Measurement Library

South East Asia Flow Measurement Conference Publications (2014)

An Analysis On Flow Meter Selection For Heavy Oil Development Project In Kuwait
Author(s): Mohan Punniyakotti, Khalid Al-Enezy
Abstract/Introduction:
he purpose of this paper is to analysis the various f low meter selections for upcoming Heavy Oil Development Project in KOC, Kuwait . In a heavy oil facility the flow measurement of the oil and emulsion will be very difficult with standard instrumentation. The heavy oil has a high viscosity. The emulsion will also have a high viscosity and may have entrained sand/silt that can cause plugging and erosion of flow elements. Produce d water will have enough oil in it to cause plugging and coating issues. Even the w et produced gas will contain enough oil particles to cause plugging and coating. In the water treatment process of a heavy oil facility there will be slurry and sludge flows that present a problem for flow metering with c onventional instruments
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Document ID: D62CD5AE

The Impact Of Measurement Uncertainty On Hydrocarbon Allocation
Author(s): Alick Macgillivray,
Abstract/Introduction:
Uncertainty in the measured flow of oil and gas can create a degree of doubt that will contribute to significant financial exposure by the operator. It can also lead to significant errors in calculated flows in allocation systems. T his paper demonstrates, using an industry case study, the need for good management of measure ment systems to minimise errors and therefore reduce financial exposure in allocation s ystems.
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Document ID: 90C05DFC

Gas Transmission Planning System: An End-User Implementation Experience
Author(s): Muhammad Fauzi Bin Rohani, Abdul Shafeeq Bin Abdul Sahar
Abstract/Introduction:
when planning for distribution of materials, either in liquid, gas or solid form it is imperative to have data to meet the economics funda mental of Supply & Demand. The historical data shall be obtained via measuring instrumentation. However, in many circumstances, a planning task req uires projective or predictive or extrapolative data in nature to match the Demand against Supply. Our experience indicates that gas transmission is in a volatile environment as the product is deemed required by the Energy Sector to enable multi-industry operations while the supply is merely at par with d emand due to ageing offshore facility and diminishing reserves.
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Document ID: E16618F2

Measurement Uncertainty Analysis Of A High-Pressure Natural Gas Mass-Time Standard System
Author(s): Ming-Chang Guo Bo Yang Steve Caldwell Iunn-Haur Shaw Fong-Ruey Yang
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents the construction and working pr inciple of a high-pressure natural gas gravimetric ( mt method) primary system in China. A detailed resear ch and analysis on the key factors influencing operation, and thus the measurement uncertainty of the system, as well as way to improv ed measurement accuracy, will be discussed. The mt primary standard has passed the Examination of Mea surement Standard by Chinese government administrative depar tment in the beginning of 2012. Its measuring range is (0.18.0)kg/s and the expand ed uncertainty is 0.1%. Through comparison of technical specifications of various h igh-pressure systems under operation around the world, it shows the present sy stem has reached international recognized level, in terms of operation range and c laimed uncertainty
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Document ID: 27C4D4A2

Results Of A Long - Term Intercomparison Between Two High - Pressure Gas Flow Facilities
Author(s): Jos Van Der Grinten, Frans Doorman
Abstract/Introduction:
As part of a two and half year intercomparison between the Westerbork and EuroLoop cali bration facilities in The Netherlands more than 100 meter calibrations were performed with three 20 ultrasonic meters, three 20 turbine meters and one 24 ultrasonic meter. Although the primary objective was to demonstrate the similarity of the performan ce of the Westerbork and EuroLoop facilities, the intercomparison resulted in valuable information usable for field operation: ? The meter stability trend varies between - 0.001%/year for the best meter and +0.102%/year for the worst meter. These figures can change substantially depending on the time interval and the dataset chosen. ? The best achievable high - pressure calibration uncertainty under laboratory condition is approximately 0.20%. Repetition of the calibration shows that the meter curves have a bandwi dth of 0.20% 0.60%. If two meters are put in series the difference of their meter curves show the same bandwidth, which means that it is impossible to measure more accurately with the available technology. ? Upstream disturbances can have a substantial inf luence on the stability of the meter readout. Examples are thermowells installed between meters which can lead to a less stable reading of the downstream meter. ? Downstream disturbances like expanders and filters can have upstream influences. Sufficient pip e length is of vital importance
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Document ID: 28256F09

Measurement Of Subsea Produced Water Quality - The Importance And Challenges
Author(s): Ming Yang
Abstract/Introduction:
Subsea separation and produced water re-injection ( PWRI) or discharge and subsea sea water treatment and injection are integr al parts of subsea processing strategy. These technologies are innovative and eff ective. They contribute to the maximization of the recoveries of offshore oil and gas resources. In the last 15 years, successful projects involving subsea separation and produced water re-injection have been found at Troll, Tordis operated by Statoil in the North Sea, and more recently Marlim operated by Pet robras in Brazil. Technology for subsea sea water treatment for injection has al so moved on. Three field applications have now been found respectively at CN Rs Columba E Field, Statoils Tyrihans field in the North Sea and Petrobras Alba cora field in Brazil. However, there has not been a much wider take-up of subsea s eparation and PWRI systems or subsea sea water treatment and injection systems as was expected. One of the key issues or technology gaps is in relation to sub sea water quality measurement
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Document ID: E498C2A7

Validation Of A Unique Non-Intrusive Full Bore Wate R And Oil Fraction Meter
Author(s): Alan Parker Ramesh Ladwa Giles Edward
Abstract/Introduction:
We present the development of a unique water oil fr action meter with sensor elements embedded in a thermoplastic pipe. It is suitable fo r use in a high pressure, high temperature, and / or sour service environment. Com posite construction allows the sensor elements to lie outside the flow path, witho ut flow obstruction or contact with the flow-line fluids, and the sensing is capable of mea suring the full flow line diameter without the need for active mixing, or vertical ori entation of the meter. The sensing systems are low power, robust and are designed for zero planned intervention during a multi-year life. The sensor device is monolithic an d suitable for high hydrostatic and flow line pressure and applicable for production tubing and well completions. The meter design is embodied in a number of patent applicatio ns.
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Document ID: 2E80D7B2

Measurement - It Is Not Only The Meter
Author(s): Gilbert m Tonner
Abstract/Introduction:
his paper and the associated presentation is based on the Energy Institute document HM54 Management of Measurement which the author w as involved in producing. For the purposes of this paper Measurement is defined as: Quote: Key Aspects of Measurement Perhaps the most significant aspect of hydrocarbon measurement is the real underlying purpose. Many Operators place huge focus on the re duction of capital and operating costs in the drive for increasing profitability and retur n on investment. This in itself is a reasonable intention, however cost is only one of t he two factors that determine profits. The other is revenue and this is directly related t o the output of a measurement system, therefore in essence a measurement system is a cash register. Operators should always bear in mind that any reduction in capital and oper ating costs for measurement systems may have an effect of the accuracy of the revenue t hey are credited with, and consequently may more than offset the savings made. The agreements, processes, procedures, software and human resources that are involved in determining the quantity and quality of what we produce
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Document ID: 62A5FD9D

Meter Selection From 40 Years Of Service Point Of View
Author(s): Laura Schafer
Abstract/Introduction:
As the design basis of FPSO has changed from 7 - 10 years to 20 - 40 years, meter selection has been impacted in the following ways: 1. Weight and space considerations are even more cr itical because FPSO weight will only continue to increase over the years due to modifica tions and additions to the existing modules to accommodate changes in safety requiremen ts and production characteristics. Elimination of meter straight run requirements coup led with installation flexibility will reduce weight and space in the initial design to al low flexibility for future expansion. 2. Selection of the right flow meter technology can be extremely challenging due to changing turn down ratio requirements over the life of the FPSO. As a reservoir depletes and production decreases, flow rates can trend out of installed meter performance specification ranges thereby compromising accuracy. Alternately, an FPSO may be deployed to a new asset that may produce significan tly more or less than the asset for which it was initially designed. A measurement str ategy is required to ensure meter performance and flexibility for the entire 40 year life of the FPSO.
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Document ID: 7BF212AA

Prognosis Applied To High Viscosity Flows
Author(s): Jennifer Rabone Craig Marshall Chris Mills Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Prognosis is a condition based monitoring and diagnostic system for Differential Pressure (DP) meter s which uses a third pressure tapping downstream of the meter and patented techniques to monitor the pressure field through the meter body. The Prognosis DP meter diagnostic system is well documented and the technology has been discussed at repeated technicall conferences and workshops including the North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop 1 , 2 , 3 , 4, 5 and the SE Asia Flow Measurement Conference 4, 6, 7 . F or completeness, a technical summary of the system is included below. The flow measurement of high viscosity oils is an important and challenging area for the future of the energy sector. The vast majority of the worlds oil reserves are classed as high viscosity (i.e. , heavy ) oil . Not only are there difficulties in the e xtraction and transportation of these fluids, but high accuracy flow measurement has also been proven to be extremely problematic.
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Document ID: 5848AC17

Monitoring Salinity Change And Salt Deposition Measurement On A North African Field
Author(s): Samia Bifout Bruno Pinguet
Abstract/Introduction:
The multiphase metering business is shifting over t he last years from conventional 3- Phase metering (only Water, Oil, and Gas measuremen t) to complex combination of 4 phases and there is already a recurrent demand for monitoring the salinity change or salt production. Beyond the exercise of measuring t he salt, flow assurance and reservoir management are addressed through this type of analy sis and specifically in high GVF. One of the most complex conditions to operate a mul tiphase flow meter is with large amount of free salt production. In North Africa, fe w oil fields have very high salinity content of 240,000 to 290,000 mg/liter. To reduce s alt deposition, the water injection is done in the reservoir (at the completions tubing le vel) to reduce water salinity, dilution water strings are also installed in the wells to fu rther lower salinity and allow the wells to produce. In such a challenging production operatio n environment, the measurement of the 4 phases: Salt, Oil, Water, and Gas are a benef it for optimization.
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Document ID: 95149496

Performance Of A Vertically Installed Venturi Tube In Wet-Gas Conditions
Author(s): Emmelyn Graham Michael Reader-Harris David Hodges Richard Hone Amanda Barrie Neil Ramsay
Abstract/Introduction:
Venturi tubes are one of the most common types of m eters used for wet-gas flow measurement as they are a simple, robust and cost-e ffective meter. Many commercial wet- gas and multiphase meters incorporate a Venturi tub e along with other measurement technology to determine the flow rate of the indivi dual phases. The presence of the liquid causes an increase in th e measured differential pressure and results in the Venturi tube over-reading the actual amount of gas passing through the meter. This over-reading is usually corrected using avai lable correlations derived from experimental data to determine the actual gas mass flowrate. Thi s over-reading trend is observed in all differential-pressure meters. The flowrate of the liquid, which can be a combination of water and hydrocarbons, is normally determined by an exte rnal means such as from test separator data, tracer experiments or sampling etc. Informat ion on the liquid flowrate and density is necessary to use the correlations
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Document ID: 0A753770

Flow Assurance: Why Subsea Sampling Is On The Critical Path
Author(s): Bruno Pinguet Michael Smith Eivind Vethe Bernard Theron Onur Ozen
Abstract/Introduction:
ubsea business is growing rapidly around the world an d it is going deeper and deeper, with increasing tie back lengths. It is no longer possible to produce each well through a single pipeline or riser. Tie backs of fluids with different properties are commonly used to further reduce the cost of production up to the FPSO or host platform before processing. In the North Sea, for instance, some oil operators will be producing simultaneously gas condensate and h eavy oil to the same platform f r o m different reservoir layers in the same area
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Document ID: 371AE55F

Gas Chromatography And Sample Let Down System - Conditional Based Monitoring And Live Uncertainty Calculation
Author(s): Anwar Sutan
Abstract/Introduction:
On-line gas chromatography is frequently used withi n Fiscal and Custody Transfer measurement systems. The uncertainty of the analysi s from the gas chromatograph (GC) is of the utmost importance with the resultant analysis frequently at the core of economic transactions. The modern gas chromatograph is an extremely repeat able device. However, to ensure that the system remains both accurate and re peatable, requires that suitable monitoring and maintenance are in place.
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Document ID: AFDC3BA9

Field Experience Using Diagnostic Feature Of Ultrasonic Meter
Author(s): Mohammad Najib
Abstract/Introduction:
The advantages of Ultrasonic meter compare to the o ther current flow meter technology is the diagnosticd feature, by using this feature user can understand the condition of the meter it self, metering system and the external factor which afect ed of the system and meter performance. This paper background is field experience after we got complain from one of our client who installed the USM metering system. After 2 years of commissio ning the metering system shown the discrepancy of gas consume compare with the receivi ng meter
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Document ID: D4891D92

Accurate Flow Measurements Using Ultrasonic Multi - Path Technology - Protrusion Effects
Author(s): T. Hies S. Leschka J. Skripalle
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultraso nic transit time multi - path flow meters are a very common technology for discharge measurements in large pipes, e.g. for hydro power plants 1. In order to achieve highest accuracy, insertion sensors, which are measuring in several parallel planes, provide higher accuracy than clamp - on solutions, where several non - parallel planes are established through the center of the pipe . The latter solution does not allow using integrating techniques like Gauss - Jacobi or OWICS (Optimized Weights for Circular Section) 2, 3 for reconstructing the full flow profile and therefore compromises on the measurement accuracy. The integration techniques according to Gauss - Jacobi does not consider the velocity gradient close to the pipe wall and both integration methods generate an integration error when disturbed velocity profils occur
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Document ID: DF3A0FB8

The Challenge Of Providing Integrated Measurement A Nd Allocation Service Remotely A( Case Study)
Author(s): Charlie Johnson Paul Daniel David Crockett
Abstract/Introduction:
his paper describes the challenge of providing an Integrated Measurement and Allocation solution to the fields operated by two Joint Operat ing Companies (JOC) offshore Vietnam where they share an FPSO facility. A JOC is a prod uction sharing entity that is made up of local and international companies in Vietnam. JOC A has fields in an adjacent block to the field of JOC B. The JOCs share an FPSO initially l eased for the production of JOC B. As the FPSO facility was designed to be dedicated t o JOC B there were no Fiscal/Custody measurement facilities on the platforms of Fields B . It was therefore necessary to provide metering as close as practicable to custody transfe r quality on Field A to satisfy the partners in each field grouping that they would receive a fa ir and equitable share of the production
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Document ID: 3E7ECC38


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