Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (2013)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Fundamentals Of Fluidic Oscillation Measurement Alternative To Rotary Meter Measurement
Author(s): Richard C. Dewar
Abstract/Introduction:
The scientific community has known about fluidic oscillation as a measurement technology for many years. Continuing advances in technology make this type of metering a compelling alternative to mechanical gas meters. This paper will discuss fundamentals of operation, as well as features and benefits of this technology for the user. Based on Bernoullis Theory - A slow moving high pressure gas becomes fast moving low pressure gas at the nozzle exit forming a jet of gas. The jet, once formed can be controlled by the Coanda effect using an obstacle in the flow that is designed to optimize the performance of the meter
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Document ID: 1FF84073

Fundamentals Of Coriolis Meters AGA Report No. 11
Author(s): Stan Calame
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early 1980s, Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in gas, liquid, and slurry applications with an installed base of more than one million units. Through significant design, enhancements in the early 1990s Coriolis meters have rapidly gained worldwide acceptance in gas phase applications with over 100,000 meters installed worldwide and most notably the publication of the second edition of AGA Report Number 11, Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis Meter
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Document ID: A78E13FE

Fundamentals Of Pressure Relief Valves
Author(s): Ken Ludvigsen
Abstract/Introduction:
Overpressure protective devices are of vital concern to the gas industry. Safety codes and current laws require their installation each time a pressure reducing station is installed that supplies gas from any system to another system with a lower maximum allowable operating pressure. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of various types of pressure relief valves, understand how they operate and how to size and select these devices so that overpressure protection is provided
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Document ID: CAB4AC66

Fundamentals Of Pressure And Temperature Measurement
Author(s): Jeff Goetzman
Abstract/Introduction:
The correct measuring of Pressure and Temperature is one of the most important elements in the accurate measurement of Natural Gas. The basic principles were established many years ago by two men, Robert Boyle an Anglo Irish philosopher, chemist, and physicist and Jacques Charles, a French Inventor, scientist and mathematician
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Document ID: 4F38E0C7

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Don Sextro Dan Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of natural gas liquids (NGL) is similar in many respects to that of other hydrocarbon liquids but is markedly different in other aspects. The main difference in NGL measurement is the need to properly address the effects of solution mixing. Measuring NGL by mass measurement techniques will properly address solution mixing effects because the mass measurement process is not sensitive to the effect that pressure, temperature and solution mixing have on the fluid measured
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Document ID: 44232B9B

Fundamentals Of Liquid Turbine Meters
Author(s): Tony Petitto
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine meters have been used for the custody transfer of refined petroleum products and light crude oils for over 40 years. When correctly applied, they offer high accuracy and long service life over a wide range of products and operating conditions. Traditionally turbine metes were used for the measurement of low viscosity liquids and PD meters for higher viscosities. However, new developments in turbine meter technology are pushing these application limits while increasing reliability and accuracy
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Document ID: B176AEDA

Fundamentals Of Coriolis Meters
Author(s): Marsha Yon
Abstract/Introduction:
The first flow meter utilizing the Coriolis force to measure mass flow was patented in 1978. Today, hundreds of thousands of Coriolis meters are in service in the hydrocarbon industry to measure mass, volume, and density of a wide variety of fluids. The American Petroleum Institute published Chapter 5.6 entitled Measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbons by Coriolis Meters in October 2002 and reaffirmed the standard in 2013. The standard describes methods to achieve custody transfer levels of accuracy when a Coriolis meter is used to measure liquid hydrocarbons
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Document ID: 0F0A6A38

Small Volume Captive Displacement Provers For Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): Alex Ignatian
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas Liquid service was among the first applications for CDP or Captive Displacement Provers. CDPs formerly called SVPs or Small Volume Provers are used widely in natural gas liquid services. This paper will be focusing on operation and history of CDPS and thier advantages over the conventional type of Provers
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Document ID: F86D5B0D

Fundamentals Of Ngl Sampling Systems
Author(s): Dominic Giametta Jim Klentzman
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to discuss in depth the systems we use as a standard to sample natural gas liquids, or NGLs. Before we discuss the systems and methods used to sample these products, we must first clearly define what NGLs are. NGLs can be a combination of any fluid in liquid form that is taken from the pipeline under pressure. Typically, NGL refers mainly to ethane, propane, butanes, and natural gasolines (pentanes) & condensates. Because of the broad range of products that can be claimed as NGLs, there are many different approaches to the methods by which we sample them. The common thread among all NGLs is that these products in order to be maintained and properly sampled, require the use of specific sampling techniques unique to light liquid and NGL sampling
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Document ID: F542318F

Verification / Calibration Of Devices Used In Static Liquid Measurements
Author(s): Robert Maze
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of verifying or calibrating liquid measurement devices is to ensure the accuracy of quantities being reported. With millions of dollars at stake, fractions of an inch or tenths of a degree Fahrenheit can make quite an impact to bottom line. At its most basic, the static (as opposed to dynamic, the use of meters) quantity determination of liquid hydrocarbons is generally obtained by measuring the depth of the liquid in a storage tank and obtaining a representative temperature. Through the use of volume tables and volume expansion factors the quantity at a standard temperature can be stated
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Document ID: 8FD30BAA

Operational Experience With Densitometers And Pycnometers
Author(s): Paul Mullen
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss pycnometers used to calibrate densitometers. In using a pycnometer, you must have the correct scales, pressure gauges and thermometers. You will learn the steps necessary to install, operate and calibrate the instrument. The use of Densitometers is wide spread over many different industries. These range from food & beverage industries to petro-chemical & pipeline transmission.
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Document ID: C0929AC5

Fundamental Overview Of An Ngl Meter Station Design
Author(s): Tony Lockard
Abstract/Introduction:
In this paper I will attempt to give a fundamental overview of an NGL meter station design however, it is not a straight forward, one size fits all scenario. There are multiple considerations that influence the meter station design and all must be taken into account. Major considerations are: what product or products will be measured, what meter technology to utilize, and the process design limitations
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Document ID: 9F8430CE

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): David Courtney
Abstract/Introduction:
The history of orifice metering began in the early 1900s. The first test data was done by the U.S. Geological Survey and in 1913 the first Handbook of Natural Gas was published. So as you can tell, orifice metering has been around for over 100 years and in that time much has been learned and improved on. Orifice metering flow equations have been derived from test data where an orifice plate, a plate with a hole in the middle of it, was placed in the flow line causing a restriction in flow
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Document ID: A5019CEA

Fundamentals Of Gas Laws
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters
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Document ID: D9C99577

Multipath Ultrasonic Meters For Custody Transfer Of Natural Gas
Author(s): James W. Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past 20 years, gas ultrasonic meters have transitioned from the engineering lab to wide commercial use as the primary device of choice to measure gas volume for fiscal accounting. Wide acceptance and use by gas pipeline companies has occurred during this time due to the devices
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Document ID: 9E2CFE14

Fundamentals Of Pressure Regulators
Author(s): Na
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry, there are two basic types of regulators used for both pressure reducing and back pressure (relief) control. The two types are: 1.) Self Operated Type 2.) Pilot Operated Type The primary purpose of this paper is to discuss the basic principle of Self Operated and Pilot Operated Regulators including components of the system, principles of operation, advantages and disadvantages, and some maintenance and inspection procedures
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Document ID: 264D8592

Fundamental Principles Of Diaphragm Displacement Meters
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the U.S., The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat rate basis. Its growth was slow with the charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority. By comparison, the New York Gas Light Company, founded in 1823, prospered and expanded. They had built their system on the use of gas meters to measure the supply of gas to customers, and a large one to register the quantity made at the station before it is conveyed to the gasometers
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Document ID: 16DFE393

Fundamental Principles Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement in the U.S. and around the world is dominated by diaphragm, rotary, turbine, and orifice meters. Each serves a different segment of the gas industry and each has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. These four main types of meters can be broken into two distinct categories: positive displacement, and inferential. Diaphragm and rotary meters fall into the positive displacement group because they have well-defined measurement compartments that alternately fill and empty as the meter rotates. By knowing the volume displaced in each meter revolution and by applying the proper gear ratio, the meter will read directly in cubic feet or cubic meters.
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Document ID: 4A756BD3

Fundamentals Of Energy Determination
Author(s): J. David Hailey
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents fundamental information necessary to understand and appreciate the concept of total gas energy in a natural gas pipeline. That is, to be able to converse with peers within the natural gas industry and understand basic concepts and terminology. Discussed is the historical transition from volumetric measurement to total gas energy including some of the basic terminology, physics, measurement, as well as the reasons for changes in methodologies. Included is industry acceptance of new concepts and regulations involving custody transfer as well as the instrumentation and systems involved in traditional and newer, more progressive forms of gas measurement
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Document ID: A848E0AA

Characteristics Of Rotary Meter Performance
Author(s): Kevin Beaver
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper highlights several rotary meter performance characteristics. These characteristics profile a rotary meters capabilities in a wide array of applications from production to transmission, and distribution. Most of the characteristics have minimum standards adopted by agencies like AGA or ASTM. I will identify these standards, and incorporate them-where applicable-into my paper. In discussing these characteristics, I hope to give the reader a better understanding of the capabilities of rotary meters, and how the gas industry assesses these characteristics. Here are the performance characteristics I will discuss
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Document ID: 4F5BF84E

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Chemistry
Author(s): Steve Whitman
Abstract/Introduction:
order to understand the chemistry of natural gas, it is important to be familiar with some basic concepts of general chemistry. Here are some definitions you should know: Matter - anything that has mass and occupies space. Energy - the capacity to do work or transfer heat. Elements - substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical changes. There are approximately 112 known elements. Examples: carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. Atom - the smallest unit in which an element can exist. Atoms are composed of electrons, protons, and neutrons. Compounds - pure substances consisting of two or more different elements in a fixed ratio. Examples: water and methane. Molecule - the smallest unit in which a compound can exist or the normal form in which an element exists. Example: One molecule of water consist of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. One molecule of nitrogen consist of two atoms of nitrogen. Mixture - combination of two or more pure substances in which each substance maintains its own composition and properties. Examples: natural gas, gasoline, and air
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Document ID: 856C4EA7

Fundamentals Of Electronic Flow Meter Design, Application & Implementation
Author(s): Jim Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic flow measurement as applied to the natural gas industry has advanced considerably over the last 30 years. Applications to address Upstream, Midstream and Downstream gas measurement technologies have become more complex. Over time it has become necessary to understand the fundaments that make up this ever changing environment. This paper will discuss the important fundamental parameters to consider when designing an Electronic Flow Measurement (EFM) system. Please be aware of the many variances to each specific design and understand this is only a fundamental paper to give new gas industry members a first look at the technologies that are required when considering an EFM design
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Document ID: 5DC7E038

Clamp-On Ultrasonic Flow Meter Operation And Application
Author(s): William E. Frasier
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is directed to ultrasonic natural gas meters using transit time across the gas pipe as the measurement variable. Custody transfer meters using sensors wetted with gas are the more familiar meter format. Clamp-on meters are quite similar
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Document ID: CE65D27D

Fundamental Principles Of Rotary Displacement Meters
Author(s): Cristina Alfonso
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classifications of gas meters. The first consists of inferential type meters, including, orifice, ultra-sonic and turbine meters, and the second is the positive displacement meters, which consist of diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferential type meters are so-called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas flow and calculating the volume based on the measurements. The positive displacement type meters are so-called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them
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Document ID: F2EA0B6C

LNG Supply Chain & Custody Transfer Measurement In The U.S.
Author(s): Na
Abstract/Introduction:
500 BTU/CF Manufactured Coal Gas was being Utilized in Europe and especially UK in the early to mid-1800s ?Manufactured Coal Gas was being Utilized in Major US Cities by the Civil War as Numerous Municipal Gas Lighting and then Heavy Industrial Applications. ?Natural Gas Transmission arrived in NE in the early 1950s. ?Complete Appliance Conversion was Required because of the new 1000 BTU/CF Fuel. ?Propane Air was quickly identified as a peak shaving Fuel. ?LNG and NY/PA Midstream Gas Storage was Developed in Parallel
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Document ID: 2A21252A

Auditing Gas Laboritories
Author(s): Joe Landes
Abstract/Introduction:
The data produced by Gas Chromatograph (GC) laboratories is used for many purposes, including product specification, accounting, safety and environmental compliance issues. The accuracy of this data has direct impact on all of these areas. Auditing laboratories responsible for producing this data is prudent business practice. The audit will provide a means of process improvement, through proper identification of deficiencies and a precise plan for corrective action. The level of confidence in analytical results will increase when the appropriate corrective actions are implemented
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Document ID: CCBA27E6

An Overview Of The AGA Gas Quality Management Manual
Author(s): Terrence A. Grimley
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides an overview of the recently completed Gas Quality Management Manual 1 that has been in development by the American Gas Association Transmission Measurement Committee for the past seven years. The manual pulls together a wide range of information and provides context that allows both the expert and the novice to understand the why, how and what needed to develop a plan for managing gas quality
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Document ID: A7B2ECC8

Verifying Gas Chromatographs At Custody Transfer Locations
Author(s): Shane Hale
Abstract/Introduction:
Verifying the correct operation and accuracy of the Gas Chromatograph (GC) is an integral part of a custody transfer metering system, and involves ensuring the accuracy of the analyzer at the time of testing, as well as confirming that the GC performed properly during the periods between validations and assessing the likelihood of continued proper functioning until the next validation. Because the GC will be offline during much of a validation procedure, the validation should only be performed at a time when the composition of the gas flowing through the metering station is relatively stable.
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Document ID: 11522127

Effects Of Wet Gas Flow On Gas Orifice Plate Meters
Author(s): Josh Kinney Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice plate meters are one of the most widely used technologies in industry for gas flow metering. This is due to their relative simplicity, the extensive publicly available data sets that led to several orifice plate meter standards 1, 2, 3, 4 and the fact that they are a relatively inexpensive method of gas metering. However, it is common in industry for gas meters to be installed in applications where the flows are actually wet gas flows, i.e. flows where there is some liquid entrainment in a predominantly gas flow. This is usually done out of economic necessity or due to the fact that the system designers were not aware at the systems conceptual design stage that the gas flow would have entrained liquid. Therefore, with the orifice plate meter being such a popular gas flow meter it is by default the most common wet gas flow meter
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Document ID: 3E8FA28C

Accurate Measurement Of Hydrocarbon Dewpoint In Natural Gas Streams
Author(s): Sohrab Zarrabian Mahmood Moshfeghian
Abstract/Introduction:
Extraction of natural gas from shale formations has increased the focus on determining the quality of the gas extracted and processed. One of the key attributes of natural gas during its various stages of processing is its Hydrocarbon Dewpoint. This figure refers to the temperature at which the gas stream undergoes a phase transition to liquid at a given pressure. The knowledge of this figure is essential in the operation of natural gas pipelines, storage, as well as gas-powered turbines
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Document ID: FDB4005B

Production Equipment Effects On Orifice Measurement
Author(s): Stormy Phillips
Abstract/Introduction:
The condition of gas as it presents itself in the pipeline is often not ideal for accurate measurement, by an orifice flow meter. It is the requirement of the American Gas Association (AGA) that the natural gas be in a single phase and with a swirl-free fully developed profile as it passes across the orifice plate to meet the standard of measurement to provide acceptable uncertainty for the flow calculation. Thus it is often necessary to condition the gas prior to measurement. Using the basic laws of gases we can control these conditions by altering the temperature, pressure, or component makeup of the gas. Neglecting these conditions will create a poor measurement environment and inaccurate measurement. It is therefore necessary for measurement personnel to be familiar with common production equipment, how that equipment is utilized and what effect it can have on the overall ability for a system to provide accurate measurement
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Document ID: 5D8770E3

Determination Of Hydrogen Sulfide And Total Sulfur In Natural Gas
Author(s): David Haydt Robert Hornberger
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur bearing compounds exist naturally in many natural gas fields throughout the world. It is generally necessary to remove these sulfur bearing compounds from the gas in order to preserve public safety, reduce corrosion in pipelines, meet contractual agreements and to control odor in the gas. Thus the determination of hydrogen sulfide and total sulfur in natural gas is critical to the natural gas industry
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Document ID: 56217EB8

Advances In Natural Gas Sampling Technology
Author(s): Donald Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
The monetary value of natural gas is based on its energy content and volume. The energy content and physical constants utilized in determining its volume are computed from analysis. Therefore correct assessment of the value of natural gas is dependent to a large extent on overall analytical accuracy. The largest source of analytical error in natural gas is distortion of the composition during sampling. Sampling clean, dry natural gas, which is well above its Hydrocarbon Dew Point (HCDP) temperature is a relatively simple task. However, sampling natural gas that is at, near, or below its HCDP temperature is challenging. For these reasons, much attention is being focused on proper methods for sampling natural gas which have a high HCDP temperature
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Document ID: 875C1B26

Lessons Learned From The API Mpms, Chapter 14.1 Gas Sampling Research Project
Author(s): Darin L. George Eric Kelner
Abstract/Introduction:
Between 1999 and 2005, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), the American Petroleum Institute (API), the United States Minerals Management Service (MMS), and the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) co-sponsored an extensive natural gas sampling research program at the Metering Research Facility (MRF), located at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The results of this research provided a basis for the most recent revisions to the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) Chapter 14.1, Collecting and Handling of Natural Gas Samples for Custody Transfer. The research supported revisions that produced both the 5th edition of the standard, published in 2001, and the 6th edition, published in February 2006.
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Document ID: 5E8E5FD1

Devices For Field Determination Of Water Vapor In Natural Gas
Author(s): Betsy Murphy
Abstract/Introduction:
Water vapor in natural gas has more than a substantial effect on the quality of the gas stream. Without quality measurement of water vapor the gas is basically not saleable. Contracts are written around it and companies spend a considerable amount of time researching the type of device to be used for a particular application. This paper will attempt to discuss the types of devices used for the measurement of water vapor in natural gas streams.
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Document ID: 4ACF6843

Considerations For Sampling Wet, High Pressure, And Supercritical Natural Gas
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux Shannon m. Bromley
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the problems encountered when sampling wet, high pressure and supercritical natural gas for on-line BTU analysis, and provides solutions and comments on how they relate to the API and GPA industry standards for natural gas sampling. It also discusses the use of phase diagrams in the design and operation of a natural gas sampling system
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Document ID: FA8126D4

Use Of Equations Of State And Equation Of State Software Packages
Author(s): Adam G. Hawley Darin L. George
Abstract/Introduction:
Determination of fluid properties and phase conditions of hydrocarbon mixtures is critical for accurate hydrocarbon measurement, representative sampling, and overall pipeline operation. Fluid properties such as compressibility and density are critical for flow measurement and determination of the hydrocarbon due point is important to verify that heavier hydrocarbons will not condense out of a gas mixture in changing process conditions
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Document ID: 8138F3B1

Principals Of Odorization
Author(s): Kenneth S. Parrott
Abstract/Introduction:
In the one hundred and thirty years, or so that we have known natural gas as a fuel source in the United States, the demand for natural gas has grown at an astounding rate. There is virtually no area of North America that doesnt have natural gas provided as an energy source. The methods of producing, transporting, measuring, and delivering this valuable resource have advanced, and improved in direct relation to the demand for a clean burning and efficient fuel. While todays economic climate determines the rate of growth the gas industry enjoys, in a broad sense, natural gas is certainly considered essential and a fuel of the future.
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Document ID: B0230677

Calibration Standard Gases
Author(s): Gina Mastrantoni
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays natural gas industry, it is imperative that the standards used to calibrate are made to the utmost quality. Calibration standards are mixtures of known concentrations of components used to confirm or determine concentrations in samples. Calibration standards are needed for quality assurance/quality control, measurement and balance, quantitative sample analysis, and custody transfer. Preparation, blending, and final analysis are all crucial factors which will determine the integrity of the calibration standard. Several guidelines, such as ISO, GPA, and API must be followed in order to produce a calibration
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Document ID: 04C9440E

Operations Of Online Gas Chromatographs
Author(s): Shane Hale
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas chromatograph (GC) is an integral component of the natural gas custody metering station and has a large impact on the accuracy of the fiscal flow calculation. For this reason it is imperative that you install, operate and maintain the GC with the goal of maximum reliability and accuracy
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Document ID: 8D97C5AA

Techniques Of Gas Composite Sampling
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to be able to take a representative sample of a hydrocarbon product is necessary to ensure proper accounting for transactions and efficient product processing. The various sampling methods that are available and the options and limitations of these methods are investigated the most appropriate equipment to use the reasons for its use and correct installation of the equipment are also addressed
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Document ID: BC4449E6

Determining Proper Odorization Levels
Author(s): Paul D. Wehnert
Abstract/Introduction:
Over 300 people died in an explosion on March 18, 1937 in a New London, Texas public school building. The natural gas that was being delivered to the school building was not odorized. At that time the natural gas was odorless, and there wasnt a law on record to mandate Odorization. As a direct result of this incident the United State Government passed a law that the chemical Mercaptan be put into natural gas to give it an identifying smell
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Document ID: ED6D23C3

Techniques For Natural Gas Spot Sampling
Author(s): Matt Parrott
Abstract/Introduction:
The monetary value of natural gas it determined not only by volume, but also by its quality (heating value). Natural Gas is made up of numerous constituents each with different qualities. Consider metals: Should a pound of gold be considered of equal worth as a pound of copper? If a box of mixed metals is to be sold, wouldnt it be wise for the buyer and seller to understand the mix? This is the nature of the energy industry. Typically the energy potential of a gas is expressed in British Thermal Units (BTU), or the amount of energy required to heat one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit. BTU value is usually determined by separating and measuring the various constituents of a gas in a technique called Chromatography.
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Document ID: A6DEAF93

D.O.T. Requirements For The Transportation Of Sample Cylinders
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The United States Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) is a department of the U.S. Federal Government which oversees all issues regarding transportation within the United States of America and U.S. Territories. Its influence around the world is great and widely respected, but its jurisdiction and power of enforcement is limited to the USA and its territories. As regards this paper, we will discuss the D.O.T. and its involvement surrounding sample cylinders for the hydrocarbon industry and the rules regarding the movement of these cylinders from point to point in the United States
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Document ID: 7282631B

Ami For Gas Utilities
Author(s): David Anglin
Abstract/Introduction:
There was once a time when you could get a car in any coloras long as it was black. They had frames, running boards and 15 horsepower engines. Who could ever need more? Just like the auto industry has adapted from this original approach to meet the demands of consumers, regulators and shareholders, the gas industry must do the same. Automated meter reading - also known as AMR or AMI - provides that opportunity. This paper will compare and contrast AMR and AMI for gas utilities and provide important areas for gas utilities to consider when adopting or upgrading wireless meter technology
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Document ID: DD3E5203

Overview Of AGA 7 Revision
Author(s): Angela Floyd
Abstract/Introduction:
Just when you thought you knew everything there was to know about Turbine meter measurement, wham, out comes a revised AGA 7 standard. Now those basic principles are all still valid but maybe those operating practices we have built into our operating procedures need a little review. Rather than proceed as generations have done before us, research has been completed on the meters, their installation and operating practices and the way we calibrate and field test them. So now we have some data to back up our methods and madness
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Document ID: D556D7B8

Field Testing By Transfer Proving
Author(s): Larry K. Wunderlich
Abstract/Introduction:
Transfer proving was initially developed to provide an easier and more accurate field meter proving method. Because of the capacity capabilities of transfer provers (2000 CFH to 80,000 CFH) transfer provers are utilized in meter shops where bell prover capacity is limited and allow for shop testing of the larger capacity meters
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Document ID: C20EA109

Ultrasonic Meters For Residential And Commercial Applications
Author(s): Paul Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
An ultrasonic meter falls into the classification of inferential meters. Unlike positive displacement meters that capture volume to totalize volume, inferential meters measure flowing gas velocity to totalize volume. Orifice meters use pressure drop to measure velocity to infer volume and turbine meters use the speed of the rotor to measure velocity to infer volume, while ultrasonic meters use sound waves to measure flowing gas velocity to infer volume. Ultrasonic meters have been around for many years in primarily liquid measurement. However, their application in the measurement of natural gas is relatively new, and has become more commercialized over the last decade
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Document ID: 3BF1F3DF

Meter Selection For Various Load Requirements
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to provide meter station designers with a basic methodology for selection of an appropriate flow meter (or meters) for a given application. Since many applications require that a meter station operate over a broad range of flow rates or loads, an example is provided on how to address system rangeability while maintaining accurate flow measurement. Detailed technical descriptions of the functionality of the various available gas metering technologies is beyond the scope of this paper, but information of that type can be found in other papers in these Proceedings.
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Document ID: 1F162263

Unaccounted Gas Study In Distribution Networks
Author(s): Jay Shiflet
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Gas Distribution business Unaccounted Gas is referred to by various names or terms such as: Lost and Unaccounted-For, LUG, L&U, and UAF. In simplest terms, Unaccounted Gas is the result of the formula gas receipts minus gas deliveries. For the Measurement Group the process amounts to a gas inventory reconciliation based on the recorded volumes into the system(s) less the sum of the volumes out of the system(s). This can be a town by town or a total-system reconciliation
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Document ID: E28FF736

Differential Meters Other Than Orifice
Author(s): Kenneth Reed
Abstract/Introduction:
Cone Meters differ from other differential pressure type meters, such as Orifice Meters and Venturi Meters, basically by design only. They are all required to meet API Chapter 22.2 test criteria developed and published in 2005 and still being updated today. The Cone Meter is designed to measure liquid or gas. Cone Meters are proprietary in design and have limited third party testing due to patented designs and length of use in the Industry. The Orifice Meter is the oldest meter of the three that we will discuss and has the most third party flow lab test data available. The Venturi Meter history has mostly been utilized for liquids and steam
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Document ID: FA6C41F2

Coping With Changing Flow Requirements At Exsisting Metering Stations
Author(s): James m. Doyle
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays competitive gas market, utility companies must meet aggressive market strategies or suffer the consequences. All industries have cash registers, and gas distribution is no exception. Our measuring stations are our cash register. The problem is, these stations were designed 10, 20, 30 or even 50 years ago, and are now performing tasks they were not designed for. Therefore, changes must be made
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Document ID: 96CA6E23

Alternate Method Of Electrical Generation For Meter Stations
Author(s): Brian L. Lund
Abstract/Introduction:
Wind is a form of solar energy. According to The Wind Energy Development Programmatic EIS Information Center, Winds are caused by the uneven heating of the atmosphere by the sun, the irregularities of the earths surface, and rotation of the earth. Wind flow patterns are modified by the earths terrain, bodies of water, and vegetative cover. This wind flow, or motion energy, when harvested by modern wind turbines, can be used to generate electricity. The terms wind energy or wind power describe the process by which the wind is used to generate mechanical power or electricity. Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical power. This mechanical power can be used for specific tasks (such as grinding grain or pumping water) or a generator can convert this mechanical power into electricity to power homes, businesses, schools, and the like.1
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Document ID: 8ADE931D

Methods For Certifying Measurement Equipment
Author(s): Scott A. Crone
Abstract/Introduction:
Like any other piece of equipment, a measurement artifact must be maintained. Obviously, it has to be in working order in general. However, what is more important is that it be operating within specified parameters and providing measurements that are traceable to a known source or sources. This paper provides a general overview of calibration and certification. It also discusses some key terminology and methods.
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Document ID: 76B4BEB5

Transient Lightning Protection For Electronic Measurement Devices
Author(s): Leon Black
Abstract/Introduction:
We have all heard of or seen the devastating effects of a direct lightning burst. Communication equipment destroyed. Transmitters and EFM devices vaporized into slag metal. Complete process and measurement systems down with extended recovery times. These effects are the most dramatic and the easiest to trace. However, these kinds of events are rare. The more prominent events are those that occur on a day-to-day basis without we, the user, even knowing. With the advent of the transistor and today when surface mount electronics is the norm and not the exception, transient suppression has become a science of necessity. Tight tolerances of voltage requirements and limited current carrying capabilities makes the new compact integrated circuits much more susceptible to many types of transients.
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Document ID: 6A17F1C6

Verification / Calibration Of Devices Used In Static Liquid Measurements
Author(s): Robert Maze
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of verifying or calibrating liquid measurement devices is to ensure the accuracy of quantities being reported. With millions of dollars at stake, fractions of an inch or tenths of a degree Fahrenheit can make quite an impact to bottom line. At its most basic, the static (as opposed to dynamic, the use of meters) quantity determination of liquid hydrocarbons is generally obtained by measuring the depth of the liquid in a storage tank and obtaining a representative temperature. Through the use of volume tables and volume expansion factors the quantity at a standard temperature can be stated.
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Document ID: 9EA9E0BF

Auditing Liquid Measurement Facilities
Author(s): Galen Cotton
Abstract/Introduction:
The word Auditing is often used to imply that activities related to a review of general business practices, and procedures for an asset or business unit, are under way. The objective of those activities is to assure compliance with corporate policies and procedures, industry and government standards, and sound management principles. Additional objectives may include review of accounting and financial transactions for accuracy, completeness and timeliness. The Institute of Internal Auditing defines the process as: Internal
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Document ID: 2BD75C5F

Applied Ngl Metering Station Design
Author(s): Roger Thornton
Abstract/Introduction:
A liquid measurement station can be as simple as a single meter run allocation measurement or as complex as a multi meter run station with a multi-tasking control system. Regardless of complexity the measurement quality is no better than the quality of the system design. Utilizing a state of the art meter technology will not yield any better results than allowed by the system design. Liquid measurement stations are found in all areas of the hydrocarbon industry from oil production to custody transfer to refining. A heavy emphasis is placed on the accurate measurement of product in each area of the industry. For this reason the design of a measurement system deserves a high degree of focus
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Document ID: D201F1E4

How To Perform A Lost & Unaccounted-For Gas Program
Author(s): John Mcdaniel
Abstract/Introduction:
Many (likely most) gas pipeline companies struggle with lost-and-unaccounted-for-gas (L&U) and it can be a significant cost to their bottom line as shown below. As shown in this inset, by reducing L&U from 0.6 percent to .25 percent, a typical company with a 2 BCF daily throughput could save Over 10 million dollars annually based on 4.00 gas prices, which is a daily loss of 28,000
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Document ID: 6BF1CD09

Flow Meter Installation Effects
Author(s): Eric Kelner
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter station piping installation configuration is one of a number of effects that may adversely affect meter accuracy. Some piping configurations can distort the flow stream and produce flow measurement bias errors (i.e., offsets in the meter output) of up to several percent of reading. Valves, elbows, or tees placed upstream of a flow meter are just some of the piping elements that can distort the flow stream. In this paper, installation effects are discussed with respect to two of the four main components of a flow measurement system: the meter, or primary element, and the secondary (pressure and temperature) instrumentation. The effect of the velocity profile of the flow stream on orifice, ultrasonic, and turbine flow meters is discussed next. Installation conditions that may adversely impact the accuracy of pressure and temperature measurements are discussed after that. The gas chromatograph and the flow computer, the third and fourth components, are treated in separate courses
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Document ID: 7624BEA2

An Overview Of Industry Standards Related To Natural Gas Measurement
Author(s): Barry Balzer
Abstract/Introduction:
Merriam-Webster dictionary defines standard as: 1) a conspicuous object (as a banner) formerly carried at the top of a pole and used to mark a rallying point especially in battle or to serve as an emblem 2) something established by authority, custom, or general consent as a model or example 3) something set up and established by authority as a rule for the measure of quantity, weight, extent, value, or quality 4) the fineness and legally fixed weight of the metal used in coins 5) the basis of value in a monetary system 6) a structure built for or serving as a base or support From these definitions, it appears that one could conclude that a standard should have value be established by general consent or by an organization be a yardstick to measure quantity, quality, and value and be a base or support upon which one can built procedures and policies.
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Document ID: EAE6A62C

Effects And Control Of Pulsation In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Ray G. Durke Edgar B. Bowles, Jr. Darin L. George, Robert J. Mckee,
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most common measurement errors and the most difficult to identify in natural gas metering systems is that caused by pulsating flow. It is important to understand the effects that pulsations have on the common types of flow meters used in the gas industry so that potential error-producing mechanisms can be identified and avoided. It is also essential to understand pulsation control techniques for mitigating pulsation effects. This paper describes the effects of pulsation on orifice, turbine, ultrasonic, and other flow meter types. It also presents basic methods for mitigating pulsation effects at meter installations, including a specific procedure for designing acoustic filters that can isolate a flow meter from the source of pulsation
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Document ID: 117DE470

Onsite Proving Of Gas Meters
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increased use of Natural Gas as a fuel, and higher natural gas prices buyers and sellers of natural gas are seriously looking at ways to improve their natural gas measurement and reduce the error in natural gas measurement
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Document ID: 44275F07

How Not To Measure Gas/Orifice
Author(s): Dee Hummel
Abstract/Introduction:
Measuring natural gas is both a science and an art. Guidelines and industry practices explain how to accurately measure natural gas. The art comes in trying to minimize errors and prevent measurement problems. However, sometime its easier to explain how not to measure gas when reviewing measurement errors. Measurement errors can be caused through poor installation practices, poor measurement practices, operational changes, and human error. The purpose of this paper is to address some real life cases of measurement errors
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Document ID: F2FC801A

A Current Perspective On Measurement The Impact Of Measurement In A Changing Business Environment
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of hydrocarbons has evolved significantly through the years, from both a technical and business application perspective. Developments and advances in technology have made the measurement of hydrocarbons more precise, efficient and available. Changes in the energy business environment have placed the measurement of hydrocarbons into a more significant role within organizational and industry business processes.
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Document ID: BF4CE25E

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Paul J. La Nasa
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents methods for determining the uncertainty of both differential and linear metering stations. It takes into account the type of meter, number of meters in parallel, type of secondary instruments, and the determination of physical properties. The paper then relates this information to potential influence on system balance
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Document ID: 4E65A04E

Efm Data Communications - Problems And Solutions
Author(s): Edward H. Smyth
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas companies in all segments - upstream, midstream, transmisssion and distribution - have deployed Electronic Flow Measurement (EFM) devices on a massive scale. Since the information contained within the EFMs is crucial to the companys operations, robust and reliable systems to communicate with EFMs are required.
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Document ID: 7CF4643F

Ultrasonic Meter Flow Calibrations Considerations And Benifits
Author(s): Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement in todays natural gas pipeline systems encompasses many challenges. Measurement departments are faced with tighter system measurement balances than they were ten short years ago. Ultrasonic meters are the meter of choice to help with these challenges. Pipeline companies have pushed USM manufacturers to advance the USM technology to help with the challenges of measurement. Manufacturers have improved the ultrasonic technology greatly over the past 15 years. Many of these enhancements have been in the form of diagnostics and processing speed and power. This has aided measurement departments in reaching their goals of increased system balances and improved overall measurement uncertainty
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Document ID: F8289B95

An Overview And Update Of AGA 9 Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association published Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters Ref 1 in June 1998. It is a recommended practice for using ultrasonic meters (USMs) in fiscal (custody) measurement applications. This paper reviews some of history behind the development of AGA Report No. 9 (often referred to as AGA 9), key contents and includes information on meter performance requirements, design features, testing procedures, and installation criteria. This paper also discusses changes that will be incorporated in the next revision. At the time of this paper the expected publication date is the Fall of 2006.
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Document ID: F8D2B665

Training Field Measurement Personnel Overview Of A Comprehensive Curriculum And Program
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The knowledge base expectation that exists today for the measurement technician is extremely demanding. From the latest in electronic controls to pneumatic controlsfrom communication system support to dualdisciplined or even tri-disciplined techniciansfrom the measurement equipment they support to the procedures that must be followedfrom the regulatory requirements governing the facilities to the training of field personnel all create a tremendous and ongoing challenge to meet these demands
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Document ID: 0D068D8A

Pressure Effect On Turbine Meter Gas Flow Measurement
Author(s): Paul W. Tang
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure sensitivity of turbine gas meters is a well observed phenomenon. However, very few published experimental pressure test data on turbine gas meters can be found for study until the last few years. Regulators in many countries either mandate or recommend the calibration of turbine gas meters close to their intended operating pressures in order to minimize measurement error caused by pressure variation. This paper explains the dependency of k-factor on line pressure, and the relationship between operating pressure and the error performance of turbine meters
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Document ID: 11A05106

Calculating The Speed Of Sound In Natural Gas Using AGA Report No. 10
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
The speed of sound in natural gas is the velocity a sound wave travels in the gas. There are a number of gas properties that affect the speed of sound and they include the composition of the gas, the pressure of the gas and the temperature of the gas. The American Gas Association Report No. 10 Speed of Sound in Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbon Gases provides an accurate method for calculating the speed of sound in natural gas and other related hydrocarbon fluids
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Document ID: 6B190862

Automating Gas Measurement
Author(s): Richard L. Cline
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address concepts of SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) Systems and their application to the measurement industry. An important focus of the paper is to provide the reader with an understanding of the technology and with guidelines to be used to evaluate this equipment as part of an automation project
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Document ID: FFAC9ADF

Ethics
Author(s): John L. Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the discussion of ethics the first issue is always nomenclature. Sadly, this is often the topic that gets the least attention and frequently those involved in the conversation conduct deep insightful discourses in which there is virtually no understanding exchanged, although the participants will all agree that the quality of the rhetoric was outstanding
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Document ID: 90258985

Utilizing Wireless Instrumentation In Well Optimization
Author(s): Denis Rutherford
Abstract/Introduction:
The Natural Gas and Oil industry is continually driven by cost cutting measures and the need to gain more operational efficiencies and visibility to regulatory requirements. This paper summarizes a solution in which wireless instruments integrate with other conventional equipment to offer a rapidly deployable advanced well optimization system. Wireless instrumentation products provide cost-effective and easy to install alternatives to traditional, hardwired sensor sites. These rugged field units are designed for the majority of Oil & Gas applications and for installations ranging from general purpose to Class I Div I hazardous locations with extreme temperature and humidity ranges
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Document ID: FD7DB622

A Review Of API Mpms Chapter 14.3/AGA Report No. 3 - Part 2
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper described the current contents of the United States orifice flow metering standard - American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) Chapter 14.3, Orifice Metering of Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbon Fluids, Part 2, Specification and Installation Requirements.1 This document is also known as American Gas Association Report No. 3, Part 2.2 As of the writing of this paper (i.e., May 2013), this standard was in its fourth edition, second printing. It was last revised in April 2000 and is in the process of being revised again
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Document ID: 4D005BDA

Basic Electrical Concepts For Field Measurement Technicians
Author(s): Gerry Pickens
Abstract/Introduction:
The efficient operation and maintenance of electrical and electronic systems utilized in the natural gas industry is substantially determined by the technicians skill in applying the basic concepts of electrical circuitry. This paper will discuss the basic electrical laws, electrical terms and control signals as they apply to natural gas measurement systems. There are four basic electrical laws that will be discussed
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Document ID: B686EEBF

Common Control Signals And Communications Protocols For Field Measurement Technicians
Author(s): Gerry Pickens
Abstract/Introduction:
A number of control signals have been developed and used as technology has evolved and been applied to the natural gas industry. Control signals are a standardized method of conveying information from one device to another. A control signal is the data sent from one device to another by a specific method. In industrial process instrumentation, transmitted information is data. Data can be transmitted in many formats and over many different types of media. In addition, the data may be analog or digital in form.
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Document ID: B2A104F4

Factors Affecting Digital Pressure Calibration
Author(s): Scott A. Crone
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure calibration is as important today as it has been for a very long time, but the way calibration is done and the equipment used to do it has changed drastically. In the past it was a standard practice to use a primary standard for pressure calibration. That standard was normally a dead weight tester or a manometer. Today with more accurate secondary standards available there is a larger choice in what can be used for pressure calibration. What is used normally will depend on the requirements that have to be met and the equipment that is available.
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Document ID: F381D20B

Auditing Electronic Gas Measurement Per API Chapter 21.1
Author(s): Keith Fry
Abstract/Introduction:
Auditing evolved as a business practice as owners began to realize a standardized form of accounting must exist to prevent fraud. Financial audits made their way into businesses during the late 1700s. The industrial revolution brought about the separation of job duties beyond what a sole proprietor or family could oversee. Managers were hired to supervise the employees and the business processes. Businesses began to expand geographically where previously they were all local. Owners, who could not be in more than one place at a time or chose to be absent, found an increasing need to monitor the accuracy of the financial activities of their growing businesses. Owners responded by hiring people to check their financial results for accuracy, resulting in the process of financial auditing.
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Document ID: CCF6AF2E

Protection Of Natural Gas Measurement Equipment Against Moisture And Corrosion
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry relies very heavily on sensitive electronic equipment utilized in the production, gathering, transportation, and distribution phases. There is an increasing reliance on the use of electronics for performing important tasks relating to measurement, control, and safety. Coupled with increased reliance is the demand by users for increased reliability
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Document ID: 96BFF157

Fluid Flow Conditioning For Meter Accuracy And Repeatability
Author(s): Danny Sawchuk
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow conditioning is one of the most critical aspects dealing with any type of volumetric flow metering. Flow conditioning is the final buffer between the flow meter and the upstream piping layout and is responsible for eliminating swirl, restoring flow symmetry and generating a repeatable, fully developed velocity flow profile. Even though modern advancements have resulted in low uncertainty, high repeatability devices that are effective across a range of flow rates, proper utilization of flow conditioner is still required to maximize the meters performance, diagnostics and ensure the most stable long term flow measurement. All flow conditioner technologies are not made equal, as commonly used designs such as AGA tube bundles and straightening vanes can actually cause more measurement problems than they resolve. This paper will focus on two main types of flow conditioners perforated plate systems and tube bundles
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Document ID: 293DFFA0

Improving Flow Measurements With Improved Calibration And Data Handling Procedures
Author(s): Duane Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The knowledge base from a field measurement technician to the measurement analyst is extremely demanding. Every field technician is tested in both knowledge and skills on a daily basis regarding: ? Electronic controls to pneumatic controls ? Communication system support ? Multiple technical disciplines ? Support of measurement equipment ? Procedures that must be followed (SOP) - Standard Operating Procedures ? Regulatory requirements governing the facilities ? Ongoing training of field personnel These factors and many more create a tremendous and constant challenge for every organization
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Document ID: 6CCE2B8C

Problems Unique To Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jackie R. Tims
Abstract/Introduction:
Some major problems and unique solutions will be addressed with gas measurement on offshore platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. This presentation will show the major roll safety, transportation, and weather play in the measurement facility. Proper operation, design, and installation will ensure accurate measurement
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Document ID: 9A29B62D

Basic Application Of Flow Computers And Telemetry Systems
Author(s): Bill Herndon
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to the evolution of flow computers being commonly used in the measurement of hydrocarbons, most telemetry systems were used to collect control information and real time data and provide control commands to a Remote Terminal Unit at major pump and compressor stations. Most of the local metering was being handled by chart recorders and local data collection by operations. These charts and reports were sent to a central facility where the information was used to provide custody transfer reports and or operations reports. Most of the commonly used chart recorders used the standard circular chart format and were mostly pneumatic devices
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Document ID: 91BEA44A

Real Time Electronic Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jim Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years now, flow computers have been implemented in gas measurement systems to utilize technology, to improve measurement accuracy, provide far more efficient data acquisition, and provide better control resources for remote interface through telemetry. As the meters functionality has increased, the meter technician has had to become more diverse in his or her knowledge of measurement, control, computers, and electronics. By taking a closer look at the various advanced applications and reviewing the basics, hopefully the technician will have a better understanding of the requirements of handling, installing, and working with todays advanced flow computers.
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Document ID: 5256B323

Basic Electronics For Field Measurement
Author(s): John Culp
Abstract/Introduction:
If you are able to install your own TV dish satellite system and a wireless home network for PCs, you have a head start on installing and maintaining electronic field measurement equipment. Todays measurement technicians and engineers are required to operate and maintain a variety of Hi-Tech field measurement equipment. Most of the field instrumentation is tightly integrated in a complete system functional environment. The larger the metering station, the more complex the system. The goal of this paper is to provide an introduction to electronics based on current field measurement technology
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Document ID: 7C01473C

Classification Of Locations For Electrical Installations In Gas Utility Areas
Author(s): Gerry Pickens
Abstract/Introduction:
The National Electrical Code (NEC) defines hazardous locations as those areas where fire or explosion hazards may exist due to flammable gases or vapors, flammable liquids, combustible dust, or ignitable fibers or flyings. A substantial part of the NEC is devoted to the discussion of hazardous locations. Thats because electrical equipment can become a source of ignition in these volatile areas. Articles 500 through 504, and 510 through 517 provide classification and installation standards for the use of electrical equipment in these locations. The writers of the NEC developed a short-hand method of describing areas classified as hazardous locations. One of the purposes of this discussion is to explain this classification system. Hazardous locations are classified in three ways by the National Electrical Code: TYPE, CONDITION, and NATURE
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Document ID: 9B271BD3

Advance Communication Designs
Author(s): Bob Halford
Abstract/Introduction:
We say Advanced Wireless Data Radio Communication Systems Design Process not because this is a more indepth and more technical process, but because the systems involved are complex in nature and must be carefully designed and programmed. If anything, what I want to do is teach you a more simplified approach and technique to design a SCADA or Telemetry project, but one which you do the same whether the system is large or small
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Document ID: 84FCB081

Orifice Plate Meter Diagnostics
Author(s): Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice plate meters are a popular for being relatively simple, reliable and inexpensive. Their principles of operation are easily understood. However, traditionally there has been no orifice meter self diagnostic capabilities. In 2008 & 2009 a generic Differential Pressure (DP) meter self diagnostic methodology 1,2 was proposed. In this paper these diagnostic principles are applied to orifice meters and proven with experimental test results. The diagnostic results are presented in a simple graphical form designed for easy use in the field by the meter operator
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Document ID: 4D2FB28A

Continuous Monitoring Of Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Randy Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many in our industry who would consider the advancement of the ultrasonic meter to be the greatest improvement in gas measurement in the past twenty years. Its my opinion that the immense improvement in gas measurement is not so much the ultrasonic meter itself. Instead, I believe it is the meters ability to detect conditions that would compromise its own accuracy and ability to communicate those conditions to the user. It is in the area of communicating those conditions, that we often under-utilize the meters capabilities
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Document ID: 197CF095

Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics - Basic & Advanced
Author(s): Peter Kucmas
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic transit time flow measurement has been available to the natural gas industry for the last 20 years with a serious acceptance of the technology taking place after the competition of AGA 9 in 1997. In response to the completion of AGA 9, manufacturers begun to fill the measurement requirements with varying solutions and flow meter configurations. As part of the new measurement technology new terminology was introduced into the market place to describe the function of the flow ultrasonic transit time meter. Many times those descriptions were specific to a supplier or manufacturer but not necessarily part of any standardized industrial lexicon. Not having a common language to describe the function of an ultrasonic transit time flow meter tended to cause difficulty especially if an end user operator and technicians became responsible for multiple meter types by differing manufacturers. From the beginnings until the present applying ultrasonic flow meters in the natural gas industry many of the descriptions and basic diagnostics have standardized and typically represent the same function regardless of the manufacturer. It is important to note that there continue to remain very specific diagnostic that are based on unique flowmeter designs and not universal to all manufacturers and are left as scope of discussion for future papers.
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Document ID: D28D0C16

Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics - Basic & Advanced
Author(s): Peter Kucmas
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic transit time flow measurement has been available to the natural gas industry for the last 20 years with a serious acceptance of the technology taking place after the competition of AGA 9 in 1997. In response to the completion of AGA 9, manufacturers begun to fill the measurement requirements with varying solutions and flow meter configurations. As part of the new measurement technology new terminology was introduced into the market place to describe the function of the flow ultrasonic transit time meter. Many times those descriptions were specific to a supplier or manufacturer but not necessarily part of any standardized industrial lexicon.
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Document ID: F797519A

Design And Installation Of A Complete Measurement & Control Facility
Author(s): Thomas G. Quine
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation is intended to illustrate the implementation of a successful project. These principles can be applied to measurement and control projects, LNG projects, and LPG projects. The strategy presented involves performing through preliminary engineering, performing final design and procurement, qualification of installers, construction, testing, commissioning and finally, training and documentation
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Document ID: 09FFABAF

Control Room Management And Related Best Practices
Author(s): Russel W. Treat
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper summarizes a SCADA implementers perspective regarding the intent of the Pipeline Hazardous Materials Safety Administrations (PHMSA) Control Room Management (CRM) rule. In addition, this paper provides a fresh approach to CRM, describing why companies should use the CRM process to go beyond compliance requirements and implement operating best practices that would significantly enhance operations reliability and pipeline safety
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Document ID: 6C601BE1

Scada And Telemetry In Gas Transmission Systems
Author(s): Russel W. Treat
Abstract/Introduction:
SCADA systems provide are combinations of field devices, communications infrastructure and software integrated into a system that provides for safe, reliable, and effective operation of remote facilities. Producers, gatherers, midstream operators and pipelines use SCADA system for operations. In addition, SCADA gathers data used by advanced applications such as measurement accounting. SCADA is key for highly profitable operation.
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Document ID: 998A9292

Periodic Inspection Of Regfulators And Relief Valves
Author(s): James m. Doyle
Abstract/Introduction:
Inspections and tests on regulators and relief valves is a Department of Transportation Compliance rule. The sections within the DOT manual stating the rule include 192.351 through 192.359, 192.751, 192.479, 192.481, 192.739, and 192.741. Keep in mind these rules are the minimum required tests. Your Company or Regulatory Agency may be more stringent and require more or detailed testing. You must also keep in mind that the Manufacturer of your equipment will also provide a guideline pertaining to maintenance. These tests are not only required for safe, reliable service to your Customers, but also could be used in any legal proceeding for documentation and purpose.
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Document ID: 9870EC06

Comparing Plug & Seat Regulators & Control Valves
Author(s): Lamar Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper will be to compare a plug and seat regulator to a control valve for high-pressure natural gas installations such as: power plants, city gate stations, large industrial customers, compressor stations, and storage fields. The features, benefits, capabilities, and differences of both devices will be outlined, to enable the reader to make an educated selection. In addition, acceptable design practices will be reviewed concerning sizing, gas velocities, noise levels, equipment layout, and performance. The ball valve is the most commonly used type of modulating valve for natural gas pipeline applications, for that reason, we will limit this discussion to comparison between the plug and seat regulator and versions of a 1/4 turn ball valve
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Document ID: E73643A8

Measurement Data Collection Methods, Hurdles And Efficiency Improvements
Author(s): Na
Abstract/Introduction:
To understand and improve success in the collection of SCADA and EFM data you must first understand whats in the field their frequencies and communication methods. Frequency ranges typically utilized in the field are 900 MHz and 2.4 GHz. These frequency ranges were released as junk band or public use by the FCC in the 1980s and 1990s.
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Document ID: B1C7D7F5

Communication Between The Office And Field
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Transferring the knowledge base regarding the measurement equipment between a field measurement technician and a corporate measurement analyst can be extremely challenging. A Field technicians skill set is tested on a routine basis therefore, the technician must be knowledgeable in: ? electronic controls to pneumatic controls ? communication system support ? multiple disciplines ? support of measurement equipment ? procedures that must be followed ? regulatory requirements governing the facilities ? ongoing training of field personnel
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Document ID: 3A4FB901

Electronic Gas Measurement Auditing
Author(s): Perry Dee Hummel
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic Gas Measurement or EFM auditing is a very important process of the natural gas industry. Only a few short years ago, the dry recording device for custody gas measurement. All that has changed with the advent of the flow computer volumes are recorded and generated at the field level, and imported to the measurement system. Careful review of meter data should be part of the monthly close process
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Document ID: 4975C8BF

Understanding The Advantages Of Ip Networks
Author(s): Burke P. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays oil and gas industry faces increasing pressure to maximize the capability of its wireless infrastructure while minimizing operational and developmental costs. Unprecedented uncertainty and business volatility are transforming the landscape, as the oil and gas industry becomes more competitive, profit-oriented, and responsive to a fickle and savvy clientele. The key to developing a successful enterprise-wide networking strategy is to recognize that it is only part of a larger strategy-one in which modern oil and gas facilities must literally reinvent themselves.
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Document ID: D868DAB2

2012 Asgmt Prevention Of Freezing In Measurement And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Collin Pawlak
Abstract/Introduction:
One way businesses in todays natural gas industry can be certain to maintain a presence in a competitive market is to be able to deliver a consistent supply to their customers. To ensure a reliable supply, companies must be aware of potential problems that could lead to interruptions or shutdowns in service and the procedures that can prevent these costly situations
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Document ID: 0316D40B

Upstream Natural Gas Sales Verification Producer And Pipeline Perspectives
Author(s): Mark B. Fillman Jayson A. Payne,
Abstract/Introduction:
Within the upstream sector of the oil and gas indus-try, the custody transfer of natural gas is usually de-termined by orifice measurement which is governed by a sales agreement between the producer and pipeline company. In most cases, the gas sales agreement references a combination of American Gas Association (AGA), American Petroleum Insti-tute (API), and Gas Processors Association (GPA) standards which are to be incorporated into the cus-tody measurement procedures. Verification that the physical deliveries of natural gas are accurate and accountable, for both parties, is fundamental to the business cycle that occurs each month. This paper reviews the relationships between producer and pipeline, the varying responsibilities of each party, and some useful methods to produce more accurate and accountable natural gas measurement results
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Document ID: F6B179F6

Get It Right The First Time - Field Data Capture Without Paper Forms
Author(s): Bruce Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter inspections, configuration changes, calibration verification, troubleshooting, and gas sampling generate important subsets of measurement data. Automated computer systems capture, process, store, and report this data better than manual, paper-based systems minimizing effort, time, resources, and error for field and office workers
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Document ID: 8B091B22

Gas Contracts Impact On Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): T. Dean Graves
Abstract/Introduction:
Much effort is spent to achieve accurate measurement. Up to date measurement standards, modern meter station design, high quality equipment, and proper measurement operations are all necessary for measurement accuracy. Unfortunately these processes do not assure measurement accuracy if the contract does not also support accurate measurement. The contract impacts measurement accuracy by what it addresses and what is left unaddressed. More focus needs to be applied to the measurement sections of the contracts. Hopefully this paper will help the reader better understand the relationship between the contract and accuracy
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Document ID: F7B39164

Requirements Of An Egm Editor
Author(s): R. Michael Squyres
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry has adopted EGM as a means of increasing the speed and accuracy with which measurement information is obtained. This has created the need for an electronic data management system. These systems, if not properly designed and implemented, could potentially render the entire process useless. Therefore, it is essential that the system add functionality that complements the power of the hardware. With proper implementation, such a system will not only facilitate operations in todays fast paced, post-FERC 636 environment, but also will establish a foundation for meeting tomorrows measurement challenges
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Document ID: 3EA84E38

Training Office Measurement Personnel
Author(s): Perry Dee Hummel
Abstract/Introduction:
Experience is the best teacher. Weve all heard that saying, but, what if there aren t any experienced personnel left to hire? After years of downsizing, mergers, and attrition, the industry finds itself in a shortage of good trained personne1. The only way to overcome this problem is to provide the new employee with comprehensive training. Successful training is paramount to the success of the gas measurement department and your company
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Document ID: 26C4F3B6


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