and various pet rochemical monitoring applications. Configurations of the optical platform have also enabled ppm level monitoring of multiple components such as CO (carbon monoxide), CO 2 (carbon dioxide), THC (total hydrocarbon content), and H 2 O (moisture) at levels of accuracy and linearity across the range that cannot be fulfilled with traditional NDIR (non-dispersive infrared) style of measurement packages.
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Document ID: 79914464

Crude Quality - What Is I Nvolved And Why Its Important
Author(s): James C. Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
Crude oil quality can mean different things to different people. A production facility may look at c rude oil quality as anything that passes the field tests so the transporter will pick up the load or send it down their pipeline. A pipeline company or transporter may have a similar definition of crude quality, but from a different perspective. A crude oil marketer will also have a different idea of what crude quality is as will an end user , such as a refiner. I will touch on what each of these people think is crude oil quality, and why, and will discuss the testing procedures used to arrive at crude q uality from their perspective
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Document ID: 64B53804

Determination Of Hydrogen Sulfide And Total Sulfur In Natural Gas
Author(s): Robert Hornberger
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur bearing compounds exist naturally in many natural gas fields throughout the world. It is generally necessary to remove these sulfur bearing compounds from the gas in order to preserve public safety, reduce corrosion in pipelin es, meet contractual agreements and to control odor in the gas. Thus the determination of hydrogen sulfide and total sulfur in na tural gas is critical to the natural gas industry
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Document ID: F64E5EFD

Determination Of Water In Natural Gas Page 1 Of 4 Determination Of Water Vapor Content In Natural Gas
Author(s): Sam Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
This is an overview of the main approaches to trace mois ture measurements for natural gas. Natural gas presents a situation where the stream may have high levels of so lid and liquid contaminants as well as corrosive gases present in varying concentrations. Additionally, the stream composition may change gradually or rapidly over time. This unique situation is a challenge for the measurement of moisture.
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Document ID: 5BF277EE

Hydrocarbon Dew Point Effects On Gas Flow Measurement
Author(s): Fred Van Orsdol
Abstract/Introduction:
The hydrocarbon dewpoint (HCDP) of interest to the natural gas industry is simply an operating condition that causes liquids to c ondense out of the gas stream and form a liquid phase. Normal condensation occurs when increasing pressure or decreasing temperature causes liquids to form. Retr ograde condensation occurs on a different portion of the phase envelope, wherein incr easing temperature or decreasing pressure may cause the gas to cross the phase boundary and produce condensation. Both processes produce liquids condensing out of gas phase streams and are of interest to this presentation.
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Document ID: 6315ACA9

D,O,T,REQUIREMENTS For The Transportation Of Sample Cylinders
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The United States Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) is a department of the U.S. Federal Government which oversees all issues regarding transportation within the Un ited States of America and U.S. Territories. Its influence around the world is great and widely re spected, but its jurisdiction and power of enforcement is limited to the USA and its territories. As regards this paper, we will di scuss the D.O.T. and its invo lvement surrounding sample cylinders for the hydrocarbon industry and the rules regarding the movement of these cylinders from point to point in the United States
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Document ID: 88A02F4F

Energy Measurement Using Flow Computers And Chromatography
Author(s): Burt Reed
Abstract/Introduction:
the means and methods of transfer of quantities of natural gas between buyers and sellers have been changing for many years. When coal gasification was used to fuel the streetlights in Atlanta, Ga. There was no reason to even measure the commodity. The m unicipality generated the gas, transported it, and burned it. When Frank Phillips started purchasing gas ri ghts back in the 1930s, every one thought he was more than odd. Natural Gas was considered at t hat time a messy by-product of oil production that had to be disposed of. Even during the 1960s natural gas was still being flared at the wellhead in Oklahoma. During the 1940s, it was said that one could drive from Kilgore, Texas to Tyler, Texas at night without turning on the head light on your car due to all the gas flares. In this economic environment, measurement was not an issue if y ou could sell the gas at all it was considered a business coup. Even then, a good price was 2 cents an MCF.
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Document ID: 13386C27

Energy Measurement Using Ultrasonic Flow Measurement And Chromatography
Author(s): Charles Derr
Abstract/Introduction:
Speed of Sound (SOS) Measured vs Calculated on-line continuously,,,,,when they do not equal to within reasonably tight limits....Something is wrong with one of these 4 measurements. The Diamond of Excellence in Energy Measurement
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Document ID: BEF54D1E

Field And Laboratory Testing Of Sediment And Water In Crude Oil
Author(s): Jane Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
The quantity of sediment and water in crude oil must be a ccurately established as part of the custody transfer process. Purchasers only pay for the crude oil received, and want to minimize the quantity of sediment and water they must transport and dispose of. Consequently, monito ring of the sediment and wate r content is performed at the production site to prevent excess ive sediment and water from entering the pipeline system. The quantity of sediment and water a pipeline is willing to accept into their system de pends on geographic location, market competitiveness and their ability to handle the sediment and water in the system. Each pipeline publishes the quantity of sediment and water it will accept. States also may have sediment and water limits as well.
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Document ID: 24D73CB7

Fundamentals Of Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Merle Bell
Abstract/Introduction:
Btu is the three letter acronym for British thermal unit. One Btu is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water from 58.5 F to 59.5F (a bout 1055.056 joules (SI)). He at (Btu), is gained from the burning of Natural Gas otherwise known as Oxidation, which is shown in the chemical equations below: ? CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O + HEAT (1010 Btu/CF) ? 2C 2 H 6 + 7O 2 4CO 2 + 6H 2 O + HEAT (1769 Btu/CF) ? C 3 H 8 + 5O 2 3CO 2 + 4H 2 O + HEAT (2516 Btu/CF) This HEAT is the valuable commodity that makes Natural Gas production, transmission and distribution profitable as an enterprise. The purpose of this paper is to desc ribe how this heat amount can be obtained from the gas composition. The method for attaining this composition will also be discussed
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Document ID: 29BC0C54

Design Considerations For Analyzer Enclosure Systems
Author(s): David Beitel
Abstract/Introduction:
Instrument shelters are a necessity. In the Rocky Mountain Region, the decision to provide an Instrument Shelter is not something that is usua lly debated. The real i ssue is how sophisticated (read Expensive) they need to be and what should go into them. The decision as to what goes into a Shelter for a project engineer can be a delicate balancing act. Depending on the various adders the cost of a shelter can become quite expensive. When we talk about Instrument Shelters, two general categories are rele vant: Buildings that house Meters, and Buildings that house Qualit y Instrumentation- Chromatographs, Water Monitors, H2S Analyzers, and Oxygen Analyzers
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Document ID: 2257A6D2

Heat Quantity Calculation Relating To Water Vapor In Natural Gas
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr Darin L. George
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas often contains some amount of water, in either vapor or liquid form. The solubility of water in natural gas flowing through a pipeline is a function of the pressu re and temperature of the flowing stream. The amount of water affects the heating (calorific) value per unit volume of natural gas. The more water present in the gas, the less valuable it is as a fuel, since the water displace s the hydrocarbon components in a natural gas mixture and does not burn. This water, in vapor form, is sometimes re ferred to as spectator water. The net effect is a reduction in heating value and monetary value per unit volu me of gas. The amount of water vapor contained in a natural gas mixture is customarily expr essed in terms of the mass of water per unit volume of gas, for example, pounds mass of water per million standard cubic feet of natural gas (lb m /MMscf)
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Document ID: 78E5DF56

Validating Labora Tory Gas Analyses
Author(s): Dennis Updike
Abstract/Introduction:
The intent of this paper is to explore the concepts ar ound an effective data validation process for determining the accuracy of natural gas samples analyzed at a laboratory . The accuracy of gas sample analysis depends upon a variety of parts in the overall measur ement process. Understan ding the types of errors that can occur in each aspect will aid in the development of an effective validation method.
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Document ID: A93C487F

On Line Water Measurement Devices In Liquid Service
Author(s): Craig Mcwhorter
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays competitive energy market there is a tremendous emphasis on cost saving and productivity at all levels of the industry. Online water detection provides vital real-time information regardi ng water concentrations in hydrocarbons empowering the user with the knowledge ne cessary to maximize efficiencies and cost savings while increasing many safety fa ctors at the same time. The installation of On-line Water Detectors or OWDs (also called Water Cut Meters) in pipeline or bypass analyzer loop systems has obvious key benefits at any stage in volving custody transfer. With todays high crude oil prices, paying for shipped water is a hugely punitive and now unnecessary cost to energy companies. But OWDs can improve, automate and optimi ze several other key stages leading to refined materials. Chief among those are production and tank water draw automation
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Document ID: E3FEBE70

Sampling And Conditioning For Natural Gas Containing Entrained Liquids
Author(s): Josh H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Wow! The world of sampling and conditioning for natural ga s really becomes turbulent when entrained liquids or a two-phase fluid is incorporated. Entrained liquids in a ga s stream inherently invoke a battle that those in the measurement industry must not ignore. On one side of t he battle is the desire for repeatable, reliable equipment that was most likely designed to sample the wonderful cl ean, dry natural gas of the world. A very important sector of this side is to include the ac hievement of real-time billing through online analysis. The other side of the battle is the obligation to pull a REPR ESENTATIVE sample of the flowing stream to bill for the correct quality of product.
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Document ID: 32CD8195

Sample Conditioning And Contaminant Removal For Water Vapor Content Determination In Natural Gas
Author(s): Brad Massey
Abstract/Introduction:
The Natural Gas Industry experiences numerous operationa l problems associated with high water vapor content in the natural gas stream. As a result several proble ms are experienced such as, equipment freezes, dilution of physical properties reducing heating value, volume measur ement interference, and pipeline corrosion. Contracts and Tariffs usually limit the amount of water vapor conten t allowed at the custody transfer point. For these and other reasons, accurate Water Vapor Dewpoint measurements are critical measurements for all companies involved in natural gas production, gathering, transmission and delivery.
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Document ID: ABE266A6

Techniques Of Composite Sampling
Author(s): Marielle Verot
Abstract/Introduction:
todays up and down, sometimes struggling but always competitive market, a producer of natural gas must strive to maximize their market value and achieve the highest return of invested income. The fluctuations seen recently in pricing make this an increasingly important goal. In order to accomplish this goal they must ensure they are receiving full value for the natural gas products they produce. In addition to the producer, it is extremely important for the other stakeholders, whether they be government, gathering system operator, processor, or transporter to do their due diligence to ensure they are also receiving or properly accounting for the true and full value of the natural gas products that pass through their systems. Royalty rates, transportation levies and processing fees are based on the value of the natural gas being commercially bought and sold, processed or transported. Sampling and analysis when properly implemented can ensure that everyones needs and product expectations are met. This paper will discuss issues that must be considered to obtain a good representative gas sample through continuous composite sampling.
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Document ID: 1290580E

Techniques Of Gas Spot Sampling
Author(s): Jane Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss the various approved methods used for spot sampling in the natural gas industry. Proper sampling technique is extremely important because it impacts both the quantity and quality of the gas being measured. Up until 1978 when congress passed the Natu ral Gas Policy Act, natural gas was sold based on volume. The Natural Gas Policy Act im plemented selling of natural gas based on the energy available in the gas being sold. Consequently, the importance of sampling to determine the BTU content of the natural gas sold became much more important. The energy available in a gas stream is the product of the volume and the BTU content of the gas sold. In order to determine the BT U content of the gas, a repr esentative sample must be captured and analyzed by a gas chromatograph or ca lorimeter. Typically, t he industry utilizes gas chromatographs to make this determination.
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Document ID: F53644C7

Determining Hydrocarbon Dew Point Per Gas Chromatographic Analysis And Equations Of State
Author(s): Shane Hale
Abstract/Introduction:
The determination of the hydrocarbon dew point (HCDP) for natural gas has recently become a critical issue for the natural gas industry because of the rapid expansion of interconnecting pipe lines and the rise of the rich shale gas source of natural gas. Whereas previously the gas in a pipeline would come from a small number of known producers, the gas flowing through the pipeline today could have come from many varied sources including traditional gas plant producers (de-hydr ation, CO2, H2S and N2 control, and removal of condensates), coal bed methane producers (98% methane), lo w cost producers (de-hy dration only) or global exporters of LNG.
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Document ID: 7CE5EF64

Fundamentals Of Sampling Natural Gas For Btu Determination
Author(s): Matthew Stephens Parrot
Abstract/Introduction:
Accuracy in the measurement of Natural Gas has a str ong relationship with an ability to collect and deliver a representative sample. A working knowledge of what a representative sample is , through the science and standards that define it, will serve as a firm foundation in the pursuit of accuracy. Once established, this foundation allows for the pursuit of accuracy through an understanding of the fundamentals of proper design, maintenance, and equipment application
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Document ID: ED3BE3E5

Moisture Measurement Using Laser Spectroscopy
Author(s): Ken Soleyn
Abstract/Introduction:
Tunable Laser Diode Spectroscopy (TDLAS) is rapidly becoming the measurement technology of choice for continuous online moisture measurement in natural gas. Natural gas is dehydrated and treated prior to transportation and use. The removal of water from natur al gas is of considerable costs to the supplier and consumer. Reducing dehydration costs is a tradeoff betw een profits and the reduction of gas quality. Water increases maintenance cost within the gas pipeline infr astructure. Water vapor present in excess amounts in natural gas results in pipeline and component corrosio n, can cause ice buildup, me thane hydrate formation, lowers the calorific value and increases the energy consumption for compression and transportation.
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Document ID: 094F2E9B

Reducing Measurement Uncertainty In Process Gas Quality Measurements
Author(s): Charlie Cook
Abstract/Introduction:
Uncertainty is quantified by engineers and scientists and thei r very methods and mathematics are knowingly, themselves found to be uncertain. Nevertheless, the e ffort continues. The AGA, GPA, ISO along with many agencies in every industry strives to eliminate or re duce uncertainty by releasi ng new standards and periodic studies and review and revision to legacy standards. The effo rts are not futile and in fact have led to notable, useful standards that are helpful and practical. Th ese are often amended, revised and improved and yet often unwelcome.
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Document ID: 9E6BF4E3

The Analysis Of Carbon Dioxide In Natural Gas
Author(s): Mike Fuller,
Abstract/Introduction:
The composition of natural gas varies but consists mainly of methane and varying amounts of heavier aliphatic hydrocarbons, nitrogen and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). A typical commercial pipeline natural analysis compositional analysis by gas chro matography (GC) i
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Document ID: 8B9D6547

Considerations In Sampling Wet, High Pre Ssure, Or Supercritical Natural Gas - Case Study In Sampling Rich Shale Gas
Author(s): Matt Byford John Lambdin
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to summarize the approach taken by Enterprise Products to address the challenges of rich gas sampling. It will begin by laying out the effect s of rich gas sampling error and explaining the expected causes of these errors. Next an outline of the solutions that were determined and implemented over multiple years will be presented. Finally there wi ll be a discussion of the re sults, both at an individual meter station level and system-wide. This paper will focus on gas measurem ent locations in the Eagle Ford shale however the lessons learned are applicable anywhere gas is sampled at or near its hydrocarbon dew point.
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Document ID: CFE01C33

Flare Measurement Practices
Author(s): Eric Estrada Steve Baldwin
Abstract/Introduction:
With the recent release of the Green House Gas Regulations, the increa sed visibility of flaring natural gas and increased awareness of royalty owners, the ability to accurately measure and account for the amount of product flared from a facility has become increasingly important to regulators, royalty owners and operators. In the past, flare gas was not considered a necessary measurement, so the measurement of flared product has often been overlooked or not given the same attent ion as custody transfer measurement
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Document ID: AEACD707

Principles Of Multi-Dimen Sional Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Gregg Meidl
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past 45 years, multi-dimensional gas chromat ography has made a tremendous impact in the HPI and CPI markets. Process GCs play an important role in the areas of safety, process control, process monitoring and environmental monitoring. Modern anal yzer systems have sophisticated PC ba sed electronic controllers with LCD man-machine interface suitable for hazardous area clas sifications. Despite the fact that there have been considerable strides in process gas chromatographic technologies and practices, the same basic principals hold true today. This paper will cover the basic structure of a typical process gas chromatograph from the sample probe, through the sample system, GC sample valves , columns and column valves and through the detector.
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Document ID: F2A56DD0

Introduction To Measurement Uncertainty
Author(s): Richard Estabrook
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the concepts of both uncer tainty and bias in measurement, discusses the need to eliminate bias prior to performing an uncertainty calculation, outlines the difference between component uncertainty and system unc ertainty, and provides several sample calculations. This paper also introduces simple statistical methods such as standard deviation and mean.
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Document ID: BEFEDF08

Performance Testing For Natural Gas Sample Systems
Author(s): Justin m. Harvey
Abstract/Introduction:
As we enter the second decade of the 21 st century, technology is changing at an ever increasing rate. This holds true for all aspects of our lives, incl uding communication, transportation, commerce, the internet, etc. The production, transportation and sampling of Natural Gas has also been affected positively by this surge in technology. For the purposes of this paper, the focus will be the analysis of Natural Gas. One example of a quantum leap in analysis is the method for measuring water concentrations in Natural Gas. In 30 years, the industry standard for water measurement has gone from manual chilled mirror analysis or stain tubes, to electrolytic cell-based analysis, to Tunable Diode Laser (TDL) technology
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Document ID: 9B17CD27

Custody Transfer Crude Oil Sampling System
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The sampling technique empl oyed in extracting a representative sample for crude oil BS&W analysis has received a high level of scrutiny in the last twenty year s from concerned oil companies around the world. The revenue implications are considerable, if the sample is not accurate. Whether it is pipeline custody transfer, tanker loading/unloading, or refinery in put, a representative composite sample of the oil for laboratory analysis is critical. Plainly put, a 1% error is worth hundreds of t housands of dollars and frequently over a million dollars on one single ship load. That makes sampling a serious matte r in the measurement world for crude oil sales. With recent developments in the Eagle Ford Shale Play and the Bakken discovery in North Dakota, the importance of correct sampling is becoming more and more important
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Document ID: DB1DA2F3

Determination Of Trace Oxygen In Natural Gas
Author(s): Sam Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
The necessity for trace oxygen measurements is in creasing with requirements below 100 or 10ppmv. An understanding of the considerations when choosing techno logy for measuring Oxygen is useful especially for remote locations or locations with high le vels of corrosive contaminants such as CO 2 and H 2 S. This paper discusses a variety of measurement methods used in nat ural gas such as Galvanic Cell method, the Quench Florescence method and the Gas Chromatograph method.
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Document ID: F7AAA8FC

Uncertainties Within The Centrifuge Method And Mitigation
Author(s): Allen Wong Marty Gaunder
Abstract/Introduction:
the centrifuge method is widely used to determine the amount of water and/or sediment in crude oil as part of the custody transfer process. The parties involved in a tran saction would benefit to minimize the uncertainties involved. Pipeline companies publish the quantity of water and sediment it will contractually accept. Maintaining a balanced system is crucial to the business of a pipeline company.
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Document ID: AAFC81A2

Inline Color Measurement Of Refined Product And Condensate
Author(s): Steven W Schoenborn
Abstract/Introduction:
Crude oil refiners and natural gas producers have long used color determination of liquid hydrocarbon streams for manufacturing and quality control purposes. However, the testing methods to determine color were normally conducted manually (offline) by sample analysis, often re quiring some level of sample conditioning. Now, advances in process photometry has created devices capabl e of inline color measurement of liquid hydrocarbon streams - all in real time and under process conditions. This ability allows crude oil refineries, natural gas processers, and pipeline owners an opportunity to moni tor/control manufacturing process parameters where it couldnt be done before, and as a result, a real time opport unity to increase product quality, control product manufacture, and monitor product transfer
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Document ID: 66510C81

Introduction To Gas Quality Using Spectroscopy
Author(s): Sohrab Zarrabian
Abstract/Introduction:
Optical spectroscopy methods are finding increased applications in analysis of natural gas from processing to the point of use. These applicat ions are expected to grow in the coming years. This paper is aimed at helping beginning level techni cian get a broad overview of this topic. It will cover the fundamentals of optical spectroscopy as applied to natural gas analysis, without the use of rigorous mathematical and physical concepts. The discussion is then followed by each type of spectroscopy that is finding a pplications in natural gas including absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and fluorescen ce quenching spectroscopy. The focus is on field-deployable methods and no t laboratory based techniques
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Document ID: 64BEE2D4

Gas Calibration Standards For Safe And Accurate Pipeline Analysis
Author(s): Russell Wenzel
Abstract/Introduction:
Much time and effort is spent measuring various hydroc arbon related concerns in natural gas and liquid streams and many dollars are exchanged everyday related to the re sults of these measurements. Sometimes little of this time and effort is spent considering pure and calibration gas and liquid mixtures quality, safe use, and cost optimization. The results of these measurements ar e only as good as the quality and accuracy of these calibration standards and pure carrier gases.
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Document ID: 10684852

Causes And Cures Of Re Gulator Instability
Author(s): Paul Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the gas pressure reducing regulator installation and the issue of erratic control of the downstream pressure. A gas pressure reducing regulators j ob is to manipulate flow in order to control pressure. When the downstream pressure is not properly controlled, the term unstable control is applied. Figure 1 is a list of other terms used for various forms of downstream pressure instability. This pa per will not address the mathematical methods of describing th e automatic control system of the pressure reduci ng station, but will deal with more of the components and t heir effect on the system stability.
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Document ID: 55E850F0

Controlling Surges In Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): Sharon Mccurdy
Abstract/Introduction:
Controlling surges in liquid hydrocarbon applications is a complex task that requires experienced engineers to dissect every section of the system. They must take into account every what if scenario and design a system that will protect piping, equipment and personnel. This paper provides a basic understanding of transient pressures, how they can occur a nd how they can be controlled.
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Document ID: 48874675

Fundamentals Of Pressurefundamentals Of Pressure Reguators
Author(s): Tim Woods
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry, there are two basic types of regulators used for both pressure reducing and back pressure (relief) control. The two types are: 1.) Self-Operated Type 2.) Pilot Operated Type The primary purpose of this paper is to discuss the basic principle of Self Operated and Pilot Operated Regulators including components of the system, principles of operation, advantages and disadvantages, and some maintenance and inspection procedures.
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Document ID: 52D0F59F

Prevention Of Freezing In Measure Ment And Regulatingstations
Author(s): Stephen Palmitier
Abstract/Introduction:
The competitive business environment that exists in the energy industry demands reliable service. Even though it is expensive to change energy companies, customers do have options if they becom e dissatisfied with their service. Significant money can be lost with trading partners through erroneous data used in establishing the value of the trade. The regulatory environment is be coming more strident in demanding safe, controlled operations. Even minor excursions outside prescribed norms can lead to substantial fines, and worse, years of having regulators going over operations with a fine tooth comb looking for any discrepancy.
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Document ID: 446C8660

Selection, Sizing And Operation Of Control Valves For Gases And Liquids
Author(s): Will Sjobeck
Abstract/Introduction:
The Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society (ISA) defines a control valve as a power operated device that modulates the fluid flow rate in a process control system. Process plants contain hundred, if not thousands of control loops to help a certain variable reach a desired set point. These loops consist of sensors, transmitters, and process controllers that receive information and calculate necessary action to achieve a set point upon system disturbance. The control valve is one of the most common final control elements that the process controller manages to maintain the set point. A well-sized and selected control valve will be able to keep the process variable as close as possible to the set point, making the control valve a crucial part of the process.
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Document ID: D0926FDC

Turbulence And Its Effects In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Terrence A. Grimley Edgar B. Bowles, Jr. Adam Hawley
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many misconceptions and misunderstandings about pipe flow turbulence and its influences on flow measuring and flow regulating stations in gas and liquid transport pipe lines. Many volumes have been written on the subject of flow turbulence. This paper is not intended to be a comprehensive treatment of the subject of pipe flow turbulence, but does discuss fundamental concepts and terminology, and provides information on how flow turbulence and its effects can adversely affect flow meas urement and flow regulation. This information can give pipeline measurement station and regulation station desi gners and operators insight into ways to minimize possible adverse effects of flow turbulence.
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Document ID: AA9FBEA4

Flow Meter Installation Effects
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr. Adam Hawley
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many causes for natural gas flow rate measurement errors at field meter stations. Many of the sources for meter error are identified in the proceedings of this conference. For instance, er rors can result from an improper installation configuration, calibration of a mete r at conditions other than t he actual operating conditions, or degradation of meter performance over time. Indust ry standards have been developed to help meter station designers and operators avoid situations that would produce gas metering er rors. Typically, gas meter standards address meter design, construction, installation, operation, and maintenance. Most of the standards focus on the flow meter and the piping immediately upstream and downs tream of the meter. Rese arch has shown that many meter types, particularly infer ential meters, are susceptible to errors when the flow field at the meter is distorted. The sources of flow field distortions are many.
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Document ID: 8F5BE00C

Orifice Meter Primary Elements Standards
Author(s): Jerry Blankenship
Abstract/Introduction:
The April 2000 revision to the API 14.3 part 2 Standard incl udes the results of considerable test work over the past few years. Numerous changes are noted, some of which will have major effects on users of orifice measurement. The most significant impact will be in the upstream length and flow conditi oner areas. This paper will discuss most of the changes and go into some detail on the more important ones. Items not mentioned essentially remain as stated in the previous issue of the Standard.
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Document ID: ADEBC6EE

About Ishm 2014
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
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Document ID: AF79D940


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