Measurement Library

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (2012)

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course

Fundamentals Of Gas Laws
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters
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Document ID: 502BCFF2

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): John A. Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of all gas measurement used in the world today is performed by two basic types of meters, positive displacement and inferential. Positive displacement meters, consisting mainly of diaphragm and rotary style devices, generally account for lower volume measurement. Orifice, ultrasonic and turbine meters are the three main inferential class meters used for large volume measurement today
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Document ID: B49F08A0

Basics Of Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): Jerry Kamalieh
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the United States, The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat-rate basis. Its growth was slow, its charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority
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Document ID: 06E3B59A

Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meter Basics
Author(s): James W. Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the operating principal and application of ultrasonic gas flow metering for custody transfer. Basic principals and underlying equations are discussed, as are considerations for applying ultrasonic flow meter technology to station design, installation and operation
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Document ID: 7E617846

Rotary Displacement Meters Basics
Author(s): Todd Willis
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classes of gas meters. These are inferential type meters, which include orifice and turbine meters, and positive displacement meters, which include diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferential type meters are so-called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas flow and calculating the volume based on the measurements
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Document ID: F4E55A27

Clamp-On Gas Flow Technology Advancements Increase Performance And Diagnostic Capabilities For Check Metering And Custody Transfer Applications
Author(s): Mark Imboden Ron Mccarthy
Abstract/Introduction:
The recent buzz created by the clamp-on wide beam technology in the gas measurement world has compelled even the gas industry skeptics among us to take notice. Rapid acceleration of successful installations across the globe and the surprising performance results being obtained (as shown in the following pages) has only added fuel to the excitement. Field clamp-on gas flowmeters provide a unique tool for solving flow related challenges without interrupting the operation of a gas pipeline.
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Document ID: A99969E0

Ultrasonic Meters For Commercial Applications
Author(s): Paul Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
An ultrasonic meter falls into the classification of inferential meters. Unlike positive displacement meters that capture volume to totalize volume, inferential meters measure flowing gas velocity to totalize volume. Ultrasonic meters use sound waves to measure flowing gas velocity to infer volume.
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Document ID: 3E4EDDAE

In-Situ On-Site() Gas Meter Proving
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas flow rate measurement errors at field meter stations can result from the installation configuration, the calibration of the meter at conditions other than the actual operating conditions, or the degradation of meter performance over time. The best method for eliminating these or other sources of error is with in-situ (on-site) calibration of the meter.
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Document ID: EAC4DCE0

The Proper Application Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): Kevin C. Beaver
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper highlights several rotary meter performance characteristics. These characteristics profile a rotary meters capabilities in a wide array of applications from production to transmission, and distribution. Most of the characteristics have minimum standards adopted by agencies like AGA or ASTM
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Document ID: FA05A39E

Low Volume Metering Using Differential Pressure Cone Technology
Author(s): Philip A. Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
The north east region of the USA has many natural gas wells that are declining in flow due to extensive exploitation and production over many years
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Document ID: 47A07989

Wet Gas Measurement
Author(s): Philip A. Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
Wet gas measurement is becoming more prevalent in the modern oil and gas market place. The effect of entrained liquid in gas and its impact on measurement systems is being researched world wide by various laboratories and JIP working groups. The impact can be very significant financially
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Document ID: 5085C241

Basic Properties Of Natural Gas
Author(s): John H. Batchelder
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is misunderstood by many. It is believed by some that all gas is a liquid that is pumped into automobiles or into tanks and is used as a fuel. It is thought of as a dangerous material that will blow up easily. Others do not differentiate between LP gas, natural gas, or gasoline -They are all the same thing, right?
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Document ID: 51ECD8DE

Meter Proving : The Equipment And Methodology Used Today In The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): Gregory A. Germ
Abstract/Introduction:
To determine the accuracy of a natural gas meter, a known volume of air is passed through the meter, and the meter registration is compared against this known volume. The known volume of air originates from the meter prover. In earlier times, the gas meter prover was a stand-alone device (usually a bell-type prover), manually operated without any electronics or automation. Today, the majority of gas meter provers are fully automated computer controlled and operated, and responsible for other job functions besides the proving of gas meters
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Document ID: D393F93B

Automated Rotary Meter Diagnostics
Author(s): Kevin Beaver Roman Artiuch, Ph.D.
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the introduction of rotary gas meters in the 1920s, gas companies have been using differential testing to assess meter condition. By measuring the pressure drop across a rotary meter gas companies use the differential test as a means of determining whether or not meter accuracy has changed.
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Document ID: EA642D78

Flow Calibrating High Volume Ultrasonic Flowmeters- Considerations And Benefits
Author(s): Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary method for custody transfer measurement has traditionally been orifice metering. While this method has been a good form of measurement, technology has driven the demand for a new, more effective form of fiscal measurement. Ultrasonic flowmeters have gained popularity in recent years and have become the standard for large volume custody transfer applications for a variety of reasons.
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Document ID: 9480569E

Diagnostics For Large High Volume Flow Orifice Plate Meters
Author(s): Mark Skelton Simon Barrons Jennifer Ayre Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
In 2008/9 DP Diagnostics disclosed a proprietary differential pressure (DP) meter diagnostic methodology 1,2. Swinton Technology (ST) has subsequently developed software named Prognosis in partnership with DP Diagnostics. Prognosis allows these generic DP meter diagnostic methodologies to be applied in flow computers thereby making these principles available for field applications.
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Document ID: A04EFD6E

Operation And Maintenance Considerations For Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses both basic and advanced diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USM), and how capabilities built into todays electronics can identify problems that often may not have been identified in the past. It primarily discusses fiscal-quality, multi-path USMs and does not cover issues that may be different with non-fiscal meters as they are often single path designs. Although USMs basically work the same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary
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Document ID: 487DA447

Flow Meter Installation Effects
Author(s): Eric Kelner, P.E.
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter station piping installation configuration is one of a number of variables that may adversely affect meter accuracy. Some piping configurations can distort the flow stream and produce flow measurement bias errors (i.e., offsets in the meter output) of up to several percent of reading
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Document ID: 6ACDBD3A

From The Wellhead To The Burner Tip: A System Overview
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is presented at the Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course - Fundamentals Section. The paper is designed for the first year student to understand the basic flow of natural gas and the terminology utilized from Production and Storage areas to end use by consumers. Specific focus is given to history of natural gas, gas transmission, city gate stations, and distribution systems.
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Document ID: 9BD4F273

Reducing Installation Effects On Ultrasonic Flow Meters
Author(s): Jan G. Drenthen Martin Kurth Hilko Den Hollander Marcel Vermeulen Max Harwell
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past two decades, ultrasonic flow meters have rapidly gained a wide acceptance. The main reasons for this are the high repeatability combined with zero pressure loss and extended diagnostic features. During this period, meters with different path configurations have been put into the market, each of them trying to obtain the highest accuracy and numerous papers have been published on the performance of these meters at the calibration laboratories.
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Document ID: FDCF14E9

High Volume Measurement Using Turbine Meters
Author(s): John A. Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
For over one hundred years the turbine meter has been servicing large volume applications of the natural gas market. During this time the turbine has continuously evolved into a device that offers the industry new and unique features. This paper will focus on the significant advancements of this technology as well as how they are applied in the field today
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Document ID: 414732D1

Basics Of Self-Operated And Direct-Acting Spring Regulators
Author(s): Rick Schneider
Abstract/Introduction:
Spring operated gas regulators are force balanced mechanical devices that operate everything from your gas grill at home to large transmission systems. Regulators are often referred to as a control valve, governor, or pressure reducers. The system designer uses regulators for several reasons, first comes safety, economics, and to improve the efficiency of utilizing the gas
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Document ID: 96247B77

Prevention Of Freezing In Measurement And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Tom Fay
Abstract/Introduction:
One way businesses in todays natural gas industry can be certain to maintain a presence in a competitive market is to be able to deliver a consistent supply to their customers. To ensure a reliable supply, companies must be aware of potential problems that could lead to interruptions or shutdowns in service and the procedures that can prevent these costly situations
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Document ID: EEA6913E

High Pressure Services
Author(s): George Levesque
Abstract/Introduction:
The code governing pressure control of gas delivered from high-pressure distribution systems is 192.197. This part of the code has been updated several times (11/07/1970, 07/13/1998, and 09/15/2003) since its inception on August 19, 1970. 192.197 details when overpressure protection is required and lists some acceptable methods of overpressure protection.
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Document ID: 220F0185

Gate Station Design
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
The City Gate station is one of the more complex designs a natural gas engineer will deal with in the course of a career. Like all projects, a properly designed and constructed gate station begins with good preliminary engineering. In preliminary engineering, all of the major project goals and hurdles are defined. If the preliminary engineering document is written properly, it will serve as the backbone for the entire project.
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Document ID: 21082CF5

Fundamentals Of District Regulator Station Design
Author(s): James P. Davis Scott A. Laplante
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the fundamental steps necessary to begin and complete a district regulator design. It will focus on the techniques NSTAR uses to develop target locations and the subsequent designs. This paper will cover replacements and new installations
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Document ID: AA109D52

Basic Electronics And Calibration For The Gas Measurement Technician
Author(s): Greg Thomas Shumate
Abstract/Introduction:
Please do not forget that most gas measurement technicians work around natural gas which is very flammable. It only takes a very small amount of electrical energy to create an explosion or fire in a hazardous location. Disconnecting a wire or connecting a test meter may be all it takes to ignite the atmosphere if gas is present
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Document ID: 27BB51AA

Integrating Metering, Billing, Security And Control Processes
Author(s): Robert Findley
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement and process control equipment has been on a progressive trend over the past decade. Due to continuous improvements, products have developed from pneumatic to electronic processes, reduced in physical size and increased in overall functionality.
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Document ID: 9C688363

Applying Wireless To ETHERNET/IP Automation Systems
Author(s): Gary Enstad Jim Ralston
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of Ethernet for industrial networking is growing rapidly in factory automation, process control and SCADA systems. The ODVA EtherNet/IP network standard is gaining popularity as a preferred industrial protocol. Plant engineers are recognizing the significant advantages that Ethernet-enabled devices provide such as ease of connectivity, high performance and cost savings
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Document ID: 1BC1BF92

Pressure Control Basics
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure control is the fundamental operation of all natural gas delivery systems. It provides a safe and reliable energy source for manufacturing and heating systems throughout the world. Pressure control is utilized to balance the system supply demands with safe delivery pressures
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Document ID: 9607728F

Advancements In Scada And Flow Measurement Technology
Author(s): Michael Rozic
Abstract/Introduction:
The ability to perform accurate and reliable measurement and SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) was a daunting task for anyone prior to the invention of microprocessors in the early 1970s. Most natural gas measurement, control and communication prior to this were done pneumatically
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Document ID: 823B331D

Fundamentals Of Electronic Flow Meter Design, Application & Implementation
Author(s): Jim Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic flow measurement as applied to the natural gas industry has advanced considerably over the last 30 years. Applications to address Upstream, Midstream and Downstream gas measurement technologies have become more complex. Over time it has become necessary to understand the fundamentals that make up this everchanging environment
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Document ID: 9C28B1AF

Proper Operation Of Gas Detection Instruments
Author(s): George Lomax
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the operation, maintenance and calibration for a number of instruments available today for the detection of combustible and toxic gases. The applications for these various instruments will also be discussed. This will include the investigation of odor complaints on a customers property, leakage survey applications, and other safety requirements
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Document ID: FAFEB23F

Network Analysis - Part 1 Gas Flow Equation Fundamentals
Author(s): Tim Bickford
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past 25 years engineers in the natural gas industry have come to depend on the computer as a tool to perform complex hydraulic network analysis. Analysis, which would take weeks to perform by hand or by punchcard machines 30 years ago, can now be accomplished in mere hours or sometimes seconds. Today gas network analysis software, though complex and extremely sophisticated, has become very user friendly
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Document ID: F30DD5FE

Corrosion Control Considerations For M&R Stations
Author(s): Michael J. Placzek John Otto Peter Aubin
Abstract/Introduction:
Corrosion control for a measurement/regulation station can be very challenging. The majority of scenarios that can cause corrosion occur at M&Rs. Corrosion at an M&R can be broken into three major categories: External (external surface of the piping in contact with the soil or water electrolyte), Atmospheric (external surface of the piping in contact with the air) and Internal (internal surface of the piping exposed to liquids, bacteria or other contaminants in the product or gas flow).
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Document ID: B86CCF45

Project Management Fundamentals
Author(s): John Jay Gamble, Jr., P.E
Abstract/Introduction:
A collection of projects or programs and other work that are grouped together to facilitate effective management of that work to meet strategic business objectives. (PMBOK, 2004
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Document ID: F17208DC

Underground Storage Of Natural Gas An Introduction
Author(s): Andrea I. Horton
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas storage is playing a continually growing role in the United Stated energy industry. As more and more interstate pipelines bring natural gas to the high gas-demand areas, such as the Northeast, from the high production areas, such as the Gulf, the Rockies, and Canada, energy companies seem to all be scrambling to find potential new storage reservoirs to hold and cycle gas being transported to high market areas.
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Document ID: C1AF063E

Reducing Methane And Voc Emissions
Author(s): Mark Sommer
Abstract/Introduction:
Why Reduce Methane and VOC Emissions? The reduction of methane and VOC emissions is both a necessary and desirable activity
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Document ID: 222BF3D8

Horizontal Drilling
Author(s): Ellen Montgomery
Abstract/Introduction:
Options and Potential Benefits of Horizontal Wells in CBM Projects Benefits of Horizontal Wells Higher production rates, cutting more pay zone Flexibility of surface location Fewer surface locations Smaller environmental footprint Less surface equipment Fewer pipelines and right-of-ways Allows access to inaccessible development acreage Potential for increased recovery/drainage per acre Fracture stimulation options Faster dewatering Diminished water coning
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Document ID: 8D45A728

Ngc+ - Five Years Later Keeping Gas Quality Issues In Perspective
Author(s): Robert D. Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
Its been five years since the Natural Gas Council Technical Teams issued technical white papers addressing the science and policy concerns of hydrocarbon liquid dropout and gas interchangeability. Have the papers help bridge the gap between science and policy regarding gas quality issues or are we still an industry divided
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Document ID: CEA194D3

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement
Author(s): Pat Donnelly
Abstract/Introduction:
Samuel Clegg made the first practical gas meter in England in 1815. It was a water-sealed rotating drum meter that was improved in 1825 however, it was still very costly and very large. Thomas Glover developed the original diaphragm meter in England in 1843.
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Document ID: BEAF7D83

Components Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
To truly understand gas measurement, a person must understand gas measurement fundamentals. This includes the units of measurement, the behavior of the gas molecule, the property of gases, the gas laws, and the methods and means of measuring gas. Since the quality of gas is often the responsibility of the gas measurement technician, it is important that they have an understanding of natural gas chemistry
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Document ID: 16AAA0D2

Gas Sampling And Gas Sampling Systems
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to be able to take a representative sample of a hydrocarbon product is necessary to ensure proper accounting for transactions and efficient product processing. The various sampling methods that are available and the options and limitations of these methods are investigated the most appropriate equipment to use the reasons for its use and correct installation of the equipment are also addressed.
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Document ID: 9AEA3D7B

Fundamentals Of Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Shane Hale
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chromatography is one of the most widely used techniques for analyzing hydrocarbon mixtures. Some of the advantages of chromatography are the range of measurement (from ppm levels up to 100%), the detection of a wide range of components, and the repeatability of the measurements
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Document ID: 8A1D0741

Fundamentals Of Water Vapor Measurement
Author(s): Thomas Ballard
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas, as defined by ASTM, is a naturally occurring mixture of the hydrocarbons and inert gases. Before Natural Gas is processed, methane usually comprises over 80% of the mixture. Processing to pipeline quality creates a higher methane concentration by removing other naturally occurring components, which is desired for delivery to the burner tip. The next most common component of natural gas is ethane, which is typically stripped from mixture and used to produce petrochemicals.
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Document ID: C0D2DB9B

Fundamentals Of Hydrocarbon Dew Point Measurement
Author(s): Jack Herring
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas fired turbines for compressing gas must burn clean fuel as specified by the turbine manufacturer. Failure to do so can significantly increase maintenance and operational costs. Condensate in the pipeline can damage equipment and risk contract violations and shut-ins
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Document ID: 4D8BDF2E

Tdlas Operational Methodology
Author(s): Samuel C. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Online determination of vapor phase moisture concentration in natural gas using a tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) analyzer also known as a TDL analyzer
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Document ID: 2C21AE57

h2s And Total Sulfur Measurement Applications
Author(s): Byron Larson
Abstract/Introduction:
In the natural gas industry, there are thousands of continuous analytical systems, ensuring H2S and total sulfur tariff limits are not exceeded at receipt and sales points on the transmission line. Typical measurement ranges of are 0-20 ppm for H2S and 0-100 ppm for total sulfur. There are also a fast growing number of sites with continuous H2S monitoring on field gas treating gas systems where the target is 1 to 5 ppm as a result of the more recent shale gas development
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Document ID: 861A3CB9

Basic Electronic Communications For The Gas Industry
Author(s): Ken Pollock
Abstract/Introduction:
The recent several years have shown remarkable changes in the communications field. New methods and digital techniques have allowed the Communications Technician to solve communications problems that previously required unusual solutions or required manual data collecting.
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Document ID: D1B9F75D

Communications For The Gas Industry
Author(s): Jeff Randolph
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss communication basics and communication options for the gas industry. An overview of communications basics and communication technologies available to the Gas Industry will be discussed
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Document ID: F3A3D240

Scada Data Collection And Data Distribution
Author(s): Phillip Heim
Abstract/Introduction:
Different data collectors such as Mechanical Chart meters, Electronic Measurement with and without communications, Hand Held devices, and smart phone technology are just a few data collectors used by ECA. Including chart integrators, third party, sales points (think pipeline interconnects
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Document ID: 488EDC25

Self-Operated Regulator Basics
Author(s): Trent Decker
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application that we need to look more deeply into the fundamental of the regulators operation
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Document ID: 77D8EAFF

Wifi Ip Communications For Improved Field Support And Scada
Author(s): Dave Kimberling
Abstract/Introduction:
Have you ever stopped to consider just how dependent we all are on instantaneous communications? Or, how as different generations we communicate with each other? Both subjects are hot topics in business today. Now, stop for a minute and consider how many different pieces of equipment, and how many different forms of communications you as a person carry around with you on the job every day.
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Document ID: CC98450C

Data, This Is Your Life
Author(s): Robert Findley
Abstract/Introduction:
It is the realization by many famous thinkers, physicists and mathematicians over the course of history that everything in the world can be represented by groups of 1s and 0s. The foundation of almost all information can be broken down into a simple true/false, yes/no, 1/0 over time. (Quantum Mechanics theories can prove the writer wrong someday, but for the purposes of this paper, Im safe) Information (or data) can be represented by electronic, mechanical, printed text or smoke signal and the objective of distributing it over any communication medium is the key to its existence.
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Document ID: BDAC2137

Lte: Paving The Way For Innovation
Author(s): Bob Slevin
Abstract/Introduction:
What is LTE? LTE is an evolution of the UMTS system defined by the 3G Partnership Project (3GPP), which is an offshoot of the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)
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Document ID: 281555D5

The Evolution Of Data Collection For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Ken Henderson
Abstract/Introduction:
Evolving communication technologies are revolutionizing SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) systems just as new technology in drilling and production are revolutionizing the way oil and gas wells are produced. The new high volume pad wells and horizontal production techniques demand
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Document ID: 9D7CDE42

Principles Of Odorization
Author(s): Robert E. Braxton Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
Odorization injection and monitoring technology has advanced dramatically in the past 15 years. A former Chairperson of the Appalachian Short Course, Harold Englert of Columbia Gas Virginia, used to refer to odorization as, A little bit of science, and a whole lot of magic. The intent of this paper is to provide the reader with practical solutions to develop a solid Odorization program, even in dense urban environments, in the hope of removing the, Magic, to a successful Odorization program
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Document ID: 8E635008

Odorant Spills Prevention And First Response
Author(s): Marvin White Juraj Strmen
Abstract/Introduction:
By odorizing natural gas, the industry is using equipment and chemicals that inherently pose a certain risk of causing vapor or liquid releases in the atmosphere. Equipment failure, human error or natural disasters may cause natural gas odorant to be released into the environment causing business disruption, potential negative effects on the environment, putting the public at risk and ultimately placing the reliability of natural gas delivery in question
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Document ID: 417CEA0F

Odorization Kept Simple And Reliable
Author(s): Paul m. Herman
Abstract/Introduction:
Odorization of natural gas is one of the most important aspects of delivering gas to customers in a distribution system. It is a requirement that is mandated by the Federal Government ever since the tragic death of students and teachers in a school house in New London, Texas in 1937.
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Document ID: 21C5D573

Gas Odorants - Safe Handling , Health And The Environment
Author(s): Daniel E. Arrieta David C. Miller Eric Van Tol
Abstract/Introduction:
Thiols (i.e. mercaptans), sulfides, and tetrahydrothiophene (THT) have been widely used in the odorization of natural and liquefied petroleum gas due to the fact that natural gas does not possess an odor. Mercaptans, for example, have proven to be very effective in odorizing because of their low odor threshold and therefore, immediate impact on the olfactory system (Roberts, 1993).
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Document ID: 187603D7

Sampling LNG Per ISO 8943 And The Giignl Standard
Author(s): Kenneth O. Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
The process of safely and accurately sampling and measuring Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) warrants a thorough examination of the special technical considerations needed. This paper presents a basic overview of the currently accepted practices for said procedures.
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Document ID: F7911857

Basic Pressure And Flow Control
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry utilizes two devices to reduce gas pressure and control gas flow. The first is the regulator and the second is a control valve. The control valve is utilized for high volumes and it can perform flow control as will as pressure control. This paper will provide the fundamentals of control valve types, sizes, and the controllers that are utilized to operate the control valves. We will also investigate the differences between the regulator and the control valve and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
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Document ID: B20AF41A

Effects And Control Of Pulsation In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Michael Royce Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulsation created by compressors, flow control valves, regulators and some piping configurations are known to cause significant errors in gas measurement. In recent years the Pipeline-and Compressor Research Council (PCRC) now know as (GMRC) Gas Machinery Research Council, a subsidiary of the Southern Gas Association, commissioned and funded various pulsation research projects at Southwest Research Institute (SWRI) in San Antonio, Texas
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Document ID: F772F201

Horizontally Installed Orifice Plate Meter Response To Wet Gas Flows
Author(s): Richard Steven, Gordon Stobie Andrew Hall Bill Priddy
Abstract/Introduction:
The research and development of multiphase wet gas flow meters for natural gas flows with entrained hydrocarbon liquid (HCL) and water is important to industry. However, the performance of single phase flow meters, such as orifice plate meters, with multiphase wet gas flows is also of importance. Nevertheless, in recent years research into orifice meter wet gas flow response has been relatively underplayed
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Document ID: 3E444AD0

Practical Discussion Of Wet Gas Flow And Its Effects On Ultrasonic Gas Flowmeters
Author(s): Peter Kucmas Martin Novak
Abstract/Introduction:
How do liquids effect the operation, performance and measurement accuracy of Ultrasonic Gas flowmeters?In most cases, commercially available Ultrasonic flowmeters for gas are designed specifically to measure a single-phase fluid accurately, consistently and reliably. Unfortunately in the real world, applications, at one point or another, expose an ultrasonic gas flowmeter to some forms of liquids
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Document ID: 3DB8D256

The Use Of Flow Conditioning To Help Improve Flow Meter Accuracy And Repeatability
Author(s): Danny Sawchuk
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow conditioning is a critical, if not one of the most critical aspects to consider when dealing with any type of volumetric flow metering. Flow conditioning is the final buffer between the flow meter and the upstream piping layout and is responsible for eliminating swirl, restoring profile symmetry and generating a repeatable, fully developed velocity flow profile.
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Document ID: 50B433F0

Marcellus Shale Measurement Station Design Considerations
Author(s): Dan Manion
Abstract/Introduction:
The development of the Marcellus Shale play has generated a significant increase in the need for an expanded gas takeaway system. As the pipeline system continues to expand, so does the need for custody transfer measurement stations
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Document ID: B24B8D46

Coal Seam Gas Wellhead Applications
Author(s): Steven Toteda
Abstract/Introduction:
Drivers and Potential Major Expansion of QLD LNG Projects 50 million tons per annum (Mtpa) of LNG contracted in 5 major projects. 40,000-50,000 wellheads slated in the next 5 years. 5 major players driving gas expansion: Shell/Arrow, Origin/ConocoPhillips, BG, Santos/Petronas
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Document ID: 693552C9

Installation Of New Transmission Odorization Station With No Down Time, A Case S
Author(s): Michael Franklin Juraj Strmen
Abstract/Introduction:
EQT Corporation is an integrated energy company with emphasis on Appalachian area natural gas production, gathering, transmission, and distribution. With more than 120 years of experience, EQT is a technology-driven leader in the integration of air and horizontal drilling
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Document ID: 3E68B215

Basic Principles Of Pilot Operated Flexible Element Regulators
Author(s): Michael Garvey Carol Nolte
Abstract/Introduction:
Pilot Operated Flexible Element Regulators are capable of providing very accurate control in natural gas transmission and distribution pipelines. The Pilot Operated Regulator provides advantages over both self-operated regulators and control valves. Primary benefits include simplicity of operation and elimination of any fugitive emissions caused by atmospheric bleed gas
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Document ID: 65369588

Orifice Meter Basics
Author(s): Kevin Finnan
Abstract/Introduction:
This class is going to be faithful to the title and focus on basics of orifice meters. It is intended as an introduction to any gas company employees who are interested in gaining a working knowledge of orifice meters, including where they are used and why. We will also briefly discuss the orifice meter from an operation and maintenance point-of-view
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Document ID: 4A628026


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