Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (2012)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Fundamentals Of Fluidic Oscillation Measurement Alternative To Rotary Meter Measurement
Author(s): Richard C. Dewar
Abstract/Introduction:
The scientific community has known about fluidic oscillation as a measurement technology for many years. Continuing advances in technology make this type of metering a compelling alternative to mechanical gas meters. This paper will discuss fundamentals of operation, as well as features and benefits of this technology for the user. Based on Bernoullis Theory - A slow moving high pressure gas becomes fast moving low pressure gas at the nozzle exit forming a jet of gas. The jet, once formed can be controlled by the Coanda effect using an obstacle in the flow that is designed to optimize the performance of the meter. Controlling the jet path enables formation of feedback nodes of pressure on either side of the jet. This provides a predictable oscillation of the jet
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Document ID: 13D40218

Fundamentals Of Coriolis Flow Meters For Gas Measurement AGA Report No. 11
Author(s): Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early 1980s, Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in gas, liquid, and slurry applications with an installed base of more than one million units. Through significant design enhancements in the early 1990s Coriolis meters have rapidly gained worldwide acceptance in gas phase applications with over 100,000 meters installed worldwide and most notably the 2003 publication of AGA Report Number 11, Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis Meter
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Document ID: F52E8F71

Fundamentals Of Pressure Relief Valves
Author(s): Ken Ludvigsen
Abstract/Introduction:
Overpressure protective devices are of vital concern to the gas industry. Safety codes and current laws require their installation each time a pressure reducing station is installed that supplies gas from any system to another system with a lower maximum allowable operating pressure. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of various types of pressure relief valves, understand how they operate and how to size and select these devices so that overpressure protection is provided
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Document ID: 393B984B

Fundamentals Of Pressure And Temperature Measurement
Author(s): Jeff Goetzman
Abstract/Introduction:
Correctly measuring Pressure and Temperature is one of the most important elements in the accurate measurement of Natural Gas. The basic theories on Pressure and Temperature Compensation were established many years ago by two men, Robert Boyle an Anglo Irish philosopher, chemist, and physicist and Jacques Charles, a French Inventor, scientist and mathematician. Since we are discussing Fundamentals we will try to keep our discussion as simple possible.
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Document ID: 222BFC8A

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): Arthur Farve
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to the cost of production and transfer of natural gas, the industry has demanded a higher level of accuracy and an economical method for measurement. Orifice fittings and meter tubes satisfy this demand for most natural gas measurement applications today. The level of accuracy achieved in orifice measurement has been continually refined and improved upon since it was first put to use for measurement of petroleum products. The accuracy of orifice measurement is controlled by published standards currently AGA 3 Part 2 / API 14.3 April 2000 that define the requirements to achieve a known level of accuracy and eliminate error in measurement. The intent of this paper is to focus on the basics of orifice measurement
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Document ID: 66C7BB3B

Fundamentals Of Gas Laws
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters
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Document ID: 88B917BC

Fundamentals Of Multipath Ultrasonic Flow Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Dan Hackett
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses fundamental principles of ultrasonic gas flow meters used for measurement of natural gas. A review of an ultrasonic meters operation and the equations used to determine actual volumetric flow is presented. The ultrasonic flow meters diagnostic capability will also be briefly presented. Further, diagnostic data, in conjunction with gas composition, pressure and temperature, will be reviewed to show how this technology provides diagnostic benefits beyond that of other primary measurement devices. The basic requirements for obtaining good meter performance, when installed in the field, will be reviewed. Most of this information can be generalized to other manufacturers transit time ultrasonic flow meters however, these examples provided, particularly with respect to some diagnostic features, are based on the Daniel SeniorSonic ultrasonic flow meter
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Document ID: 79913E6E

Fundamentals Of Pressure Regulators
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
A regulator may be defined as a mechanism for controlling or governing the movement of machines or the flow of liquids and gases, in order to meet a standard. The primary function of a gas or liquid regulator is to match the supply of the fluid moving through it to the demand for the fluid downstream. To accomplish this, it measures the downstream pressure and makes adjustments accordingly
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Document ID: 7EF32AE2

Fundamental Principles Of Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): Julie Ellington
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement is the vertebrae of any natural gas utility. Without the ability to measure, it would be impossible to account for the flow of gas from receipt to delivery. Very much like an accountant that labors to keep the ledger balanced, a utility needs metering to balance the gas producers receipts against the end customer delivery
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Document ID: BEF01366

Fundamentals Of Turbine Meters
Author(s): Paul Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of all gas measurement used in the world today is performed by two basic types of meters, positive displacement and inferential. Positive displacement meters, consisting mainly of diaphragm and rotary style devices, generally account for lower volume measurement. Orifice, ultrasonic and turbine meters are the three main inferential class meters used for large volume measurement today. Turbines are typically considered to be a repeatable device used for accurate measurement over large and varying pressures and flow rates. They are found in a wide array of elevated pressure applications ranging from atmospheric conditions to 1440 psig. Turbine meters have also become established as master or reference meters used in secondary calibration systems such as transfer provers.
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Document ID: C1C9CB11

Fundamentals Of Energy Determination
Author(s): J. David Hailey
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents fundamental information necessary to understand and appreciate the concept of total gas energy in a natural gas pipeline. That is, to be able to converse with peers within the natural gas industry and understand basic concepts and terminology. Discussed is the historical transition from volumetric measurement to total gas energy including some of the basic terminology, physics, measurement, as well as the reasons for changes in methodologies. Included is industry acceptance of new concepts and regulations involving custody transfer as well as the instrumentation and systems involved in traditional and newer, more progressive forms of gas measurement
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Document ID: 75D9B0D0

Fundamental Principles Of Rotary Displacement Meters
Author(s): Sharmila Mukandrai
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classifications of gas meters. The first consists of inferential type meters, including, orifice, ultra-sonic and turbine meters, and the second is the positive displacement meters, which consist of diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferential type meters are so-called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas flow and calculating the volume based on the measurements. The positive displacement type meters are so-called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them
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Document ID: EBB8EDB9

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Chemistry
Author(s): Steve Whitman
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to understand the chemistry of natural gas, it is important to be familiar with some basic concepts of general chemistry. Here are some definitions you should know: Matter - anything that has mass and occupies space. Energy - the capacity to do work or transfer heat. Elements - substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical changes. There are approximately 112 known elements. Examples: carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. Atom - the smallest unit in which an element can exist. Atoms are composed of electrons, protons, and neutrons. Compounds - pure substances consisting of two or more different elements in a fixed ratio. Examples: water and methane. Molecule - the smallest unit in which a compound can exist or the normal form in which an element exists. Example: One molecule of water consist of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. One molecule of nitrogen consist of two atoms of nitrogen. Mixture - combination of two or more pure substances in which each substance maintains its own composition and properties. Examples: natural gas, gasoline, and air
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Document ID: 58DA3839

Fundamentals Of Electronic Flow Meter Design, Application & Implementation
Author(s): Jim Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic flow measurement as applied to the natural gas industry has advanced considerably over the last 30 years. Applications to address Upstream, Midstream and Downstream gas measurement technologies have become more complex. Over time it has become necessary to understand the fundaments that make up this ever changing environment. This paper will discuss the important fundamental parameters to consider when designing an Electronic Flow Measurement (EFM) system. Please be aware of the many variances to each specific design and understand this is only a fundamental paper to give new gas industry members a first look at the technologies that are required when considering an EFM design
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Document ID: 6DD82BBB

Clamp-On Ultrasonic Flow Meter Operation And Application
Author(s): William E. Frasier
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is directed to ultrasonic natural gas meters that use transit time across the gas pipe as the measurement variable. Custody transfer meters using sensors wetted with gas are the more familiar meter format. Clamp-on meters are quite similar.
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Document ID: 29D61A28

Characteristics Of Rotary Meter Performance
Author(s): Kevin Beaver
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper highlights several rotary meter performance characteristics. These characteristics profile a rotary meters capabilities in a wide array of applications from production to transmission, and distribution. Most of the characteristics have minimum standards adopted by agencies like AGA or ASTM. I will identify these standards, and incorporate them-where applicable-into my paper. In discussing these characteristics, I hope to give the reader a better understanding of the capabilities of rotary meters, and how the gas industry assesses these characteristics
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Document ID: C221B684

LNG Supply Chain & Custody Transfer Measurement In The U.S.
Author(s): Northstar Industries
Abstract/Introduction:
500 BTU/CF Manufactured Coal Gas was being Utilized in Europe and especially UK in the early to mid-1800s ?Manufactured Coal Gas was being Utilized in Major US Cities by the Civil War as Numerous Municipal Gas Lighting and then Heavy Industrial Applications. ?Natural Gas Transmission arrived in NE in the early 1950s. ?Complete Appliance Conversion was Required because of the new 1000 BTU/CF Fuel
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Document ID: 21B8986A

Auditing Gas Laboritories
Author(s): Joe Landes
Abstract/Introduction:
The data produced by Gas Chromatograph (GC) laboratories is used for many purposes, including product specification, accounting, safety and environmental compliance issues. The accuracy of this data has direct impact on all of these areas. Auditing laboratories responsible for producing this data is prudent business practice. The audit will provide a means of process improvement, through proper identification of deficiencies and a precise plan for corrective action. The level of confidence in analytical results will increase when the appropriate corrective actions are implemented
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Document ID: F0D484FD

An Overview Of The AGA Gas Quality Management Manual
Author(s): Terrence A. Grimley
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides an overview of the recently completed Gas Quality Management Manual 1 that has been in development by the American Gas Association Transmission Measurement Committee for the past seven years. The manual pulls together a wide range of information and provides context that allows both the expert and the novice to understand the why, how and what needed to develop a plan for managing gas quality
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Document ID: 1A935EA2

Verifying Gas Chromatographs At Custody Transfer Locations
Author(s): Shane Hale
Abstract/Introduction:
Verifying the correct operation and accuracy of the Gas Chromatograph (GC) is an integral part of a custody transfer metering system, and involves ensuring the accuracy of the analyzer at the time of testing, as well as confirming that the GC performed properly during the periods between validations and assessing the likelihood of continued proper functioning until the next validation. Because the GC will be offline during much of a validation procedure, the validation should only be performed at a time when the composition of the gas flowing through the metering station is relatively stable
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Document ID: 7652830D

Effects Of Wet Gas Flow On Gas Orifice Plate Meters
Author(s): Josh Kinney Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice plate meters are one of the most widely used technologies in industry for gas flow metering. This is due to their relative simplicity, the extensive publicly available data sets that led to several orifice plate meter standards 1, 2, 3, 4 and the fact that they are a relatively inexpensive method of gas metering. However, it is common in industry for gas meters to be installed in applications where the flows are actually wet gas flows, i.e. flows where there is some liquid entrainment in a predominantly gas flow. This is usually done out of economic necessity or due to the fact that the system designers were not aware at the systems conceptual design stage that the gas flow would have entrained liquid. Therefore, with the orifice plate meter being such a popular gas flow meter it is by default possibly the most common wet gas flow meter
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Document ID: AE51AFEE

Measuring Hydrocarbon Dew Point Accurately And Its Financial Impact
Author(s): Jack C. Herring
Abstract/Introduction:
Measuring Hydrocarbon Dew Point (HCDP) accurately is critical to the profitability ufproducinglproccssing natural gas. End users want a quality product and for good reason. When HCDP limits are written into the gas contract the producer/processors and pipeline operators each play a role in delivering that quality product. Accurately measuring HCDP in order to satisfY the customer touches every link in this vital supply chain. What is HCDP? What is involved in measuring HCOP accurately?
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Document ID: FB1E6040

Production Equipment Effects On Orifice Measurement
Author(s): Stormy Phillips
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is designed to serve as an update to the paper formally presented by David Pulley, of the same title. As such, it covers much of the same information and relies heavily on his work and research as source material. Sections have been added where deemed necessary to cover the changing needs and interest of the students of the American School of Gas Measurement Technology
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Document ID: 8BB6F5E8

Determination Of Hydrogen Sulfide And Total Sulfur In Natural Gas
Author(s): Marshall T. Schreve
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is a gas composed of one Sulfur Atom and two Hydrogen Atoms. H2S is formed by the decomposition of organic matter and is therefore, found naturally in crude oil and natural gas deposits. illS is a highly toxic, transarent, colorless and corrosive gas. Due to the toxic and caustic properties of this gas and its natural presence within natural gas, it is imperative to measure and control the concentration levels of H2S within natural gas pipelines. This paper will discuss the Properties, Purpose of Measurement and Measurement Technologies for H2S and discuss how these technologies can be adapted for measurement of Total Sulfur.
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Document ID: FBE69F59

2012 Asgmt Prevention Of Freezing In Measurement And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Collin Pawlak
Abstract/Introduction:
One way businesses in todays natural gas industry can be certain to maintain a presence in a competitive market is to be able to deliver a consistent supply to their customers. To ensure a reliable supply, companies must be aware of potential problems that could lead to interruptions or shutdowns in service and the procedures that can prevent these costly situations
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Document ID: FA8C994A

Advances In Natural Gas Sampling Technology
Author(s): Donald Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
content and volume. The energy content and physical constants utilized in determining its volume are computed from analysis. Therefore correct assessment of the value of natural gas is dependent to a large extent on overall analytical accuracy. The largest source of analytical error in natural gas is distortion of the composition during sampling. Sampling clean, dry natural gas, which is well above its Hydrocarbon Dew Point (HCDP) temperature is a relatively simple task. However, sampling natural gas that is at, near, or below its HCDP temperature is challenging. For these reasons, much attention is being focused on proper methods for sampling natural gas which have a high HCDP temperature
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Document ID: B16529DF

Periodic Inspection Of Regulators And Relief Valves
Author(s): James m. Doyle
Abstract/Introduction:
Inspections and tests on regulators and relief valves is a Department of Transportation Compliance rule. The sections within the DOT manual stating the rule include 192.351 through 192.359, 192.751, 192.479, 192.481, 192.739, and 192.741. Keep in mind these rules are the minimum required tests. Your Company or Regulatory Agency may be more stringent and require more or detailed testing. You must also keep in mind that the Manufacturer of your equipment will also provide a guideline pertaining to maintenance. These tests are not only required for safe, reliable service to your Customers, but also could be used in any legal proceeding for documentation and purpose.
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Document ID: 4AC676F2

Devices For Field Determination Of Water Vapor In Natural Gas
Author(s): Betsy Murphy
Abstract/Introduction:
Water vapor in natural gas has more than a substantial effect on the quality of the gas stream. Without quality measurement of water vapor the gas is basically not saleable. Contracts are written around it and companies spend a considerable amount of time researching the type of device to be used for a particular application. This paper will attempt to discuss the types of devices used for the measurement of water vapor in natural gas streams
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Document ID: A435EF41

Considerations For Sampling Wet, High Pressure, And Supercritical Natural Gas
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux Shannon m. Bromley
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the problems encountered when sampling wet, high pressure and supercritical natural gas - comments on how they relate to the API and GPA industry standards for natural gas sampling. It also discusses the use of phase diagrams in the design and operation of a natural gas sampling system
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Document ID: 3B06BE0B

Use Of Equations Of State And Equation Of State Software Packages
Author(s): Adam G. Hawley Darin L. George
Abstract/Introduction:
Determination of fluid properties and phase conditions of hydrocarbon mixtures is critical for accurate hydrocarbon measurement, representative sampling, and overall pipeline operation. Fluid properties such as compressibility and density are critical for flow measurement and determination of the hydrocarbon due point is important to verify that heavier hydrocarbons will not condense out of a gas mixture in changing process conditions
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Document ID: FE07F8FF

Overview Of Odorization Systems
Author(s): Kyle Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Odorization of natural gas is one of the most important aspects of delivering gas to customers in a distribution system. It is a requirement that is mandated by the Federal Government ever since the tragic death of students and teachers in a school house in New London, Texas in 1937. Technology, along with innovations to odorization techniques, has advanced rapidly in the last fifteen years, making odorization more reliable.
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Document ID: F0E08C8E

Calibration Standards
Author(s): Scott Martinez
Abstract/Introduction:
Process measurements and analyzer calibrations are key components to bottom-line success in the Petrochemical and Industrial Gas market. Analytical results drive processes to higher yields by monitoring vital components and impurities that either achieve desired results or lead to costly reruns and downtime. Analyzers must be kept in constant calibration to eliminate senseless downtime, and calibration standards play an integral part in meeting that success.
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Document ID: 86A38EC5

Operations Of Online Gas Chromatographs
Author(s): Shane Hale
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas chromatograph (GC) is an integral component of the natural gas custody metering station and has a large impact on the accuracy of the fiscal flow calculation. For this reason it is imperative that you install, operate and maintain the GC with the goal of maximum reliability and accuracy
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Document ID: 085F3893

Techniques Of Natural Gas Sampling And Composite Sampling Systems
Author(s): Marielle Verot
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays up and down, sometimes struggling but always competitive market, a producer of natural gas must strive to maximize their market value and achieve the highest return of invested income. The fluctuations seen recently in pricing make this an increasingly important goal. In order to accomplish this goal they must ensure they are receiving full value for the natural gas products they produce. In addition to the producer, it is extremely important for the other stakeholders, whether they be government, gathering system operator, processor, or transporter to do their due diligence to ensure they are also receiving or properly accounting for the true and full value of the natural gas products that pass through their systems. Royalty rates, transportation levies and processing fees are based on the value of the natural gas being commercially bought and sold, processed or transported
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Document ID: 00C5253D

Determining Proper Odorant Level
Author(s): Roy Montemarano
Abstract/Introduction:
Over 300 people died in an explosion on March 18, 1937 in a New London, Texas public school building. The natural gas that was being delivered to the school building was not odorized. At that time the natural gas was odorless, and there wasnt a law on record to mandate Odorization. As a direct result of this incident the United State Government passed a law that the chemical Mercaptan be put into natural gas to give it an identifying smell. Odorization requirements
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Document ID: C8733B3A

Techniques For Natural Gas Sampling A Discussion Of Field Methods For Obtaining Spot Samples
Author(s): Randall Messman
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas sampling is performed for a variety of reasons. Sampling is performed to determine total gas composition, hydrocarbon dew point, specific gravity, and most importantly, the value of the gas. Three techniques are normally used to obtain gas samples continuous composite sampling, continuous online sampling, or spot sampling. This paper will discuss the various spot sampling techniques, proper sampling implementation, and equipment utilized to obtain spot samples
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Document ID: 95364B15

D.O.T. Requirements For The Transportation Of Sample Cylinders
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The United States Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) is a department of the U.S. Federal Government which oversees all issues regarding transportation within the United States of America and U.S. Territories. Its influence around the world is great and widely respected, but its jurisdiction and power of enforcement is limited to the USA and its territories. As regards this paper, we will discuss the D.O.T. and its involvement surrounding sample cylinders for the hydrocarbon industry and the rules regarding the movement of these cylinders from point to point in the United States. The most important statement to be made is that the D.O.T. and Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49 (CFR-49) is the definitive and final authority on all issues regarding the handling and transportation of sample cylinders. Much has been written and quoted over the years and many regulations have changed over the years
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Document ID: 3C8E3A5E

Determination Of H2S And Total Sulfur In Natural Gas
Author(s): Ray N. Adcock
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is a chemical compound comprised of one Sulfur Atom and two Hydrogen Atoms. It is a colorless, extremely poisonous gas that reeks of rotten eggs. Hydrogen Sulfide is highly corrosive and renders some steels brittle, leading to sulfide stress cracking. Hydrogen Sulfide is formed when bacteria breaks down organic matter in the absence of oxygen and therefore is often found in crude oil and natural gas deposits. Due to the toxic and corrosive properties of Hydrogen Sulfide and its natural presence in natural gas, it is imperative to measure and control of the concentration levels of this compound within natural gas pipelines. This paper will address the properties, purpose of measurement and measurement methods for H2S and discuss how these methods can be adapted to the measurement of Total Sulfurs as well as H2S in natural gas streams
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Document ID: 4BFF7CA2

Ami For Gas Utilities
Author(s): David Anglin
Abstract/Introduction:
There was once a time when you could get a car in any coloras long as it was black. They had frames, running boards and 15 horsepower engines. Who could ever need more? Just like the auto industry has adapted from this original approach to meet the demands of consumers, regulators and shareholders, the gas industry must do the same. Automated meter reading - also known as AMR or AMI - provides that opportunity. This paper will compare and contrast AMR and AMI for gas utilities and provide important areas for gas utilities to consider when adopting or upgrading wireless meter technology
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Document ID: 444B0021

Overview Of AGA 7
Author(s): Angela Floyd
Abstract/Introduction:
Just when you thought you knew everything there was to know about Turbine meter measurement, wham, out comes a revised AGA 7 standard. Now those basic principles are all still valid but maybe those operating practices we have built into our operating procedures need a little review. Rather than proceed as generations have done before us, research has been completed on the meters, their installation and operating practices and the way we calibrate and field test them. So now we have some data to back up our methods and madness.
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Document ID: F877C1D6

Field Testing By Transfer Proving
Author(s): Larry K. Wunderlich
Abstract/Introduction:
Transfer proving was initially developed to provide an easier and more accurate field meter proving method. Because of the capacity capabilities of transfer provers (2000 CFH to 80,000 CFH) transfer provers are utilized in meter shops where bell prover capacity is limited and allow for shop testing of the larger capacity meters
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Document ID: 559BBE18

Ultrasonic Meters For Residential And Commercial Applications
Author(s): Paul Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
An ultrasonic meter falls into the classification of inferential meters. Unlike positive displacement meters that capture volume to totalize volume, inferential meters measure flowing gas velocity to totalize volume. Orifice meters use pressure drop to measure velocity to infer volume and turbine meters use the speed of the rotor to measure velocity to infer volume, while ultrasonic meters use sound waves to measure flowing gas velocity to infer volume. Ultrasonic meters have been around for many years in primarily liquid measurement. However, their application in the measurement of natural gas is relatively new, and has become more commercialized over the last decade. A significant contributor to the commercialization of ultrasonic meters in gas is affordable, highly accurate timing devices, that are being mass produced for computers and digital devices. Since changes in the speed of sound are much less in gas than in liquids, measurement of these timing changes needs to be measured to greater precision
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Document ID: 88A42346

Meter Selection For Various Load Requirements
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to provide meter station designers with a basic methodology for selection of an appropriate flow meter (or meters) for a given application. Since many applications require that a meter station operate over a broad range of flow rates or loads, an example is provided on how to address system rangeability while maintaining accurate flow measurement. Detailed technical descriptions of the functionality of the various available gas metering technologies is beyond the scope of this paper, but information of that type can be found in other papers in these Proceedings
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Document ID: 8BADE454

Unaccounted-For Gas Study In Distribution Networks
Author(s): Jay Shiflet
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Gas Distribution business Unaccounted Gas is referred to by various names or terms such as: Lost and Unaccounted-For, LUG, L&U, and UAF. In simplest terms, Unaccounted Gas is the result of the formula gas receipts minus gas deliveries. For the Measurement Group the process amounts to a gas inventory reconciliation based on the recorded volumes into the system(s) less the sum of the volumes out of the system(s). This can be a town by town or a total-system reconciliation
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Document ID: 89BB051F

Field Inspection And Calibration Of Volume Correcting Devices
Author(s): George E. Brown III
Abstract/Introduction:
Timely, diligent field testing and calibration of gas volume recording and correcting Instruments ensure that measurement Information fairly represents actual volumes. The Instruments save a company capitol and operating costs because they can record or integrate volumes at pressures and temperature above the normal pressurebase conditions specified In contracts for volume calculation. This allows the company to use smaller and fewer meters. Recording and correcting Instruments normally are connected to positive displacement, rotary and turbine meters in lieu of a direct readlng/compensating Index. The compensating instruments include
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Document ID: 2AA816DD

Differential Meters Other Than Orifice
Author(s): Kenneth Reed, III
Abstract/Introduction:
Cone Meters differ from other differential pressure type meters, such as Orifice Meters and Venturi Meters, basically by design only. They are all required to meet API Chapter 22.2 test criteria developed and published in 2005 and still being updated today. The Cone Meter is designed to measure liquid or gas. Cone Meters are proprietary in design and have limited third party testing due to patented designs and length of use in the Industry. The Orifice Meter is the oldest meter of the three that we will discuss and has the most third party flow lab test data available. The Venturi Meter history has mostly been utilized for liquids and steam
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Document ID: DB222996

Coping With Changing Flow Requirements At Exsisting Metering Stations
Author(s): James m. Doyle
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays competitive gas market, utility companies must meet aggressive market strategies or suffer the consequences. All industries have cash registers, and gas distribution is no exception. Our measuring stations are our cash register. The problem is, these stations were designed 10, 20, 30 or even 50 years ago, and are now performing tasks they were not designed for. Therefore, changes must be made. Measurement personnel today must be trained and taught to cope with changing flow requirements. But, modifying a station to meet todays aggressive market can be very expensive. Equipment, such as regulators and the primary element (the meter tube, the orifice plate holder, and the orifice plate), must meet A.G.A.
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Document ID: A62CA39D

Methods For Certifying Measurement Equipment
Author(s): Scott A. Crone
Abstract/Introduction:
Like any other piece of equipment, a measurement artifact must be maintained. Obviously, it has to be in working order in general. However, what is more important is that it be operating within specified parameters and providing measurements that are traceable to a known source or sources. This paper provides a general overview of calibration and certification. It also discusses some key terminology and methods
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Document ID: D2669BEC

Transient Lightning Protection For Electronic Measurement Devices
Author(s): Leon Black
Abstract/Introduction:
We have all heard of or seen the devastating effects of a direct lightning burst. Communication equipment destroyed. Transmitters and EFM devices vaporized into slag metal. Complete process and measurement systems down with extended recovery times. These effects are the most dramatic and the easiest to trace. However, these kinds of events are rare. The more prominent events are those that occur on a day-to-day basis without we, the user, even knowing. With the advent of the transistor and today when surface mount electronics is the norm and not the exception, transient suppression has become a science of necessity. Tight tolerances of voltage requirements and limited current carrying capabilities makes the new compact integrated circuits much more susceptible to many types of transients
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Document ID: 49982209

How To Perform A Lost & Unaccounted For - Gas Program
Author(s): John Mcdaniel
Abstract/Introduction:
Many (likely most) gas pipeline companies struggle with lostand- unaccountcd-for-gas (L&U) and it can be a significant cost to their bottom line as shown below. As shown in this inset, by reducing L&U from 0.6 percent to ,25 percent, a typical company with a 2 BCF daily throughput could save almost S18 million annually based on S7.00 gas prices, which is a daily loss 0S49,000
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Document ID: A0DDC985

Flow Meter Installation Effects
Author(s): Eric Kelner
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter station piping installation configuration is one of a number of effects that may adversely affect meter accuracy. Some piping configurations can distort the flow stream and produce flow measurement bias errors (i.e., offsets in the meter output) of up to several percent of reading. Valves, elbows, or tees placed upstream of a flow meter are just some of the piping elements that can distort the flow stream. In this paper, installation effects are discussed with respect to two of the four main components of a flow measurement system: the meter, or primary element, and the secondary (pressure and temperature) instrumentation. The effect of the velocity profile of the flow stream on orifice, ultrasonic, and turbine flow meters is discussed next. Installation conditions that may adversely impact the accuracy of pressure and temperature measurements are discussed after that. The gas chromatograph and the flow computer, the third and fourth components, are treated in separate courses.
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Document ID: DDCE8222

An Overview Of Industry Standards Related To Natural Gas Measurement
Author(s): Barry Balzer
Abstract/Introduction:
What is a standard? Why are standards important? Merriam-Webster dictionary defines standard as: 1) a conspicuous object (as a banner) formerly carried at the top of a pole and used to mark a rallying point especially in battle or to serve as an emblem 2) something established by authority, custom, or general consent as a model or example 3) something set up and established by authority as a rule for the measure of quantity, weight, extent, value, or quality 4) the fineness and legally fixed weight of the metal used in coins 5) the basis of value in a monetary system 6) a structure built for or serving as a base or support From these definitions, it appears that one could conclude that a standard should have value be established by general consent or by an organization be a yardstick to measure quantity, quality, and value and be a base or support upon which one can built procedures and policies.
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Document ID: B5E9A2D7

Effects And Control Of Pulsation In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Michael Royce Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulsation created by compressors, flow control valves, regulators and some piping configurations are known to cause significant errors in gas measurement. In recent years the Pipeline-and Compressor Research Council (peRC) now know as (GMRC) Gas Machinery Research Council, a subsidiary of the Southern Gas Association, commissioned and funded various pulsation research projects at Southwest Research Institute (SWRI) in San Antonio, Texas. This research culminated in the publication of several technical papers, including the April 1987 peRC report 10.87-3 titled Pulsation and Transientinduced Errors at Orifice Meter Installations and a report, An Assessment of Technology for Correcting Pulsation Induced Orifice Flow Measuremenf dated November 1991.
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Document ID: 3DAC1604

Onsite Proving Of Gas Meters
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increased use of Natural Gas as a fuel, and higher natural gas prices buyers and sellers of natural gas are seriously looking at ways to improve their natural gas measurement and reduce the error in natural gas measurement. A 6 Turbine or Ultrasonic meter operating at 1,000 Psi will move 100 MMSCF/Day. An error in measurement of only one tenth of one percent (0.1%) on 100 Million Standard Cubic Feet (MMSCF) of Natural Gas selling at 4.00 per Thousand Standard Cubic Feet (MSCF) will cause an over or under billing of 400.00
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Document ID: C942CAAC

How Not To Measure Gas/Orifice
Author(s): Dee Hummel
Abstract/Introduction:
Measuring natural gas is both a science and an art. Guidelines and industry practices explain how to accurately measure natural gas. The art comes in trying to minimize errors and prevent measurement problems. However, sometime its easier to explain how not to measure gas when reviewing measurement errors. Measurement errors can be caused through poor installation practices, poor measurement practices, operational changes, and human error. The purpose of this paper is to address some real life cases of measurement errors
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Document ID: 4723D49C

Current Perspectives On Measurement The Impact Of Measurement In A Changing Business Environment
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
As the energy business has evolved, so too have the measurement and communications needs associated with the ever-changing operational, informational, business and regulatory requirements. Energy quantities now realize dynamic valuations that can experience large variances within very short time periods. Skill requirements of personnel are constantly changing as technologies develop. Energy goals must be accomplished in safe and environmentally responsible manners. These dynamics require that accurate and timely measurement information is readily available in order that the demands associated with these challenges may be effectively addressed and managed
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Document ID: 65E4D34B

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Paul J. La Nasa
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents methods for determining the uncertainty of both differential and linear metering stations. It takes into account the type of meter, number of meters in parallel, type of secondary instruments, and the determination of physical properties. The paper then relates this information to potential influence on system balance
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Document ID: 8E8F6865

Efm Dala Communications - Problems And Solutions
Author(s): Edward H. Smyth
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas companies in all segmentsupstream, midstream, transmisssion and distribution - have deployed Electronic Flow Measurement (EFM) devices on a massive scale. Since the information contained within the EFMs is crucial to the companys operations, robust and reliable systems to communicate with EFMs are required. The EFM data needs of some departments are mission-critical. Gas controllers need real-time information to safely and effectively operate large stations and systems. They need to know what is happening now. Other departments can live with near real-time data
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Document ID: 9F3C4347

Ultrasonic Flow Meter Calibration Considerations And Benefits
Author(s): Wayne Haner
Abstract/Introduction:
The increased use of natural gas as the primary source of energy internationally, combined with the increased market price is driving the expansion and modernization of gas transportation infrastructure and is encouraging more accurate measurements of gas flows. To ensure the fair transaction at custody transfer locations, gas pipeline companies are demanding credibility and excellence of meter calibration as a main parameter in ensuring accountability for the gas invoiced. The explosive growth in the application of high accuracy ultrasonic metering technology for natural gas flow measurement has corresponded to the emphasis in the importance of accurate measurement at custody transfer points. Accurate smart metering provided by ultrasonic metering technology has lead to greater commercial confidence and has provided the opportunity for a reduction in custody transfer disputes.
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Document ID: B5724F1A

An Overview And Update Of AGA 9 Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association published Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters Ref 1 in June 1998. It is a recommended practice for using ultrasonic meters (USMs) in fiscal (custody) measurement applications. This paper reviews some of history behind the development of AGA Report No. 9 (often referred to as AGA 9), key contents and includes information on meter performance requirements, design features, testing procedures, and installation criteria. This paper also discusses changes that will be incorporated in the next revision. At the time of this paper the expected publication date is the Fall of 2006.
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Document ID: FF2B41CC

Training Field Measurement Personnel Overview Of A Comprehensive Curriculum And Program
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The knowledge base expectation that exists today for the measurement technician is extremely demanding. From the latest in electronic controls to pneumatic controlsfrom communication system support to dualdisciplined or even tri-disciplined techniciansfrom the measurement equipment they support to the procedures that must be followedfrom the regulatory requirements governing the facilities to the training of field personnel all create a tremendous and ongoing challenge to meet these demands
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Document ID: 49554070

Pressure Effect On Turbine Meter Gas Flow Measurement
Author(s): Paul W. Tang
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure sensitivity of turbine gas meters is a well observed phenomenon. However, very few published experimental pressure test data on turbine gas meters can be found for study until the last few years. Regulators in many countries either mandate or recommend the calibration of turbine gas meters close to their intended operating pressures in order to minimize measurement error caused by pressure variation. This paper explains the dependency of k-factor on line pressure, and the relationship between operating pressure and the error performance of turbine meters
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Document ID: FF54D50A

Calculating The Speed Of Sound In Natural Gas Using AGA Report No. 10
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
The speed of sound in natural gas is the velocity a sound wave travels in the gas. There are a number of gas properties that affect the speed of sound and they include the composition of the gas, the pressure of the gas and the temperature of the gas. The American Gas Association Report No. 10 Speed of Sound in Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbon Gases provides an accurate method for calculating the speed of sound in natural gas and other related hydrocarbon fluids
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Document ID: EA2977CA

Automating Gas Measurement
Author(s): Richard L. Cline
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address concepts of SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) Systems and their application to the measurement industry. An important focus of the paper is to provide the reader with an understanding of the technology and with guidelines to be used to evaluate this equipment as part of an automation project
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Document ID: 423A2BA0

Ethics
Author(s): John L. Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the discussion of ethics the first issue is always nomenclature. Sadly, this is often the topic that gets the least attention and frequently those involved in the conversation conduct deep insightful discourses in which there is virtually no understanding exchanged, although the participants will all agree that the quality of the rhetoric was outstanding. The problem with the words ethics and morals is that they are generally interchangeable. Admittedly there are subtleties in their use and connotation but generally they both mean a system of standards for good and evil, right and wrong, and the condition of being in harmony or disharmony with them (ethical, unethical, moral, immoral).
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Document ID: 53D37DE0

Utilizing Wireless Instrumentation In Well Optimization
Author(s): Denis Rutherford
Abstract/Introduction:
The Natural Gas and Oil industry is continually driven by cost cuning measures and the need to gain more operational efficiencies and visibility to regulatory requirements. This paper summarizes a solution in which wireless instruments integrate with other conventional equipment to offer a rapidly deployable advanced well optimization system. Wireless instrumentation products provide cost-effective and easy to install alternatives to traditional, hardwired sensor sites. These rugged field units are designed for the majority of Oil & Gas applications and for installations ranging from general purpose to Class I Div I hazardous locations with extreme temperature and humidity ranges
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Document ID: 2245B9F1

A Review Of API Mpms 14.3/AGA Report No. 3 - PART2
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
Periodically, natural gas measurement standards are created or revised. In the period 1993 through 1999 Part 2 of ANSI 2530/API MPMS 14.3/AGA Report No 3 underwent revision. It is the intent of this paper to discuss the highlights of this revision
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Document ID: 0747A729

A Historical Overview Of Basic Electrical Concepts For Field Measurement Technicians Part 1 - Basic Electrical Concepts
Author(s): Gerry Pickens
Abstract/Introduction:
The efficient operation and maintenance of electrical and electronic systems utilized in the natural gas industry is substantially determined by the technicians skill in applying the basic concepts of electrical circuitry. This paper will discuss the basic electrical laws, electrical terms and control signals as they apply to natural gas measurement systems. There are four basic electrical laws that will be discussed.
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Document ID: 0C77A1F9

A Historical Overview Of Basic Electrical Concepts For Field Measurement Technicians Part 2 - Common Control Signals And Communications Protocols
Author(s): Gerry Pickens
Abstract/Introduction:
A number of control signals have been developed and used as technology has evolved. Control signals are a standardized method of conveying information from one device to another. A control signal is the data sent from one device to another by a specific method. In industrial process instrumentation, transmitted information is data. Data can be transmitted in many formats and over many different types of media. In addition, the data may be analog or digital in form. This paper will discuss the most common types of control signals used in the natural gas industry
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Document ID: 2FB63E63

Electronic Pressure Calibrators
Author(s): Roger Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure calibration is as important today as it has been for a very long time, but the way calibration is done and the equipment used to do it has changed drastically. In the past it was a standard practice to use a primary standard for pressure calibration. That standard was normally a dead weight tester or a manometer. Today with more accurate secondary standards available there is a larger choice in what can be used for pressure calibration. What is used normally will depend on the requirements that have to be met and the equipment that is available
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Document ID: 6FAB7B16

Auditing Electronic Gas Measurement Per API Chapter 21.1
Author(s): Keith Fry
Abstract/Introduction:
Auditing evolved as a business practice as owners began to realize a standardized form of accounting must exist to prevent fraud. Financial audits made their way into businesses during the late 1700s. The industrial revolution brought about the separation of job duties beyond what a sole proprietor or family could oversee. Managers were hired to supervise the employees and the business processes. Businesses began to expand geographically where previously they were all local. Owners, who could not be in more than one place at a time or chose to be absent, found an increasing need to monitor the accuracy of the financial activities of their growing businesses. Owners responded by hiring people to check their financial results for accuracy, resulting in the process of financial auditing. In the early 1900s and at the request of the Securities and Exchange Commission, the auditors reports of duties and findings were standardized. Financial auditors developed methods of reporting on selected key business cases as an affordable alternative to examining every detailed transaction. It was found with auditing that the evaluation of both financial risk and financial opportunity was improved.
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Document ID: BB0E92CB

Protection Of Natural Gas Measurement Equipment Against Moisture And Corrosion
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
Desiccants, Moisture and Corrosion Control, VCI ABSTRACT This presentation addresses problems associated with moisture and corrosion caused by high relative humidity and airborne contaminants. By controlling moisture and corrosion long-term, many problems associated with sensitive field electronics can be avoided
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Document ID: 40C2A9A1

Flow Conditioning And Effects On Accuracy For Fluid Flow Measurement
Author(s): Blaine D. Sawchuk Dale P. Sawchuk Danny A. Sawchuk
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the last several years research has shown that by improving on the flow conditioners used in natural gas metering applications, measurement is improved and installation cost can be reduced. The standards developed for orifice meters (AGA 3/API 14.3 and ISO 5167) addresses the question of flow conditioner design and testing to ensure the meter performance when subjected to various flow perturbations. This paper reviews testing carried out by Southwest Research Inc. and the NOVA Research and Technical Centre performed on the CPA 50E flow conditioner in accordance with AGA 3/API 14.3 and ISO 5167.
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Document ID: D73A44F3

Improving Flow Measurements With Improved Calibration And Data Handling Procedures
Author(s): Duane Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The knowledge base from a field measurement technician to the measurement analyst is extremely demanding. Every field technician is tested in both knowledge and skills on a daily basis regarding: ? Electronic controls to pneumatic controls ? Communication system support ? Multiple technical disciplines ? Support of measurement equipment ? Procedures that must be followed (SOP) - Standard Operating Procedures ? Regulatory requirements governing the facilities ? Ongoing training of field personnel These factors and many more create a tremendous and constant challenge for every organization. The gas measurement analyst requires a completely different set of skills to interpret and understand the information documented by the field regarding testing and calibration procedures. The task for the measurement analyst is to absorb the wealth of information presented, and utilize their extensive knowledge base in determining when a current month adjustment or even a prior month adjustment is warranted. Each time an analyst reviews data from the field, a question should be asked, Did the technician follow the correct procedures in performing the calibration?
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Document ID: 700447E8

Problems Unique To Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jackie R. Tims
Abstract/Introduction:
Some major problems and unique solutions will be addressed with gas measurement on offshore platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. This presentation will show the major roll safety, transportation, and weather play in the measurement facility. Proper operation, design, and installation will ensure accurate measurement
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Document ID: A6783F8B

Basic Electronics For Field Measurement
Author(s): Russ Parsons
Abstract/Introduction:
The three basic laws we will discuss are Ohms law, Kirchhoffs voltage law, and Kirchhoffs current law. The main terms used are voltage (units are Volts), current (units are Amps or milliamps), and resistance (units are ohms). These terms by themselves are meaningless unless a relationship can be established. An analogy that we can use to visualize the relationship between voltage, current and resistance is water flowing through a pipe. In the water analogy, pressure that pushes the water would correspond to voltage. The water flowing through the pipe would correspond to current. Any obstruction in the pipe restricting the flow would correspond to resistance
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Document ID: 4283C9B1

Orifice Plate Meter Diagnostics
Author(s): Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice plate meters are popular for being relatively simple, reliable and inexpensive. Their principles of operation are relatively easily understood. However, traditionally there has been no orifice meter self diagnostic capabilities. In 2008 & 2009 a generic Differential Pressure (DP) meter self diagnostic methodology 1,2 was proposed. In this paper these diagnostic principles are applied to orifice meters and proven with experimental test results. The diagnostic results are presented in a simple graphical form designed for easy use in the field by the meter operator
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Document ID: 2989DBE3

Continuous Monitoring Of Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Randy Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many in our industry who would consider the advancement of the ultrasonic meter to be the greatest improvement in gas measurement in the past twenty years. Its my opinion that the immense improvement in gas measurement is not so much the ultrasonic meter itself. Instead, I believe it is the meters ability to detect conditions that would compromise its own accuracy and ability to communicate those conditions to the user. It is in the area of communicating those conditions, that we often under-utilize the meters capabilities. Employing electronic flow computers and SCADA systems to collect and analyze ultrasonic meter data can provide many benefits for todays natural gas pipeline company
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Document ID: 484AFBF1

Understanding Diagnostic And Expert Systems In Ultrasonic Flow Meters
Author(s): Marcel J.M. Vermeulen Jan G. Drenthen Hilko Den Hollander
Abstract/Introduction:
Custody transfer ultrasonic gas flow meters are the cash registers of the companies. These cash registers should measure fair and accurately. To determine the accuracy in most of the times only one aspect is taken into account: The calibration: The deviation of an ultrasonic flow meter to the national standards under ideal flowing conditions. Viewing only to this item, all manufacturers show similar specifications, this despite the obvious differences in their designs:
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Document ID: 68A4743E

Advance Communication Designs
Author(s): Bob Halford
Abstract/Introduction:
We say Advanced Wireless Data Radio Communication Systems Design Process not because this is a more indepth and more technical process, but because the systems involved are complex in nature and must be carefully designed and programmed. If anything, what I want to do is teach you a more simplified approach and technique to design a SCADA or Telemetry project, but one which you do the same whether the system is large or small. By design, I mean we take this specified approach, or Process, which is consistent every time to show us geographically where the sites are and what the terrain challenges are for each site. We think more about one site at a time than the whole forest of sites. We need to visit the area and know the foliage conditions, man made structures and any other issue that may inhibit a good communication path.
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Document ID: 5587C486

Design And Installation Of A Complete Measurement & Control Facility
Author(s): Thomas G. Quine
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation is intended to illustrate the implementation of a successful project. These principles can be applied to measurement and control projects, LNG projects, and LPG projects. The strategy presented involves performing through preliminary engineering, performing final design and procurement, qualification of installers, construction, testing, commissioning and finally, training and documentation
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Document ID: 4EDA82FC

Control Room Management And Related Best Practices
Author(s): Na
Abstract/Introduction:
Executive Summary This paper summarizes a SCADA implementers perspective regarding the intent of the Pipeline Hazardous Materials Safety Administrations (PHMSA) Control Room Management (CRM) rule. In addition, this paper provides a fresh approach to CRM, describing why companies should use the CRM process to go beyond compliance requirements and implement operating best practices that would significantly enhance operations reliability and pipeline safety
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Document ID: E8DFD9F2

Scada And Communications In Gas Transmission Systems
Author(s): Edward H. Smyth
Abstract/Introduction:
SCADA systems provide for safe, reliable, semi-efficient operation of gas transmission systems. Advanced applications and interfaces to business systems provide the keys for highly profitable operation. This paper introduces the basic building blocks of the SCADA system, including field devices. The SCADA host and advanced applications are discussed in detail. The paper concludes with a discussion of SCADA trends
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Document ID: C5077C4A

Lessons Learned From The API Mpms, Chapter 14.1 Gas Sampling Research Project
Author(s): Darin L. George Eric Kelner
Abstract/Introduction:
Between 1999 and 2005, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), the American Petroleum Institute (API), the United States Minerals Management Service (MMS), and the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) co-sponsored an extensive natural gas sampling research program at the Metering Research Facility (MRF), located at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The results of this research provided a basis for the most recent revisions to the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) Chapter 14.1, Collecting and Handling of Natural Gas Samples for Custody Transfer. The research supported revisions that produced both the 5th edition of the standard, published in 2001, and the 6th edition, published in February 2006.
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Document ID: E5500084

Comparing Plug & Seat Regulators & Control Valves
Author(s): Lamar Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper will be to compare a plug and seat regulator to a control valve for high-pressure natural gas installations such as: power plants, city gate stations, large industrial customers, compressor stations, and storage fields. The features, benefits, capabilities, and differences of both devices will be outlined, to enable the reader to make an educated selection. In addition, acceptable design practices will be reviewed concerning sizing, gas velocities, noise levels, equipment layout, and performance. The ball valve is the most commonly used type of modulating valve for natural gas pipeline applications, for that reason, we will limit this discussion to comparison between the plug and seat regulator and versions of a 1/4 turn ball valve
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Document ID: FC1FD61A

The Importance Of Discerning The Impact Of New Measurement Technolgy
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
With the current demand for improved technologies in the area of fluid measurement, the rush to the market place is raising as many questions as it is answering. In the last 30 years, the natural gas pipeline industry has transitioned from the supplier of clean, dry gas to the mover of billable gas energy clean and dry or dirty and wet. The LNG market has impacted the operations of the typical gas supply systems worldwide. The demand for more and more crude oil has put pressure on old measurement designs to become increasingly flexible to a variety of crude oil deliveries. Designing and creating improved products for the measurement of volume and quality has provided new challenges as the marketing and transportation of oil and natural gas has changed. This paper will focus on the natural gas sector, however,
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Document ID: 1888F1FC

Scada And Measurement Data Acquisition
Author(s): Russell m. Rusty() Fields
Abstract/Introduction:
Definition Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition SCADA information in the energy sector is typically used for near real time decision making for well, pipeline or compressor station operation. It is also key information for displaying to SCADA screens for providing visual acuity in a concentrated view of the operation, such as a tank levels for a field, manage plunger systems, view alarms for an area, monitor communications and much more. You can visualize any aspect of a business from well, pipeline, communications performance, data storage, network performance, system performance and much more. Think about the data used to urgent decisions and what data it requires, this fits the general SCADA description profile.
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Document ID: 36FEC2A5

Communication Between The Office And Field
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Transferring the knowledge base from a field measurement technician to a back office volume analyst can be extremely challenging. A Field technicians skill set is tested on a routine basis therefore, the technician must be knowledgeable in: electronic controls to pneumatic controls communication system support multiple disciplines support of measurement equipment procedures that must be followed regulatory requirements governing the facilities ongoing training of field personnel Each organization is constantly facing challenges due to these factors as well as many others.
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Document ID: B1C39C9B

Electronic Gas Measurement Auditing
Author(s): Perry Dee Hummel
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic Gas Measurement or EFM auditing is a very important process of the natural gas industry. Only a few short years ago, the dry recording device for custody gas measurement. All that has changed with the advent of the flow computer volumes are recorded and generated at the field level, and imported to the measurement system. Careful review of meter data should be part of the monthly close process
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Document ID: BBFAD291

Understanding The Advantages Of Ip Networks
Author(s): Burke P. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Convergence in the Oil and Gas Sector Todays oil and gas industry faces increasing pressure to maximize the capability of its wireless infrastructure while minimizing operational and developmental costs. Unprecedented uncertainty and business volatility are transforming the landscape, as the oil and gas industry becomes more competitive, profit-oriented, and responsive to a fickle and savvy clientele. The key to developing a successful enterprise-wide networking strategy is to recognize that it is only part of a larger strategy-one in which modern oil and gas facilities must literally reinvent themselves
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Document ID: 52DF5F37

Web Solutions For Orifice Measurement And Monitoring
Author(s): Matt Diese
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline and production companies are continually faced with the challenge of obtaining operational data and making it available to their employees. In recent years the convergence in the advances in the technologies of the client/server technology, and IP ready communications have brought forth a new lower cost alternative to traditional SCADA systems. With the growing numbers of experienced and reputable suppliers of web based data monitoring and control systems in the market today, the feasibility of automating locations has changed. No longer do only the most productive wells or gathering systems receive consideration for
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Document ID: F2B50158

Field Data Capture Without Paper Forms
Author(s): Bruce Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter inspections, configuration changes, calibration verification, troubleshooting, and gas sampling generate important subsets of measurement data. Automated computer systems capture, process, store, and report this data better than manual, paper-based systems minimizing effort, time, resources, and error for field and office workers
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Document ID: 4F0F2379

Training Office Measurement Personnel
Author(s): Perry Dee Hummel
Abstract/Introduction:
Experience is the best teacher. Weve all heard that saying, but, what if there aren t any experienced personnel left to hire? After years of downsizing, mergers, and attrition, the industry finds itself in a shortage of good trained personne1. The only way to overcome this problem is to provide the new employee with comprehensive training. Successful training is paramount to the success of the gas measurement department and your company
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Document ID: 1CC6FCDC

Gas Contracts Impact On Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): T. Dean Graves
Abstract/Introduction:
Much effort is spent to achieve accurate measurement. Up to date measurement standards, modern meter station design, high quality equipment, and proper measurement operations are all necessary for measurement accuracy. Unfortunately these processes do not assure measurement accuracy if the contract does not also support accurate measurement. The contract impacts measurement accuracy by what it addresses and what is left unaddressed. More focus needs to be applied to the measurement sections of the contracts. Hopefully this paper will help the reader better understand the relationship between the contract and accuracy
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Document ID: C7907A57


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