Measurement Library

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (2011)

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course

Diagnostics For Large High Volume Flow Orifice Plate Meters
Author(s): Mark Skelton, Simon Barrons, Jennifer Ayre, Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
In 2008/9 DP Diagnostics disclosed a proprietary differential pressure (DP) meter diagnostic methodology 1,2. Swinton Technology (ST) has subsequently developed software named Prognosis in partnership with DP Diagnostics. Prognosis allows these generic DP meter diagnostic methodologies to be applied in flow computers thereby making these principles available for field applications.
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Document ID: D63608DA

High Volume Measurement Using Turbine Meters
Author(s): John A. Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
For over one hundred years the turbine meter has been servicing large volume applications of the natural gas market. During this time the turbine has continuously evolved into a device that offers the industry new and unique features. This paper will focus on the significant advancements of this technology as well as how they are applied in the field today.
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Document ID: 523CB09D

Basics Of Self-Operated And Direct-Acting Spring Regulators
Author(s): Rick Schneider
Abstract/Introduction:
Spring operated gas regulators are force balanced mechanical devices that operate everything from your gas grill at home to large transmission systems. Regulators are often referred to as a control valve, governor, or pressure reducers. The system designer uses regulators for several reasons, first comes safety, economics, and to improve the efficiency of utilizing the gas. With gas fired equipment becoming more sophisticated due to efficiency and emissions, proper selection, application and understanding of spring operated regulators is becoming more critical
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Document ID: 35AFD403

Prevention Of Freezing In Measurement And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Tom Fay
Abstract/Introduction:
One way businesses in todays natural gas industry can be certain to maintain a presence in a competitive market is to be able to deliver a consistent supply to their customers. To ensure a reliable supply, companies must be aware of potential problems that could lead to interruptions or shutdowns in service and the procedures that can prevent these costly situations
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Document ID: 4F8E0CCA

Control Valve Noise
Author(s): Ross Turbiville
Abstract/Introduction:
Noise has always been present in control valves. It is a natural side effect of the turbulence and energy conversion inherent in control valves. This paper will address how noise is created, why it can be a problem, and methods to attenuate noise created in control valves.
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Document ID: 38476550

From The Wellhead To The Burner Tip: A System Overview
Author(s): John Rafferty Pat Callahan,
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is presented at the Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course - Fundamentals Section. The paper is designed for the first year student to understand the basic flow of natural gas and the terminology utilized from Production and Storage areas to end use by consumers. Specific focus is given to history of natural gas, gas transmission, city gate stations, and distribution systems.
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Document ID: BA19CBE8

Fundamentals Of Gas Laws
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters
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Document ID: 94486655

Gate Station Design
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
The City Gate or, Take, Station, is the interchange of natural gas between: Two interstate pipelines An interstate pipeline and a local gas distribution company (LDC) An interstate pipeline and a large industrial end user (usually a power plant) The City Gate station is one of the more complex designs a natural gas engineer will deal with in the course of a career. Like all projects, a properly designed and constructed gate station begins with good preliminary engineering.
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Document ID: 55B168A4

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): John A. Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of all gas measurement used in the world today is performed by two basic types of meters, positive displacement and inferential. Positive displacement meters, consisting mainly of diaphragm and rotary style devices, generally account for lower volume measurement. Orifice, ultrasonic and turbine meters are the three main inferential class meters used for large volume measurement today. Turbines are typically considered to be a repeatable device used for accurate measurement over large and varying pressures and flow rates.
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Document ID: 5AEF5530

Fundamentals Of District Regulator Station Design
Author(s): James P. Davis And Scott A. Laplante
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the fundamental steps necessary to begin and complete a district regulator design. It will focus on the techniques NSTAR uses to develop target locations and the subsequent designs. This paper will cover replacements and new installations
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Document ID: C92A08F7

High Pressure Services
Author(s): George Levesque
Abstract/Introduction:
The code governing pressure control of gas delivered from high-pressure distribution systems is 192.197. This part of the code has been updated several times (11/07/1970, 07/13/1998, and 09/15/2003) since its inception on August 19, 1970. 192.197 details when overpressure protection is required and lists some acceptable methods of overpressure protection. For distribution systems with MAOPs over 125 PSIG, the code is pretty clear on the requirement for, and the application of, overpressure protection. For MAOPs below 125 PSIG, there are several factors that are looked at like the design of the service regulator, whether the gas is free from materials that could interfere with the proper operation of the regulator, the body size of the regulator, as well as other factors
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Document ID: 44D91115

Basics Of Electronics And Hazardous Locations
Author(s): Greg Thomas Shumate
Abstract/Introduction:
These basic topics will be discussed. Electronic Terms Measurements using a Multi-Meter Using a Pressure Calibrator Using a Temperature Calibrator Electronics plays a major role in todays gas measurement and control. The following basic information will better prepare the measurement technician for the tasks related to electronic measurement and control.
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Document ID: B9170636

Integrating Metering, Billing, Security And Control Processes
Author(s): Robert Findley Todd Lamb
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement and process control equipment has been on a progressive trend over the past decade. Due to continuous improvements, products have developed from pneumatic to electronic processes, reduced in physical size and increased in overall functionality. While the core AGA flow/energy equations have not altered, the electronic equipment calculating these equations has undergone dynamic changes. These changes will dramatically affect the gas industry, bringing new ideas, concepts and realities
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Document ID: 2128CD9D

Basics Of Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): Jerry Kamalieh
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the United States, The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat-rate basis. Its growth was slow, its charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority
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Document ID: 6E6B9B7A

Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meter Basics
Author(s): James W. Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the operating principal and application of ultrasonic gas flow metering for custody transfer. Basic principals and underlying equations are discussed, as are considerations for applying ultrasonic flow meter technology to station design, installation and operation. These applications are illustrated based on operating experience with the Instromet 3 path and 5-path Q.Sonic custody transfer flow meter, however, many of these issues may be generalized to devices manufactured by others
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Document ID: F40F015B

Applying Wireless To ETHERNET/IP Automation Systems
Author(s): Gary Enstad & Jim Ralston
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of Ethernet for industrial networking is growing rapidly in factory automation, process control and SCADA systems. The ODVA EtherNet/IP network standard is gaining popularity as a preferred industrial protocol. Plant engineers are recognizing the significant advantages that Ethernet-enabled devices provide such as ease of connectivity, high performance and cost savings
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Document ID: 9A5BA74B

Rotary Displacement Meters Basics
Author(s): Todd Willis
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classes of gas meters. These are inferential type meters, which include orifice and turbine meters, and positive displacement meters, which include diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferential type meters are so-called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas flow and calculating the volume based on the measurements
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Document ID: 00B14F14

Clamp-On Gas Flow Technology Advancements Increase Performance And Diagnostic Capabilities For Check Metering And Custody Transfer Applications
Author(s): Mark Imboden Ron Mccarthy
Abstract/Introduction:
The recent buzz created by the clamp-on wide beam technology in the gas measurement world has compelled even the gas industry skeptics among us to take notice. Rapid acceleration of successful installations across the globe and the surprising performance results being obtained (as shown in the following pages) has only added fuel to the excitement. Field clamp-on gas flowmeters provide a unique tool for solving flow related challenges without interrupting the operation of a gas pipeline
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Document ID: 20C42897

In-Situ On-Site() Gas Meter Proving
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas flow rate measurement errors at field meter stations can result from the installation configuration, the calibration of the meter at conditions other than the actual operating conditions, or the degradation of meter performance over time. The best method for eliminating these or other sources of error is with in-situ (on-site) calibration of the meter. That is, the measurement accuracy of the field meter station should be verified under actual operating conditions by comparing to a master meter or prover.
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Document ID: 3C4FF65F

Advancements In Scada And Flow Measurement Technology
Author(s): Michael Rozic
Abstract/Introduction:
The ability to perform accurate and reliable measurement and SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) was a daunting task for anyone prior to the invention of microprocessors in the early 1970s. Most natural gas measurement, control and communication prior to this were done pneumatically. Differential measurement in combination with mechanical driven chart recorder were one of the first devices used in the field and is still used today to measure and record natural gas through pipelines and at well heads
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Document ID: 4429C537

The Proper Application Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): Kevin C. Beaver
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper highlights several rotary meter performance characteristics. These characteristics profile a rotary meters capabilities in a wide array of applications from production to transmission, and distribution. Most of the characteristics have minimum standards adopted by agencies like AGA or ASTM. Ill identify these standards, and incorporate them-where applicable-into my paper.
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Document ID: 2C51339B

Low Volume Metering Using Differential Pressure Cone Technology
Author(s): Philip A. Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
The north east region of the USA has many natural gas wells that are declining in flow due to extensive exploitation and production over many years. These traditional wells are showing reduced flow-rates that may require changing the scope and design criteria of the metering station which usually is designed to the API 14.3 - AGA 3 orifice plate measurement standard designed for pipeline quality gas.
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Document ID: 6EE15C3B

Coriolis Expands The Capabilities For Measuring Natural Gas
Author(s): Keven Conrad
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis mass flow measurement for natural gas proves to minimize the uncertainties associated with volumetric flow measurement. The installation requirements and overall cost can be greatly simplified and reduced. The need for proper straight run and flow profile dependencies are shown to be virtually eliminated. While simulating such high level perturbation and installation effects, Coriolis continues to perform well within the accuracy specification of custody transfer. Engineering and manufacturing enhancements allow for Coriolis to now measure gas over an extended range of flow while maintaining a very precise method on inline, in-situ meter verification.
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Document ID: 4E6CF33A

Gas Meter Proving: The Equipment And Methodology Used Today In The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): Gregory A. Germ
Abstract/Introduction:
To determine the accuracy of a natural gas meter, a known volume of air is passed through the meter, and the meter registration is compared against this known volume. The known volume of air originates from the meter prover. In earlier times, the gas meter prover was a stand-alone device (usually a bell-type prover), manually operated without any electronics or automation. Today, the majority of gas meter provers are fully automated computer controlled and operated, and responsible for other job functions besides the proving of gas meters. The belltype meter prover - though still commonly used in the industry - is not the only kind of meter prover used today.
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Document ID: 6C440C90

Basic Properties Of Natural Gas
Author(s): John H. Batchelder
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is misunderstood by many. It is believed by some that all gas is a liquid that is pumped into automobiles or into tanks and is used as a fuel. It is thought of as a dangerous material that will blow up easily. Others do not differentiate between LP gas, natural gas, or gasoline - They are all the same thing, right?
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Document ID: 44B23744

Automated Rotary Meter Diagnostics
Author(s): Kevin Beaver And Roman Artiuch, Ph.D.
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the introduction of rotary gas meters in the 1920s, gas companies have been using differential testing to assess meter condition. By measuring the pressure drop across a rotary meter gas companies use the differential test as a means of determining whether or not meter accuracy has changed. When used in accordance with manufacturer recommendations, and gas industry standards like ANSI B109.3, differential testing is a cost effective method for assessing meter condition while a rotary meter is in-service.
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Document ID: D268E3F6

Flow Calibrating High Volume Ultrasonic Flowmeters- Considerations And Benefits
Author(s): Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary method for custody transfer measurement has traditionally been orifice metering. While this method has been a good form of measurement, technology has driven the demand for a new, more effective form of fiscal measurement. Ultrasonic flowmeters have gained popularity in recent years and have become the standard for large volume custody transfer applications for a variety of reasons
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Document ID: 1D57D828

Cc-Csi CEESI Crime Scene Investigation
Author(s): William E. Frasier
Abstract/Introduction:
This case is real. The names have been changed to protect the innocent. Examine the evidence photograph below. The view is the meter tube inlet of an ultrasonic meter retrofit. A ten-inch Daniel chordal meter was installed in place of an orifice meter. Flow is from left to right. Everything needed to define the crime and solve it is in the picture. Our task is to solve the crime
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Document ID: 3CF1FD18

Fundamentals Of Electronic Flow Meter Design, Application & Implementation
Author(s): Jim Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic flow measurement as applied to the natural gas industry has advanced considerably over the last 30 years. Applications to address Upstream, Midstream and Downstream gas measurement technologies have become more complex. Over time it has become necessary to understand the fundamentals that make up this everchanging environment
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Document ID: 9F4A270F

Operation And Maintenance Considerations For Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses both basic and advanced diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USM), and how capabilities built into todays electronics can identify problems that often may not have been identified in the past. It primarily discusses fiscal-quality, multi-path USMs and does not cover issues that may be different with non-fiscal meters as they are often single path designs. Although USMs basically work the same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in AGA 9 Ref 1.
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Document ID: 20A56DEC

Proper Operation Of Gas Detection Instruments
Author(s): George Lomax
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the operation, maintenance and calibration for a number of instruments available today for the detection of combustible and toxic gases. The applications for these various instruments will also be discussed. This will include the investigation of odor complaints on a customers property, leakage survey applications, and other safety requirements
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Document ID: 7B226E01

Flow Meter Installation Effects
Author(s): Eric Kelner, P.E.
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter station piping installation confi guration is one of a number of variables that may adversely affect meter accuracy. Some piping confi gurations can distort the fl ow stream and produce fl ow measurement bias errors (i.e., offsets in the meter output) of up to several percent of reading. Valves, elbows, or tees placed upstream of a fl ow meter are just some of the piping elements that can distort the fl ow stream. In this paper, installation effects are discussed with respect to two of the four main components of a fl ow measurement system: the meter, or primary element, and the secondary (pressure and temperature) instrumentation
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Document ID: 8DD8588E

Network Analysis - Part 1 Gas Flow Equation Fundamentals
Author(s): Tim Bickford
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past 25 years engineers in the natural gas industry have come to depend on the computer as a tool to perform complex hydraulic network analysis. Analysis, which would take weeks to perform by hand or by punchcard machines 30 years ago, can now be accomplished in mere hours or sometimes seconds. Today gas network analysis software, though complex and extremely sophisticated, has become very user friendly
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Document ID: E9D77C17

Pressure Control Basics
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure control is the fundamental operation of all natural gas delivery systems. It provides a safe and reliable energy source for manufacturing and heating systems throughout the world. Pressure control is utilized to balance the system supply demands with safe delivery pressures. Pressure control is used in all phases of the delivery system as follows
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Document ID: 47C3907C

Corrosion Control Considerations For M&R Stations
Author(s): Michael J. Placzek, P.E. John Otto, Jay Keldsen,
Abstract/Introduction:
Corrosion control for a measurement/regulation station can be very challenging. The majority of scenarios that can cause corrosion occur at M&Rs. Corrosion at an M&R can be broken into three major categories: External (external surface of the piping in contact with the soil or water electrolyte), Atmospheric (external surface of the piping in contact with the air) and Internal (internal surface of the piping exposed to liquids, bacteria or other contaminants in the product or gas flow).
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Document ID: F3BEA653

Project Management Fundamentals
Author(s): John Jay Gamble
Abstract/Introduction:
What is a Project? A complex, non-routine, one-time effort to create a product or service limited by time, budget, and specifications. (Gray & Larson, 2008)
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Document ID: DD82C4D0

Grounding Techniques At Plants And Gate Stations With( Section On Power Line Shared Rows
Author(s): Donald R. Long Matthew G. Esmacher
Abstract/Introduction:
A thorough review of common electrical and instrument grounding techniques employed by the natural gas industry especially where power lines share the Right of Wayand practical suggestions for improvement
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Document ID: 97FBD6D0

Life Of An Appalachian Gas Well
Author(s): Timothy L. Altier
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas was once an unwanted byproduct of oil production. Since it is the gas that pushes oil and brine to the wellbore, the gas was flared, sometimes in great quantities in order to produce the oil. No effort was made to conserve the gas so, ironically, the field pressure would decline rapidly and most of the oil would be left in the reservoir. Its first use as a fuel was in the immediate areas the surrounding oilfields and even then many times it was flared in the town square as a source of lighting and entertainment
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Document ID: B2A03C0A

Underground Storage Of Natural Gas An Introduction
Author(s): Andrea I. Horton
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas storage is playing a continually growing role in the United Stated energy industry. As more and more interstate pipelines bring natural gas to the high gas-demand areas, such as the Northeast, from the high production areas, such as the Gulf, the Rockies, and Canada, energy companies seem to all be scrambling to find potential new storage reservoirs to hold and cycle gas being transported to high market areas.
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Document ID: B265DA57

Components Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
To truly understand gas measurement, a person must understand gas measurement fundamentals. This includes the units of measurement, the behavior of the gas molecule, the property of gases, the gas laws, and the methods and means of measuring gas. Since the quality of gas is often the responsibility of the gas measurement technician, it is important that they have an understanding of natural gas chemistry
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Document ID: 7300B275

Interchangeability And Gas Quality Tariff Process
Author(s): John Hand
Abstract/Introduction:
In the recent past, the term gas quality usually referred to a gass corrosive effect on the pipeline integrity of the pipeline. Most of these corrosion-related gas quality issues are well known by the natural gas industry. Gas quality now has taken on a new meaning for the industry as new sources of gas enter the national pipeline system and traditional sources decline
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Document ID: 967A9D68

Fundamentals Of Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Merle Bell
Abstract/Introduction:
Btu is the three letter acronym for British thermal unit. One Btu is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water from 58.5F to 59.5F (about 1055.056 joules (SI)). Heat (Btu), is gained from the burning of Natural Gas otherwise known as Oxidation, which is shown in the chemical equations below: CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O + HEAT (1010 Btu/CF) 2C2H6 + 7O2 4CO2 + 6H2O + HEAT (1769 Btu/CF) C3H8 + 5O2 3CO2 + 4H2O + HEAT (2516 Btu/CF)
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Document ID: 2EE6F925

Financial Impact Of Accurately Measuring Hydrocarbon Dew Point
Author(s): Jack Herring
Abstract/Introduction:
Measuring Hydrocarbon Dew Point (HCDP) accurately is critical to the profitability of producing/processing natural gas. End users want a quality product and for good reason. When HCDP limits are written into the gas contract the producer/processors and pipeline operators each play a role in delivering that quality product. Accurately measuring HCDP in order to satisfy the customer touches every link in this vital supply chain. What is HCDP? What is involved in measuring HCDP accurately
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Document ID: B9A0DB64

Practical Considerations Of Gas Sampling And Gas Sampling Systems
Author(s): Sean Stevens
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to be able to take a representative sample of a hydrocarbon product is necessary to ensure proper accounting for transactions and efficient product processing. The various sampling methods that are available and the options and limitations of these methods are investigated the most appropriate equipment to use the reasons for its use and correct installation of the equipment are also addressed.
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Document ID: 1049ECE9

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement
Author(s): Pat Donnelly
Abstract/Introduction:
Samuel Clegg made the first practical gas meter in England in 1815. It was a water-sealed rotating drum meter that was improved in 1825 however, it was still very costly and very large. Thomas Glover developed the original diaphragm meter in England in 1843. It consisted of two diaphragms, sliding valves and linkage. T. S. Lacey patented the pre-payment meter in 1870
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Document ID: 978852B1

Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy Methodology For Measuring Water Vapor And CO2 In Natural Gas
Author(s): Thomas Ballard
Abstract/Introduction:
Water is a naturally occurring component of natural gas. Too much water in natural gas can cause serious problems for transmission and processing, so the gas must be dried to acceptable levels. If the gas is not dried properly the following problems may occur:
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Document ID: DE9FBFA5

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Water Vapor Measurement
Author(s): Samuel C. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
This document will introduce the basic approaches to trace moisture measurements for natural gas and provide some advantages and disadvantages of each approach. There are many applications where trace moisture measurements are necessary such as in clean dry air, hydrocarbon processing, heat treatment processes, pure semiconductor gases, bulk pure gases, insulating gases such as those in transformers and power plants, and in natural gas pipelines
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Document ID: 43AABD4E

Ngc+ - Five Years Later: Keeping Gas Quality Issues In Perspective
Author(s): Robert D. Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
Its been five years since the Natural Gas Council Technical Teams issued technical white papers addressing the science and policy concerns of hydrocarbon liquid dropout and gas interchangeability. Have the papers help bridge the gap between science and policy regarding gas quality issues or are we still an industry divided?
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Document ID: B4716E22

Basic Electronic Communications For The Gas Industry
Author(s): Ken Pollock
Abstract/Introduction:
The recent several years have shown remarkable changes in the communications field. New methods and digital techniques have allowed the Communications Technician to solve communications problems that previously required unusual solutions or required manual data collecting. There are now methods to get the required data automatically and without human intervention that are proving to be reliable and cost effective without requiring high costs or constant maintenance
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Document ID: 9E846BB0

Communications For The Gas Industry
Author(s): Jeff Randolph
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss communication basics and communication options for the gas industry. An overview of communications basics and communication technologies available to the Gas Industry will be discussed
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Document ID: FD22D54A

Field Communications For Ldc Pressure Monitoring
Author(s): Michael Marsters Matthew Pawloski John Coffman
Abstract/Introduction:
Communications technology - Its still hard to beat a landline . . . It seems that the next logical step for our increasingly intelligent correctors, data loggers and flow computers would be to give them the ability to communicate. This would seem natural, with the growing number of personal computers in the gas industry and the tendency toward automatic data collection for large industrial and commercial customers. New challenges arise almost every day in the timely collection of billing data from interruptible service monitoring to the daily balancing of transportation gas.
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Document ID: E17A41AA

Wifi Ip Communications For Improved Field Support And Scada
Author(s): Dave Kimberling
Abstract/Introduction:
Have you ever stopped to consider just how dependent we all are on instantaneous communications? Or, how as different generations we communicate with each other? Both subjects are hot topics in business today. Now, stop for a minute and consider how many different pieces of equipment, and how many different forms of communications you as a person carry around with you on the job every day. And then ask yourself these questions - Who is the U.S. Postal Service anyway? and Why do I still have a land line telephone
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Document ID: B5F18236

Data, This Is Your Life
Author(s): Robert Findley
Abstract/Introduction:
It is the realization by many famous thinkers, physicists and mathematicians over the course of history that everything in the world can be represented by groups of 1s and 0s. The foundation of almost all information can be broken down into a simple true/false, yes/no, 1/0 over time. (Quantum Mechanics theories can prove the writer wrong someday, but for the purposes of this paper, Im safe) Information (or data) can be represented by electronic, mechanical, printed text or smoke signal and the objective of distributing it over any communication medium is the key to its existence.
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Document ID: 26873035

The Evolution Of Data Collection
Author(s): Jim Gardner
Abstract/Introduction:
Revolutionary New Technologies Drilling and production have changed Data collection has changed Pad wells offer greater production Pad wells demand better and faster communication
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Document ID: 4F1DC776

Principles Of Odorization
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
Odorization injection and monitoring technology has advanced dramatically in the past 15 years. A former Chairperson of the Appalachian Short Course, Harold Englert of Columbia Gas Virginia, used to refer to odorization as, A little bit of science, and a whole lot of magic. The intent of this paper is to provide the reader with practical solutions to develop a solid odorization program, even in dense urban environments, in the hope of removing the, Magic, to a successful odorization program
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Document ID: 7A8A75EA

Self-Operated Regulator Basics
Author(s): Trent Decker
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application that we need to look more deeply into the fundamental of the regulators operation
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Document ID: 373615F1

The Phenomenon Of Odor Fade & Associated Risk
Author(s): Ed Flynn
Abstract/Introduction:
Recent Natural Gas explosions have raised the awareness of the deadly phenomenon known as odor fade. Utility managers and regulators are going back to the drawing board to see what action should be taken to prevent these catastrophic accidents.
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Document ID: 8C2AF1FA

Steel Pipeline Pickling Using The Wisconsin Public Service Methodology
Author(s): Patrick J. Callahan
Abstract/Introduction:
New pipeline construction provides for many opportunities to enhance the safety of the installers and the owners and the public. All throughout pipeline construction we look for areas of improvement, the excavation, installation, backfilling, restoration and public relations, but once the pipeline is finished and ready for commissioning everyone wants the gas to start flowing. The introduction of natural gas into a pipeline means the job is complete and the new line is in service.
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Document ID: 573895C6

Odorization Kept Simple And Reliable
Author(s): Paul m. Herman
Abstract/Introduction:
Odorization of natural gas is one of the most important aspects of delivering gas to customers in a distribution system. It is a requirement that is mandated by the Federal Government ever since the tragic death of students and teachers in a school house in New London, Texas in 1937. Technology, along with innovations to odorization techniques, has advanced rapidly in the last fifteen years, making odorization more reliable.
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Document ID: CF3806B4

Gas Odorants - Safe Handling , Health And The Environment
Author(s): Daniel E. Arrieta David C. Miller Eric Van Tol
Abstract/Introduction:
Thiols (i.e. mercaptans), sulfides, and tetrahydrothiophene (THT) have been widely used in the odorization of natural and liquefied petroleum gas due to the fact that natural gas does not possess an odor. Mercaptans, for example, have proven to be very effective in odorizing because of their low odor threshold and therefore, immediate impact on the olfactory system (Roberts, 1993).
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Document ID: 04A5307C

Gate Station Chromatography - A Case Study Of 21 New Installations
Author(s): David Gedaminski
Abstract/Introduction:
With an influx of new sources of natural gas supply points being introduced in the Northeast region of the United States, the importance of the measurement of natural gas heating values is becoming ever more critical
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Document ID: F4D1992D

A Practical Discussion Of Wet Gas Flow And Its Effects On Ultrasonic Gas Flowmeters
Author(s): Peter Kucmas And Martin Novak
Abstract/Introduction:
How do liquids effect the operation, performance and measurement accuracy of Ultrasonic Gas flowmeters? In most cases, commercially available Ultrasonic flowmeters for gas are designed specifically to measure a single-phase fluid accurately, consistently and reliably. Unfortunately in the real world, applications, at one point or another, expose an ultrasonic gas flowmeter to some forms of liquids.
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Document ID: F54714C2

Flow Conditioning And Effects On Accuracy For Fluid Flow Measurement
Author(s): Blaine D. Sawchuk, Dale P. Sawchuk, Danny A. Sawchuk
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the few decades research has shown that by improving on the flow conditioners used in natural gas metering applications, measurement is improved and installation cost can be reduced. The standards developed for orifice meters (AGA 3/API 14.3 and ISO 5167) addresses the question of flow conditioner design and testing to ensure the meter performance when subjected to various flow perturbations.
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Document ID: 1831FAE6

Data Management For Distribution Integrity Programs
Author(s): Michael Flock
Abstract/Introduction:
December 2009, the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration of the Department of Transportation amended the Federal Pipeline Safety Regulations requiring operators of gas distribution systems to develop and implement integrity management programs. The regulations include requirements for formal risk assessments and analysis of performance data to demonstrate improvements in safety.
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Document ID: 00E95C75

Basic Principles Of Pilot Operated Flexible Element Regulators
Author(s): Michael Garvey
Abstract/Introduction:
Pilot Operated Flexible Element Regulators are capable of providing very accurate control in natural gas transmission and distribution pipelines. The Pilot Operated Regulator provides advantages over both self-operated regulators and control valves. Primary benefits include simplicity of operation and elimination of any fugitive emissions caused by atmospheric bleed gas. However, it is important to recognize the limitations of the pilot operated flexible element regulator and apply it accordingly.
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Document ID: 3D69FC55

Basic Pressure And Flow Control
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry utilizes two devices to reduce gas pressure and control gas flow. The first is the regulator and the second is a control valve. The control valve is utilized for high volumes and it can perform flow control as will as pressure control. This paper will provide the fundamentals of control valve types, sizes, and the controllers that are utilized to operate the control valves. We will also investigate the differences between the regulator and the control valve and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
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Document ID: F728949A

Orifice Meter Basics
Author(s): Kevin Finnan
Abstract/Introduction:
This class is going to be faithful to the title and focus on basics of orifice meters. It is intended as an introduction to any gas company employees who are interested in gaining a working knowledge of orifice meters, including where they are used and why. We will also briefly discuss the orifice meter from an operation and maintenance point-of-view
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Document ID: CE9A9CAA


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