Measurement Library

North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop Publications (2014)

Field Trials And Pragmatic Development Of Sonar Flow Meter Technology
Author(s): Bill Pearson, Samir Ismayilov Edward Beeloo
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes a collaboration between BP Aze rbaijan - Georgia - Turkey (AGT) Region and Expro Meters Inc, a wholly owned s ubsiduary of Expro Group. The collaboration was in the pragmatic application of SONAR flow measurement technology to meet an Operational requirement for r etrospective, non-intrusive flow measurement in a number of allocation type m etering applications. An account of clamp-on SONAR flow meter development, b ased on field trials, for two of those applications, is described in this pap er. Applications of SONAR technology described in this paper include its use on a crude oil reception line at the Sangachal terminal, and its use, on the Shah Deniz A platform, as a secondary measurement tool to ve rify an ex-test separator gas measurement device, providing additional measuremen ts during critical well testing operations
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 91B67AA2

Force Technology B Uilds The W Or Lds L Arges T C Alibration L Oop For C Alibration Of N Atural G As m Etres
Author(s): Jesper Busk
Abstract/Introduction:
he increasing global demand for calibration of gas metres at high pressure has led to FO RCE Technology erecting the worlds larges calibration loop for calibration of natural gas metres. The system will be ready for operation in the fall 2014. Excact measurements of gas flow provide correct price settlements. It is extremely important that the gas flow metres show as exact measurements as possible. Every year, gas amounting to billions of Euros flow through the large metres applied for settlement when the gas c rosses frontiers. Even if the metres incurracy percentage is as low as e.g. 0,5, it will result in huge errors in the settle ment amounts
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: EE961378

Advanced DP Meter Diagnostics Developing Dynamic Pressure Field Monitoring ( & Other Developments
Author(s): Jennifer Rabone Bob Peebles George Kidd Andrey Safonov Josh Kinney
Abstract/Introduction:
Differential Pressure (DP) meters have a full diagnostic suite. T hese diagnostics appeared suddenly and unexpecte dly. Due to the DP meter s simplicity there was a long standing axiom that DP meters could have no diagnostics. For more than a century DP meter operators were unaware of the information contained in a DP meters pressure field . Operators of DP meter s trad itionally knew of only a small proportion of the information available from each DP meter. However, DP meter technology has now evolved the ability to see and understand the pressure field. This crucial DP meter evolutionary step has diverted the DP meter from the slow road to obsolescence and placed it firmly back in the forefront of modern flow meter developmen
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 876F92BD

Simplified Equations For Some Thermophysical Propert Ies Used In High Pressure Metering Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Andrew Laughton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper specifies a method to calculate viscosit y and other properties, excluding density, for use in the metering of natur al gas flow. This paper gives simplified methods for the calcula tion of (dynamic) viscosity, Joule-Thomson coefficient, and isentropic exponent for use in natural gas calculations in the temperature range -10 to 40 o C and pressures up to 100 bar(abs) in the gas phase. For Joule-Thomson and isentropic exponent, the unce rtainty of the equations provided is greater than that obtained from a compl ete equation of state such as ISO-20765:2 or GERG-2008 (reference 1), but is co nsidered to be fit for purpose. The equations are much simple
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 5E83D422

The Performance Of Orifice Plate Meters At Low Flow S
Author(s): Quentin Mabbutt Tamsin Kashap Richard Page Carole Rees
Abstract/Introduction:
Despite recent advances in high pressure gas measur ement technology, the majority of meter systems on the UKs National Tran smission System (NTS) are of the Orifice Plate (OP) design. These systems re ly on four key primary measurement components, the orifice plate and carri er assembly, pressure, temperature and differential pressure measurement d evices. Usually the meters are operated at flows that are well within the opti mal design range of the respective instruments
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: FE4AAA00

Orifice Plates With Drain Holes
Author(s): Michael Reader-Harris David Addison
Abstract/Introduction:
Where a gas flow is continuously wet an orifice pla te does not require a drain hole. However, a drain hole is appropriate where s ome liquid is introduced to the pipeline over a short period of time, but thereafte r the gas flow is dry. In this case there is no need for wet-gas measurement the problem is that during periods in which there is some liquid flow a pool o f liquid will build up against the upstream face and thus the metering accuracy will b e undermined even during the time when the flow is dry. Another installatio n where a drain hole was found appropriate was one where without a drain hole ther e was very significant accumulation of dirt a new orifice plate with a dr ain hole allowed small particles of dirt to pass the plate and hence solved the prob lem
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 8ED4F764

Qualification Testing Of An 8-path Ultrasonic Gas Meter
Author(s): Dr Gregor J Brown William R Freund Jnr
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic meters are now commonplace for custody t ransfer measurement of natural gas, with several established manufacturers and some new entrants. For the end-user the competing claims in terms of meter design can be difficult to unravel, with the result that differentiation betwe en one manufacturer and the next will often come down to knowledge gained from laboratory testing and experience in the field
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: B7E6881A

Experimental Research Into The Measurement Of Temperature In Natural Gas Transmission Metering Systems
Author(s): Bob Ingram Sarah Kimpton
Abstract/Introduction:
High-pressure offtake metering installations at Nat ional Grid Gas Distribution are audited for conformance with the Uniform Network Co de Offtake Arrangements Document (OAD) Appendix D 1 the auditors are Ofg em, independent auditors and the Measurement Assurance Group of National Gri d Gas Transmission. The auditors repeatedly report that there is no thermal lagging on meter tubes this is quoted as a category 1 finding based on the presump tions that thermowells should exclusively be the temperature measurement m ethod for custody transfer metering applications and that the tip should be si ted in the centre third of the pipe diameter
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 9B399E24

Practical Experience Of Bi Directional Prover Calibration
Author(s): Jim Gray Sharon Marsh Julian Cornick Steve Gwaspari
Abstract/Introduction:
his paper describes Alderleys experience of some of the real world challenges and uncertainties associated with the calibration o f the prover volume using the two methods defined in the MPMS standards Master Meter 1 Water Draw 2 The two main areas covered will be Comparison of water draw and master meter calibrati on of a bi-directional prover Verification that the use of a 25% flow rate change during prover volume calibration will identify potential leaks
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 2531B772

Methods Of Determining And Verifying Fiscal Samplin G System Uncertainty By Analysing 25 Years Of Real Fi Eld Proving Data And Laboratory Tests Compared With International Acceptance Criteria
Author(s): Gary Potten Stuart Wright
Abstract/Introduction:
As offshore production flow rates decline, oil-fiel ds mature and water fractions climb, it becomes increasingly challenging to achie ve a representative sample for use in fiscal, allocation, and custody transfer. I t is therefore important that a sampling systems performance is evaluated on a regu lar basis so that any limitations are identified to mitigate the risks to measurement accuracy and uncertainty.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: E1BB3E06

Performance Testing Of Novel Fibre Optic Based Vort Ex Flow Meter In High Pressure Wet Steam
Author(s): R. Jansen J. Golliard C. Staveley W. Schiferli A. Znotins
Abstract/Introduction:
TNO has developed a fibre optic based vortex meter specifically aimed at high- temperature steam applications. This development wa s sponsored by Shell and a commercial version of the meter will be sold as Sm artFlow by Smart Fibres Ltd, a UK company specializing in fibre optic sensors. Besides being able to measure volume flow rate in a (near)-single phase flow, the meter was specifically designed to give an indicati on of the amount of liquid present in a two phase flow. This was verified in b oth low-pressure air-water flow loop tests and in high pressure, high temperature, wet steam tests
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 3C1290C8

Coriolis Meter Testing Under Variable Water Cut, Oil Water Conditions
Author(s): Terry Cousins Richard Steven Thomas Kegel
Abstract/Introduction:
While multiphase flow is often considered to be a m ixture of oil, water and gas, in oil production the flow is often predominately oil with water. Gas is usually present to a degree, but it can be readily removed. In marginal fields the use of large separators is cost prohibitive, so the measur ement of the oil with water flows without separation is often necessary. The me thods employed range from use of complex purpose designed multiphase meters t o the adaption of standard liquid flow meters to this task. This paper discusses the potential use of Coriolis meters for the measurement of oil with water flows. The Coriolis meter is potenti ally well suited to this adaption to oil with water metering. The physical principles on which it operates allow the meter to output multiple variables, i.e. mass flow rate, volume flow rate and fluid density
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: D0B39BC4

Insights Into Multiphase Flow Through Ultrasound Doppler
Author(s): Anusha Rammohan Baskaran Ganesan Ted Furlong, John Ward,
Abstract/Introduction:
Multiphase flow can be fully characterized and meas ured if the velocities and phase fractions of all the components in the flow w ere available through sensor measurements. For a three phase (oil, water and gas ) flow, this involves the measurement of 6 parameters i.e oil, water and gas phase fractions and oil, water and gas velocities. Of these, only 5 are inde pendent parameters (if any two phase fractions are known, the third can be calcula ted). While most meters have access to at least two fraction measurements (gas p hase fraction and water in liquid ratio), not all 3 velocity components can be measured. The burden then falls on the flow meter algorithm to fill in the mi ssing pieces with an appropriate model
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 8AFB1AF0

In Line Multiphase Flow Measurement Permian Basin , Texas Field Trial
Author(s): David Watkins, Federico Lucchini Peter Weaver Enrico Feltresi Mattia Genolini,
Abstract/Introduction:
Pietro Fiorentinis Multiphase Flow Meter (MPFM) Mobile Unit successfully measured oil, water and gas flow rates simultaneously from vertical wells producing to a Chevron central tank battery near Midland - Odessa, Texas. This field trial, conducted over 10 days in November 2013, focused on wells produ cing from the Wolfberry zones the Wolfberry will be the subject of significant future drilling in the Permian Basin. The flow conditions in this area are particularly challenging: high gas void fractions (GVF ) ( 95% ) , low pressures ( 5 0 - 10 0 psi), variabl e water - c ut (40% - 80%), tight emulsions, severe slug flow, large flow velocity turndowns (5 - 30 m/s), and highly varying flow temperature s ( 39 - 102 F 4 - 34 C
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 9A1F8981

Process Simulation Uncertainties
Author(s): Phil Stockton Juan Martin
Abstract/Introduction:
The main purpose of simulation models within hydroc arbon allocation systems is to provide information regarding how hydrocarbons b ehave in a process plant. Allocation algorithms often include factors generat ed by these models. In calculating the uncertainty in the quantities alloc ated to each party in an allocation system, the uncertainty in the factors s upplied from a simulation has to be accounted for. The uncertainty in the measured q uantities is often known with a good degree of confidence but the available data regarding the uncertainty of, for example a shrinkage factor, is not known and ma y be arbitrarily assumed to be a value of say 5% or 10%
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 828F3E8D

Is Linearisation Safe For Custody Transfer Meters?
Author(s): T. Cousins
Abstract/Introduction:
There are a number of end goals for a flow meters u sed for different applications. For control meters it may be a combination of repea tability, stability and quick response time, for batch applications it may be tha t repeatability is the main criteria and for leak detection it is the repeatabi lity and stability. For hydrocarbon custody transfer meters, without a doubt, the major criterion is the installed uncertainty of the meter
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: AA48DC11

Expanded Knowledge On Orifice Meter Response To Wet Gas Flows
Author(s): Richard Steven Josh Kinney Babajide Adejuyigbe Kim Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
With orifice plate flow meters being one of the mos t widely used flow meters in the natural gas production industry it is inevitabl e that they are often used in wet natural gas flow applications. In 2011 BP, ConocoPh illips (CoP) and CEESI released a comprehensive paper (Steven et al 1) o n the known performance of the orifice meter to wet gas flow conditions. This paper described the performance of 2 through 4 orifice meters across a wide range of wet natural gas flow conditions. However, as with all gas meter types, t here are still significant unknowns regards the performance of orifice meters with wet gas flow. In this paper three of these unknowns are addressed
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 249AE56C

Performance Of A Vertically Installed Venturi Tube In Wet-Gas Conditions
Author(s): Emmelyn Graham Michael Reader-Harris David Hodges Richard Hone Amanda Barrie Neil Ramsay
Abstract/Introduction:
Venturi tubes are one of the most common types of m eters used for wet-gas flow measurement as they are a simple, robust and cost-e ffective meter. Many commercial wet-gas and multiphase meters incorporat e a Venturi tube along with other measurement technology to determine the flow rate of the individual phases. The presence of the liquid causes an increase in th e measured differential pressure and results in the Venturi tube over-readi ng the actual amount of gas passing through the meter.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C901F110

Venturi Flow Meters Behaviour In High Pressure 3 Phases Wet Gas Conditions
Author(s): J.P. Couput B. Tanguy P. Gajan
Abstract/Introduction:
Subsea or topside developments of gas & gas condens ate fields are more and more demanding regarding wet gas metering solutions for reservoir monitoring, production optimisation, internal or contractual / fiscal allocation. Such increasing number of applications has generate d both the marketing of a variety of wet gas flow meters solutions and also a significant number of international ISO documents (ISO /TR 11583:2012 - M easurement of wet gas flow by means of pressure differential devices inse rted in circular cross-section conduits and ISO/DTR 12748:2014 Wet gas flow measur ement in natural gas operations ) to share and start to standardise prac tices.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 77BB10C2

Magnetic Resonance Multiphase Flow Meter: Gas Flow Measurement Principle And Wide Range Testing Results
Author(s): Jankees Hogendoorn Andre Boer Marco Zoeteweij Olaf Bousche Rutger Tromp Rick De Leeuw + , Piet Moeleker + , Matthias Appel ++ , Hilko De Jong
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the principle of quantifying t he gas fraction during multi- phase flow using the Magnetic Resonance (MR) based multiphase flow meter and provides experimental results obtained during the t esting phase of the meter. The industrialized version of the magnetic resonanc e based multiphase flow meter has been introduced in 2013 1. At that time, the technical concepts for determining the water liquid ratio as well as liqui d flow rates were explained. In addition, details of the mechanical construction an d first test results were provided.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 495B7FC1

Campaign Well Testing Of A Complex Reservoir Using An Mpm Multiphase Meter
Author(s): Gordon Stobie Richard Streeton Bourbih Said Fred Siedl Mike Brunton
Abstract/Introduction:
The Menzel Lejmat North (MLN) development in Algeri a is a complex hydrocarbon reservoir of black/volatile oil and retrograde gas condensate hy drocarbons. The field production facilities do not include conventional well testing equipment and wel ls are tested on a campaign basis using the services of a third party contractor and a skid-mou nted multiphase meter. In early 2011, a third party was contracted by Son atrach-ConocoPhillips Association (SH-COP) to provide mobile well testing services and an MPM met er was deployed in the MLN field. The first campaign was conducted in July 2011. This paper cov ers testing up to November 2013. Over this period, a total of 140 individual well tests were p erformed covering 21 wells with approximately 3-4 months between successive campaigns
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 102AF69B

Experience From Implementing A Metering Solution For Subsea And Topside Multiphase Flow Metering
Author(s): David E. Olaussen Kare Kleppe
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of multiphase flow meters (MPFM) for alloca tion metering purposes has become more and more common on many installations i n North Sea. By utilizing multiphase flow meters both subsea and topside allo ws for tie-in projects to existing processing platforms where field ownership of the tie-in field may be different from the original field having the proces sing capacity. Statoil has more than 20 years of experience of ins talling and operating multiphase meter and have today approximately 230 m eters in operation, both subsea and topside. Multiphase meters are used on s ingle wells, templates as well as flow lines for both well and ownership allocatio n metering
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: E91E1574

Assessment Of Erosion In Flowmeters Using Performance And Diagnostic Data
Author(s): Tariq Boussouara, John Peters
Abstract/Introduction:
During hydrocarbon recovery, oil and gas production wells also produce water and particulates (mainly sand). Sand production typical ly occurs early in the well life (during the clean-up stage), sometimes throughout t he well life and more often towards the end of the well life (usually when wate r breaks through). If sand is present within the flowstream then erosion will occ ur to some degree, and this can affect the performance of flowmeters and other measurement devices. With this in mind, NEL formulated a research projec t, funded by NMO through the UKs Engineering and Flow Programme, to assess the effect of erosion on flowmeters, using performance and diagnostic data.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C4D899BA

Improving Multiphase Flow Metrology - European Research Project
Author(s): Emmelyn Graham
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of multiphase flow meters in the oil and ga s industry has increased significantly in recent years and this trend is set to continue. New meters are being developed to meet increasing demand using new measurement technologies and sensors. It has been proposed that the next generation of multiphase meters will be based on tomography-type sensors combined with additional sensors to provide information on the fl ow rates of the oil, gas and water.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 6D211AE9

Production Quantification Through Full Field Modelling - Case Study
Author(s): Kjartan Berg Daniel Fonnes
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the major challenges with subsea systems is the limited availability of information. Wells flow commingled, and identificat ion of individual well contribution require special attention both in desi gn and operation. Some subsea tie-backs are also commingled across licenses or ev en national borders, and the subsea metering systems become part of the fiscal s ystem regardless of their accuracy and robustness
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 3496BAFF

Compressible Flow Effects In Coriolis Meters
Author(s): Thomas Kegel Steve Baldwin
Abstract/Introduction:
Historically Coriolis meters were restricted to liquid measurement applications, but in recent years they have been widely used to measure natural gas. Some opera - tors obtain calibration data using compressed air as a surrogate fluid, others select a water based calibration. While both fluids provide traceability, an air calibration includes compressibility that is similar to natural gas. As calibration experience has developed compressibility effects seem to be observed with some meters but not with others
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 50B3E263


Copyright © 2017