Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (2013)

Review Of Recently Published A S V / R C V Guidelines Document
Author(s): Dan Menegus Deborah Sus
Abstract/Introduction:
Regulations 192.179 - Valve spacing requirements by Class Location 192.935 - Evaluate additional measures to prevent or mitigate specific threats for covered segments including the use of ASV/RCVs 192.935(c) - Identifies factors to consider when considering the use of ASV/RCVs NTSB Recommendation NTSB recommendation to amend 192.935(c) to require ASV/RCV in High Consequence Area and Class 3 and Class 4 locations, September 2011 AGA White Paper Automatic Shut-Off Valves (ASV) and Remote Control Valves (RCV) on Natural Gas Transmission Pipelines, March 2011 Pipeline Safety Reauthorization Legislation, January 2012 Mandated DOT enact requirements for ASV/RCVs usage on new or entirely replaced pipelines. Required study to be prepared on leak detection and response, including the usage of ASV/RCVs
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Document ID: 07136713

Funding For New And Accelerated Infrastructure Investment
Author(s): Jim Howe
Abstract/Introduction:
Capital cost recovery mechanisms are becoming increasingly common in the United States. More than 60% of US states have some form of natural gas distribution capital cost recovery mechanism, or have cases pending. Common Gas Mechanism Structures: Special purpose (targeted) Large project Comprehensive More than a quarter of US states have electric distribution capital cost recovery
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Document ID: 907D487E

Heavy-Metal-Free Yellow Colorant For Gas Distribution Pipe
Author(s): Dane Chang Zhiqiang Zhou John W. Adams Roger A. Reinicker
Abstract/Introduction:
PE pipe was first adopted for use by the gas utilities in the USA in the early 1960s. Today PE is the dominant transportation mode for gas distribution (125 psig operation pressures) for residential and light industrial users supplying an estimated 95 percent of the service provided. High visibility heavy metal based yellow colorants/pigments were adopted as a safety feature for PE gas pipe from the beginning and are still used in North America today, while Europe adopted heavy metal free yellows for PE gas distribution 15-20 years ago. With increasing sustainability concerns for work place exposure and waste management, the need to develop more environmentally friendly yellow colorants for PE gas distribution pipe is more pressing than ever.
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Document ID: 288AD2C9

Wireless Communication Technology For Custody Measurement And Control
Author(s): Ted J Glazebrook
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation will focus on a collaborative effort between users and vendors of energy measurement facilities to develop a technical White Paper outlining the benefits and concerns of developing the technologies necessary to facilitate wireless communication between electronic measurement and control devices
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Document ID: 07C13A97

Adaptations Of Cybersecurity Research And Studies - AGA Conference
Author(s): Na
Abstract/Introduction:
NSTB and AGA Member Locations Pipeline Incident Reports and Recommendations Critical Control System Controls Segmented Automation Change Cycle Boundaries and Technologies Ownership of Operations Cybersecurity Not Invented Here Topic
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Document ID: 931F77B5

Technologies Framework Required To Support Pipeline Integrity
Author(s): Chris Vana Tom Helmer,
Abstract/Introduction:
eGlS planning application eGlS work order status application eGIS compliance reporting framework: program to date, ytd, rest of year forecast by month eGIS cathodic protection area generation application eGIS scheduling application integrated with EAM and MWM for area based surveys: CP, Leaks
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Document ID: F9D9C8CA

Thinking Beyond The Word, Compliance
Author(s): Bob Wilson Art Shapiro
Abstract/Introduction:
NTSB criticized the Regulator / Operator relationship Policymakers demand greater accountability PHMSA is implementing the Pipeline Safety & Job Creation Act State Regulators are increasing their expectations
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Document ID: DD2064FA

Applying Advanced Assessment Methodologies And Guided Wave Testing Gwt() On Difficult To Assess Segments
Author(s): Larry Legendre Scott Riccardella
Abstract/Introduction:
Challenges Posed by Difficult to Assess Environments - Facilities (Orphan Piping) - Cased Segments Direct Assessment Review Application of ECDA in Difficult to Assess Environments - Evolving tools (3D Modeling, Indirect Tools, Guided Wave) GWT Overview and Advancements Case Study and Examples
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Document ID: 17D97D9D

Applying Advanced Assessment Methodologies And Guided Wave Testing Gwt() On Difficult To Assess Segments
Author(s): Larry Legendre Scott Riccardella
Abstract/Introduction:
Challenges Posed by Difficult to Assess Environments - Facilities (Orphan Piping) - Cased Segments Direct Assessment Review Application of ECDA in Difficult to Assess Environments - Evolving tools (3D Modeling, Indirect Tools, Guided Wave) GWT Overview and Advancements Case Study and Examples
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Document ID: CD1B973A

Managin Aldyl A Pipe In Avista Natural Gas Distribution System
Author(s): Kristen Busko
Abstract/Introduction:
Understanding the Ongoing Risks A customized risk analysis was needed, more than a count of leaks: Where are leaks happening-under what conditions? What are the priority materials and components? How long do we have to act? Distribution Integrity Management Program (DiMP) partnered with Asset Management Analysis
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Document ID: 4426838D

Effectiveness Of Dual Rotor Turbine Meter Auto-Adjustment Feature
Author(s): John Geerligs Robert Mcbrien Jeff Crowe
Abstract/Introduction:
A study was undertaken to determine if small errors in the main rotor response of a dual rotor turbine meter under non-ideal flow conditions could be corrected by using the output of the sense rotor. In this study tests were performed using a 200 mm (8-inch) dual rotor, model AAT-60 turbine meter manufactured by Sensus, Inc. Results from earlier investigations with a 150 mm (6-inch) dual rotor meter (AAT-30) indicated that the sense rotor auto-adjust feature could correct for clockwise and counterclockwise swirl
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Document ID: 9BAB2018

Case Study: Large Scale Commercial Installations Using Rilsan PA-11 Piping System
Author(s): Pratik Shah
Abstract/Introduction:
Crystalline fraction of polyamide-11 is hydrogen bonded resulting in Higher melting temperatures Better solvent resistance Increased creep resistance
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Document ID: 9171C627

Large Coriolis Meters And The Applicability Of Water Calibrations For Gas Service
Author(s): Tonya Wyatt Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis Principle of Operation As a particle inside a rotating body moves toward or away from the center of rotation, the particle generates inertial forces that act on the body
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Document ID: 23B11162

Ensuring Interoperability For Natural Gas On The Smart Energy Grid
Author(s): Jim Marean
Abstract/Introduction:
Recommendations from GTI/ Navigant white paper - Natural Gas in a Smart Energy Future Create and expand real-time communications between the gas and electricity grids Ensure the natural gas infrastructure can meet the needs of all current and future end-uses Enhance the system capability to accept and distribute a wide range of renewable gas sources Ensure current and future natural gas infrastructure can accommodate emerging technologies, peak demand, energy efficiency programs, and new sources of supply
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Document ID: 55BB9CCB

Evaluating Turbulence Profile Effect On Ultrasonic Meter Performance
Author(s): John Geerligs Robert Mcbrien Jeff Crowe
Abstract/Introduction:
The effect of turbulence on the flow rate measurement accuracy of a 200 mm (8 inch) multipath ultrasonic meter (USM) was determined by testing the USM performance with varying levels of flow turbulence. The meter, a Daniel SeniorSonic, was tested as received, that is, with no calibration adjustment, along a straight section of pipe, 105 pipe diameters (D) in length, upstream of the meter inlet. Exposure to different turbulence profiles was achieved by placing a 19-tube bundle (19-TB) upstream of the meter inlet at distances of 2, 6, 11 and 26 D. Tests were done in high-pressure (4500-5000 kPaa) natural gas flows with pipe Reynolds numbers (Re) ranging from 1x106 to 14x106
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Document ID: B0688411

Reservoir Selection
Author(s): Joe Chan
Abstract/Introduction:
The identification, evaluation and testing of a reservoir, including preliminary engineering, environmental studies, and economic analysis, will take place over our 4 % year study period, which began in February 2011 and will conclude by September 30, 2015 Should the results of that testing and evaluation appear viable, and the appropriate approvals / funding is secured to move forward to construct a full CAES facility, it is anticipated such a facility would become commercially operational in 2021
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Document ID: 0E69C91E

Sunoco Logistics Control Center Training
Author(s): Linda Snider
Abstract/Introduction:
Short tests designed specifically for use with adults in personnel selection for a wide variety of jobs. SXL identified a need to test for basic skills. Arithmetic - ability to work quickly and accurately with numbers. Scales - ability to read scales, graphs, and charts quickly and accurately. Tables - ability to get information from tables quickly and accurately
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Document ID: F75B803A

A Risk Model For Excavation Damage Reduction
Author(s): Mike Gutirrez Tony Sileo
Abstract/Introduction:
Locate support staff implemented to assist when needed Tools of the trade Service cards Formans sketches Switch cabinet access when needed
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Document ID: 1E819003

May 2013 AGA Panel Rewards/Incentives To Strengthen Employee Safety Programs
Author(s): Jim Geromette
Abstract/Introduction:
DTE Gas serves over one million customers throughout the State of Michigan we have 27 locations throughout the state. We are both a Transmission/Storage and Gas Distribution Company. As well as an Electric Co. DTE Gas Co. employs approx. 1,500 employees, of those, close to 900 are represented union employees consisting of 4 different local unions that reside around the State. 3 locals participate in an incentive option, negotiated into their contracts. One local, the largest out of Detroit does not have an incentive clause in their contract. Over the last 10 years our OSHA/Incident rate has seen a steady decline, from a high of 6.34 in 2003 to a 1.86 in 2012. We consider 2007 our pivotal year in our efforts to bring the safety and well-being to the front line and we strive for heavy involvement from these groups plus a very strong presence from our President, all executive levels, to all station levels. All have the same level of commitment
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Document ID: 6B127952

Fleet Safety Benchmarking
Author(s): Jack Hanley
Abstract/Introduction:
eco3 economic cost of crashes economic cost of poor driving habits ecological cost to the environment Per NHTSA, average non-injury cost 16,300 Assume fleet of 1,000 vehicles, each driven 20,000 miles per year and 200 total bent metal collisions CPMM 200 X 1m/1k X 20k 10.0 Bent metal cost 3,260,000 per year
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Document ID: E3CF631B

Advances In Quality Methodologies For Plastic Pipes
Author(s): Karen Lively
Abstract/Introduction:
Extrusion Basics o Role of Process Controls o Integration of Extrusion Technologies o Integration of Measurement Technologies o Importance of Quality Systems
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Document ID: 55D68477

Pipeline Safety And Enhancement Plan
Author(s): Brian Frantz
Abstract/Introduction:
To provide integrated, company-wide environmental leadership, project support and compliance management services, as well as promoting environmental stewardship of PG&Es properties and associated natural resources
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Document ID: F5892F69

Trailer Loading Challenges And Considerations For Peak Shavers
Author(s): Kevin Markey
Abstract/Introduction:
Peak Shavers were built in the I960s, 70s and 80s to: - Supplement inefficient pipeline system - Handle unusual peak demands and severe weather conditions Most merchant plants in the US were built for other reasons such as helium and NGL extraction. LNG is a byproduct and therefore sold at below market values Only ALTs Topock Arizona, Clean Energys Boron, CA, Willis, Tx and Spectrum Energys Ehrenberg, Arizona are operated solely for the transportation grade LNG
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Document ID: 96D83326

Supporting Organizational Growth And Change
Author(s): Na
Abstract/Introduction:
Positioning Training and Operator Qualification efforts to enhance employees skills, ensure pipeline safety and compliance goals
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Document ID: B745C753

Evolution Of Recognition/Incentive Programs
Author(s): Jim Geromette
Abstract/Introduction:
DTE Gas serves over one million customers throughout the State of Michigan we have 27 locations throughout the state. We are both a Transmission/Storage and Gas Distribution Company. As well as an Electric Co. DTE Gas Co. employs approx. 1,500 employees, of those, close to 900 are represented union employees consisting of 4 different local unions that reside around the State. 3 locals participate in an incentive option, negotiated into their contracts. One local, the largest out of Detroit does not have an incentive clause in their contract. Over the last 10 years our OSHA/Incident rate has seen a steady decline, from a high of 6.34 in 2003 to a 1.86 in 2012. We consider 2007 our pivotal year in our efforts to bring the safety and well-being to the front line and we strive for heavy involvement from these groups plus a very strong presence from our President, all executive levels, to all station levels. All have the same level of commitment
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Document ID: 34D3E9DC

Human Factors
Author(s): Charles Alday
Abstract/Introduction:
simple way to define human factors is the interactions of: -People with machines and HMIs -People with people -People with procedures -People with their environment -People with equipment, including the most important button in the facility
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Document ID: 7151C6B2

Guidelines For Oversight Of Construction And Agas Commitment To Enhancing Safety
Author(s): Na
Abstract/Introduction:
Company founded in 1859 Operate in Oregon and SW Washington Serve approximately 681,000 residential, commercial and industrial customers Designed, constructed, own and operate 634 miles of transmission main, 13,000 miles of distribution main and 670,000 services Formal Construction Oversight Program- 2006 OQ for new construction tasks - 2005
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Document ID: 406B6B63

A Life Cycle Communication And Education Platform
Author(s): Gary White
Abstract/Introduction:
The key Business Risks associated with safety in pipeline operations may be mitigated through: Compliance and Conformance Program Sustainability Managing Congressional & PHMSA Confidence Building Stakeholder Confidence
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Document ID: B6B06649

Automatic Help For Gas Leak Response
Author(s): David Howell
Abstract/Introduction:
Describe Avista Utilities Discuss manual callout process Define Avistas solution Quantify benefits and results
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Document ID: 57AF1689

Gas Pipeline Construction Quality Improvement The Journey
Author(s): Carly Voigt Bill Blastic
Abstract/Introduction:
Share the practical experiences and lessons learned during the development and implementation of a Quality Program for the construction of natural gas facilities
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Document ID: 18C075ED

Construction Oversight For Transmission Pipelines, Distribution Mains And Services
Author(s): Torrence Hinton
Abstract/Introduction:
Business - Established in 1855 (acquired by Integrys Energy Group in 2007). - Regulated natural gas utility. - Operates in Illinois. - 1,183 employees. Market - Serves approximately 829,000 residential, commercial, and industrial retail sales and transportation customers in the city of Chicago. - Natural gas revenues are comprised of 100% retail sales. Facilities - Approximately 4,520 miles of natural gas distribution and transmission main (approximately 33% is cast iron main and 29% is plastic main) 11 natural gas distribution and transmission gate stations, and approximately 514,000 natural gas lateral services. - Owns and operates a 38.2 billion-cubic-foot underground natural gas storage reservoir (Manlove Field) and a 2.0 billion-cubic-foot liquefied natural gas plant in central Illinois. - Owns a natural gas pipeline system that runs from Manlove Field (located in central Illinois) to Chicago with 8 major interstate pipeline interconnects at various points
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Document ID: 2E361B43

Assessment Of Mdpe Pipes After Decades Of Service: Part 2 - Physical Properties
Author(s): Pamela L. Maeger
Abstract/Introduction:
Medium Density Polyethylene (MDPE) pipelines have been used in natural gas service in the US for over 40 years. The condition of the existing pipelines is critical to assessing existing infrastructure. This 2nd paper is a follow-up to one published at the spring 2012 AGA Operations Conference in San Francisco. This paper will review additional mechanical properties on pipes exhumed after decades of service
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Document ID: C87276BA

Hydrostatic Testing - Environmental & Project Planning
Author(s): Daniel Norden
Abstract/Introduction:
BGE Company Facts Setting the Stage - Aging Infrastructure, Strength Testing, Procedures Permit Requirements Hydrostatic Test Water Considerations/Options Recommendations
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Document ID: 46401AD2

American Gas Association Operations Conference & Biennial Exhibition
Author(s): John R. Hand
Abstract/Introduction:
Corporate Natural Gas Measurement and Natural Gas Quality responsibilities including SOPs, documentation, and technology approvals. Technical Expert for Spectra Energy for FERC Gas Quality tariff changes
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Document ID: BDA73E88

Hybrid Gas Ami Systems
Author(s): Brad Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
Alabama Gas Corporation is the largest natural gas distributor in Alabama, providing clean-burning, energy-efficient natural gas to approximately 425,000 homes, businesses and industries. With roots dating back more than 150 years, Alagasco has operating divisions in Anniston, Birmingham, Gadsden, Montgomery, Opelika, Selma and Tuscaloosa
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Document ID: 601F6738

LNG As A Transportation Fuel
Author(s): Alan D. Hatfield
Abstract/Introduction:
LNG vehicle fuel is one of the cleanest burning and least expensive alternative fuels available in the US market. Technical, commercial and marketplaces issues are presented to provide an up-to-date status of the natural gas vehicle fuel in 2013 as an alternative to traditional gasoline and diesel transportation fuel.
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Document ID: 7F9E9A11

Condition Based Monitoring - A Fully Automated Station Solution
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
During the past several years the use of ultrasonic meters (USMs) has gained worldwide acceptance for fiscal applications. The many benefits of USMs have been documented in papers at virtually every major conference. The significance of knowing the ultrasonic meter is operating accurately has never been more important. The use of diagnostics to help identify metering issues has been discussed in several papers at many conferences Ref 1, 2 & 3.
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Document ID: 8502698A

Reading Cp Data Remotely A New-Found Benefit Of Gas Ami
Author(s): Chris Ziolkowski
Abstract/Introduction:
The utility already owns the communication infrastructure Personnel are familiar with equipment and procedures There are no external monthly fees for communication AMR/AMI manufacturers are in tune with utility time scales Improve your understanding of system dynamics Free personnel from basic data gathering chores and target them where the problems are
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Document ID: FD12318C

Reading Cp Data Remotely A New-Found Benefit Of Gas Ami
Author(s): Chris Ziolkowski
Abstract/Introduction:
To provide some history of the AMR Enabled Sensors project sponsored by Operations Technology Development LLC. To give a brief description of an AMR enabled pressure monitor that was the first foray into this area. To provide a detailed description of an AMR enabled cathodic protection monitor developed by Itron and GTI. This presentation is as much about leveraging AMR/AMI communication as it is about CP monitoring
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Document ID: D7C93971

Central Valley Gas Storage
Author(s): Na
Abstract/Introduction:
Originally a Nicor Enerchange project to convert a depleted gas production field to a gas storage field In December 2011 Nicor, Inc. became a part of AGL Resources, a nationwide energy provider
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Document ID: DAA26BB0

Keyhole Technology
Author(s): Dennis Jarnecke
Abstract/Introduction:
Method of accessing or viewing underground utilities through small holes or keyholes Keyhole coring to excavate pavement and vacuum excavation to expose the utilities
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Document ID: 88C1CA20

National Grid Keyhole
Author(s): Dennis Ruppert
Abstract/Introduction:
Keyhole History Legacy Companies started independently 1994 - BUG started the effort 12x12 small holes 2005 - NiMo Started first replaceable cores 2006 - NGrid UK initiation 2007 - New York City - BUG Initiation 2008 - New England - Boston Gas Initiation 2012 - Long Island - Lilco Initiation
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Document ID: 8CAE1064

Methodology To Determine Design Life Of Assemblies Of Pe Gas Distribution Pipe, Heat Fusion Fittings, And Heat Fusion Joints
Author(s): Gene Palermo
Abstract/Introduction:
Improvements in the long-term performance of PE piping compounds have created interest in the use of higher operating pressures for gas distribution piping systems. In Canada, this has culminated in the approval of PE 100 pipe with a 2.0 design coefficient that results in an operating pressure of 145 psig for SDR 11 pipe In the US, the AGA has submitted a petition to PHMSA to increase the design factor to 0.40. When the 0.40 design factor is approved, SDR 11 PE 4710 pipe with an ASTM D 2837 HDB of 1600 psi can be operated up to 125 psig (calculated value is 128 psig, but DOT limit for PE is 125 psig) for gas applications in the US. It is clear from these initiatives that there is increasing interest in the safe operation of high performance PE 2708 and PE 4710 gas pipe systems at higher system operating pressures.
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Document ID: 82B67A57

LNG Powered Tractors, Refueling Stations And Industrial LNG Markets
Author(s): Darlene Batts
Abstract/Introduction:
Only LNG Dedicated Trucking Company in the United States Pioneered trucking of LNG over 44 years ago Over 400,000 loads of LNG Delivered Over 100,000,000 miles driven Largest LNG Trucking Company in the United States Over 60 LNG Trailers Approximately 40 Diesel Powered Tractors 10 LNG Powered Tractors Access to 18+ heated and ambient vaporizers Wholly Owned Subsidiary of National Grid
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Document ID: 82C9ECD1

AGA 2013 Operations Conference & Biennial Exhibition mPROVEI/IEITS To The Ecda Process Stray Currents And Severity Ranking
Author(s): Na
Abstract/Introduction:
Some of the findings to date: Can effectively and efficiently perform DCVG / ACVG and ACCA in presence of Stray Currents Requires Equipment Operator finesse Cannot effectively performed CIPS in presence of significant Stray Currents Best practice is to perform CIPS at Quiescent periods Utilize time based data loggers to monitor Stray Current Activity Can only use data logger data to compensate if the effects Stray Currents are linear across pipe span
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Document ID: 9DDC3721

Risk Abatement At Howell Storage Field Using Horizontal Well Technology
Author(s): Larry Jenkins
Abstract/Introduction:
The Howell Storage Field is operated by Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Company, a unit of Energy Transfer. The field is located in central Michigan, 70 miles northwest of Detroit. The field was discovered in 1946, depleted and converted to gas storage in 1961. At the time of conversion to storage, the town of Howell did not have a significant impact on the storage operation. This changed over time as the residential and commercial areas expanded to encompass much of the field. Several pictures of wellsites show the proximity of the field to the city
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Document ID: C277C373

External Corrosion Direct For Gas Distribution System
Author(s): Eric Bonner
Abstract/Introduction:
Depending on the identified risks, new/revised survey cycles may be justified-allowing the utility to re-deploy resources to higher priority needs as identified by risk management
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Document ID: C96CD256

External Corrosion Direct Assessm For Gas Distribution Systems
Author(s): Eric Bonner
Abstract/Introduction:
The following will detail a number of assessment methods that may be appropriate in determining the risks and the extent of external corrosion of gas piping
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Document ID: DC31434E

Effect Of Upstream Piping Configuration On Ultrasonic Meter Bias
Author(s): Jim Bowen Irvin Schwartzenburg
Abstract/Introduction:
With the approval of Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI), this paper is a summary of the PRCI project Meas-6-2 10603, titled Effect of Upstream Piping Configuration on Ultrasonic Meter Bias. This summary is based on the final project report published April 30, 2012. PRCI is a community of the worlds leading pipeline companies, and the vendors, service providers, equipment manufacturers, and other organizations supporting our industry. PRCIs Mission Statement is To be the global leader in collaborative energy pipeline research that provides safe, reliable, environmentally conscious and efficient means of delivery.
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Document ID: 3034EF11

Effectiveness Of Dual Rotor Turbine Meter Auto-Adjustment Feature
Author(s): John Geerligs Rob Mcbrien Jeff Crowe
Abstract/Introduction:
NOVA METering CONsortium (METCON) TransCanada Pipelines Ltd. Canadian Pipeline Accessories Co. Ltd. Kinder Morgan Inc. Southern California Gas Co. Spectra Energy FortisBC Energy Inc. Project management and execution by NOVA Chemicals Research and Technology (NRTC
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Document ID: 3FFDA7B3

Gas Remote Service Shutoff For Safety And Savings
Author(s): Kevin Shaw
Abstract/Introduction:
Move ins/out Soft offs in high transient areas Property change of possession/final bill Delinquent Customers/Customers in Arrears Commercial and Residential Unprecedented levels of customers in arrears Emergency Calls/Catastrophic Events Fire Gas Leaks/Nuisance calls Seismic Activity Hurricanes Tornados
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Document ID: C3674E39

Effectiveness Of Dual Rotor Turbine Meter Auto-Adjustment Feature
Author(s): John Geerligsrob Mcbrien Jeff Crowe
Abstract/Introduction:
Sensus Inc. model AAT-60 - Dual rotor 8- inch ANSI 600 auto-adjust meter Maximum pressure 10MPa Qmax - 1700 ACMH (60,000 ACFH) Qmin - 170 ACMH (6,000 ACFH) Main rotor calibration factor (Sensus) Kmech-main - 925.334 pulses/m3 (26,206 pulses/ft3) Accuracy
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Document ID: 7CA6364D

Effects Of Downstream Clean-Out Tees On Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Jeffry S. Snyder Frank Brown John R. Hand
Abstract/Introduction:
While attempting to achieve the 100 feet per second (fps) flow rate as requested, flow and pressure instability was experienced that TCC could not control. The pressure measured at the meter under test (MUT) was fluctuating by approximately 2 psi, very sporadically and the flow rate was fluctuating at approximately the same frequency. The indicated flow was too unstable to confidently calculate a reliable MUT deviation. TCC attempted to improve the dynamics of the flowing gas and isolate the source of the instability. The test facility gas supply piping configuration was changed several times, but the gas path changes did not improve the MUT instability situation. They increased the compressor discharge pressure approximately 30 psi and then lowered it 30 psi below the original operating pressure. Flow rate was reduced in steps, but the instability remained at the high flow rates. None of the facility configuration, flow or pressure changes produced stabile flow rates above 70 fps.
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Document ID: 4CDD6AAE

High-Pressure Plastic Piping System (PA12) Used To Extend Natural Gas System
Author(s): Kevin Degenstein Dennis Jarnecke
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past forty years, the natural gas distribution industry in the U.S. has made a remarkable transformation from a near-exclusive metallic distribution piping network to a near-exclusive thermoplastic piping distribution network. This transformation from metal to plastic has saved US natural gas utilities in excess of 10 Billion in installation and maintenance costs. The two primary savings
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Document ID: 4ABBBAA5

Enhancing Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Moisture Analyzers For Natural Gas And Petrochemical Applications By The Utilization Of Vacuum Pressure
Author(s): Ken Soleyn
Abstract/Introduction:
Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) is the fastest growing trace moisture measurement technology applied to natural gas and petrochemical processing. Natural gas feed stocks for liquefaction and liquid separation utilize cryogenic process that require complete dehydration of the gas to avoid ice formation in heat exchangers. In Petrochemical process such as catalytic reforming and ethylene production the concentration of water must be controlled to specific trace levels.
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Document ID: C31D5E44

Pipeline Yield Strength Determination And Statistical Sampling
Author(s): Daniel Ersoy Ernest Lever Alicia Farag Kristine Wiley
Abstract/Introduction:
Program Goals Phase 2 - Mini Full-Wall Specimens - Method and Design - Testing Results and Benefits - Implementation Phase 3 - Part I - Part 192 Method for SMYS Determination - Non-parametric and Prediction Intervals Phase 3 - Part II - Adaptive Geographic Sampling - Bayesian Analysis
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Document ID: 714FBA91

Evaluating Turbulence Profile Effect On Ultrasonic Meter Performance
Author(s): John Geerligs Rob Mcbrien Jeff Crowe
Abstract/Introduction:
Daniel SeniorSonic 8-inch (200mm) multipath ultrasonic meter. 4-path (crisscrossing in horizontal plane) Sch 40 bore 7.9803in (202.7mm) Flow range 1-100 ft/s (0.3-30 m/s) Accuracy 0.3% Repeatability 0.1% of reading
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Document ID: 878E0DAF

Effect Of Contamination On Ultrasonic Metering Accuracy
Author(s): Adam G. Hawley Terrence A. Grimley
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic meters are known to be affected by the buildup of material inside the meter and surrounding pipe and flow conditioners due to common pipeline contaminants. The buildup affects the metering accuracy by reducing the flow area sampled by the ultrasonic transducers and by changing the shape of the velocity profile through the creation of additional roughness elements on the pipe wall. Over the past several years, the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) has funded a number of projects related to the effect of contamination on measurement performance. This paper summarizes the various experimental studies that have isolated the effects of contamination on the upstream piping and flow conditioner and on the meter. Testing with commercially-available multipath ultrasonic flow meters has revealed that meter path-velocity ratios are an effective diagnostic of material buildup in various locations and that cleaning efforts should focus on ensuring the cleanliness of the meter
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Document ID: 603184EA

Practical Implementation Of New LNG Facility Siting Requirements
Author(s): Na
Abstract/Introduction:
Those who are considering the construction of new LNG facilities or making significant alterations to existing LNG facilities that are covered under the scope of 49 CFR 193 must comply with the siting requirements described therein, which includes the calculation of flammable vapor dispersion exclusion zones and demonstrating the required level of control of activities within those exclusion zones
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Document ID: AC63E994

Development Of A Meter Station Design Tool
Author(s): Terry Grimley Tammy Zepeda
Abstract/Introduction:
The Pipeline Research Council International, Inc. sponsored the development of a software tool to aid in the design of single- and multi-run meter stations that include either linear or differential meters. This paper describes the current capabilities of this tool and potential plans for extending it
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Document ID: 6658DBFF

High-Btu Landfill Gas - Trace Constituents Composition And Comparison To Natural Gas
Author(s): Karen Crippen Kristine Wiley
Abstract/Introduction:
Not-for-profit research, organization with a 70 year history Facilities - 18 acre campus near Chicago - 200,000 ft2, 28 specialized labs - Other sites in DC, CA, Bfel MA, PA, and Alabama staff of 250 - 170 scientists, engineers, and technicians, covering many different disciplines
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Document ID: 8DB25825

Odor Fade Research At Gti
Author(s): Karen Crippen
Abstract/Introduction:
Not-forofiBsearc organization with a 70 year history Facilities - 18 acre campus near Chicago - 200,000 ft2, 28 specialized labs - Other sites in DC, CA, Bfel MA, PA, and Alabama staff of 250 - 170 scientists, engineers, and technicians, covering many different disciplines
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Document ID: 1B995DBE

Managing Aldyl Pe Pipe In The Avista Natural Gas Distribution System
Author(s): Gene Palermo Kris Busko
Abstract/Introduction:
First resin that DuPont used for gas pipe was Delrin polyacetal Due to brittle nature of polyacetal, DuPont co-extruded polyethylene on the outer layer, using their Alathon PE material DuPont took the Del from Delrin and Al from Alathon to arrive at the trade name Aldel, then later to Aldyl This was changed to Aldyl A when only PE layer was used for gas pipe
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Document ID: 114104DC

Orifice Plate Meter Response To Wet Gas Flows
Author(s): Richard Steven, Josh Kinney
Abstract/Introduction:
The research and development of multiphase wet gas flow meters for natural gas flows with entrained hydrocarbon liquid (HCL) and water is important to industry. However, the performance of single phase flow meters, such as orifice plate meters, with multiphase wet gas flows is also of importance. Nevertheless, in recent years research into orifice meter wet gas flow response has been relatively underplayed. There are several reasons why orifice meter response to multiphase flow is important
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Document ID: B611A3AC

Building Interoperability Through Open Source
Author(s): John Faulkner
Abstract/Introduction:
Noun : Interoperability - The ability to exchange and use information (usually in a large heterogeneous network made up of several local area networks) - Device integration to allow comprehensive data acquisition and integration enabling real-time decision support, safety interlocks, and closed loop control
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Document ID: 068A38EC

Advancing The Value Proposition For Natural Gas
Author(s): Pam Lacey
Abstract/Introduction:
Reality: Natural gas provides good value for the environment. 2. Myths & Perception - competing claims 3. How is AGA helping to demonstrate reality - low emission rates & value of natural gas? a. Measure and Estimate more accurately EPA Inventory Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rules Field testing - EDF & GTI projects b. Reduce emissions- replace infrastructure & capture methane for market
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Document ID: A170E012

Large Coriolis Meters And The Applicability Of Water Calibrations For Gas Service
Author(s): Tonya Wyatt Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
In the late 1970s, the first Coriolis mass flow meter was introduced. By the early 1980s, the use of Coriolis meters gained popularity for liquid applications, but few were used for gas applications. In the 1990s major design enhancements were made to the technology improving its usability in gas applications. Driven by the need for a standard industry practice to guide its use in gas applications, the American Gas Association (AGA) published the first edition of AGA Report Number 11, Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis Meter in 2003. Today, with an installed population of over 100,000 Coriolis meters in gas applications and the 2013 publication of the second edition of AGA Report No. 11 (see Figure 1), many users are applying Coriolis meters in gas custody transfer applications.
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Document ID: A5611C46

Latest Revision Of ANSI/API 14.3/AGA Report No. 3 - Part 1
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
Periodically, natural gas measurement standards are created or revised. In the period of 2004 through 2013 many industry gas measurement standards were revised and/or created. It is the intent of this paper to discuss the revisions to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) /American Petroleum Institute (API) MPMS Chapter 14 Section 3 / American Gas Association (AGA) Report Nos. 3 and in particular Part 1 of the fourth edition printed in September 2012.
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Document ID: 6FDFB918

Case Study Ac And Dc Interference Mitigation And Monitoring For An Urban Natural Gas Pipeline
Author(s): Dale Lindemuth
Abstract/Introduction:
AVOID CUTTING YOURSELF WHEN SLICING VEGETABLES BY GETTING SOMEONE ELSE TO HOLD THE VEGETABLES WHILE YOU CHOP. 2. FOR THE GUYS, AVOID ARGUMENTS WITH THE GIRLS ABOUT LIFTING THE TOILET SEAT BY USING THE SINK. 3. FOR HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SUFFERERS SIMPLY CUT YOURSELF AND BLEED FOR A FEW MINUTES, THUS REDUCING THE PRESSURE ON YOUR VEINS. REMEMBER TO USE A TIMER. 4. A MOUSE TRAP PLACED ON TOP OF YOUR ALARM CLOCK WILL PREVENT YOU FROM ROLLING OVER AND GOING BACK TO SLEEP AFTER YOU HIT THE SNOOZE BUTTON. 5. IF YOU HAVE A BAD COUGH, TAKE A LARGE DOSE OF LAXATIVES. THEN YOULL BE AFRAID TO COUGH.
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Document ID: 3DD9AD55

An Import LNG Terminals Experience With LNG Weathering And Unloading A Cargo Of Fresh LNG Into Weathered LNG
Author(s): Steve Miller,
Abstract/Introduction:
the Unites States, for the last several years, a relatively abundant supply and low prices have characterized natural gas markets. This has led to low demand for imported LNG and LNG import facilities have optimized operating cost by minimizing boil off gas and preserving LNG inventory. The purpose of this paper is to share the experience of one LNG import terminal with LNG weathering to the point of minimal methane remaining in the terminals LNG and then successfully unloading an LNG cargo into the weathered LNG.
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Document ID: 3D1FB1D0

Maop Documents How Complete Is Complete
Author(s): Chris Yowell Daniel Meredith Biz Scott
Abstract/Introduction:
Administration (PHMSA) to Require Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline Operators: - Review and report the method used to determine Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) - Report miles for which records required to validate MAOP are complete or incomplete New Recordkeeping Requirement for Existing Facilities, Many of Which are Decades Old Requirement to Potentially Produce More Than One Record to Verify Each Pipeline Component Attribute Leads to Need for Records Which Were Not Routinely Retained There is a Potential for Inspections and Enforcement Action Based on the Reports Filed for CY2012
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Document ID: 0A8BA517

The Use Of Mini-Directional Drilling Methods For Pe Gas Pipe
Author(s): Heath Castee
Abstract/Introduction:
Shorter design time (fewer permits) Fewer traffic/ business disruptions Less road bed disturbance Less installation time than open cut Reduces environmental concerns (wetlands, rivers, industrial sites) Project cost savings to utility district or pipeline owner
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Document ID: F886F915

Keyhole Core Strategy Saves Millions Per Year In Construction & Maintenance Costs
Author(s): Marshall Pollock
Abstract/Introduction:
Huge Political and Environmental Advantages Reduced Work Zone Delay and Disruption: no jackhammers noise and dust - 30 minutes to gain strength - no additional road closings - permanent repair - no repaying Reduced Pavement Damage: precise cut, no pavement breakers or backhoes to damage rest of pavement or crack the concrete -- no potholes - longer pavement life Reduced Impact on Environment: Reduce Reuse Recycle, saves resources, no disposal, reduced carbon footprint Aesthetically More Pleasing Result: Fewer citizen complaints
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Document ID: BA8FC3B9

Air Compliance For Natural Gas Engines, Turbines, Boilers And More, Oh My
Author(s): Jennifer L. Kaminsky
Abstract/Introduction:
Who do you think you are? - Equipment and Activity Inventory Overview of existing equipment and activities Emissions Calculations - Criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO2, PM, VOC) - Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) - Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) - Accuracy of Information Review emission rates, calculations, conversions, equipment and other operations with personnel on a regular basis (at least annually
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Document ID: 50D3D246

Safety Concepts
Author(s): Jewell Currie
Abstract/Introduction:
Infrastructure projects now - 2017 to: Renew and modernize our grid Meet new environmental standards Add clean, renewable energy to our fleet Electric: Rebuild 2,000 miles of electric distribution lines and replace 18,500 power poles, 20,000 transformers and hundreds of substation components Natural gas: Replace 1,250 miles of fiberglass, plastic and steel natural gas mains, 83,000 individual natural gas istribution lines and 233,000 meter sets
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Document ID: EC6E9941

Integrity Management Of Service Assets
Author(s): Saadat Khan
Abstract/Introduction:
National Grid Service Territory Gas Customers by Company Location Leak Repairs Integrity Issues US Gas Incidents, PHMSA (1970-2009) Material Failures Steel (Un-protected & Protected) Plastic Copper Meter Sets Failures Services in Flood Zones Storm Impact Discussion
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Document ID: B932137E

Methodology To Determine Design Life Of Assemblies Of Pe Gas Distribution Pipe, Heat Fusion Fittings, And Heat Fusion Joints
Author(s): Gene Palermo
Abstract/Introduction:
Improvements in the long-term performance of PE piping compounds have created interest in the use of higher operating pressures for gas distribution piping systems. The current edition of the Canadian Oil and Gas Code - CSA Z662-11 allows use of a 0.45 design factor for PE compounds with very high resistance to slow crack growth and rapid crack propagation, and also allows the use of PE 100 with a design coefficient of 2.0
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Document ID: 13AE4627

Nysearch Range: Novel Interchangeability Method Based On In-Service Appliance Performance
Author(s): Rosemarie Halchuk, Charles Benson, Daphne Dzurko, Robert D. Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
The NYSEARCH RANGE (Range of Acceptability for Natural Gas Equipment) model is a novel interchangeability assessment tool that predicts the performance characteristics of an inservice residential appliance population when new or changing gas supplies are distributed. The tool is superior in approach and broader in scope than previous models in which the basis for assessment was well-adjusted burners in a laboratory setting
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Document ID: 6E8FE26E

PG&Es Vision For Gas Control
Author(s): Mel Christopher
Abstract/Introduction:
30 diameter gas pipeline ruptured near San Francisco, CA Injuries, loss of life, and property damage 60 to 90 minutes to shut off the gas NTSB Gas Control Recommends (Sep, 2010 to Aug, 2011) PG&E Gas Control Actions Revise your work clearance procedures to include requirements for identifying the likelihood and consequence of failure associated with the planned work and for developing contingency plans. Establish a comprehensive emergency response procedure for responding to large-scale emergencies on transmission lines. Equip your SCADA system with tools to assist in recognizing and pinpointing the location of leaks, including line breaks such tools could include a real-time leak detection system and appropriately spaced flow and pressure transmitters along covered transmission lines
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Document ID: 5A88A4B9

Managing Fatigue
Author(s): Charles Alday Michele Terranova Ali Gibson
Abstract/Introduction:
What is a FRMS? - Refining & Petrochemical A data-driven, risk-informed, safety I performance-based system. The FRMS implementation process first identifies all sources of fatigue risk in the business operation, then introduces mitigating policies, f technologies, and procedures to reduce the risk, and most importantly then maintains them in a proactively-managed continuous improvement system
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Document ID: 93BD27F5

Stormwater Management Implementing Best Management Practices In The Field
Author(s): Thomas Jansen
Abstract/Introduction:
Designer/CSTs - Completing Erosion Control Plans, Permitting Expediting Clerks - Screening for Environmental Constraints, Packaging Permits Construction/Field Staff - Installing Erosion Control Devices, Inspecting Customer Service Supervisors - Answering Customer Questions
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Document ID: 4B368E0C

Plastic Piping Data Collection Initiative Plastic Piping Database Committee
Author(s): Kate Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
The Plastic Piping Database Committee (PPDC) was formed to create, maintain and review a voluntary database of in-service plastic leaks or failures
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Document ID: 078078BA

Control Room Management Inspections
Author(s): Alicia Gibson
Abstract/Introduction:
Preparing for and facilitating a smooth inspection. Provide an understanding of the experience and processes we, Pipeline Performance Group, use to ensure a successful Control Room Management Plan inspection
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Document ID: A4953C7D

Practical Solution For Ultrasonic Flow Measurement In High CO2 Natural Gas Applications
Author(s): Marcel Vermeulen Jan Drenthen, Hilko Den Hollander, Paula Lanoux
Abstract/Introduction:
Having it over the past decade established as one of the preferred measurements for high pressure natural gas, the application range of ultrasonic flow meters is also shifting towards the more difficult applications. One type of these applications is natural gas with a high content of carbon dioxide (CO2). The concentration of CO2 varies considerably over the various reservoirs. A few examples of this are shown in table 1.
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Document ID: C5B57E49

Enhancing Gas Pipeline Safety
Author(s): Sumeet Singh Robert Brook
Abstract/Introduction:
Incorporated in California in 1905 One of the largest combined natural gas and electric utilities in the United States Serves approximately 15 million people throughout a 70,000- square-mile service area 5,800 miles of DOT classified gas transmission pipeline 42,000 miles of gas distribution pipeline 4.3 million natural gas customer accounts Deliver 970 BCF/year
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Document ID: 4CB31AC0

The Use Of Process Management As A Quality Approach To Integrity
Author(s): Landon Haack
Abstract/Introduction:
July 2011 - PHMSA Form 21 for Public Awareness asks if the operator has a process to evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of the program August 2011 - PHMSA released ANPRM (76-FR-5308) stating An integrity management program is a documented set of policies, processes, and procedures that are implemented to ensure the integrity of a pipeline. June 2012 - PHMSA released the Integrity Management Question Set to be used during a TIMP inspection. Questions are focused towards written plan and process implementation (documentation of records) December 2012 - PHMSA released DIMP Enforcement Guidance to be used during a DIMP inspection focusing on the processes implemented by the operator December 2012 - PHMSA released Advisory Bulletin PHMSA-2012-0279 Using Meaningful Metrics in Conducting Integrity Management Program Evaluations reminding operators of their responsibilities to perform evaluations using meaningful performance metrics
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Document ID: 7AE81294

Promigas Calibration Facility. An Interesting Prospect In South America To Perform Gas Flow Meter Calibrations
Author(s): Johan Arenas Bustamante
Abstract/Introduction:
GENERAL OVERVIEW. General Issues. Principle of Operation. Process Flow Diagram. Infrastructure. Control Architecture. PCF PERFORMACE. Metrological Traceability. Proficiency Test Results. Best Calibration Measurement Capacity Indirect Comparison. International Comparison. A Business Agreement in Progress. SUMMARY. Summary. PCF Video (English Version
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Document ID: 4F0AFE38

Implementing A Pipeline Integrity Management System
Author(s): Benjamin Allen Markus Brors
Abstract/Introduction:
Facts about DOLPHIN ENERGY: Established 1999 by Abu Dhabi Government Production started in 2007 Processing in Qatar and transportation to UAE and Oman Ca. 780 km (480 miles) onshore transmission and 540 km offshore network Main product is Natural Gas
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Document ID: AAE7AE97

Hydrostatic Pressure Spike Testing Of Pipelines - Why And When?
Author(s): M.J. Rosenfeld
Abstract/Introduction:
Following its investigation of the San Bruno pipeline accident, the NTSB recommended hydrostatic pressure tests be performed using the spike test format. The California Public Utility Commission has specified that pressure tests performed in conjunction with integrity validation work utilize the pressure spike format. This paper reviews the difference between the pressure spike test and conventional pressure tests, the technical basis for the pressure spike test, what constitutes an effective pressure spike test, limitations of the spike test, regulatory recognition of spike testing, and under what circumstances the pressure spike test is or is not of value
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Document ID: F393CFEE

Testing Of An 8-PATH Ultrasonic Meter To International Standards With And Without Flow Conditioning
Author(s): Gregor J Brown, William R Freund, Alastair Mclachlan
Abstract/Introduction:
Multipath ultrasonic meters were first developed for gas custody transfer applications in the mid to late 1980s. The technology offered significant benefits over traditional orifice metering in terms of increased rangeability and reductions in pressure loss, upstream straight length requirements and routine maintenance. It was also hoped that based on measurement on meter geometry and correction for non-fluid time delays in the signals, determined during factory bench testing, it would be possible to use ultrasonic meters without flow calibration, in the same way that orifice meters are still used today.
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Document ID: BBDA768E

Material Tracking And Traceability
Author(s): Greg Goble
Abstract/Introduction:
Material tracking & traceability at suitable levels allows for: Quality Improvements by finding root cause of quality variations Efficient replacement procedures Improves Safety by quickly identifying and removing the risk. Reduces potential recall expenses. Documentation and visibility for regulatory reporting purposes
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Document ID: EB6B2032

Superstorm Sandy Lessons Learned
Author(s): Na
Abstract/Introduction:
Superstorm Sandy was the largest Atlantic Ocean hurricane on record Spanned 1,000 miles Second-costliest storm in the nations history Landfall near Atlantic City Monday October 29, 8:00 pm Maximum wind gusts Surf City 89 mph Sandy Hook 81 mph Storm surge measured 13.3 feet at Sandy Hook just before gauges were knocked out estimated to be much higher Created three breaches (ocean to bay) on the barrier island
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Document ID: 6BE400AA

Slam Shut Valves Used In Distribution Systems In European And North American Applications
Author(s): John R. Anderson Aurelien Tissot
Abstract/Introduction:
European Overpressure Protection (OPP) Regulations Station Design - Europe North American Overpressure Protection Regulations Station Design - North America Overview of Slamshuts Summary
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Document ID: 62481CAC

LNG Line Blockages, Causes, Preventions And Cures
Author(s): Roger m. Haley
Abstract/Introduction:
Brief overview of Newports liquefaction process Brief historical perspective on plugged lines at NWN Historical method of clearing a blocked LNG line How to determine where the plug is A faster, cheaper, easier method of clearing a blockage, what I like to call the Haley method. Theory as to why the Haley method works Discussion of how a blockage can occur Methods of preventing a blockage from occurring Whats happened lately
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Document ID: 6D09EC82

Using Synerge Customer Btu
Author(s): Glenn Carlson
Abstract/Introduction:
Daily BTU calculation Use actual daily BTU chromatograph values Residential, Commercial average for billing period Industrial AMR, therms calculated daily
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Document ID: 0CA7AF24

Trends And Considerations For Gas AMR/AMI Networks
Author(s): Joe Turgeon
Abstract/Introduction:
Single ping reads most commonly one read per month Single consumption values Walk-up/Drive by reads Meter to Collection Device one-way communication Focus on meter reading & data collection Configurable time interval based reads (e.g. 15-min vs. 60-min) Multiple consumption values Fixed network for more frequent access to data Metering end points to utility two-way communication Focus on management & monitoring
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Document ID: 7788E3BE

Natural Gas Industry-Jfc, ommentSsonPCB Anprm
Author(s): John P. Woodyard
Abstract/Introduction:
2010 Adva Status aS Continuing oticeorProposed Rulemaking (ANPRM) d Subsequent EPA Communications k EPA Region 5 LDC and Transmission PCB tions ource Redefinition Transportation Manifesting Rule isposal of 50 ppm PCB Remediation Waste MPCA PCB Fact Sheet for Natural Gas Systems EPA Ship-Scrapping Guidance Non-Liquid PCB Management and Standards
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Document ID: EDF4BA92

Testing Of An Orifice Plate Meter Diagnostic System At The Atmos Energy Corp. Training Center
Author(s): Dr. Richard Steven, Allen Chandler, Gerry Pickens, Kevin Brown, . Bruce Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
DP Diagnostics created a comprehensive orifice meter diagnostic system concept. Swinton Technology has developed software to allow this concept to operate on commercial meters. This technology has been laboratory and field tested, and is in commercial use. This DP meter diagnostic system, called Prognosis, has had its theory, test data & field trials well documented. In 2011 ATMOS Energy Corp. opened a large, 12.9 million, hydrocarbon production equipment training center in Plano, Texas, called the Charles K. Vaughan Center (See Fig. 1). This state of the art training center includes a replica of a neighborhood with natural gas meters, pipelines and furnaces for employees to practice working on. It also includes a lecture theatre and a large flow lab
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Document ID: 5ACD4DA1


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