Measurement Library

North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop Publications (2013)

Using Multiphase Meters For Fiscal Purposes - A Field Experience
Author(s): Bjarne Syre Ole Andersen Steinar Fosse
Abstract/Introduction:
During the last decade there has been a trend that more and more marginal fields have been put into production. Typical characteristics for these fields are that the economy does not defend a standalone development. These fields require an existing installation that can act as a host. Normally, modifications to the host installation are required. Both weight limitations and economic issues will be normative for the chosen design
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Document ID: 42264D6F

Flow Disturbance Cone Meter Testing
Author(s): Gordon Stobie Richard Steven Kim Lewis Bob Peebles
Abstract/Introduction:
The cone meter is a generic Differential Pressure (DP) meter design. It operates according to the same physical principles as other DP meters, such as orifice, nozzle and Venturi meters etc. A cone meter is shown in Fig 1, with a cut away to reveal the DP producing cone primary element
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Document ID: 943D8C87

Performance Improvement Of Large Installation Base Of Wellhead Venturi Wet Gas Measurement In Petroleum Development Oman Pdo()
Author(s): Abdullah Al Obaidani Khalil Al Hanashi Hamed Al Hadhrami Dawood Al Sulaimani
Abstract/Introduction:
Wellhead wet gas metering using venturi meter with over-reading correction is widely used in many gas fields including gas fields operated by Petroleum Development Oman (PDO). A large installed base of more than 300 venturi based wet gas meters delivering real time data of flow rates of gas, condensate and water are used to determine produced volumes in these gas fields and carry out well and reservoir management activities. Managing the performance of these devices require thorough understanding of fluid flow rates, composition, correction algorithm parameters and final data transfer across different systems in the data loop. With continuous changes in flow rates and process conditions, focused efforts are necessary to maintain adequate performance of these devices. Within PDO, different personnel have different role in contributing to achieving the required performance from these devices, integrated efforts and processes in capturing and updating changes are required
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Document ID: A8F53BE8

The Application Of Clamp-On Ultrasonic Flowmeters In Production Monitoring
Author(s): Theo Warmenhoven Bernhard Funck Peter Liptrot
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic technologies find many applications in measurement. Transit time techniques find favour in flow measurement and are used in a variety of flowmeters. The performance of these flowmeters is now well understood, and tests of their performance in challenging applications such as wet gas have produced useful results. Gas flow measurement offshore is typically carried out at an export metering point with well allocation according to calculation. Upstream conditions often combine the challenges of very thick-walled pipes in exotic materials with wet gas at relatively low pressures. In the last few years non-invasive (clamp-on) ultrasonic flowmeters have been installed on individual well flowlines in gas production systems on 2 offshore installations operated by GDF SUEZ E&P Nederland B.V. Reconciliation with facility sales gas metering is used to validate the wellhead measurements
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Document ID: 1F74EDC0

Accuracy And Long-Term Stability Of Ultrasonic Gas Meters At Varying Operating Pressures And Different Liquid Loadings - Field Experience
Author(s): Alexander Jakschik Jrg Wenzel Theo Warmenhoven Dr. Volker Herrmann
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry again underwent growth of almost 2 % in 2012 (world gas production see Figure 1). The environmental advantages of gas and rising energy demands worldwide in recent years will keep this trend ongoing. This will also result in an increase in the onshore and offshore exploration of gas fields around the world. The offshore ambient environment and technological economic circumstances, in particular
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Document ID: C7AA5CD1

Dynamic Testing
Author(s): Raymond J. Kalivoda Jim H. Smith Nicole L. Gailey
Abstract/Introduction:
Dynamic factory testing is an important step in the manufacturing of ultrasonic meters for custody transfer and other high accuracy petroleum applications. By utilizing a multiple product, high accuracy test system and a proper test program, a meters performance can be simulated over a wide flow and viscosity operating range. The test results give the user a detailed graph of the meters performance over the actual site operating parameters. The test verifies the meters performance prior to shipment but more importantly provides K-Factor sensitivity to optimize measurement accuracy throughout the operating range. This paper outlines the theoretical basis and fundamentals of dynamic testing
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Document ID: DDE79541

Sampling: What The Standards Dont Tell You
Author(s): Mark A. Jiskoot
Abstract/Introduction:
International standards are developed to form a basis for trust in the uncertainty of measurement, they can be normative and informative, and they demand conformance to performance criteria. Unfortunately there remain areas of design easy to misinterpret that can significantly influence the overall uncertainty of the measurement. This has gained the attention of measurement engineers, the standards committees and some research investment to further improve knowledge. The commercial value of the uncertainties caused by poor sampling has never been more evident originally developed in the 1980s the API, IP/EI and ISO standards are under review. The philosophy and techniques for sampling hydrocarbons needs to change to correlate poorly understood best practices developed between users and vendors with practical reality
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Document ID: 7CCB8A9C

The Emperors New Clothes? - Oil With Water Flow Metering
Author(s): T. Cousins R. Steven, Damon Myer C. Hodges
Abstract/Introduction:
Oil with water production flows is a significant problem to the hydrocarbon production industry.
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Document ID: 15252A5E

North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop
Author(s): Tore Mortensen Henning Kolbjrnsen
Abstract/Introduction:
dynamic mass measurements performed onsite. The comparison consists of observing the difference in indicated and measured LNG mass from several measurement systems. Measurement systems belong in one of the two categories: 1) Static mass measuring system by the use of a scale (truck weighbridge) and 2) Dynamic mass measuring system (coriolis mass flow (CMF) meter). A LNG road tanker is utilized to transfer the mass of LNG between the two categories of measurement systems
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Document ID: C18130D7

Assessment Of LNG Sampling Systems And Recommendations
Author(s): Asaad Kenbar
Abstract/Introduction:
The work described in this paper is part of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) project for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) which is jointly funded by the European Commission and participating countries within Euramet and the European Union. The objective of this project is to improve the uncertainty associated with the calculation of LNG energy transfer by developing new techniques and methods. This will be achieved by looking at the complete LNG custody transfer process including volume and composition measurements along with density and gross calorific value calculations. Detailed description of all work packages is found in the project website 1. The work described in this paper falls under Work Package 3 of the project
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Document ID: 27E21B9E

Experiences With Samplers On Cold Liquids
Author(s): Ole-John Melkevik
Abstract/Introduction:
This abstract will tell Karst Gas Processing Plant experiences with samplers on cold products starting from 1984 up to 2013. It will start with the first grab samplers where one did not have any back pressured cylinder. The sample of Propane did vaporize as soon as it entered the sample line. The result was no level in the sample can
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Document ID: 01ECE6E8

Performance Of Subsea Multiphase Meters And Topside Test Separator During Well Testing, After Skarv Field Start-Up
Author(s): Barbara m. Wrobel1, Andrew Hall Lukasz H. Wrobel1 Bp Norge
Abstract/Introduction:
Since start-up of the Skarv field in December 2012, subsea multiphase flow meters (MPFMs), and a topside test separator have been routinely used for well testing of both oil and gas-condensate wells. There are five MPFMs installed on Skarv, with three installed on the oil-producing templates and two on the gas-condensate producing templates. There are two production headers on each template and one test header where the MPFM is located. Flow is directed either to the test or to the first stage separator through one of two risers. Figure 1 shows schematically the options for routing flow from the oil and gas-condensate wells, either through multiphase meters or directly to the test or first stage separators
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Document ID: B0189C8A

Multiphase Meter Capable Of Detecting Scale On The Pipe Wall And Correcting Flow Rate Measurements
Author(s): Arnstein Wee ystein Fossa Vidar Rune Midttveit
Abstract/Introduction:
Scaling and wax deposits of oilfield equipment represent a major issue in oil and gas production as the decreased cross-sectional area leads to reduced fluid flow and hence reduced productivity. The deposits may further damage instruments or in best case lead to reduced functionality and increased measurent uncertainty. MPM has developed and patented a method for both scale detection inside the multiphase meter and measurement of the scale thickness. The method further encompasses corrections to be performed, in order for the MPM meter to provide reliable flow rate measurements even with significant amounts of scale on the pipe wall
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Document ID: 1AACED2A

Magnetic Resonance Technology A New Concept For Multiphase Flow Measurement
Author(s): Jankees Hogendoorn Andre Boer Matthias Appel Hilko De Jong Rick De Leeuw
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes a magnetic resonance based multiphase flow meter. During the last decades, magnetic resonance technology has enabled many industrial applications. One of the most well-known developments can be found in medical imaging. High resolution, three dimensional body scans can provide crucial information for medical diagnosis with many innovations being published every year. Another important field of application is the oil and gas industry. For many years, magnetic resonance based logging tools have been successfully used for detailed formation evaluation1. A scan of the vicinity of the bore hole provides important information about the reservoir rock structure and saturation condition with pore fluids, which is very important for oil production optimization.
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Document ID: D98B951A

Flow Swirl And Flow Profile Measurement In Multiphase Flow
Author(s): Anusha Rammohan1, Aditya Bhakta1, Vinay Natrajan1, John Ward2, Manoj Kumar
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate multiphase flow measurement hinges on the ability to measure flow parameters such as component phase fractions and velocities with high accuracy. Since, the fractions and velocities are not always uniformly distributed in the measurement cross section, any measurement systems inability to account for spatial variations can result in a high degree of uncertainty in the estimated flow rate. This paper describes a method using an impedance based measurement system using which the profiles of phase fraction and velocity for a vertical pipe downstream of a blind tee can be measured and characterized. Using the same measurement, a modified cross correlation technique provides the vertical and horizontal components of the velocity in a swirling flow. This velocity information along with the phase fraction profile characterizes the flow profile completely. In addition to this analysis, the potential effect of swirl on differential pressure measurements is addressed briefly
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Document ID: EC9D9C74

Uncertainty Analysis Of Multiphase Flow Meters Used For Allocation Measurements: Field Experiences And Future Challenges
Author(s): Kjetil Folger Eivind Lyng Soldal Jan Kocbach Kjell-Eivind Frysa Kare Kleppe Eirik bro
Abstract/Introduction:
Multiphase flow meters (MPFMs) in combination with reference measurements in test separators are increasingly used for fiscal allocation purposes. This development is typically seen in fields which are developed as subsea production systems where unprocessed multiphase flows are transported to process platforms through pipelines. Statoil has experience from ownership allocation using multiphase meters from a number of different fields. CMR has performed uncertainty analyses for several Statoil operated fields Alve, Morvin, Tyrihans, Visund Sr, Hyme and Skuld
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Document ID: A26F0B52

Uncertainty Analysis Based On Historical Data
Author(s): Calum Hardie,
Abstract/Introduction:
Uncertainty analyses are essential to determine whether measurement systems are capable of meeting performance targets. They are also used to help develop maintenance and calibration schedules. When developing uncertainty budgets for new measurement systems however it is difficult to obtain reliable data to provide evidence. In many cases manufacturers estimates of uncertainty are used along with engineering judgement. These techniques are permitted in guidance documents such as the Guide to the expression of Uncertainty of measurement (GUM)1 and ISO 5168: 20033. To improve the analysis over time these uncertainty budgets should be updated with real data from calibrations and verifications of the measurement system. This data can also be used to improve maintenance and calibration schedules
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Document ID: A6F12E09

Challenges With Salinity Measurements In Multiphase Flow Metering
Author(s): Anton Gryzlov, Erik Undheim, Ebbe Nyfors, Lyndall Jordaan, Stine Jger Alvr, Elin Steinsland
Abstract/Introduction:
In situ measurement of multiphase flow over a wide range of flow conditions is not a trivial task and imposes various challenges for multiphase meters. Although the metering technology has evolved over the last decade, there is a potential for improvement in certain areas. Experience shows that one of the main sources of uncertainty for multiphase meters is insufficient/incorrect knowledge of fluid properties: such as density, viscosity and permittivity. In multiphase meters based on the measurement of flow permittivity, the measurements are especially affected by changes in the salinity of the water phase. This is due to the strong relationship between the water permittivity and the conductivity and hence the salinity of the water. The measurements are predominantly affected by this dependence in water continuous flow
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Document ID: F3663603

Allocation & Fiscal Allocation Applications: A Comparison Of Current North Sea Practice With Recently Issued Guidelines And Regulations
Author(s): Bruno Pinguet, Michael Smith Eivind Vethe
Abstract/Introduction:
Multiphase and wet gas flowmeter measurement devices have been deployed in the North Sea and elsewhere for around 20 years. From the early days it has been known that, to work properly, these devices need information about the produced fluids. To enable conversion from line conditions to standard conditions, all multiphase and wet gas flow meters require inputs such as permittivity, conductivity, and density of each of the phases, plus PVT models
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Document ID: 75145643

Allocation In An Uncertain World: Maximising The Use Of Data With Uba On Global Producer III
Author(s): Neil Corbett, Juliet Johnston, Robert Sibbald, Phillip Stockton, Allan Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the application of non-linear Uncertainty Based Allocation (UBA) to allocate oil and gas between the Dumbarton and Lochranza fields produced across Maersks Global Producer III (GPIII) FPSO (Floating Production Storage and Offloading). All Lochranza wells production is measured continuously using individual subsea multiphase flow meters (MPFMs). However, Dumbarton wells production is only available from estimates derived from subsea multiphase well tests. Hence the uncertainty in Lochranzas production is significantly better than Dumbartons. However, rising water cuts and the increasing presence of gas lift started to produce relatively high uncertainties in calculated oil and produced gas respectively for all MPFM measurements
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Document ID: A92F7BBA

Challenges On Using Subsea Wet Gas Meters For Gas And Condensate Allocation Between The Wells At Sleipner Vest Field
Author(s): Tarun Grover Knut Kr Meisingset Oystein Tesaker Siv Kari Lien Solfrid Loken Tonstad Terje Kristian Wilberg
Abstract/Introduction:
Sleipner Vest field constitutes two different reservoirs, Sleipner Beta and Alfa Nord. Sleipner Beta field is drained by platform wells while Alfa Nord wells are subsea tie-back to the processing platform. The field is operated by Statoil. This paper highlights the problems related to using subsea wet gas meters for gas and condensate allocation between the wells at Sleipner Vest Field. The objectives of this study were to identify the sources of wrong gas/condensate allocation on Sleipner Vest field and to suggest a robust solution to reallocate gas/condensate correctly.
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Document ID: 0F33BBAF

Flow Measurement Of High Viscosity Fluids
Author(s): Chris Mills, Craig Marshall, Andy Kay, Marc Macdonald
Abstract/Introduction:
The vast majority of the worlds remaining oil reserves are categorised as heavy / unconventional oils (high viscosity). Due to diminishing conventional oil reserves and the need to secure future energy supplies to a rising world population, the exploitation of unconventional oils will increase. As the development of these viscous deposits grows, so too will the requirement for accurate flow measurement of heavy crude oils and other viscous products. Unfortunately, the performance of conventional flowmeters when applied to viscous fluids1 remains relatively poorly known. However, a number of technical challenges are immediately identifiable. These include the higher viscous friction of the fluid being metered, the possibility of extreme or varying velocity profiles, and the increased susceptibility of viscous liquids to entrain secondary components such as solids or gas
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Document ID: E7159784

Qualification Of Fiscal Liquid Ultrasonic Meter For Operation On Extended Viscosity Range
Author(s): yvind Nesse Tore Bratten
Abstract/Introduction:
Statoil is developing the Mariner and Bressay fields which are heavy oil discoveries in the UK sector of the North Sea. The Mariner project includes one platform called the PDQ with process, drilling and living quarters and one ship called the FSU with oil storage, oil export and diluent import. A jack-up drill rig will be temporary connected to the PDQ. The oil production is dependent on continuous injection of a diluent - a light oil from other offshore fields - in each production well. The diluent will be imported in batches from shuttle tankers to the permanently installed floating storage units (FSU). Heavy crude oil shall be exported from the same storage unit. The diluent import and the heavy crude export shall be fiscally metered by a common batch metering station. The metering station must handle low viscosity diluent and various high viscosity diluted crude oil qualities. The resultant liquid flows will represent turbulent flow, transition flow and laminar flow through the ultrasonic flow meters
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Document ID: 887FF6CE

A New Measurement Program For Voc Emission During Offshore Oil Tanking Of Shuttle Tankers
Author(s): Kjell-Eivind Frysa Stian H. Stavland
Abstract/Introduction:
When shuttle tankers are loaded with oil from offshore installations, the atmosphere originally present in the empty cargo tanks will be evacuated as the oil is filled. The evacuated gas contains VOC-gas originally in the tanks prior to filling and VOC-gas that is evaporated from the loaded oil. A considerable effort has been made in reducing the possibility for such evacuated VOC-gas to be emitted to atmosphere. This has resulted in several technologies implemented for VOC treatments on the ships. Such active VOC treatment technologies include condensation and separation in order to retrieve the VOC-gas, and passive systems for reducing the amount of VOC-evaporation from the filled oil (KVOC). In the Norwegian sector about 20 ships are used. Each ship is equipped with a VOC treatment system. The selected system varies from ship to ship
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Document ID: 11C3445D


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