Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (2013)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 2013 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Basics Of High Pressure Measuring And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): James N. Witte
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will present a review of criteria necessary for designing high pressure natural gas measuring and regulating stations. For the purpose of this discussion, high pressure is assumed to be gauge pressure values above typical distribution mainline pressures, and therefore, is most applicable to station designs of gathering, midstream, and transmission operations. The design engineer has many factors to consider when designing a metering facility. These factors must include considerations for their impact on measurement accuracy, facility capital cost, environmental stewardship, public stewardship, and long term maintenance cost. The successful designer will seek to achieve high accuracy at an appropriate capital cost, while minimizing the risks for environmental hazards, public nuisance such as noise, and provide the operator with a facility that minimizes maintenance requirements.
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Document ID: 73B4AC04

Introduction To Measurement Uncertainty
Author(s): Richard Estabrook
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the concepts of both uncertainty and bias in measurement, discusses the need to eliminate bias prior to performing an uncertainty calculation, outlines the difference between component uncertainty and system uncertainty, and provides several sample calculations. This paper also introduces simple statistical methods such as standard deviation and mean
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Document ID: A0766F74

Compressibility Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Jeffrey L. Savidge
Abstract/Introduction:
The accurate measurement of natural gas and natural gas related fluids is difficult. It requires care, experience, and insight to achieve consistently accurate measurements that can meet stringent fiscal requirements. It is particularly difficult to measure complex fluid mixtures that are exposed to: (1) a range of operating conditions, (2) dynamic flow and fluid property behavior, and (3) changing equipment conditions.
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Document ID: B3E68569

Coping With Changing Flow Requirements At Exsisting Metering Stations
Author(s): Ronald Sisk
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays competitive gas market, utility companies must meet aggressive market strategies or suffer the consequences. All industries have cash registers, and gas distribution is no exception. Our measuring stations are our cash register. The problem is, these stations were designed 10, 20, 30 or even 50 years ago, and are now performing tasks they were not designed for. Therefore, changes must be made. Measurement personnel today must be trained and taught to cope with changing flow requirements. But, modifying a station to meet todays aggressive market can be very expensive. Equipment, such as regulators and the primary element (the meter tube, the orifice plate holder, and the orifice plate), must meet A.G.A. 3 requirements. The secondary element (the recording device) can raise expenditures significantly. Sometimes modifications cannot be made to deliver the specified volume of product needed, and replacement of a complete station is even more expensive. Companies today must watch money closely, and work to reduce operating and maintenance costs.
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Document ID: 3C4AF59B

Performance Testing For Natural Gas Sample Systems
Author(s): Justin m. Harvey
Abstract/Introduction:
As we enter the second decade of the 21st century, technology is changing at an ever increasing rate. This holds true for all aspects of our lives, including communication, transportation, commerce, the internet, etc. The production, transportation and sampling of Natural Gas has also been affected positively by this surge in technology. For the purposes of this paper, the focus will be the analysis of Natural Gas. One example of a quantum leap in analysis is the method for measuring water concentrations in Natural Gas. In 30 years, the industry standard for water measurement has gone from manual chilled mirror analysis or stain tubes, to electrolytic cell-based analysis, to Tunable Diode Laser (TDL) technology.
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Document ID: C60E8BE0

Design Of Distribution Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Edgar Eddy() Wallace Collins
Abstract/Introduction:
The design of natural gas distribution metering and/or regulating stations is a mixture of science and art, of knowledge and judgment. The process requires four areas of knowledge: product, application, components, and communication. The goal in design is to use judgment to select and combine compatible components to create a safe, effective, and economical unit
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Document ID: 6CF948E9

Custody Transfer Crude Oil Sampling Systems
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The sampling technique employed in extracting a representative sample for crude oil BS&W analysis has received a high level of scrutiny in the last twenty years from concerned oil companies around the world. The revenue implications are considerable, if the sample is not accurate. Whether it is pipeline custody transfer, tanker loading/unloading, or refinery input, a representative composite sample of the oil for laboratory analysis is critical. Plainly put, a 1% error is worth hundreds of thousands of dollars and frequently over a million dollars on one single shipload. That makes sampling a serious matter in the measurement world for crude oil sales
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Document ID: A621EF76

Determination Of Trace Oxygen In Natural Gas
Author(s): Sam Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
The necessity for trace oxygen measurements is increasing with requirements below 100 or 10ppmv. An understanding of the considerations when choosing technology for measuring Oxygen is useful especially for remote locations or locations with high levels of corrosive contaminants such as CO2 and H2S. This paper discusses a variety of measurement methods used in natural gas such as Galvanic Cell method, the Quench Florescence method and the Gas Chromatograph method.
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Document ID: 9A8B46C6

Uncertainties Within Centrifuge Methods And Mitigations
Author(s): Marty Gaunder
Abstract/Introduction:
This submission is to review the differences and uncertainties within API 10.4 & API 10.3 centrifuge methods and some of the contributing factors that are present. Discussion will include mitigation of the issues and improvements upon the expected accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility. This is a compilation of information of what has been done throughout the years and the improvements that have been made such as temperature control, centrifuge tube design, equipment consistency, acceleration/deceleration and capability of achieving higher relative centrifugal force (RCF).
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Document ID: 80F82371

Causes And Cures Of Regulator Instability
Author(s): Paul Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the gas pressure reducing regulator installation and the issue of erratic control of the downstream pressure. A gas pressure reducing regulators job is to manipulate flow in order to control pressure. When the downstream pressure is not properly controlled, the term unstable control is applied. Figure 1 is a list of other terms used for various forms of downstream pressure instability. This paper will not address the mathematical methods of describing the automatic control system of the pressure reducing station, but will deal with more of the components and their effect on the system stability
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Document ID: D0785868

Controlling Surges In Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): Sharon Mccurdy
Abstract/Introduction:
Controlling surges in liquid hydrocarbon applications is a complex task that requires experienced engineers to dissect every section of the system. They must take into account every what if scenario and design a system that will protect piping, equipment and personnel. This paper provides a basic understanding of transient pressures, how they can occur and how they can be controlled
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Document ID: A79AF75F

Overpressure Protection Methods
Author(s): Paul R. Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
Overpressure protective devices are of vital concern to the gas industry. Safety codes and current laws require their installation each time a pressure reducing station is installed that supplies gas from any system to another system with a lower maximum allowable operating pressure. The purpose of this article is to provide a systematic review of the various methods of providing the overpressure protection. Advantages and disadvantages of each method are evaluated, and engineering guidelines are provided.
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Document ID: B4D39938

Prevention Of Freezing In Measurement And Regulatingstations
Author(s): Stephen Palmitier
Abstract/Introduction:
The competitive business environment that exists in the energy industry demands reliable service. Even though it is expensive to change energy companies, customers do have options if they become dissatisfied with their service. Significant money can be lost with trading partners through erroneous data used in establishing the value of the trade. The regulatory environment is becoming more strident in demanding safe, controlled operations. Even minor excursions outside prescribed norms can lead to substantial fines, and worse, years of having regulators going over operations with a fine tooth comb looking for any discrepancy.
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Document ID: 020374CA

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted For Gas
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 72F55A8F

Effects And Control Of Pulsation In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Ray G. Durke Darin L. George Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most common measurement errors and the most difficult to identify in natural gas metering systems is that caused by pulsating flow. It is important to understand the effects that pulsations have on the common types of flow meters used in the gas industry so that potential error-producing mechanisms can be identified and avoided. It is also essential to understand pulsation control techniques for mitigating pulsation effects. This paper describes the effects of pulsation on orifice, turbine, ultrasonic, and other flow meter types. It also presents basic methods for mitigating pulsation effects at meter installations, including a specific procedure for designing acoustic filters that can isolate a flow meter from the source of pulsation.
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Document ID: A1335F5B

Effects Of Abnormal Conditions On Accuracy Of Orifice Measurement
Author(s): Mr. Dean Graves
Abstract/Introduction:
Whenever one focuses on gas or fluid measurement, he or she will eventually discover an abnormal condition at a measurement station. Invariably someone will ask, What effect will it have on measurement? A student of measurement may spend years answering this question. This and similar questions have generated many research studies. This research has enabled us to better understand measurement abnormalities and to improve measurement procedures and standards. Even though we have made great strides in measurement, we will continue to ask this question
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Document ID: 35B69F7F

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement I
Author(s): Douglas Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
To truly understand gas measurement, a person must understand gas measurement fundamentals. This includes the units of measurement, the behavior of the gas molecule, the property of gases, the gas laws, and the methods and means of measuring gas. Since the quality of gas is often the responsibility of the gas measurement technician, it is important that they have an understanding of natural gas chemistry
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Document ID: C7C21BB4

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement III
Author(s): Joseph J. Bauer
Abstract/Introduction:
To become proficient in all phases of gas measurement, one must fully understand what natural gas is and the theory of its properties. The theories about natural gas properties are the gas laws, and their application is essential to gas measurement. Quantities of natural gas for custody transfer are stated in terms of standard cubic feet. To arrive at standard cubic feet from actual flowing conditions requires application of correction factors that are defined by the gas laws.
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Document ID: 0E33AAED

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Paul Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of all gas measurement used in the world today is performed by two basic types of meters, positive displacement and inferential. Positive displacement meters, consisting mainly of diaphragm and rotary style devices, generally account for lower volume measurement. Orifice, ultrasonic and turbine meters are the three main inferential class meters used for large volume measurement today. Turbines are typically considered to be a repeatable device used for accurate measurement over large and varying pressures and flow rates. They are found in a wide array of elevated pressure applications ranging from atmospheric conditions to 1440 psig. Turbine meters have also become established as master or reference meters used in secondary calibration systems such as transfer provers. A significant number of both mechanical and electrical outputs and configurations have become available over the past 60 years of production.
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Document ID: D79FB5B8

Installation And Operation Errors In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr Dr. Thomas B. Morrow
Abstract/Introduction:
Installation errors may occur when an instrument is used in a manner different from how it was calibrated. For example, suppose that a temperature sensor is calibrated in a stirred, constant temperature bath. During calibration, the sensor is in thermal equilibrium with the circulating fluid, and the fluid and sensor temperatures are the same. Next, let the same sensor be used to measure the temperature of natural gas flowing through a pipe at low velocity. If the pipe wall temperature is different from the flowing gas temperature, convection heat transfer will occur between the gas and the pipe wall, radiation heat transfer will occur between the pipe wall and the sensor, and convection heat transfer will occur between the sensor and the flowing gas. In this example, the sensor would not be in thermal equilibrium with the flowing gas and the sensor temperature would be different from the flowing gas temperature.
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Document ID: 52A7A85A

Low Pressure Gas Measurement Using Ultrasonic Technology
Author(s): Dr. Volker Herrmann Toralf Dietz John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
The utilization of ultrasonic metering as a cost effective form of measurement has grown dramatically over the past 10 years. A growing portion of this market is in custody transfer applications. This growth is primarily due to growing acceptance in industry, advances in the technology, extensive self diagnostic capabilities and industry /regulatory standards and recommendations related to their use in custody transfer applications
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Document ID: 7E3EBB1E

Mass Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early 1980s, Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in gas, liquid, and slurry applications with an installed base of more than one million units. Through significant design enhancements in the early 1990s Coriolis meters have rapidly gained worldwide acceptance in gas phase applications with over 120,000 meters installed worldwide and most notably the 2003 publication of AGA Report Number 11, Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis Meter
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Document ID: 9C580D76

Turbulence And Its Effects In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Terrence A. Grimley Edgar B. Bowles, Jr. Adam Hawley
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many misconceptions and misunderstandings about pipe flow turbulence and its influences on flow measuring and flow regulating stations in gas and liquid transport pipelines. Many volumes have been written on the subject of flow turbulence. This paper is not intended to be a comprehensive treatment of the subject of pipe flow turbulence, but does discuss fundamental concepts and terminology, and provides information on how flow turbulence and its effects can adversely affect flow measurement and flow regulation. This information can give pipeline measurement station and regulation station designers and operators insight into ways to minimize possible adverse effects of flow turbulence
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Document ID: 4E85FFEA

Flow Meter Installation Effects
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr. Adam Hawley
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many causes for natural gas flow rate measurement errors at field meter stations. Many of the sources for meter error are identified in the proceedings of this conference. For instance, errors can result from an improper installation configuration, calibration of a meter at conditions other than the actual operating conditions, or degradation of meter performance over time. Industry standards have been developed to help meter station designers and operators avoid situations that would produce gas metering errors. Typically, gas meter standards address meter design, construction, installation, operation, and maintenance. Most of the standards focus on the flow meter and the piping immediately upstream and downstream of the meter. Research has shown that many meter types, particularly inferential meters, are susceptible to errors when the flow field at the meter is distorted. The sources of flow field distortions are many
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Document ID: 57007EFF

Measurement Station Inspection Program And Guide
Author(s): Robert J. Rau
Abstract/Introduction:
Today, lets discuss an important phase of everyday planning for the Measurement personnel. A test and inspection guide is a corporations plan to meet government regulations. DOT requires pipelines to have a written operating and maintenance plan. This plan must meet the minimum federal standards and cover various phases of operations. A company may include items above the minimum federal standards but they must operate according to the plan they prepare. In plain words, what you write you must be ready to live and operate by whether they just meet the DOT minimums or exceed the DOT requirements and this becomes the company bible
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Document ID: D61DD1A4

Orifice Meter Primary Elements Standards
Author(s): Jerry Blankenship
Abstract/Introduction:
The April 2000 revision to the API 14.3 part 2 Standard includes the results of considerable test work over the past few years. Numerous changes are noted, some of which will have major effects on users of orifice measurement. The most significant impact will be in the upstream length and flow conditioner areas. This paper will discuss most of the changes and go into some detail on the more important ones. Items not mentioned essentially remain as stated in the previous issue of the Standard.
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Document ID: 552E2E5C

Ultrasonic Meter Basics
Author(s): Martin Schlebach
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic meters have been used in gas custody transfer measurement worldwide for over 25 years with varying degrees of success. Initial attempts proved unstable and maintenance intensive, this was contrary to the initial expectations which foresaw a device with little or no obstruction, limitless turndown and little to no required maintenance. The advent of higher speed, more robust electronics enabled the use of digital signal processing which eliminated the need for analog threshold levels and the constant problem of peak skipping and lost timing. The improved electronics also enabled the implementation of large internal logs, advanced diagnostics, improved communications and overall stability, all of which increased user confidence in the ultrasonic technology
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Document ID: C4E9C80D

Auditing Electronic Gas Measurement Per API Chapter 21.1
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
API 21.1 is recognized as an international industry standard documenting the Electronic Gas Measurement (EGM) system audit and record requirements for differential and linear meter measurement. This standard is used by the measurement community to reduce the overall EGM system uncertainty and improve measurement data integrity.
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Document ID: D53619B3

Auditing Measurement And Gas Accounting Systems
Author(s): David Beasley
Abstract/Introduction:
With the larger volumes todays Transmission companies are moving, the need for accuracy gain more credence to ensure the correct volumes and Dth are being accounted for. A few years ago a 2,000 MCFH station was considered to be large now we have many stations moving 20,000 MCFH. As we deal with larger volumes we also deal with many more dollars than before. Acquiring and processing flow data is becoming increasingly complicated as we have changed from a buyer and seller of natural gas to producer, gatherer, and transporter of the commodity.
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Document ID: B768BBBD

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Joey Ragsdale
Abstract/Introduction:
Long has been the need for volumetric flow measurement in fluid applications. Equipment and methodology developed over time has brought us a variety of measurement devices with specific capabilities to cover a wide range of fluid flow measurement needs. In modern applications differential measurement, more specifically orifice measurement, has become a standard. Orifice measurement has been developed by the oil and gas industry as a means for accurate measurement of fluid flow. Due to increased demands in accuracy of gas measurement for gas production and custody transfer, the industry has developed standards in measurement. Backed by significant research, orifice meters meet the industry requirements for accurate gas flow set forth by governing bodies such as the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the American Gas Association (AGA). API defines their standards in Chapter 14, Section 3. AGA defines their standards in Report 3.
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Document ID: 6D4BF41C

Auditing Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Lane Hedrick Linda A. Larson
Abstract/Introduction:
An effective audit of liquid hydrocarbon measurement is dependent upon a solid understanding of the measurement process combined with the application of sound internal auditing principles. The quality of liquid measurement activities is contingent upon (1) the reliability of the measurement equipment and instrumentation used (2) the specific procedures and practices followed in performing the measurement activities (3) the adequacy of training and proper performance of the measurement technician and (4) the proper documentation of transactions based on a measured value. All four components must be taken into consideration when auditing liquid measurement. In addition, to ensure the efficiency of the audit process, auditors must identify those areas which present the greatest risk to the organization to achieving its goals, and concentrate audit effort on those areas
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Document ID: 27003135

Orifice Meters - Operation And Maintenance
Author(s): Keith Harper
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry has seen many changes lately. Most of the changes are driven by the supply and demand which interns drives the price. Producers and pipeline companies have seen tremendous growth and reorganize the strong pace required to keep up with the industry needs. Natural gas demands have increased with the more stringent air guidelines pushing all to seek cleaner fuel alternatives including NGC to power our vehicles. This increased demand for natural gas and the logistics involved in acquiring it, motivate us to seek more practical solutions in installation and maintenance of our orifice metering.
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Document ID: BA89DE93

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Paul J. La Nasa
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents methods for determining the uncertainty of both differential and positive metering stations. It takes into account the type of meter, number of meters in parallel, type of secondary instruments, and the determination of physical properties. The paper then relates this information to potential influence on system balance
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Document ID: 1DBC0E72

Thermometry In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jorge A. Delgado
Abstract/Introduction:
The temperature in natural gas is dynamic, when gas molecules are compressed they heat up, and as they expand after flowing through a restriction it cools down. Gas temperature it is also affected by external elements such as the temperature of the pipe. It is also good to note that the greater the temperature measurement error, the higher the measurement uncertainty becomes
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Document ID: 54550B55

API Mpms Chapter 22.2 - Testing Protocol For Differential Pressure Flow Measurement Devices
Author(s): Dr. Zaki Hussain
Abstract/Introduction:
The Manuals of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) by API (American Petroleum Institute) are developed for the devices and systems installed for the measurement of oil, gas, and merchandisable petrochemical products by the oil and gas industry. Historically the API flowmeter standards are developed for devices that are accepted and installed by the industry to achieve precise and repeatable measurement for fiscal, material balance, and/or process control applications. The operating principal of field accepted installed flowmeters are based on laws of physics, where the sensors or transducers are designed to monitor the response of flow to the presence of the primary element in the flow stream or the response of the primary element or transmitted signal to the flow. Some common flowmeters that monitor response of the primary element to the flowing fluid are displacement meters, turbine meter, Coriolis meters, etc. and response of the signal to the flow are ultrasonic flowmeter, Magnetic flowmeter, thermal mass meter, etc.
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Document ID: A0DABB6A

Wet Gas Measurement
Author(s): Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Demand for wet gas flow measurement technologies has been increasing steadily for many years. As natural gas wells age the once dry natural gas production flow becomes wet natural gas as the dynamics of the reservoir change. Furthermore, with the value of hydrocarbon products rising steadily, reservoirs that were once considered not profitable, or marginal, are being produced. These marginal fields often produce wet gas flows from the outset. It is essential that these wet gas flows are metered as accurately as possible
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Document ID: D8FB0ACB

Influencing Planning, Operations And Closing Of Commercial Business Through Efficient Measurement
Author(s): Bill Morrow
Abstract/Introduction:
Field measurement is the beginning, but not the only part of a complete measurement practice. Measurements are brought in to central locations, and ultimately used to determine customers bills and suppliers payments. But in between the two extremes of field metering and financial calculations, many steps are required to transform the initial data into its final form. These may be literally steps, as your staff walks down the hallway with paper or floppy disk in hand or follows instructions to manually key data in to a system while reading from a faxed report. A centralized measurement system can be used to make the transformation of field
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Document ID: 81458650

Flow Conditioning For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Blaine Sawchuk Rick Rans
Abstract/Introduction:
The most important aspects of flow measurement are the flow conditions within the pipe upstream of a meter. Flow conditions refer to: the velocity profile, irregularities in the profile, varying turbulence levels within the velocity or turbulence intensity profile, swirl and any other fluid flow characteristics which will cause the meter to register flow different than that expected
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Document ID: 8A54F44D

Overview Of Gpa 2172/API 14.5 Revision
Author(s): Don Sextro
Abstract/Introduction:
GPA Standard 2172-09 / API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards Chapter 14, Section 5, Calculating Gross Heating Value, Relative Density, Compressibility and Theoretical Hydrocarbon Liquid Content for Natural Gas Mixtures for Custody Transfer, Third Edition, January 2009 finds wide application in the natural gas gathering and processing business as well as related natural gas handling activities because it provides methods to calculate these often-used parameters from a gas analysis. Several important changes occurred in the recent revision of this standard that became effective January 1, 2009. The main changes comprised in this revision provide methods for incorporating water vapor into the analysis calculations, include theoretical hydrocarbon liquid content (GPM) calculations on a real gas basis in this standard, discuss characterizing heavy ends in the gas analysis as well as other analysis cautions and present a number of detailed example calculations. Refer to the standard itself for requirements, procedures, details and further explanation.
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Document ID: 554D5325

Contaminant Accumulation Effect On Gas Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Ed Hanks
Abstract/Introduction:
The following paper discusses the effects of accumulation on natural gas ultrasonic meters. The paper uses four meters, two Daniel meters and two Instromet meters that were recalibrated at the CEESI Iowa facility. From CEESIs experience with recalibrations of contaminated meters, the results of these four meters are typical. Due to the relative newness of the other brands of meters in the US market, CEESI does not have recalibration data available for this paper and thus other brands are not included.
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Document ID: 90651432

Combining Intrinsic Safety With Surge Protection In The Hydrocarbon Industry
Author(s): Dan Mccreery
Abstract/Introduction:
First, many of the areas in and around pumping, custody transfer and storage areas are classified, or hazardous, that must, according to the National Electric Code, be assessed for explosion-proofing. This may be in the form of intrinsic safety barriers or isolators, explosion-proof enclosures and conduits, purged enclosures or non-incendive components. The second challenge facing the industry is the physical exposure of most of the electronic control and measuring systems, communications, and power subsystems, each with their own sensitive, high-performance microprocessors, etc., to potentially devastating lightning and electrical surges. The goal of this discussion is to explain just how to achieve both safety and surge protection in hazardous areas
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Document ID: 492C01CC

Dot Qualification Training For Measurement And Control Technicians
Author(s): Joey Rockett
Abstract/Introduction:
The Pipeline Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) passed regulation that stated by October 26, 1999 Pipeline Operators who were subject to 49 CFR 192 and 195, were required to develop and maintain a written qualification program for individuals performing covered tasks on pipeline facilities. The intent of this qualification rule was to ensure a qualified work force and to reduce the probability and consequence of incidents caused by human error. It established qualification requirements for individuals performing covered tasks, and amended certain training requirements in the hazardous liquid regulations
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Document ID: 5BA98652

The Impact Of Greenhouse Gas Measurement How Recent Regulations Impact The Measurement Of Greenhouse Gases
Author(s): Jim Tangeman Jon Torizzo
Abstract/Introduction:
The regulatory environment affecting the oil and gas (O&G) industry over the last two years has been rapidly changing and expanding. Unfortunately, the majority of regulatory changes have generally not been favorable to the industry. Among these regulatory developments, a key one has been the issuance of the first ever federal greenhouse gas (GHG) mandatory reporting regulation (MRR). The first set of these federal regulations was issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) on October 30, 2009 under 40 CFR Parts, 86, 87, 89 et al. encompassing a large variety of industries across the country. A subsequent set of regulations was issued on November 30, 2010 and this second set of regulations issued under 40 CFR 98, Subpart W encompasses all sectors of the O&G industry from wellhead to burner tip
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Document ID: CDEADB71

Interface Detection In Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): James C. Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
Detecting the interface between different batches of product on pipelines has become much more important over the years, due to the increasing cost associated with downgrading the product to a product of lesser quality, or even slopping a portion as transmix. The costs associated with handling the transmix, and re-refining an already refined product can be quite high. Pipeline companies have utilized many different methods of interface detection in their efforts to reduce the cost and the waste associated with the downgraded product and transmix. There continues to be advancements in technology which have become available for pipeline companies to be able to make better and more accurate cuts, which lead to greater profitability for their company. We will look at the history of interface detection and several of the technologies available today.
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Document ID: EA8F6CFC

Measurement And Regulation Operations Of A Ldc The Day To Day Operations Of A Ldc, Including Measurement And Regulation Techniques
Author(s): Ron Carnahan
Abstract/Introduction:
An LDC is an acronym for Local Distribution Company. This refers to one of the links in a long chain of natural gas production and sales which begins in the research, exploration, drilling and production of natural gas wells, and ends with sales to distribution companies and other customers including industrial, commercial and residential
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Document ID: C99C4A66

Flare Measurement - Advanced Ultrasonics
Author(s): Curtis Gulaga
Abstract/Introduction:
Flare gas measurement remains a key element of oil & gas operations today. The World Bank estimates that over 150 billion cubic meters (or 5.3 trillion cubic feet) of natural gas is being flared and vented annually. This is equivalent to 25 per cent of the United States gas consumption, 30 per cent of the European Unions gas consumption, or 75 per cent of Russias gas exports. The gas flared yearly also represents more than the combined gas consumption of Central and South America. The annual 35 bcm (or 1.2 trillion cubic feet) of gas flared in Africa alone is equivalent to half of that continents power consumption. Fewer than 20 countries account for more than 70 percent of gas flared or vented, and just four countries together flare approximately 70 billion cubic meters of associated gas
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Document ID: 8AFA2655

New Differential Meters In Natural Gas
Author(s): Casey Hodges
Abstract/Introduction:
There are several relatively new differential producing meters that are available for end users. Each meter claims to have advantages over other meter types, specifically orifice meters. Meter types discussed include cone meters, Venturi meters, multi-ported averaging pitot tubes, multi-holed orifice plates, and diagnostic differential meters. This paper is intended to be used by purchasers of these meters to help them obtain the best meter for their application. The operating principles of these meters will be explored. This paper will look at the claims that the manufacturers of these meters make in terms of accuracy, required upstream lengths, and diagnostic capabilities. Another important aspect of these
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Document ID: 21E450A3

Effects Of Atmospheric Pressure On Gas Measurement
Author(s): Denis Rutherford
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the often overlooked or misunderstood parameters in upstream gas measurement is the atmospheric pressure input. To correctly configure any Electronic Flow Measurement (EFM) device to calculate a corrected volume, the static pressure at the meter run must be input to the calculations as an absolute pressure value. Since the absolute pressure is defined as the sum of the gauge pressure and the atmospheric pressure at the site, proper EFM setup requires that the atmospheric pressure be accurately determined for each metering location. This paper discusses the differences between gauge and absolute pressure sensors, methods of determining the atmospheric pressure at a location, and effects on measurement accuracy
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Document ID: 7D816265

Basics Of Gas Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses basic diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USM), and how capabilities built into todays electronics can identify problems that may have gone undetected in the past. It primarily discusses fiscalquality, multi-path USMs and does not cover issues that may be different with non-fiscal meters as they are often single path designs. Although USMs basically work the same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in AGA 9 Ref 1. However, some provide more advanced features that can be used to help identify issues such as blocked flow conditioners and gas compositional errors. This paper focuses on the Westinghouse and British Gas configurations (both being chordal designs) and the information presented here may or may not be applicable to other path designs.
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Document ID: 968767C3

Advanced Gas Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses advanced diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USM), and how capabilities built into todays electronics can identify problems that may have gone undetected in the past. It primarily discusses fiscalquality, multi-path USMs and does not cover issues that may be different with non-fiscal meters as they are often single path designs. Although USMs basically work the same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in AGA 9 Ref 1. However, some provide more advanced features that can be used to help identify issues such as blocked flow conditioners and gas compositional errors. This paper focuses on the Westinghouse and British Gas configurations (both being chordal designs) and the information presented here may or may not be applicable to other path designs.
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Document ID: 12A21868

Application Of Densitometers To Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Joe Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
There are a variety of accurate process density meters available that are based on the principle that the natural frequency of an oscillating u-tube is related to density. This paper reviews the basic theory of operation of the oscillating u-tube and discusses two modes of oscillation - the x-mode and y-mode oscillation. In addition, this paper summarizes a few of the applications relevant to the oil and gas market
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Document ID: 51D43FA0

Application Of Turbine Meters In Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Mike Bridgforth
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to provide both novice and experienced measurement personnel with a better understanding of the operating principles and requirements of turbine meters used in liquid measurement applications. Most if not all material herein pertains to the custody transfer measurement of refined products, natural gas liquids (NGL), anhydrous ammonia (NH3), and crude oils.
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Document ID: 8AE1DAAF

Automated Truck Loading Systems
Author(s): Dave Seiler
Abstract/Introduction:
Terminal Management Systems (TMS) are used at bulk marketing storage facilities (terminals) to support distribution of liquid products from storage to vehicle. Terminals are downstream from the refinery and owned and operated by major oil or independent terminal companies. Products are generally stored in fixed tanks and include refined, gasoline, and chemicals.
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Document ID: D1B136A2

Calculation Of Liquid Petroleum Quantities
Author(s): Peter W Kosewicz
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Petroleum industry as hydrocarbons are purchased, sold or transferred there are two key elements that must be determined. These elements are the quantity and quality of the hydrocarbon in question. This paper will address one of those elements, the determination of the quantity of the hydrocarbon in the transaction
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Document ID: 6C6EDB12

Crude Oil Blending
Author(s): Brian Betts
Abstract/Introduction:
Blending of Crude oils is a process of mixing two or more crude petroleum components together and is done to improve the overall value or quality of the blend. The reasons vary but may be done to improve pipeline capacity, improve the value of the blend or to help a refinery improve the product yield from its processes. Blending operations can be expensive requiring pumps, meters, tanks etc. Consideration must be given to the cost of infrastructure, cost of diluent, and what measureable property will you use e.g. Viscosity or API gravity
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Document ID: BA410098

Design, Operation & Maintenance Of Lact Units
Author(s): Christopher Levy
Abstract/Introduction:
Reliable hydrocarbon transportation from supply to demand is among the most critical factors in sustaining our way of life. When entering or exiting a transportation network, hydrocarbons are measured for environmental protection and accounting systems. A Lease Automatic Custody Transfer (LACT) Unit is a metering point at a lease or production facility through which hydrocarbons are being measured, while unattended, for sale from one party, such as a production company, to another party, such as a pipeline company. The purpose of the LACT Unit is to determine the volume of hydrocarbons injected into a transportation network. The term LACT Unit is predominantly used to refer to a unit at a production facility that automatically measures crude oil being injected into a pipeline system or storage terminal prior to downstream delivery to a refinery for processing however, much of the content covered in this paper applies universally to hydrocarbon flow metering
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Document ID: 7E27573F

Displacement Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Kyle Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to examine the positive displacement (PD) meter. The emphasis will be on the factors influencing the design and performance of the meter for liquid petroleum measurement. However, these factors can be applied to other liquids as well.
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Document ID: 2822AB24

Effects Of Flow Conditioning For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Blaine Sawchuk
Abstract/Introduction:
A dichotomy formed and inadvertently turned into standard practice in the flow measurement engineering business. The present school of thought is that there is a distinction between liquid phase and (gas) vapor phase hydrocarbon flow conditioning, metering businesses, and flow measurement for that matter. The distinction is Reynolds Number, not Phase. It is the intent of this paper to begin the process of rectifying this misunderstanding. By educating our industry into the commonality and differences between the two. Computational Fluid Dynamics is utilized to explain commonality along with citing flow measurement standards
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Document ID: 1E9B1EE3

Effects Of Petroleum Properties On Pipeline Measurement
Author(s): Kyle Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of liquid hydrocarbons in most pipelines is done on a standard volume basis or by mass. These dynamic measurement points typically are custody transfer and are the cash register measurements between the two parties involved in the transactions. This is one reason why the measurement accuracy is critical with some others being product accountability and a one time dynamic measurement point. The volume or mass measurements must account for the entire liquid product received or delivered in order to track and determine if product is being lost or gained. Several fluid properties can change the accuracy of this measurement and knowing how they impact the measurement is crucial to its integrity. This paper will focus on dynamic measurement or measurement by metering and discuss several fluid properties and their affects on measured results involving the common types of metering technologies used today.
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Document ID: E2562B6C

Dense Phase Fluid Measurement
Author(s): Fred G. Van Orsdol
Abstract/Introduction:
Many people in the industry, including probably most measurement specialists, have no experience with the measurement of dense phase fluids (if you dont count water). When the un-initiated are asked to develop or operate such a system, they tend to repeat the same mistakes others have made over and over due to trying to treat the streams like natural gas liquids or liquefied petroleum gases (NGLs or LPGs). Hopefully, this paper will assist the un-initiated reader avoid some of those mistakes.
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Document ID: 063DF795

Evaporation Loss Measurement From Storage Tanks
Author(s): Misty Isaacs
Abstract/Introduction:
Evaporation is the natural process where a liquid converts to a vapor. All liquids have a certain vapor pressure which depends on the surface temperature of the liquid and its composition, both of which impact evaporation. There are many potential sources of evaporation loss in the crude oil industry. One major source, which is the focus of this paper, is from fixed and floating roof storage tanks. In the past, industrys main concern was minimizing evaporation losses to help maximize the bottom line of the company. However, with the growing concern of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) polluting the air and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) implementing stricter regulations, the need to improve and accurately estimate evaporation losses was inherent. The American Petroleum Institute Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (API MPMS) Chapter 19 details equations for estimating the average annual evaporation loss from storage tanks. These equations are based on test tank and field tank data and have been revised since initial publication for more accurate estimations.
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Document ID: A28B270F

Fundamentals Of Liquid Measurement - Part 1
Author(s): David Beitel
Abstract/Introduction:
Correct measurement practices are established to minimize uncertainty in the determination of the custody transfer volume (or mass) of products. Understanding and evaluation of the fundamental cause and effect relationships with the liquid to be measured will lead to a volume determination that most closely matches the true volume at the referenced standard pressure and temperature. When designing a new measurement station it is up to us as measurement people, to understand the product to be measured, apply the correct equipment, and implement the appropriate correction equations.
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Document ID: 0818309D

Fundamentals Of Liquid Measurement III - Dynamic
Author(s): Peter W Kosewicz
Abstract/Introduction:
Weve learned when measuring crude oil or any hydrocarbon that liquids expand and contract with increases and decreases in temperature. The liquid volume also decreases when pressure is applied. All these effects are part of the physical properties of liquid petroleum fluids. In addition to the effects of temperature and pressure on the liquid and their indicated volume, the container in which the liquid is measured also changes the volume it contains at different temperature and pressures. These changes must also be accounted for in determining the true volume being transferred. We learned in Fundamentals of Liquid Measurement I how these physical properties effect the measurement of liquid hydrocarbons. The objective of either static measurement or dynamic measurements is to determine the quantity and quality of hydrocarbons transferred
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Document ID: 92ACA108

Gauging, Testing And Running Of Lease Tanks
Author(s): Jane Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
Many production sites do not have metering facilities for custody transfer. Metering facilities require additional capital expenditures but minimize the labor costs over the life of the lease. If metering is not available at the field location the custody transfer measurement is generally performed by manual tank gauging. In this case, after gauging the tank can be emptied into a truck or into a pipeline. Another method which is used occasionally is to have a meter on the truck which serves as the custody transfer. However, the majority of locations which do not have a LACT (Lease Automatic Custody Transfer) Unit utilize the tank gauge as the means of custody transfer
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Document ID: B94E7695

Helical Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): David Dupuis Gary Astle
Abstract/Introduction:
While numerous metering technologies are available in the custody transfer market, Turbine meters are used because they offer high accuracy and long service life over a wide range of products and operating conditions. Conventional turbine meters have typically been used in low viscosity refined products and have limited application in high viscosity. The helical turbine meter becomes the unique turbine solution for high viscosity or multi product applications, especially for high accuracy applications such as in the custody transfer market. The intent of this paper is to describe the fundamentals of the helical turbine meter technology and compare them to conventional turbine meters.
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Document ID: 4E979339

Installation And Operation Of Densitometers
Author(s): Corky Atchison
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of Densitometers is wide spread over many different industries. These range from food & beverage industries to petro-chemical & pipeline transmission. This paper will be covering installation and operation of densitometers with regards to the petroleum pipeline industry. In this area, the densitometer is used to determine various specifics of the transmitted product in the pipeline. They are used to monitor flowing density of noncustody transfers, fluid mix interfaces, custody transfers, and other applications. This paper will mostly cover the recommended installation and operation of densitometers for custody transfer applications. We will review the standards for density measurement found in API Standards Chapter 14.8 and 14.6.
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Document ID: 46EB9212

Leak Detection On Petroleum Pipelines
Author(s): Randall Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
Early interest in pipeline leak detection was probably born of a desire to prevent interruption of fluid delivery in early open conduits carrying water from its source at high elevation to its destination in the valley. As technology improved and wooden, then lead, pipes carried water under head pressure, the consistent behavior of the flow stream at the delivery point provided evidence of good pipeline integrity. Stepping forward many years, fluids have expanded in types and number, as has the cost of fluid loss in terms of its commercial value, damage resulting from its release, and cost of remediation. Hydrocarbons of many forms are transported safely and efficiently by pipelines compared to railroads or trucks over long and short distances. However, on occasions sufficiently rare that they are not expected, leaks occur
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Document ID: AF6891D3

Liquid Measurement Field Surveys
Author(s): Miles Chaney
Abstract/Introduction:
A measurement field survey is an examination or research done to verify procedures, practices, equipment use, equipment installation, users training and user understanding of the importance of these things. It can be used to fix a problem or potential problem as well as a health check of the asset. Unlike audits, which are merely done to verify that the companys policies or contractual agreements are being followed, measurement field surveys are done as learning and teaching tools as well. Measurement field surveys can be performed by any qualified person or group, with the objective to understand and/or correct the things that are not satisfactory. We should also remember to give praise for what is being done correctly
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Document ID: 2AD1343C

Liquid Measurement Station Design
Author(s): Kevin J. Tansey
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid Measurement Stations are necessitated by agreements between petroleum buyers, sellers, and transporters along with appropriate customs and or governmental authorities. These agreements outline how the fluid is to be measured and how the results will be traceable to recognized standards. In the case of common carrier pipelines, the pipeline is entrusted with the transport of their customers fluid, thus loss control by use of accurate liquid measurement stations is essential. It is important to note that everyone involved has an interest in the true net volume or associated mass. In addition to meeting the requirements for measurement stations must meet numerous safety and construction codes and standards, as the fluids are normally hazardous. Operation of the measurement station must be relatively simple and a user-friendly operator interface is highly desirable
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Document ID: AE5732EE

Mass Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquid Mixtures
Author(s): Eric Estrada
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to review methods for directly or indirectly determining the mass of Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) streams. NGLs by definition are hydrocarbons liquefied by gas processing plants containing ethane, propane, butane, and natural gasoline
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Document ID: 0EA02022

Mass Flowmeters For Liquids
Author(s): Frank Grunert
Abstract/Introduction:
The 1980s was the decade where many companies entered the Coriolis market. Some survived, others were absorbed into bigger corporations and some brands disappeared. This was the time when Coriolis was restricted to small sizes, typically to 2 (DN15 to DN50). There was a flurry of activity and development for smaller sizes, typically 1mm to 6 mm in later years, which is still ongoing as new markets are constantly developed and evolving. In the last few years, there has been a new focus on large diameter meters. The typical requirement for sizes of 4 to 12 up to even 16 has been driven by the needs and growing acceptance of this technology in the Oil and Gas industry, particularly for bulk transfer of refined products.
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Document ID: FE32CC30

Measurement Accuracy And Sources Of Error In Tank Gauging
Author(s): Dan Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
Upright cylindrical storage tanks are used not only to store liquid petroleum between custody transfers for inventory purposes, but to measure the quantities of those transfers. As in all measurements for custody transfer, it is essential to identify the sources of error in the measurement processes and to keep the impact of those sources to a minimum.
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Document ID: AB968C4C

Shrinkage Losses Resulting From Liquid Hydrocarbon Blending
Author(s): J. H. Harry() James
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline integrity balance and custody transfer accuracy have been the focus of measurement specialists since the industry began trading and transporting liquid hydrocarbons. Even with the best volumetric measurement equipment, unaccounted for discrepancies still were occurring. Temperature, pressure and meter factor corrections were not enough to explain these discrepancies
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Document ID: 306D1EA4

Multiphase Flow Measurement
Author(s): Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of unprocessed hydrocarbon flows is becoming more prevalent in the hydrocarbon production industry. Multiphase meters are now often integral in the design plans for new developments. However, the phrase multi-phase flow covers a huge range of flow conditions and metering these varied flows has proven a major challenge to engineers. Furthermore, due to the relatively recent arrival of these technologies on the market, and, the relatively complex and proprietary nature of the products leading to the finer details of operation not being divulged, there is often a lack of technical understanding amongst the multiphase meter users. In this paper, definitions of the phrases multiphase flow and wet gas flow will be discussed. There will be a discussion on the requirement for multiphase metering before multiphase flow patterns and the methods of predicting them are discussed. Finally, an overview of the common multiphase meter generic principles will be given
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Document ID: 7CD45D44

Measurement Of Cryogenic LNG
Author(s): Alastair Mclachlan
Abstract/Introduction:
With depletion of conventional oil reserves, natural gas is becoming an increasingly important source of energy for many countries. While some of the demand for natural gas can be met by domestic production or pipeline imports, many countries are becoming increasingly dependent on natural gas imports in the form of LNG. One county which is a very potent example of the importance of LNG, is Japan, which currently imports about 97% of its gas in the form of LNG. Imports to Japan, along with Korea, represent 48% of LNG supplied to the world market in 2011. In that year the largest producer of LNG was the State of Qatar exporting 75.5MT or, almost 31% of global supply
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Document ID: 13C9F512

Odorization Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Kenneth S. Parrott
Abstract/Introduction:
In the one hundred and thirty years, or so that we have known natural gas as a fuel source in the United States, the demand for natural gas has grown at an astounding rate. There is virtually no area of North America that doesnt have natural gas provided as an energy source. The methods of producing, transporting, measuring, and delivering this valuable resource have advanced, and improved in direct relation to the demand for a clean burning and efficient fuel. While todays economic climate determines the rate of growth the gas industry enjoys, in a broad sense, natural gas is certainly considered essential and a fuel of the future.
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Document ID: 726CF4CF

Orifice Meter Tube Dimensional Tolerances
Author(s): Michelle Beckner
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter is one of the older devices that is utilized in the measurement and regulation of fluid flow. Romans regulated water flows to their homes by the use of orifice. Benoulli, Torricelli, and Venturi, discovered the original concept that the pressure of a flowing fluid varies as its velocity changes. When a flowing fluid is made to speed up by restricting the cross-sectional area of the flow stream, a portion of the pressure energy is converted into velocity energy and the pressure drops. Using this relationship with the fact that the quantity of the fluid flowing is equal to the product of the velocity times the cross-sectional area of the flow stream we can have flow measurement in the orifice meter. In order to correlate the theoretical flow with actual flow concepts there became a need for basic dischargecoefficient research to actually utilize these theories in custody transfer of products. In the early part of the last century the American Gas Association (AGA) established the Gas Measurement Committee to do just such
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Document ID: 67AD87EB

Measurement Methods For Liquid Storage Tanks
Author(s): Robert Arias
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will provide, in general terms, an overview of the different technologies available to measure Net Standard Volumes in storage tanks. The Net Standard Volume (NSV) is used as the primary unit of measurement for custody transfer and/or Inventory Control. The Net Standard Volume (NSV) documents the agreement between the representatives of the interested parties (custody transfer) of the measured quantities and qualities of the transferred liquid
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Document ID: 6D23FC17

Measurement Of Petroleum On Board Marine Vessels
Author(s): Ken Mei
Abstract/Introduction:
At present, the quantity of pressurized light hydrocarbon liquids in a marine custody transfer is often determined by shipboard measurement. Specifically, the quantity onboard is measured by tank gauging, either automatically or manually, depending on the technology of measurement used, and the contractual agreement. Where a terminal has no custody transfer quality flow metering system to load a pressurized marine vessel, shipboard measurement is usually used for the bill of lading.
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Document ID: 71C947EA

Program For Training A Gas Measurement Technician
Author(s): Jimmy Galyean
Abstract/Introduction:
Although the concept of having a program for training a Gas Measurement Technician is not new, the ever changing contour of the natural gas industry creates challenges for the companies involved, but even more so for the technicians who takes care of the measurement equipment out in the field. Technicians today must be able to retain technical expertise in order to support antiquated equipment while continuously expanding the knowledge required to install, operate and maintain advanced technologies. Since electronic equipment has became more sophisticated, in addition to being the equipment of choice, remaining proficient is an ongoing challenge. Technicians today not only have to install, operate and maintain measurement equipment but may also be responsible for other equipment such as regulation and control, odorization, gas quality, communications and in some cases facility maintenance. Even with these added responsibilities the expectations of having quality measurement, regardless of the equipment being used remains the same. Providing technicians the necessary training they need is extremely imperative
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Document ID: 6F79A4AD

Orifice Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Fred Van Orsdol
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice meters have been in common use for many decades, but in the energy industry their use has been primarily in gas metering systems. This is interesting, in that much of the research to develop orifice meter factors (discharge coefficients) has been performed using oil, water, steam and air - as well as natural gas.
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Document ID: 7022B071

PYCNOMETERINSTALLATION,OPERATIONAND Calibration
Author(s): PaulMullen
Abstract/Introduction:
Thispaperwilldiscusspycnometersusedtocalibratedensitometers.Inusingapycnometer,youmust havethecorrectscales,pressuregaugesandthermometers.Youwilllearnthestepsnecessaryto install,operateandcalibratetheinstrument.
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Document ID: 73E0295F

Resolving Liquid Measurement Differences
Author(s): Jim Godbolb
Abstract/Introduction:
Before we begin a discussion resolving liquid measurement differences, lets take a quick and very basic look at what measurements are, and why they are so important to our industry. Websters defines measurement as: 1) the act or process of measuring 2) a figure, extent, or amount obtained by measurement. Mr. Webster could not have given us a better description of what we do as petroleum measurements technicians. Our job is to obtain an accurate amount, or measurement, of a liquid using a process of measuring. The process used could be hand gauging a tank to determine liquid level, or using a turbine meter in a pipe line system to determine the amount of a liquid moved. We often say that measurements are the cash register of the industry. Lets take a closer look at what is meant by measurements being a cash register
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Document ID: 277307EE

Statistical Control Of Meter Factors - A Simplified Approach
Author(s): Dan Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
Statistical control is a tool for discernment and communication. This paper will give a brief overview description of a simplified method for monitoring the performance of a flow meter and performing the same exercise on each meter in the system. The idea is to provide graphical assistance, through the use of meter factor control charts in: (a) developing preventive maintenance programs (b) heightening awareness of alarm situations and, (c) reducing risk to the financial bottom line. Meter factor control charts and logs make it easier to prepare reports to maintenance, operations, financial and executive managers from time to time and furthermore, they make it easier for the target audience to digest the points being made
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Document ID: 10C099E1

Troubleshooting Liquid Pipeline Losses And Gain
Author(s): Joseph T. Rasmussen Michael R. Plasczyk
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays pipelines are multi-dimensional systems providing multiple services for many shippers and customers. Pipeline systems may connect multiple origins and destinations, and carry various products across long distances with changing profiles, pipe dimensions and directions. Monitoring pipeline losses and gains employs tools and analysis methods developed specifically to troubleshoot pipeline variances. Examination of pipeline losses and gains uses basic statistical tools as well as intuitive and creative insight into what controls losses and gains.
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Document ID: 768BCC53

Ultrasonic Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): David Dupuis Gary Astle
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic flow meter technology is becoming more and more prevalent in the market. As this technology is highly dependent on the flow profile during measurement, one of the manufacturers main objectives is to calibrate in conditions as close as possible to the final installation conditions. Factors to consider are but not limited to: fluid viscosity, temperature, pressure, flow rates and the piping geometry upstream of the meter. For most Ultrasonic flowmeters, the performance requires the installation of a flow conditioning device upstream of the meter and operation in a specific Reynolds range. For some meters with a high number of ultrasonic paths or beams, the beam topology allows wider variation of flow conditions.
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Document ID: 8F065F22

Viscosity And Its Application In Liquid Hydrocarbon Measurement
Author(s): Terry Cousins
Abstract/Introduction:
The effect of viscosity takes a variety of forms in its relationship to flow measurement. As a general rule low viscosity has less effect on the performance of flowmeters, although this is not totally true, for example, with positive displacement meters. For most meters, as viscosity increases it has greater effects on meter performance, both in the operation and in the effect of the fluid passing through the meter. So, for example, as the viscosity of the fluid increases the chances of the fluid in the pipe being in the transition region, or going into laminar gets greater. This can lead to measurement issues due to the variations in flow profile and turbulent noise affecting the meter performance
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Document ID: 2E02B96A

Measuring High Viscosity Liquids With Flowmeters
Author(s): Christopher B. Laird
Abstract/Introduction:
The worlds supply of light crude oil has been in decline for the last several years, forcing more and more use of heavy oil. Actually, the reserve of heavy crude oil and oil sands/bitumen exceeds that of conventional or light crude oil (see Figure 1). Heavy oil is generally defined as crude oils having an API gravity of 20 or less meaning a specific gravity of 0.933 or higher.
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Document ID: 79E9907B

Operational Experience With Coriolis Meters
Author(s): James C. Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis meters are being widely used in the petroleum business, measuring product as light as hydrogen up through something as heavy as vacuum gas oil. Imagine the flexibility that a meter has to be capable of accurately measuring a product that is made up of the lightest molecule in existence, hydrogen, and still be capable of measuring peanut butter at a moments notice. That is pretty amazing in itself. Coriolis meters have changed considerably since their introduction into the hydrocarbon business. Improvements in design, construction and the exponential improvement in electronics have made them one of the most popular meters in the hydrocarbon industry. I will explain some of the history of the meters, the selection, correct installations and operation, and some of my experience with them over the past 20+ years.
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Document ID: FBB75844

Accuracy Diagnostics Of Liquid Ultrasonic Flow Meters
Author(s): Jim Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid ultrasonic flow meters are not new to the measurement of crude oil, but over the last decade technology improvements have enabled liquid ultrasonic meters to meet the higher accuracy requirements needed for custody transfer measurement. The transit time principle of measurement has opened a window to allow observation and measurement of aspects of the flow stream that have never been visible to traditional measurement technologies such as PD meters and turbine meters but are critical to the proper operation of a liquid ultrasonic meter. This paper will discuss the specific diagnostic capabilities of the FMC Ultra6 liquid ultrasonic flow meter and how this information can contribute to maintaining high accuracy custody transfer measurement.
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Document ID: 1702CFA2

The Effects Of Additives On Metering In Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): Joseph T. Rasmussen
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays refined fuels are formulated using a recipe of chemical blending and complex processing. Current blends that make-up fuel & chemicals introduce new problems that challenge product quality and performance. Refined products can be altered or degrade prior use by secondary forces such as environment and handling. A wide range of performance and handling problems are minimized or resolved by use of chemical additives. Additives to fuel products are often included in the refining processes that address these problems. Fuels may require additional blending of additives separate from the refining process. The effect these additives have on liquid metering is variable based on their composition and concentration
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Document ID: DFD7779D

Offshore Liquid Fpso Measurement Systems
Author(s): Alastair Mclachlan
Abstract/Introduction:
Floating production, storage, and offloading systems (FPSOs) receive crude oil from deepwater wells and store it in their hull tanks until the crude can be pumped into shuttle tankers or oceangoing barges for transport to shore. They may also process the oil and in some later FPSOs to be used for Gas distribution. Floating productions systems have been utilized in remote offshore areas without a pipeline infrastructure for many years. However, they have become even more important with the push by the offshore industry into ever deeper waters
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Document ID: EE0D2511

Ultrasonic Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Sid Douglass
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas and Oil are different in their physical, chemical, and ultrasonic properties. Nevertheless, each fluid state can use WideBeam technology that uses the pipe wall as a Sonic Waveguide, permitting accurate, repeatable and reliable non-intrusive flow metering. This paper explains non intrusive Liquid and Gas ultrasonic metering, providing field and laboratory test data demonstrating the ability of WideBeam Clamp-On Ultrasonic flow meters to provide highly accurate Check Metering
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Document ID: 4F089074

Measurement Of Liquefied Petroleum Gases Lpgs(
Author(s): Paul Mullen
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is defined as butane, propane or other light ends separated from natural gas or crude oil by fractionation or other processes. At atmospheric pressure, LPGs revert to the gaseous state. This paper is intended to provide an overview of metering systems used for the volumetric measurement of LPGs. Operational experiences with measurement systems that degrade the performance of these systems will be addressed. It includes information for turbine and positive displacement meters used in volumetric measurement systems. The basic calculations and industry standards covering volumetric measurement will also be covered.
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Document ID: B7B33915

The Role Of Blm In Oil And Gas Measurement
Author(s): Richard Estabrook
Abstract/Introduction:
BLM manages about 700 million acres of Federal and Indian mineral estate, which contributes a significant portion of domestic oil and gas production. BLMs role in oil and gas measurement is to ensure that volumes and qualities are accurately measured and properly reported, as Federal and Indian royalty is derived from these measurements. BLMs measurement requirements are dictated by Federal laws, from which BLM develops regulations, Onshore Orders, and Notices to Lessees. Most oil and gas measurement functions are carried out at the Field Office level through the approval of permits and variance requests. BLM inspects Federal and Indian measurement facilities to ensure compliance with regulations, Onshore Orders, and Notices to Lessees, as well as permit Conditions of Approval. BLM inspectors have various enforcement tools to ensure compliance. The public has the opportunity to comment on all proposed rulemaking, and parties adversely affected by specific decisions have several avenues of appeal
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Document ID: B33CFD8E

Viscosity Compensation Of Helical Turbine Meters
Author(s): Christopher Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
Helical rotor turbine meters can provide significant performance advantages over conventional rotor turbine meters for crude oil service. The use of viscosity compensation (also referred to as Universal Performance Curve Compensation or Viscosity Indexing) and the concept of Dynamic Similitude allows the application range of helical turbine meters to be extended even further.
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Document ID: 136B196C

Gas Meter Selection
Author(s): Robert Fritz
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to provide general guidelines & criteria for the evaluation & selection of a high pressure gas meter, including a discussion of the basic operating principles and installation and maintenance considerations. This paper will concentrate primarily on three high pressure/high volume custody transfer flow meters, Orifice, Ultrasonic and Turbine. A short discussion will be provided for other alternative types of flow meters and different gas stream conditions. When selecting a gas flow meter for particular application remember that there is no one Panacea for flow measurement. No one meter is the right choice for all applications. The following general criteria need to be considered in evaluating which type of meter to select:
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Document ID: C6DDE956

Measurement Scene Investigations
Author(s): Ray Glidewell
Abstract/Introduction:
Losses in hydrocarbon measurement can be a significant cost to a companys profits. Consequently the gain/loss for system balances gets a lot of attention and scrutiny. In the business of hydrocarbon measurement, we strive to prevent significant gain/loss percentages. Sometimes, however, despite our best efforts, discrepancies will occur and they will have to be investigated. Before you can find a measurement discrepancy, first you need to know what to look for. What does a measurement discrepancy look like? How will you know one when you see it? Discrepancies will reveal themselves in a system balance as either a gain or a loss. Even better than finding a discrepancy, is preventing a discrepancy. Prevention is accomplished by developing and implementing proactive surveillance activities
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Document ID: FE93E854

Measurement Policies And Procedures - Development And Implementation Considerations
Author(s): Bruce Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
With proper consideration and with buy-in from stakeholders, well designed and documented measurement practices help reduce company costs. Cost reductions include those associated with Lost-and-Unaccounted-for (L&U), asset maintenance, and labor. Furthermore, good measurement procedures help employees perform safely and effectively and help support stable, predictable measurement processes. In this paper, we will discuss: What happens when measurement practices are not effective? What are the metrics to determine if measurement practices need improvement? Why do policies and procedures fail? When should policies and procedures be reviewed and updated? Who is responsible for creating and maintaining policies and procedures? How do policies and procedures get effectively communicated
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Document ID: EB42C22F

Ngl Terminal Operations And Measurement
Author(s): Blake Stinson
Abstract/Introduction:
Surely one of the most difficult liquid petroleum products to store, handle, and measure with accuracy is natural gas liquid, or NGL. Historically thought of as a nuisance byproduct, many companies within the petroleum industry once ignored this product and the attention to detail that it requires. With todays ever expanding natural gas production, increasing volumes of NGL are demanding further consideration. In addition, as each penny of the industry becomes pinched, more companies are realizing the profit and extended cash flow that NGLs can produce. Natural gas liquids present several obstacles when trying to store, transport, and accurately measure the product. Most of the components that make up natural gas liquids are in a gaseous state at atmospheric conditions, and thus create the largest misunderstanding of the product
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Document ID: 06D1C1DB

Benefits Around Timely Analysis Of Measurement Data
Author(s): Kat Mcmaster
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to have timely measurement data has grown considerably over the years due to the age of electronic flow measurement, contracts, and competition. Timely data allows companies to more effectively and efficiently operate their systems, determine shortfalls, and meet the needs of their customers. Electronic flow measurement reviewed on an hourly granularity has 744 records per month on a 31 day calendar. If you process approximately 10,000 measurement sites, you could potentially review some 7,444,000 records. We will discuss various processes to identify potentially invalid or incorrect transactional data and push that data to those analyzing and reviewing the information. This will reduce the time is takes to analyze the data, thus enabling internal and external customers downstream of measurement to use the data. We will also review the benefits in receiving electronic information from field technicians -- such as meter test calibrations, plate changes, and well status changes to name a few.
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Document ID: EF8FF696

Measurement Management System
Author(s): Christopher Levy
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrocarbons have long been a main energy source for civilization in the modern era. Reliable hydrocarbon transportation from supply to demand is among the most critical factors in sustaining our way of life. Transported hydrocarbons are measured for environmental protection and/or accounting systems. Hydrocarbon measurement is a dynamic, unique field with unique challenges. Equipment, instruments, procedures, and computing systems undergo continuous change as technology continues to evolve at an increasingly rapid pace. New technology requires new skills and companies are faced with the task of developing, maintaining, and delivering training for these necessary advanced work force competencies. Because a decrease in work force knowledge and skills coupled with an increase in infrastructure complexity can lead to a perfect storm of inefficiency and poor measurement performance, a process-based approach to managing hydrocarbon measurement is necessary to control and improve a companys measurement performance.
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Document ID: 50F4A197

Master Meter Prover Certifications Per API 4.9.3
Author(s): Kevin Fields
Abstract/Introduction:
When discussions about prover calibrations occur, they normally end with a disagreement about the accuracies of the different approved methods. This paper will discuss the procedures and advantages of the master meter water draw. The master meter method was developed over 20 years ago to minimize difficulties in calibrating very large volume provers. In the fast pace world of today, where down time means money, many companies use the master meter method to save time and money on a variety of prover sizes. Accurate calibrations require good technique from an experienced technician. Having the proper knowledge and equipment to perform the master meter method will improve the accuracy and minimize the time to complete the calibration. This paper will discuss the Master Meter Method of prover calibration as described in API MPMS Chapter 4.9.3.
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Document ID: C7DE1D88

Contributors To Historical Advances In Natural Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jeremiah Gage Thomas Kegel
Abstract/Introduction:
When discussing a historic subject, controversy often arises. Like any historical subject the enormity of contributors and information is immeasurable. The authors for this paper picked the people based on their research and their interest in the given subject of natural gas measurement. It is our desire for this course to be permanent fixture at ISHM with an ever changing theme on hydrocarbon measurement. The natural gas measurement industry was built by many individuals who devoted their time to improve the quality of measurement. The topics for ISHM 2013 are the work of Howard Bean and Edgar Buckingham on orifice meters, and Dr. Winston Lee on turbine meters.
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Document ID: 8AC8B459

Advanced Application Of Liquid Flow Computers
Author(s): Philip A Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
patent office data sets that show a 10 fold increase in yearly patent submittals from the late 1800s to 2010, this rate of increase applies to all branches of engineering. This increase achieves around 120,000 patents per year for all technology types submitted in the USA to the year 2011. Flow computer measurement technology has also changed in its operating mode and design over the years from an original black box stuck into a control room or in the field with basic functions, to a fully developed supervisory computing device with many features of diagnostics and self-checking and redundancy
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Document ID: 5FD68364

Fundamentals Of Catalytic Heaters In Measurement Applications
Author(s): Chad Richards
Abstract/Introduction:
Catalytic heaters are used to prevent liquid distillation and freezing in natural gas which is a common problem in regulation and measurement as often caused by the Joules - Thompson Effect. Since the maximum operating temperature is always well below the temperature for ignition required of natural gas, the heaters are ideally suited for hazardous locations in the oil and gas industry. As relevant to measurement applications, this paper will cover the principals of catalytic heater installation and operation.
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Document ID: B48E3B60

Application Of Flow Computers For Gas Measurement And Control
Author(s): Al Majek
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of gas has progressed considerably since the days of paper charts and manual integration. While still in use today, the technology has moved increasingly to microprocessor based flow computers. Such electronic measurement allows for greater accuracy and is readily integrated into a companys enterprise computer networks.
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Document ID: B4F207E4

Efm And Cyber Security
Author(s): Orlando Camarillo
Abstract/Introduction:
With a long list of potential hackers and many ways to penetrate inherently weak SCADA and EFM systems, the threat of cyber terrorism, espionage and illegal industrial intelligence gathering has gotten the attention of everyone from the Defense Department to the SCADA manager. Securing data communications from the well site/pipeline across telemetry systems and into the corporate server for SCADA or EFM processing requires some understanding of a hackers mentality and a corporate directive from the highest levels within a company to push for updated policies not just basic IT networking but for SCADA oriented security policies that only SCADA professionals can help define.
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Document ID: 5DDF9156

Basic Application Of Flow Computers And Telemetry Systems
Author(s): Bill Herndon Martin Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to the evolution of flow computers being commonly used in the measurement of hydrocarbons, most telemetry systems were used to collect control information and real time data and provide control commands to a Remote Terminal Unit at major pump and compressor stations. Most of the local metering was being handled by chart recorders and local data collection by operations. These charts and reports were sent to a central facility where the information was used to provide custody transfer reports and or operations reports. Most of the commonly used chart recorders used the standard circular chart format and were mostly pneumatic devices. The collection of the circular charts and the processing of the information to provide billing information was a cumbersome and costly task. The measurement departments often had to deal with discrepencies in data and information that was often months old.
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Document ID: CDF64233

Understanding Hazardous Area Classifications
Author(s): Irvin Schwartzenburg
Abstract/Introduction:
The intent of this paper is to provide a high level understanding of hazardous area classifications and common protection methods used in the oil and gas industry. This paper is informational only and is in no way meant to be a substitute for the readers own responsibility to research and correctly follow their applicable governmental, industry and company standards.
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Document ID: D4FDDB7F

Basic Electronics For The Field Technician
Author(s): Christopher Levy
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronics is the branch of physics, science, engineering, and technology dealing with electrical circuits that are controlled by electrical means rather than mechanical means. The main purpose of electronics is the processing and communication of information and signals. Vacuum tubes were one of the earliest electronic components when electronics technology was known only as radio technology due to the primary application. Today, electronics is driven by micro-sized devices such as transistors and diodes to form the integrated circuit. In comparison, about 400 X 1017 transistors could fit into the space occupied by a single original vacuum tube. The microscopic size of electronic components make todays complex and powerful devices handheld realities. Device size is now limited by power and input/output interfaces rather than logic and computational electronics
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Document ID: D7BBE974

Scada Systems
Author(s): Denis Rutherford
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will cover a fundamental review of data acquisition and control equipment. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Systems provide a superior base for better controlled facilities in the upstream, midstream and pipelines for oil and gas facilities. Computerized handling of remote installations is integrated with communications and provides means for reducing the operating cost, cost of maintenance and effective handling of the Oil and Gas network. System parameters communicated via a wired and wireless data network must present true conditions related to the status of the field equipment including the Custody Transfer Measurement Systems. In likewise manner, commands sent to remote sites must be promptly executed and the back indication is to be sent to the control center.
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Document ID: 32D06DA9

Communication Systems For Gas Measurement Data
Author(s): Rusty Fields
Abstract/Introduction:
To understand and improve success in the collection of SCADA and EFM data you must first understand the world you operate in. I know most anyone in the industry has their concept of it but I want to introduce you some new ways of viewing this world from a somewhat non-technical stance. I always think of SCADA networks this way, what if there were no air traffic controls on airports or any airspace? Busy airports would have constant airline crashes, multiple airplanes trying use the same runway, multiple airplanes at the same altitude etc In general it would be chaos.
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Document ID: F2ED9EC5

Economics Of Electronic Gas Measurement
Author(s): John Renfrow
Abstract/Introduction:
The intent of this paper is to address the economic impact of Electronic Flow Measurement (EFM) equipment in place of traditional systems. Orifice Tube measurement will primarily be discussed because it is the most common in the natural gas industry
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Document ID: 40A82731

Production Equipment Effects On Orifice Gas Measurement
Author(s): Stormy Phillips
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is designed to serve as an update to the paper formally presented at the 85th International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement in 2010 by David Pulley, class 3115. As such, it covers much of the same information and relies heavily on his work and research as source material. Sections have been added where deemed necessary to cover the changing needs and interest of the students of the International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement. The goal and intent of this paper is to serve as a foundation for future studies in production equipment and their applications.
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Document ID: 43312C89

Effects Of Cathodic Protection And Induced Signals On Pipeline Measurement
Author(s): Peter P. Jakubenas
Abstract/Introduction:
The effects of cathodic protection and other induced signals on pipeline measurement equipment can be quite profound. This paper will explore the sources and effects of induced signals, and the prevention of undesirable induced signals in custody transfer measurement equipment.
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Document ID: 8C4201E6

Ethernet For Scada Systems A Discussion Of Utilizing Ethernet For Scada Systems
Author(s): David Savells
Abstract/Introduction:
Ethernet communications has been a viable medium for business communications for close to 40 years now. Developed in the early 1970s by Robert Metcalfe at Xeroxs Palo Alto Research Center as a standard for connecting computers over short distances, this idea of connecting computers has grown in to a worldwide network or web of connected computers and smart devices. Through standardization and cooperative efforts this system of digital communications has revolutionized the way conduct business communicate with our friends and family and now how machines communicate to other machines in factories, military systems and now industrial SCADA systems
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Document ID: 3072A644

On-Line Flow Computers For Liquid Custody Transfer
Author(s): Gail Powley
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow Computers for custody transfer are critical elements in running a pipeline - as each acts as either the Cash Register or the Toll Booth and therefore a financial focal point. Therefore it is key that Flow Computers be installed correctly for both technical and business purposes. New pipeline expansions have many elements, many players, and therefore many considerations to ensure that the Flow Computer portion of the overall project goes about smoothly. This paper will focus on effective practices of Flow Computer Project Management, based on over 30 years of experience on flow computer projects completed across North America, on oil liquids pipelines ranging from small to large
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Document ID: 769BCE63

Real-Time Electronic Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jim Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years now, flow computers have been implemented in gas measurement systems to utilize technology, to improve measurement accuracy, provide far more efficient data acquisition, and provide better control resources for remote interface through telemetry. As the meters functionality has increased, the meter technician has had to become more diverse in his or her knowledge of measurement, control, computers, and electronics. By taking a closer look at the various advanced applications and reviewing the basics, hopefully the technician will have a better understanding of the requirements of handling, installing, and working with todays advanced flow computers.
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Document ID: 9C7BA611

Recent Innovations In Spread Spectrum Radio Technology For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Roy Rosado
Abstract/Introduction:
During the last five years, we have seen important introductions of innovative spread spectrum radio technologies that dramatically optimize the performance and reliability of a telemetry network, while at the same time lowering the total deployment cost of the same. By migrating to these newer technologies, gas companies can now, more than ever, seamlessly monitor and control all of their geographically dispersed gas measuring devices and gain unprecedented access to real-time information, to enhance their ability to make just-in-time decisions
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Document ID: 9C4E8446

Smart Transmitter Selection, Calibration And Installation
Author(s): Leon Black
Abstract/Introduction:
Transmitter selection can be summed in general terms under a heading of application. Even though generically speaking pressure transmitters are all the same, the fitness of use for transmitters is not the same. The total accuracy statement of a transmitter that has been hardened to withstand extreme corrosive effects will not appear equal to a reference class transmitter. This kind of information is not within the scope of a transmitter data sheets and there in resides a challenge for users.
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Document ID: ED58C1DE

Testing Maintenance And Operation Of Electronic Flow Computers For The Gas Industry
Author(s): Denis Rutherford
Abstract/Introduction:
Say goodbye to obsolete chart recorder technology and bulky multi-component flow computers with the Electronic Flow Computer (EFM). The EFM is a solar-powered single to multi run flow computer, an evolution in gas measurement technology. Designed for use in remote locations where solar is the only power and technician access is less than ideal, the EFM incorporates a dedicated single run flow computer, solar/battery power supply and communication system within an all-in-one, compact, easy-to install package. The EFM requires a Man-Machine Interface (MMI) to configure the EFM. The MMI or Configuration Software allows editing of the flow computer configuration parameters with configuration dialogs for process inputs, contract specifications, compressibility calculations, and flow calculations for each meter run. The operator may write configuration data to the flow computer or read it back
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Document ID: A27DB952

Transient Lightning Protection For Electronic Measurement Devices
Author(s): Leon Black
Abstract/Introduction:
We have all heard of or seen the devastating effects of a direct lightning burst. Communication equipment destroyed. Transmitters and EFM devices vaporized into slag metal. Complete process and measurement systems down with extended recovery times. These effects are the most dramatic and the easiest to trace. However, these kinds of events are rare. The more prominent events are those that occur on a day-to-day basis without we, the user, even knowing.
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Document ID: B046071C

About Ishm 2013
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
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Document ID: 92746718

Data Validation - Requirements Of An Egm Editor
Author(s): R. Michael Squyres
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry has adopted EGM as a means of increasing the speed and accuracy with which measurement information is obtained. This has created the need for an electronic data management system. These systems, if not properly designed and implemented, could potentially render the entire process useless. Therefore, it is essential that the system add functionality that complements the power of the hardware. With proper implementation, such a system will not only facilitate operations in todays fast paced, post-FERC 636 environment, but also will establish a foundation for meeting tomorrows measurement challenges
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Document ID: 5F498B55

The Evolution Of Data Collection For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Dan Steele
Abstract/Introduction:
systems just as new technology in drilling and production are revolutionizing the way oil and gas wells are produced. The new high volume pad wells and horizontal production techniques demand: Faster data collection Systems that provide more detailed information Greater polling speed More remote control Ability to optimize production to lower operating costs Equipment that is lower cost, and easier to install than ever before.
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Document ID: D836F14B

Calibration Of Liquid Provers
Author(s): Brad Young
Abstract/Introduction:
A meter prover is used to calibrate custody transfer meters to establish a meter factor. The volume that passes through the meter is compared to the prover volume during the time taken for a sphere or piston to pass between two detector switches. The prover volume must be accurately determined by a calibration procedure known as the Water Draw method
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Document ID: 44F2646E

The Effective Use Of Deadweight Tester
Author(s): Roger Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most difficult problems facing the instrument engineer is the accurate calibration of pressure or differential pressure measuring instruments. The deadweight tester or gauge is the economic answer to many of these problems. This paper describes methods to select deadweight testers and gauges. Also included are procedures for using pneumatic and hydraulic deadweight testers.
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Document ID: D3875260

Flow Calibrating Ultrasonic Gas Meters
Author(s): Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary method for custody transfer measurement has traditionally been orifice metering. While this method has been a good form of measurement, technology has driven the demand for a new, more effective form of fiscal measurement. Ultrasonic flowmeters have gained popularity in recent years and have become the standard for large volume custody transfer applications for a variety of reasons. Most users require flow calibrations to improve meter performance and overall measurement uncertainty. The latest revision of AGA Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters, Second Addition Ref 1, now requires flow calibration for ultrasonic flow meters when being used for custody transfer applications
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Document ID: F9327219

Guide To Troubleshooting Problems With Liquid Mters And Provers
Author(s): Jerry Upton
Abstract/Introduction:
As one of my true and trusted friends says, Counting is easy, but measuring is not so easy. What he means by this is, without establishing any rules you and I could agree on how many tanks there are in a tank farm. The difficulty comes in when we start to try and agree upon how many barrels or cubic meters are in the tanks
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Document ID: 565642C6

In-Situ On-Site() Gas Meter Proving
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr. James N. Witte Adam Hawley
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas flow rate measurement errors at field meter stations can result from the installation configuration, the calibration of the meter at conditions other than the actual operating conditions, or the degradation of meter performance over time. The best method for eliminating these or other sources of error is with in-situ (on-site) calibration of the meter. That is, the measurement accuracy of the field meter station should be verified under actual operating conditions by comparing to a master meter or prover. A number of field provers have been developed for operation at high line pressures and flow rates. (For purposes of this discussion, a high gas flow rate is any flow greater than 3,000 actual cubic feet per hour or (85 m3/h) at pressures up to 1,440 psig (10 MPa).)
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Document ID: B717133F

L.A.C.T. Unit Proving - The Role Of The Witness Class
Author(s): C. Bynum Vincent
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid hydrocarbons removed from the ground must get to market via one of two ways. They are transported via pipeline or tanker truck from production facilities to pipeline systems, which transport the product to the refinery for processing. Once processed, the liquids are once again sent via tanker truck or pipeline to the distribution points downstream. Whether these fluids are purchased or consigned to common carriers, there is transaction called a custody transfer conducted to transfer ownership of the product for transportation or distribution. In each of these instances, a representative from each party involved in the custody transfer transaction is generally present to observe or witness the events of each transaction
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Document ID: 541ADDCE

Liquid Flow Provers
Author(s): Greg Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
This document will provide the reader an understanding of what a prover is, the need for proving meters for measurement verification, the equipment deemed acceptable and available for use in the oil and liquefied gas market. It will also define the general terminology used in the industry, general operational aspects for each device, and general information utilized by the groups and agencies that govern the meter verification process
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Document ID: 34BF1E9E

Liquid Meter Proving Techniques
Abstract/Introduction:
Producers and shippers are becoming more and more aware of the importance of accurate measurement. Their bottom line depends on it. Not only does this relate to the actual product value, but in relation to environmental considerations it also has implications associated with regulatory compliance and integrity management. As a result, measurement accuracy is being scrutinized more vigorously than in the past. Companies are being required by their clients and regulatory bodies to Verify their metering accuracy. Therefore it is essential that all procedures and auxiliary equipment be operated in a consistent, accurate and defendable manner
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Document ID: 852A615C

Operation & Problems Associated With Prover Detector Switches
Author(s): Warren A. Parr, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
In many parts of the petroleum industry, sphere provers are used to dynamically calibrate volumetric meters. In order to accomplish this, sphere provers are required to be accurate and repeatable. This accuracy and repeatability is largely dependent on performance of the prover sphere detector. Any operational or design problems associated with the prover detector will affect the provers performance. This paper will review critical parts of a prover sphere detector that must be checked in order to obtain accuracy reliability and repeatability. The areas that will be covered are
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Document ID: 55C4BBC0

Operational Experience With Small Volume Provers
Author(s): Kevin Fields
Abstract/Introduction:
The following document will focus on experiences working with the Small Volume Prover and addressing common questions and concerns. Small Volume Provers (SVPs) have become the standard in most custody transfer applications. Today, there are over 500 SVPs located throughout the US and abroad. Over 25 years ago, the first Small Volume Prover was put into service. The Small Volume Prover can be used on multiple fluids and over a wide range of flow rates. One of the most common reasons for choosing a Small Volume Prover is its compact size and large flow rate capacity. Todays SVP can handle rates from 0.01 gpm to 18,000 BPH. With a SVP sized to handle 18,000 BPH, the total prover volume is approximately 120 gallons
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Document ID: 170D3AF1

Proving Coriolis Meters
Author(s): Marsha Yon
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis meters are in use throughout the hydrocarbon industry for the measurement of fluids including crude oil, products such as fuel oil, gasoline, and diesel, and light hydrocarbons such as natural gas liquids, propane, etc. When used for custody transfer, it is most often required by contract between the buyer and seller that the meter be proven in the field on the fluid that is being measured and at the conditions under which it will be operating. This paper will utilize the American Petroleum Institutes Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) as the reference for industry practices for field proving methods and calculations.
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Document ID: 57FD4CDF

Theory And Application Of Pulse Interpolation To Prover Systems
Author(s): Galen Cotton
Abstract/Introduction:
Here we take an in-depth look at the use of Pulse Interpolation as it applies to reduced volume provers (captured piston provers in current API parlance), or Small Volume Provers (SVP) and the implicit in reliability of the technique where the fundamental conditions implicit in its use prevail
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Document ID: 51F87A23

VERIFICATION/CERTIFICATION Of Devices Used In Liquid Measurement And Implications Of How Mercury Issues Will Impact These Processes
Author(s): Anne Walker Brackett
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past the standards from the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the American Society for Testing and Measurement (ASTM) provided specifications for instruments and equipment. Simple compliance with these standards was not enough. Therefore, a system of verification and/or certification of equipment used in measurement of liquids was instituted. These requirements were written into the standards as they came up for review. An excellent example of such a standard is Chapter 3.1.A. Standard Practice for the Manual Gauging of Petroleum and Petroleum Products of the APIs Manual of Petroleum Measurement. 3.1.A. calls for field verification of working tapes against against a National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable master tape when it is new and every year thereafter. This is an example of the requirements to insure the instrument and the equipment meets the specifications of each standard. It is important to understand the definitions of traceability, verification, and certification before discussing the specifications for equipment used in liquid measurement
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Document ID: A877820B

Witnessing Orifice Meter Verification/Calibration
Author(s): Jane Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
All custody transfer gas meters require periodic calibration in order to assure that they are measuring accurately. The meter numbers are used to pay the seller for the gas going through the meter, and if at a production site it is also used for royalty payments, and to optimize production and reservoir management. Consequently the need for accurate measurement is very important. The primary element needs to be checked and the instrumentation must also be verified. If the instrumentation is correct there is no need to calibrate the devices. If however the verification shows that the instruments are not reading correctly, calibration will be required
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Document ID: 3E78DBF7

Improving Flow Measurements With Improved Calibration And Data Handling Procedures
Author(s): Duane Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
demanding. Every field technician is tested in both knowledge and skills on a daily basis for: electronic controls to pneumatic controls communication system support multiple disciplines support of measurement equipment procedures that must be followed regulatory requirements governing the facilities ongoing training of field personnel
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Document ID: 0C8F5EEA

Proving Liquid Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Ernest m. Hauser
Abstract/Introduction:
In-Situ Proving is one of the processes by which a flow meters accuracy can be assured in service. Alternatives to in-situ proving are transferring of lab calibrations to the field, or using a secondary transfer standard called a master meter. Proving is involved in all calibrations of all liquid meters at one point in the process, whether during initial calibrations or by proving a transfer standard and then comparing the transfer standard to the meter in service or under calibration. In-Situ Proving has the advantage of providing the smallest uncertainty since it is a direct comparison of the working meter to the reference standard. A prover is a device that provides a known reference volume, when a cylinder or a ball passes between two position switches, which can be compared to the volume measured by the working meter during the same period and in the same conditions. In this way other variables can be eliminated and the working meter can be corrected to the reference volume by means of a meter factor.
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Document ID: 63F7AE9F

Preparing A Prover For A Water Draw Calibration
Author(s): Herb Garland Richard Roberts
Abstract/Introduction:
The key to a successful calibration of a prover by the water draw method is thorough planning and organization followed by good execution of the plan. The primary goal is to get the prover as clean as possible and perform any replacements and maintenance needed prior to the arrival of the Calibration Company. This paper is intended to assist you attain an accurate calibration by presenting some things to consider for the planning, organization and execution phases.
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Document ID: 9F2BB378

Laboratory Versus In Situ Proving Of Liquid Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Bobbie W. Griffith Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
There has been a trend in the industry toward larger ultrasonic meters for the transfer of oil in large pipelines and for offloading facilities such as FPSOs. There also has been some active debate on the best method of calibrating these meters for use in these applications. At present there are two methods normally used to accomplish this. The more traditional method is the use of a pipe or piston prover, either permanent or mobile, at the site. The second method is to calibrate the meter at a laboratory and transfer that calibration to the field. This paper explores the expected uncertainty and some pitfalls to be avoided in system design to ensure the best performance of both systems.
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Document ID: AC7EA26A

The Uncertainty Of A Waterdraw Calibration Vs. A Gravimetric Calibration On Small Volume Provers
Author(s): Gary Cohrs
Abstract/Introduction:
The focus of the API Petroleum Measurement Manuals is to reduce the uncertainty and improve the accuracy of all petroleum measurements. Many recent advances in weighing equipment and research and testing by various groups to improve volume calibrations have provided opportunities to greatly reduce the uncertainty and provide increased confidence in displacement Prover calibrations. API and NIST have standards on both volumetric and gravimetric techniques
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Document ID: F43C9BE2

Roles And Responsibilities Of Witnessing A Prover Calibration
Author(s): Carl Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to give direction to those that have little or no experience with liquid hydrocarbon prover calibration. The outcome of this procedure will impact the custody transfer of product and could conceivably influence the measurement accuracy of millions of transported barrels, so the acceptance of substandard performance, equipment or processes must not be tolerated. It must be strongly emphasized that the witness job is to protect the precision of the process and, through this, ensure that uncertainties in measurement will be minimized
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Document ID: BE24C7B1

Methods For Certifying Measurement Equipment
Author(s): Scott Crone
Abstract/Introduction:
Welcome Like any other piece of equipment, a measurement artifact must be maintained. Obviously, it has to be in working order in general. However, what is more important is that it be operating within specified parameters and providing measurements that are traceable to a known source or sources. This paper provides a general overview of calibration and certification. It also discusses some key terminology and methods
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Document ID: E025A198

Auditing Gas Laboritories
Author(s): Joe Landes
Abstract/Introduction:
The data produced by Gas Chromatograph (GC) laboratories is used for many purposes, including product specification, accounting, safety and environmental compliance issues. The accuracy of this data has direct impact on all of these areas. Auditing laboratories responsible for producing this data is prudent business practice. The audit will provide a means of process improvement, through proper identification of deficiencies and a precise plan for corrective action. The level of confidence in analytical results will increase when the appropriate corrective actions are implemented. The amount of financial and legal exposure can be reduced from a properly executed audit program.
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Document ID: 59889E1C

Chromatograph Applications And Problems From A Users Standpoint
Author(s): Fred Ryel
Abstract/Introduction:
Chromatographs are available for all types of applications in the natural gas industry. The main applications that this class will discuss are: process monitoring of liquids and gases, environmental flares and ambient air, landfill gas and contaminates. These can also include corrosives such as H2S, CO2 and O2, etc. Regardless of the application, the main priority is to capture an accurate sample and not change the properties before it can be analyzed. Maintaining the sample integrity is by far the most difficult process. The procedure of acquiring the sample and the way it is analyzed depends upon the media being sampled.
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Document ID: 33F0B65E

Chromatograph Maintenance And Troubleshooting
Author(s): Fred Ryel
Abstract/Introduction:
The GC System will perform accurately for long periods with very little attention. However a bi-monthly record of certain parameters will assist greatly in assuring that your Analyzer is operating to specifications. The GC System Maintenance Checklist should be filled in bi-monthly, dated, and kept on file for access by maintenance technicians as necessary. See next page. This gives you a historical record of the operation of your Analyzer, enables a maintenance technician to schedule replacement of gas cylinders at a convenient time, and allows quick troubleshooting and repair when it becomes necessary. A chromatogram, a configuration report, and a raw data report should also be made and filed with the checklist, furnishing a positive dated record of the Analyzer. The chromatogram and reports will also prove valuable in comparison with the chromatograms and reports run during troubleshooting
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Document ID: 62A5B6DC

An Optical Hydrocarbon Analyzer For Real-Time Hydrocarbon Gas Speciation And Measurement
Author(s): Duane Sword
Abstract/Introduction:
A unique all-optical, real-time, unattended sensor platform has been developed for hydrocarbon gas composition analysis enabling speciation and quantification of the individual light hydrocarbon components such as C1 - C5 of alkanes and carbon dioxide. This all-optical sensor performs real-time speciation without requiring physical separation of the compounds as performed in traditional chromatography.
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Document ID: 5E43BE89

Crude Quality-What Is Involved And Why Its Important
Author(s): James C. Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
Crude oil quality can mean different things to different people. A production facility may look at crude oil quality as anything that passes the field tests so the transporter will pick up the load or send it down their pipeline. A pipeline company or transporter may have a similar definition of crude quality, but from a different perspective. A crude oil marketer will also have a different idea of what crude quality is as will an end user, such as a refiner. I will touch on what each of these people think is crude oil quality, and why, and will discuss the testing procedures used to arrive at crude quality from their perspective
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Document ID: D36DC6FF

Determination Of H2S And Total Sulfur In Natural Gas
Author(s): Sam Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is a chemical compound comprised of one Sulfur Atom and two Hydrogen Atoms. It is a colorless, extremely poisonous gas that reeks of rotten eggs. H2S is formed when bacteria breaks down organic matter and is found in natural oil and gas deposits. Hydrogen Sulfide is highly corrosive and renders some steels brittle, leading to sulfide stress cracking which can lead to damage to operational equipment. Natural gas producers, gas processors and pipeline operators measure H2S to protect equipment and to conform to buyer specifications or government limits. Sometimes, H2S concentration is used as a feedback parameter to control and optimize sweetening and sulfur recovery processes. Due to the toxic and corrosive properties of Hydrogen Sulfide and its presence in natural gas, it is imperative to measure and control the concentration levels of this compound within natural gas pipelines
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Document ID: DF93CBD5

Determination Of Water Vapor Content In Natural Gas
Author(s): Sam Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
This is an overview of the main approaches to trace moisture measurements for natural gas. Natural gas presents a situation where the stream may have high levels of solid and liquid contaminants as well as corrosive gases present in varying concentrations. Additionally, the stream composition may change gradually or rapidly over time. This unique situation is a challenge for the measurement of moisture
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Document ID: 88F9DA20

Hydrocarbon Dew Point Effects On Gas Flow Measurement
Author(s): Fred Van Orsdol
Abstract/Introduction:
The hydrocarbon dewpoint (HCDP) of interest to the natural gas industry is simply an operating condition that causes liquids to condense out of the gas stream and form a liquid phase. Normal condensation occurs when increasing pressure or decreasing temperature causes liquids to form. Retrograde condensation occurs on a different portion of the phase envelope, wherein increasing temperature or decreasing pressure may cause the gas to cross the phase boundary and produce condensation. Both processes produce liquids condensing out of gas phase streams and are of interest to this presentation
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Document ID: C8974932

D.O.T. Requirements For The Transportation Of Sample Cylinders
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The United States Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) is a department of the U.S. Federal Government which oversees all issues regarding transportation within the United States of America and U.S. Territories. Its influence around the world is great and widely respected, but its jurisdiction and power of enforcement is limited to the USA and its territories. As regards this paper, we will discuss the D.O.T. and its involvement surrounding sample cylinders for the hydrocarbon industry and the rules regarding the movement of these cylinders from point to point in the United States
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Document ID: 63FD0880

Energy Measurement Using Flow Computers And Chromatography
Author(s): Burt Reed
Abstract/Introduction:
The means and methods of transfer of quantities of natural gas between buyers and sellers have been changing for many years. When coal gasification was used to fuel the streetlights in Atlanta, Ga. There was no reason to even measure the commodity. The municipality generated the gas, transported it, and burned it. When Frank Phillips started purchasing gas rights back in the 1930s, every one thought he was more than odd. Natural Gas was considered at that time a messy by-product of oil production that had to be disposed of. Even during the 1960s natural gas was still being flared at the wellhead in Oklahoma. During the 1940s, it was said that one could drive from Kilgore, Texas to Tyler, Texas at night without turning on the head light on your car due to all the gas flares. In this economic environment, measurement was not an issue if you could sell the gas at all it was considered a business coup. Even then, a good price was 2 cents an MCF.
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Document ID: F9A3CDA0

Energy Measurement Using Ultrasonic Flow Measurement And Chromatography The Technicians Perspective
Author(s): Tom Mooney Charles Derr
Abstract/Introduction:
The demand for global energy increases with time as surely as the world population of users of gas energy has increased each year. Energy will ALWAYS be in demand. Good Systems for measuring it accurately and reliably are a Must. This paper will put some of the realities of assembling and operating an Energy Measurement Station for natural gas into perspective into A Technicians perspective!
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Document ID: 70D093FB

Field And Laboratory Testing Of Sediment And Water In Crude Oil
Author(s): Jane Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
The quantity of sediment and water in crude oil must be accurately established as part of the custody transfer process. Purchasers only pay for the crude oil received, and want to minimize the quantity of sediment and water they must transport and dispose of. Consequently, monitoring of the sediment and water content is performed at the production site to prevent excessive sediment and water from entering the pipeline system. The quantity of sediment and water a pipeline is willing to accept into their system depends on geographic location, market competitiveness and their ability to handle the sediment and water in the system. Each pipeline publishes the quantity of sediment and water it will accept.
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Document ID: 8BDE2EAD

Heat Quantity Calculation Relating To Water Vapor In Natural Gas
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr Darin L. George
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas often contains some amount of water, in either vapor or liquid form. The solubility of water in natural gas flowing through a pipeline is a function of the pressure and temperature of the flowing stream. The amount of water affects the heating (calorific) value per unit volume of natural gas. The more water present in the gas, the less valuable it is as a fuel, since the water displaces the hydrocarbon components in a natural gas mixture and does not burn. This water, in vapor form, is sometimes referred to as spectator water. The net effect is a reduction in heating value and monetary value per unit volume of gas. The amount of water vapor contained in a natural gas mixture is customarily expressed in terms of the mass of water per unit volume of gas, for example, pounds mass of water per million standard cubic feet of natural gas (lbm/MMscf).
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Document ID: 2C38108F

Validating Laboratory Gas Analyses
Author(s): Dennis Updike
Abstract/Introduction:
The intent of this paper is to explore the concepts around an effective data validation process for determining the accuracy of natural gas samples analyzed at a laboratory. The accuracy of gas sample analysis depends upon a variety of parts in the overall measurement process. Understanding the types of errors that can occur in each aspect will aid in the development of an effective validation method.
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Document ID: 9AFB253E

On Line Water Measurement Devices In Liquid Service
Author(s): Kam Mohajer
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays competitive energy market there is a tremendous emphasis on cost saving and productivity at all levels of the industry. Online water detection provides vital real-time information regarding water concentrations in hydrocarbons empowering the user with the knowledge necessary to maximize efficiencies and cost savings while increasing many safety factors at the same time
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Document ID: D2688DE8

Sampling And Conditioning Of Natural Gas Containing Entrained Liquids
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
The monetary value of natural gas is based on its energy content and volume. The energy content and physical constants utilized in determining its volume are computed from analysis. Therefore correct assessment of the value of natural gas is dependent to a large extent on overall analytical accuracy
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Document ID: 4D77318B

Sample Conditioning And Contaminant Removal For Water Vapor Content Determination In Natural Gas
Author(s): Brad Massey
Abstract/Introduction:
The Natural Gas Industry experiences numerous operational problems associated with high water vapor content in the natural gas stream. As a result several problems are experienced such as, equipment freezes, dilution of physical properties reducing heating value, volume measurement interference, and pipeline corrosion. Contracts and Tariffs usually limit the amount of water vapor content allowed at the custody transfer point. For these and other reasons, accurate Water Vapor Dewpoint measurements are critical measurements for all companies involved in natural gas production, gathering, transmission and delivery.
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Document ID: 80D64CD2

Techniques Of Gas Composite Sampling
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to be able to take a representative sample of a hydrocarbon product is necessary to ensure proper accounting for transactions and efficient product processing. The various sampling methods that are available and the options and limitations of these methods are investigated the most appropriate equipment to use the reasons for its use and correct installation of the equipment are also addressed
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Document ID: 5A60E0A2

Techniques Of Gas Spot Sampling
Author(s): Jane Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss the various approved methods used for spot sampling in the natural gas industry. Proper sampling technique is extremely important because it impacts both the quantity and quality of the gas being measured. Up until 1978 when congress passed the Natural Gas Policy Act, natural gas was sold based on volume. The Natural Gas Policy Act implemented selling of natural gas based on the energy available in the gas being sold. Consequently, the importance of sampling to determine the BTU content of the natural gas sold became much more important. The energy available in a gas stream is the product of the volume and the BTU content of the gas sold. In order to determine the BTU content of the gas, a sample must be captured and analyzed by a gas chromatograph or calorimeter.
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Document ID: A992A52A

Determining Hydrocarbon Dew Point Per Gas Chromatographic Analysis And Equations Of State
Author(s): Shane Hale
Abstract/Introduction:
The determination of the hydrocarbon dew point (HDP) for natural gas has recently become a critical issue for the natural gas industry because of the rapid expansion of interconnecting pipelines and the rise of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) as an international source of natural gas. Whereas previously the gas in a pipeline would come from a small number of known producers, the gas flowing through the pipeline today could have come from many varied sources including traditional gas plant producers (de-hydration, CO2, H2S and N2 control and removal of condensates), coal bed methane producers (98% methane), low cost producers (de-hydration only) or global exporters of LNG.
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Document ID: D4572FCA

Fundamentals Of Sampling Natural Gas For Btu Determination
Author(s): Matthew Stephens Parrott
Abstract/Introduction:
Accuracy in the measurement of Natural Gas has a strong relationship with an ability to collect and deliver a representative sample. A working knowledge of what a representative sample is, through the science and standards that define it, will serve as a firm foundation in the pursuit of accuracy. Once established, this foundation allows for the pursuit of accuracy through an understanding of the fundamentals of proper design, maintenance, and equipment application.
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Document ID: 480DC3B6

The Analysis Of Carbon Dioxide In Natural Gas
Author(s): Mike Fuller,
Abstract/Introduction:
The composition of natural gas varies but consists mainly of methane and varying amounts of heavier aliphatic hydrocarbons, nitrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2). A typical commercial pipeline natural analysis compositional analysis by gas chromatography (GC) is shown in Figure 1.
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Document ID: 9AF886B5

Considerations For Sampling Wet, High Pressure, And Supercritical Natural Gas
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux Shannon m. Bromley
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the problems encountered when sampling wet, high pressure and supercritical natural gas for on-line BTU analysis, and provides solutions and comments on how they relate to the API and GPA industry standards for natural gas sampling. It also discusses the use of phase diagrams in the design and operation of a natural gas sampling system.
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Document ID: 129BE68E

Flare Measurement Practices
Author(s): Paul Khuri
Abstract/Introduction:
Flare measurement is one of the most challenging types of gas flow measurement in the industry. With increased scrutiny from environmental regulators and operational emphasis on plant balance and leak detection, accurate flare measurement has become increasingly critical in developing performance requirements for new and existing facilities. This paper will outline the unique challenges associated with flare gas measurement and present best practices for measurement technologies and design of these systems
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Document ID: 1CB9973A

Principles Of Multi-Dimensional Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Gregg Meidl
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past 45 years, multi-dimensional gas chromatography has made a tremendous impact in the HPI and CPI markets. Process GCs play an important role in the areas of safety, process control, process monitoring and environmental monitoring. Modern analyzer systems have sophisticated PC based electronic controllers with LCD man-machine interface suitable for hazardous area classifications. Despite the fact that there have been considerable strides in process gas chromatographic technologies and practices, the same basic principals hold true today. This paper will cover the basic structure of a typical process gas chromatograph from the sample probe, through the sample system, GC sample valves, columns and column valves and through the detector
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Document ID: 369EA05B


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