Measurement Library

North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop Publications (2012)

The Relevance Of Type Testing Of Transit Time Ultrasonic Flow Meters
Author(s): Casey Hodges, Terry Cousins
Abstract/Introduction:
In much of the world one of the major criteria for operators and Weights and Measures organisations is to determine the performace of a meter during operation in some form of type testing of the meters. In most cases the standards used are those produced by OIML, example API 22.2, although these are not necessarily type testing, but could be used for a basis of a type test. The paper concentrates on the flow measurement aspect of type testing, rather than the auxiliary, functions such as vibration and thermal effects on the components.
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Document ID: 0F956E67

Detailed Review Of Existing Empirical And Analytical Estimation Models For Multiphase Flow
Author(s): Anusha Rammohan, Abhinav Dixit, Vinay Natrajan, Manoj Kumar
Abstract/Introduction:
Multiphase flow is one of the most challenging problems in the area of flow metering. On one hand, the underlying physics is extremely complex, the understanding and modelling of which is a daunting task. On the other hand, accurate measurement of such complex and dynamic flow conditions non-invasively is undoubtedly complicated.
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Document ID: 9FBD9F48

Metering Associated Petroleum Gas Apg() - Field Experience With Ultrasonic Flow Meter
Author(s): Sven Holzbacher, Ekkehard Riedel, Dr. Volker Hermann, Andrey Zubakin, Aleksey Ishutin
Abstract/Introduction:
Associated petroleum gas (abbreviation APG) is a form of natural gas associated with crude oil (petroleum), either dissolved in the oil or as a cap of free gas above the oil. The current situation shows that the biggest part of worldwide produced APG is flared. Considering the energy content, the APG can be the base for fuel products used in the power generating industry, processing industry or gas compressing and oil pumping stations.
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Document ID: 2DC8BAB8

Different Requirements And Methods For Calibrating Gas And Liquid Ultrasonic Flow Custody Transfer Meters
Author(s): T. Kegel, T. Cousins
Abstract/Introduction:
There is one common purpose for wet calibrating Gas and liquid USMs, the fact that current measurements of the distance between and the angle of the transducers is not sufficient to allow for a prediction of the calibration factor within the required uncertainty limits. Both types of meter still require a base calibration to locate a basic meter factor. From this point on their philosophy and requirements diverge.
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Document ID: 9298EE88

Field Testing Experience Of Wet Gas And Multiphase Flow Meters Conducted In Saudi Arabian Wet Gas-Condensate Producers
Author(s): Mohammed Asiri, Ruben Villegas, Shahid Hussain, Ismail Buhidma, Abdullah Subaii
Abstract/Introduction:
The paper describes the challenges and uncertainties associate with the accurate flow measurement of gas, oil and water and the results of a trial test conducting using four mulitphase flow meters in wet gas-condensate producers at a wide range of flowing conditions. The measurements of these three phase is very critical for reservoir monitoring and production diagnostic and obtaining the accurate three-phase data poses a significant challenge for the majority of conventional multi-phase flow meters, because of the high-gas volume fraction (95% and above) nature of the wells.
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Document ID: C84B3ACE

Subsea Multiphase Flow Measurement - A New Approach
Author(s): O. H. Unalmis, J. Lievois
Abstract/Introduction:
Multiphase flow measurement in extreme environments such as subsea or in-well is a difficult task for many reasons including reliability/survivability/longevity issues, accessibility to the equipment, and complexity of the varying flow field as a function of position and time.
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Document ID: BF4C9C4C

DP Meter Diagnostic Systems - Operator Experiences
Author(s): Jennifer Rabone, Allan Bryce, Michael Morrison, Deverapallli Vajay, Ben Glover, Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
In 2008 1 & 2009 2 DP Diagnostics divulged the first comprehensive diagnostic concept for DP meters. In 2010 Swinton Technology partnered with DP Diagnostics and thsi diagnostic concept was developed into the industrial system called Prognosis. The first field tests of Prognosis were carried out by BP CATS and ConocoPhillips TGT and reported to the NSFMW in 2010 by Skelton et al 3. Since then Prognosis has been further developed and applied in the field to orifice and Venturi meters by several operators. This paper describes these developments and the field experience of these operators.
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Document ID: 1CC8DA97

Differential Pressure Meters - A Cabinet Of Curiosities And( Some Alternative Views On Accepted DP Meter Axioms
Author(s): Richard Steven, Charlie Britton, Joshua Kinney
Abstract/Introduction:
As DP meter technology is well established, recent flow metering conferences have seen little discussion on DP meters. This situation could imply there is no more significant knowledge to be gained in DP meter performance. However, there are still many unknowns and misperceptions regards DP meters. CEESI has compiled a list of such DP meter unknowns, misperceptions, unproven axioms and sales pitches that deserve discussion. Although this list is undoubtedly incomplete, there already exists far too much subject matter to cope with in one technical paper. Therefore, in this paper only some of these topics can be discussed. The subject matter produces a wide ranging discussion with surprising findings and conclusions that will be doubtless be considered controversial by some. Nevertheless, as DP meters are still extremely popular and widely used the stimulation of debate on DP meter performance is for the benefit of industry.
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Document ID: EDEAECDE

Errors Arising From The Use Of AGA8 Outside Its Valid Range
Author(s): David Mills, Norman Glen
Abstract/Introduction:
For custody-transfer standard flow measurement of dry, processed gaseous hydrocarbons in the UK sector of the North Sea, DECCs Guidance Notes for Petroleum Measurement specify that the flow rate measurements may be in either volumetric or mass units 1.
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Document ID: 4DDDBEF2

Discussion On Uncertainty Analyses
Author(s): Bob Peebles
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement systems are usually specified with a performance target which details the total acceptable measurement uncertainty to be associated with the measured product. The tool we employ to examine the performance of a measurement system is the uncertainty analysis. The measurement system uncertainty analysis is achieved by the development of an uncertainty budget which identifies, documents and combines the contribution of each device and algorithm proposed for use as in the design of the measurement system.
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Document ID: 2B792423

Allocation Uncertainty: Tips, Tricks And Pitfalls
Author(s): Phil Stockton, Allan Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement uncertainties and their estimation have been the subject of much discussion and analysis. However allocation uncertainties have not been so well explored - specifically the way in which the uncertainties in measurements propagate through the allocation process.
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Document ID: 956A6AE6

Permittivity Calculator: Method And Tool For Calculating The Permittivity Of Oils From Pvt Data
Author(s): Kjetil Folgers, Andreas Linge Tomren, Stig Froyen
Abstract/Introduction:
The permittivity of oil is an important input parameter for multiphase flow meters, and it should therefore be known with high accuracy in order to ensure accurate flow rate measurements. This is especially important at low water fractions. This paper presents a method for calculating the permittivity of crude oils and condensates directly from the petroleum composition (PVT-data).
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Document ID: 436AF592

A Study On The Impact Of Instrument Measurement Uncertainty, Degradation, Availability And Reservoir And Fluid Properties Uncertainty On Calculated Rates Of Virtual Metering Systems
Author(s): Robbie m. Lansangan
Abstract/Introduction:
A virtual metering system is a tool that is used to infer the oil, water and gas production rates. The tool can be utilized for both production and injection wells in the upstream oil & gas space. A virtual meter provides an estimate of a wells production by utilizing a set of input measurement data and parameters that describe the system.
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Document ID: C57CA3B3

Assessment Of Particle Erosion In Coriolis Meters
Author(s): Mark J. Bell, Mark Macleod
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes a project in which Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) were used to assess the effect of particulate erosion in two of Emersons Micro Motion Coriolis flow meters, a 3 inch dual u shaped meter (CMF300), and a 3 inch dual slightly curved tube meter (F300).
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Document ID: 4364598F

Practical Considerations For Liquid Tank Calibration By Metering/Incremental Method
Author(s): Mohammed Al-Torairi
Abstract/Introduction:
Tank gauging is widely used in custody transfer applications. When applied, the liquid measured is a function of tank volume. Most tanks used in custody transfer applications are calibrated by calculating the tanks volume based on the physical measurement of the empty tanks dimensions. In hydrocarbon measurement and for large tanks, this method might be an optimum choice for operational reasons.
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Document ID: AE23C210

Update Of Norwegian Regulations For Fiscal Measurement
Author(s): Steinar Fosse
Abstract/Introduction:
The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, celebrated its 40 years anniversary this year. The work to develop a Measurement regulation stated some years after the start up. A number of drafts were in use during the late 70ties and until the first official Regulations were put in force from 2. April 1984,
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Document ID: FE3574F5

Operational Measurement Experiences In North Sea Applications
Author(s): E. P. Spearman
Abstract/Introduction:
CNR International (U.K.) Ltd (CNRI) currently operates in six North Sea Asset locations (Tiffany, Murchison and Ninian North, South and Central platforms together with the Petrojarl Banff FPSO). ALl these assets have been operating for a significant number of years, ranging from the Ninian platforms, which commenced production in 1978, to the Banff FPSO, being the most recent having started production in 1996.
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Document ID: DF4BF9F2

Using CFD To Understand Multiphase And Wet Gas Measurement
Author(s): Neil Barton
Abstract/Introduction:
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) flow modeliing has proved to be a useful tool in single-phase flow metering. More recently, the increase in computer power has made multiphase models viable. However, there is a range of modelling approaches, which makes practical simulation of the behaviour of multiphase and wet gas flows in metering and/or sampling devices as much an art as a science.
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Document ID: 218E30DA

Gas Chromatography - Conditional Based Monitoring And Live Uncertainty Calculation
Author(s): Anwar Sutan, Paul Daniel
Abstract/Introduction:
On-line gas chromatography is now commonplace in the North Sea and is frequently used within Fiscal and Custody Transfer measurement systems. The uncertainty of the analysis from the gas chromatograph (GC) is of the utmost importance with the resultant analysis frequently at the core of economic transactions 1.
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Document ID: 880A58A6

What Do We Mean By C6+?
Author(s): Chris Cowper
Abstract/Introduction:
Transmission quality natural gases contain inert components (helium, nitrogen, carbon dioxide) and hydrocarbons up to C9 or C10, occasionally C12 at trace levels. Calculation of properties from composition would, in an ideal world, require fully detailed analysis so that the contributions of components or component groups can be properly assessed.
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Document ID: 0444EA0D

Wet-Gas Measurement: ISO/TR 11583
Author(s): Michael Reader-Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
ISO/TR 11583 1 was published in April 2012. This paper gives some information on the history of the document. It gives a brief summary of the work on which it was based. It gives, partly in an appendix, a detailed reply to criticisms of the document made at the North Sea Workshop in October 2011, and it shows how work done since October 2011 has provided support for ISO/TR 11583.
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Document ID: 967F5D0D

Limits On Achieving Improved Performance From Gas Ultrasonic Meters And Possible Solutions
Author(s): Klaus Zanker, Tom Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
At the 2010 NSFMW, we presented a paper Ref 1 covering the last 25 years of USM development. The paper chronicled the progression and adoption of gas custody transfer ultrasonic meters from the perspective of technology development, application experience, standards development and path configuration.
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Document ID: BF66E20E

Issues And Challenges With Pipeline Sampling
Author(s): Emmelyn Graham, Ming Yang, Neil Barton, Richard Harvey, Richard Paton, Chris Mills, And David Learmonth
Abstract/Introduction:
Sampling product from flowing fluid in pipelines is essential in the petroleum industry to obtain information on the composition of the fluids. The sample will allow measurement and qualification of the chemical composition of the fluids.
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Document ID: 6DC24B6B

A Liquid Condensate Ppm Water Analyzer - New Technology For Monitoring Coalescing Processes
Author(s): Bentley Scott, Enrique Capone, Graham Ison, Joel Choy
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of water percentage during gas well condensate water removal by coalescing filters is a key to prevent hydrates from forming in offshore pipelines. Although various methods of measurements have been investigated, the uncertainty of the water percentage measurement at ppm levels is large even with manual sampling.
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Document ID: 6BB335E5


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