Measurement Library

Measurement Science Conference Publications (2011)

Verification Testing Of Wind Speed Measurements From 2D Sonic Anemometers
Author(s): Adam Havner, Rachael V. Coquilla, And John Obermeier
Abstract/Introduction:
Sonic anemometers are used to measure wind speed in 1, 2, or 3 dimensional flows by relating the change in sound waves (Doppler shift) to the magnitude of the passing wind. For sonic sensors configured to measure 2D or 3D flows, it is also possible to determine the wind direction. Because of the ability to characterize such flows, sonic anemometers are essential instruments for atmospheric turbulence. Available standards for the performance testing of sonic anemometers are ASTM D 6011-96 and ISO 16622, which involves a rigorous test program that evaluates the inherent three-dimensional characteristic of sonic anemometers. For sonic sensors used in research applications, where it may be necessary to map complex flows at high resolution, such detailed test procedures for the sonic instrument may be necessary
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Document ID: 60E635E5

Measuring The Impact Of Education And Training
Author(s): Georgia L. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
As metrologists we are typically subject matter experts (SMEs) in a technical area of measurement. However, most of us are not experts in measuring the value or impact of education and training efforts using standard models for evaluation. This paper will cover background concepts for training evaluation by Kirkpatrick/Phillips and demonstrate how we can incorporate these concepts into our metrology conferences and training sessions to demonstrate learning, application, and the impact of our efforts rather than just to see if people are satisfied with the presentations when they leave a session.
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Document ID: B35153DF

Item Unique Identification: An Overview
Author(s): Alan E. Scrivner
Abstract/Introduction:
Item Unique IDentification (IUID) is an asset identification system, instituted by DoD, and consisting of a common marking standard and a set of business rules for identifying serially managed and items of supply. Once an item is assigned a Unique Item Identifier (UII) it is never changed even if the item is modified or re-engineered. UII assignment ensures global uniqueness and is physically marked on assets using a two-dimensional (2D) Data Matrix symbol with the data formatted in accordance with specified standards. Implementation of an IUID system within the calibration laboratory will provide an unambiguous method for managing test and monitoring equipment from initial induction to disposal. This will improve the accuracy of data and enhance inventory and process control for calibration assets.
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Document ID: 545C9D15

Metrology For The Next Generation: Introducing The Find A Cool Career In Metrology Dvd
Author(s): Elizabeth J. Gentry
Abstract/Introduction:
The National Conference of Standards Laboratories International (NCSLI) 164 Education Liaison and Outreach Committee recently developed a Metrology Career Multimedia DVD, titled Find a Cool Career in Metrology. The DVD is designed for use as an outreach tool to reach teachers, students, and high school counselors. The project was a joint venture between the American Society for Quality, Measurement Quality Division (ASQ-MQD), Measurement Science Conference (MSC), and NCSLI.
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Document ID: A0F7B3E0

Out Of The Crisis? PART1 The Metrology Crisis Revisited - Quo Vadis, Quality?
Author(s): Walter J. Mcgee
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is the first of a two part series. This part is a recopy of the report. The Metrology Crisis 1, presented to a 1987 ASQC conference in Sacramento, California. Beginning with the abstract below, it is shown in its entirety followed by an assessment of what it was intended to accomplish.
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Document ID: 551CF4C5

Error And Data Analysis With Recursive Autoregressive Exogenous Estimator
Author(s): Vu Trieu Minh
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper analyses the error and data archived using recursive autoregressive exogenous estimator (RARX). A error detection and adaptive controller system is then developed. This system consists of two main parts: the first is the error detection and the second is the controller self reconfiguration. For the first part, we propose a simple scheme for detecting errors with RARX estimator. For the second part, we consider and install a digital adaptive controller with pole replacement. Simulations for the suggested system are illustrated and analyzed
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Document ID: F18A3059

Equipment Calibration Tradeoff Analysis
Author(s): Dennis Jackson
Abstract/Introduction:
The analysis of calibration scenarios has traditionally been done based analysis of a single test point or measurement. However, there is a real need and interest in determining the effect of calibration scenarios for test equipment consisting of many measurements and test points. Generally, calibration intervals and calibration costs apply at the equipment level rather than at the test point level
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Document ID: D55CF5C8

Introduction Into A New Stanag Nato( Standardisation Agreement) For Calibration Requirements
Author(s): Gerhard Mihm
Abstract/Introduction:
International military agreements and standards are published in STANAG. They are pretty much reference for civil norms, too. So far, there was no STANAG suitable for metrology purposes. Due to increasing international cooperation in missions, a new STANAG was developed. In the past, during crisis and war, but also nowadays in military missions or operations within a multinational environment with specialist forces from different countries working together, mutual support and supply are provided on contractual basis. To care for t&m equipment in a hostile environment, military personal with special calibration labs have to provide service where needed
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Document ID: EDD0AFC6

Applications Of Thermal And Quantized Voltage Noise For Intrinsic Temperature Standards
Author(s): W. L. Tew1 And S. P. Benz
Abstract/Introduction:
The recent advances in ac waveform synthesis using quantized voltage pulses have enabled new methods for the measurement of absolute temperature. At the same time, the increased linearity and sampling rates of digital electronics have established frequency-domain processing as the preferred technique in Johnson noise thermometry (JNT). The spectral-ratio quantum-based JNT developed at NIST has achieved measurement uncertainties as low as 12 MK/K at 273 K and 40 K/K for temperatures in the range 500 K to 700 K, with even lower uncertainties achievable in the near term. We describe the theory and experimental realization of the quantized voltage noise source (QVNS) and spectral JNT from the metrology standpoint as intrinsic temperature standards. The role of JNT in special point-of-use thermometry applications and future research directions are also discussed
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Document ID: 6AB1BA78

Cmm Touch Probe Vs Scanning
Author(s): Stephen A. Long
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss the benefits and pitfalls of various methods of Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) probing, and the pros and cons of each. The data has been collected over several years of actual evaluations performed in industry and laboratory experimentation. As the CMM industry embraces full contact and non contact scanning methods, the benefits become clear, but still have various pitfalls in their metrology.
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Document ID: 864D13B3

A Framework For Enterprise Performance Excellence & Sustainability
Author(s): Vern Goodwalt
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past thirty five years I have had the good fortune to have worked with some great organizations in materials, operations, and division management positions using best practice enterprise systems and lean tools. Additionally, over the past nine years I have been providing enterprise support at the Command and Department level in deployment of Navy Sea Enterprise initiatives at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Corona Division. This white paper provides a concise overview and application of the Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence, ISO Standards, Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Navy (DoN) enterprise initiatives and other best practice tools currently being deployed to achieve enterprise performance excellence and sustainability in both industry and the Department of Defense its branches
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Document ID: 700D8278

Promoting Three Rs Metrology
Author(s): R. D. Kauffman
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses an approach to promoting and explaining the world of measurement science, known as metrology. Whether showing a curious 5th grader, encouraging an adult looking for a job change, giving an explanation to a new employee, or justifying a project for funding, accomplishing this task is both challenging and rewarding. The three Rs concept encompasses the use of the following ideas: reduce to laymans terms the language used while explaining the metrology issue relate the metrology issue to everyday life as a civilian and/or an active duty soldier recap to stay on point. For the novice, too much information too quickly can frustrate and this is what needs to be avoided.
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Document ID: 10700E3F

Whats Below The Iceberg: Determining The True Total Cost Of Ownership Of Test And Measurement Equipment Can Be As Easy As Filing Your Taxes
Author(s): Duane Lowenstein
Abstract/Introduction:
Understanding the true cost of ownership of an asset is always hard, for Test and Measurement equipment, even harder. This difficulty is due to variables like calibration, technological life span, depreciation and a number of others. Determining what variables are needed and how to financially organize them is similar to filling out your taxes. Like your taxes, all the numbers are probably known, but where to find them and how to plug them in is the difficult part,. With new tax software now most people can fill out their own tax returns less painfully. This paper will take a similar approach for understanding the true cost of ownership of your Test and Measurement equipment. It will develop a model that will allow a repeatable approach in understanding the Capital and Operational costs over an assets total life from purchase to disposal. It will break down the different elements that make up the costs including acquisition, maintenance, support and others
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Document ID: DAE10692

An Ounce Of PreventionTechnical Refresh: Extend, Migrate Or Modernize, To Refresh Or Not To Refresh My Test And Measurement Assets
Author(s): Duane Lowenstein
Abstract/Introduction:
As technology change continues to grow exponentially, test and measurement equipment continues to evolve in parallel. The challenge of determining when and how to migrate equipment becomes more and more of a challenge. Much like any upgrade decision, many factors influence the when and how. This paper will explore why a Technology Refresh strategy is a critical aspect of any company that extends throughout the product life cycle from development through operations to depot/repair. It will go through a methodical approach on how to evaluate an asset base, determine impacting variables, areas of risk, develop a mitigation plan and put together a process for a continued monitoring of M&TE. Ultimately, this framework will allow a company to manage its test and management assets to maximize both the companies technology needs balanced with its financial restrictions.
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Document ID: FCB432F2

Serato Scratch Live: Dj Sonic
Author(s): Chanell Rodillas Marilyn Rodriguez Gabriel Ting
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this project is to dissect a new popular DJ program called Serato. Serato is the new, modern way for DJs to retrieve music and merge them in order to personify better sound quality and make a cleaner cut. This program is used by DJs in order to facilitate their jobs by electronic use. The way we will go about doing this project is to clarify the different measurements used in the program such as time, beats per minute, echo, frequency, and other factors that are provided with this program
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Document ID: 185ACD11

Variable Orifice Flowmeters
Author(s): Chiun Wang
Abstract/Introduction:
The pressure drop across conventional fixed-orifice flowmeters increases like the square of the flow rate. This severely limits the turn-down capability of common orifice flowmeters that employ linear pressure transducers. Variable orifice flowmeters are sometimes introduced for commercial applications where a wide turn-down in flow-rate is required. The effective orifice area of a variable orifice flowmeter increases with the pressure drop. This helps reduce the rate of increase of the pressure drop with flow. This paper investigates the performance characteristics of variable orifice flowmeters.
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Document ID: 1ABFD6B7

Confidence In Vna Measurements - The Arftg Measurement Comparison Program1
Author(s): Ronald A. Ginley
Abstract/Introduction:
Have you ever calibrated your Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) and wondered if your measurements were right? Has your boss walked in and asked you how you know that your results are correct? Wouldnt it be nice if there were an easy way to have confidence in your measurements? Standard round-robin experiments and interlaboratory comparisons are good approaches to validating your measurement data and insuring the time spent to acquire the data is not wasted.
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Document ID: EEEC2C9A

Effective Communication Between Calibration Labs And Customers
Author(s): Heather A. Wade
Abstract/Introduction:
A customer may send equipment to a calibration vendor for calibration with the expectation of quickly receiving it calibrated. The only instructions sent with the equipment may be please calibrate this. Calibrations are often delayed because of missing or incomplete information. Additionally, customers may not receive equipment calibrated for how they intend to use it. Using the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025 and feedback from calibration vendors, we created a formalized process and a standardized form for requesting calibration services. Weve found these to be effective tools to streamline outsourced calibration & equipment services.
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Document ID: 15B9495F

Calibration Interval Strategies
Author(s): Dennis Jackson
Abstract/Introduction:
Discussions of calibration interval analysis have often centered on algorithms for determining the measurement reliability curve. To support a metrology and calibration program, interval analysis strategies must also address: . Initial intervals based on engineering analysis or comparable data . Engineering methods for determining related model families . Statistical grouping methods for determining homogeneous model groups . Methods to determine validity and representativeness of data
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Document ID: AA88A5BC

Applications Of Coordinate Measuring Machine Uncertainty Evaluation
Author(s): Jon m. Baldwin
Abstract/Introduction:
Comprehensive tools for evaluating the uncertainty of measurements made with coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) have been available for several years. While a variety of uncertainty evaluation methods may be considered for CMM applications, computer simulation techniques excel in offering the best combination of comprehensive coverage of measurement influence factors, defendability and generality of application. In this presentation, I will briefly discuss the principles of computer simulation methods and the concept of task-specific measurement uncertainty as it applies to CMMs. Following this, I will present several practical, real world examples of the utility of CMM uncertainty evaluation, ranging from technical understanding and optimization processes through the analysis of measurement uncertainty impacts on product profitability.
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Document ID: D05C7E40

The Use Of Metrology To Enhance Athletic Performance
Author(s): Alex Brooklyn Stein
Abstract/Introduction:
Athletes use metrology to better understand their sport and improve their overall performance. My sport was figure skating. To better understand figure skating I had an urge to know if size and gender affects rotational speed in figure skaters. I was eager to know if I was at a disadvantage to smaller skaters or male skaters because of my size and gender. In order to find an answer I found a mentor who tutored me in mathematics and physics. My paper will describe my thesis, my research, and my conclusion. At the conclusion of my paper it is my hope that the audience will better understand the dynamics of figure skating and how young athletes need to understand their bodies in order to expand their boundaries and improve their performance
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Document ID: EDBC1FF7

Calibration Interval Adjustment Methods: Quantitative Comparison And Optimization
Author(s): Mark Kuster Greg Cenker Dr. Howard Castrup
Abstract/Introduction:
NCSLI Recommended Practice RP-1, Establishment and Adjustment of Calibration Intervals, provides decision trees for selecting a calibration interval adjustment method based on inventory size, the information sources available, quality emphasis, and budgeting priorities, as well as detailed descriptions of the pros and cons of each method. To date, the recommendations have been qualitative, based on expert knowledge and experience. The NCSLI 173.1 Calibration Intervals Subcommittees working group is developing quantitative performance data on interval adjustment methods in order to provide information to further substantiate or tune the existing recommendations.
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Document ID: 3EF60DD7

Progress In The Theory Of The Laminar Tube Thermal Flow Sensor
Author(s): Thomas O. Maginnis
Abstract/Introduction:
Thermal mass flow sensing is well established commercially for measurement and control of low gas flows in the semiconductor industry and elsewhere. Yet the basic theory of this critical flow sensing technology still remains poorly developed. For example, though it is well established that these sensors respond linearly to mass flow for all gases at sufficiently low flows, no analytical expression has been published that can accurately predict the slope of the response to a particular gas from the sensor design parameters and gas physical properties, even for the most simple commonly used sensor geometry. In contrast, once the response slope for one definite gas is empirically determined for a sensor, the slopes for all other gases can be accurately estimated by using the gas correction factors calculated from the gas physical properties.
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Document ID: BF6B49B3

Fully Equipped: The Sports Equipments Enigma Why We Use Certain Equipment For Cetain Sports?
Author(s): Darryn Albert Eldrin Masangkay
Abstract/Introduction:
Our project for includes in depth measuring of a variety of variables that deals with the certain objects and materials used for different sports. We were thinking of a project that relates teenagers and kids with measurement. By choosing sports, a category that most young adolescents are familiar with, we tie science with their passion. A variety of sports uses a variety of equipment in order to play the game
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Document ID: 72ECE088

Bridges: Its Whats Inside That Counts
Author(s): Pateel Margossian Kevin Mark Catherine Saint
Abstract/Introduction:
Bridges are common structures found in all parts of the world. They span air, water, and all sorts of other types of terrain. Some are even portable! With this multitude of applications, they cannot help but to be made with a wide variety of materials. But which materials are the best? Some are surely better than others, but who is to say which is the best of all?
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Document ID: E073EBF3

A Report From The Ncsli 155.1 Committee On: RP-5: Measurement And Test Equipment Specifications And A Forum For The Opening Of Public Comment
Author(s): Charles Motzko
Abstract/Introduction:
Manufacturer specifications are an important element of cost and quality control for testing, calibration and other measurement processes. They are used for equipment selection or establishing equipment substitutions for a given measurement application. In addition, manufacturer specified tolerances are used to compute accuracy ratios and estimate bias uncertainties
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Document ID: 090EB29F

Managing To Quality
Author(s): George Jannison
Abstract/Introduction:
Managers are faced with huge challenges and wonderful opportunities. How can we embrace the changes as we seek to implement high quality soulutions that rely upon new technology and include new or unique solutions? This paper will describe how to approach this application of new technology. The process described is being used to guide our organization. It is not complex but it may be deemed to be unusual. Our management team developed a continuous review process. We use management concepts made popular by various authors and leaders who embrace the problems of doing more with less. Managing to Quality Requirements can be successful in an atmosphere that supports change processes. We use tow key concepts. These are how to create a sense of urgency and where will I fit into the plan.
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Document ID: 3F6080D1

Exploration Of Alternative Methods For Fitting Radiation Thermometer Signal To Blackbody Temperature
Author(s): Frank Liebmann Tom Kolat
Abstract/Introduction:
In the science of radiation temperature measurement, the measurement of temperature from calibration blackbodies has used the Sakuma-Hattori Equation in the Planckian Form to relate temperature and emitted radiance. This is very useful as it makes calculations and a curve fit relationships between temperature and radiance much simpler than using Plancks Law. While this approach is standard, it may not always account for the non-linear and real effects acting upon the measurement outcome which detract from the results accuracy. This may be especially true if the relationship between radiance and the radiation thermometers signal output is not linear.
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Document ID: 3BB5B632

Turbine Flow Meter Calibration Using Nonhazardous, Nonpolluting Fluid Mixtures To Simulate Fuels And Lubricants
Author(s): John Ball
Abstract/Introduction:
Precision turbine flow meters are widely applied in Army research, development, and test facilities. Helicopters, tanks, and many other military machines are dependent upon engine and hydraulic test stands located at depots throughout the world. Turbine flow meter measurements are key components in such test facilities, and periodic calibration is essential to maintain accuracy. If the candidate nonflammable, environmentally friendly fluid currently under study can be used to simulate hydrocarbon fuels and lubricants for calibration, turbine flow meter support may become significantly less expensive, less dangerous, more accurate, and also nonpolluting
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Document ID: E79CFC0D

Measurement Of Activation Energy Using Electrical Techniques
Author(s): Mohammad N. Amin Pradip Peter Dey Bhaskar Raj Sinha Gordon W. Romney
Abstract/Introduction:
In this study activation energy of an electronic material was measured by using both AC impedance and DC voltammetric methods. When electrical methods are applied to a new type of system, verification of the suitability of the techniques is often desirable. This can be done by verifying certain basic physical laws e.g. Arrhenius Relationship, Rate Law, and Henrys Law. In this project, it was possible to monitor characteristics of a new system using AC and DC measurements. These electrical parameters were found to be temperature dependent and followed Arrhenious relationships. It was possible to establish correlations between the DC and AC observations.
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Document ID: 5C846A89

Two Options When Implementing Change
Author(s): Chester Franklin
Abstract/Introduction:
Why are we always making so many changes things are fine the way they are? How often have you heard that one? Everyone knows that people naturally resist, even resent, change Right? WRONG! If it was universally true that people just naturally resist change then imagine what the cosmetic industry would be like it might not even exist! How about the fashion industry with their big shows in Perris
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Document ID: E1E311D8

A Methodology For Stating Best Measurement Capabilities Over A Range Of Values
Author(s): David Deaver
Abstract/Introduction:
The Guides to Measurement Uncertainty (GUMs) give very prescriptive methods for calculating measurement uncertainty at individual points. Some laboratories undertake the calculation of uncertainty at many points and state them in their Scope of Accreditation as their Calibration and Measurement Capability (CMC) values formerly known as Best Measurement Capability (BMC). Other laboratories attempt to simplify the effort to generate CMC values by stating them as a formula which spans a number of values. However, there is less guidance as how to use a detailed uncertainty analyses at just a few points to support a large parameter space. This paper shows some of the serious errors being made currently that result in grossly understating some uncertainties and proposes a methodology that is simple but eliminates some of these transgressions.
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Document ID: 08481079

Debunking The Two Great Myths About Calibration: Traceability To NIST And, If You Cannot Adjust, You Cannot Calibrate
Author(s): Jay L. Bucher
Abstract/Introduction:
Weve all heard and used the term: Our calibrations are traceable to NIST. Most of us have also heard the following from our managers and supervisors, but mostly from ISO auditors and FDA inspectors: If you cannot adjust the test instrument, you cannot calibrate it. The real travesty about these statements is that for decades we have believed both of these myths. It is time to set the record straight.
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Document ID: 6E4359CD

Out Of The Crisis? Part 2 The Addendum
Author(s): Walter J. Mcgee
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is the second of a two part series. This part expands on the report. The Metrology Crisis 1, covered in part 1, and presents a new theory of quality management In 1986, Dr. W. Edwards Deming authored a book. Out of the Crisis 2, which was published by the MIT Center for Advanced Engineering. Deming offered a theory of management based on his famous 14 Points for Management Among these points, Deming cited managements failure to plan for the future, bringing about loss of market, which brings about loss of jobs. But while this book was being recognized by such notables as Secretary of Defense, Caspar Weinberger, as the panacea to our nations competitive problems, another crisis raised its ugly head. In October, 1987, this author wrote a paper entitled The Metrology Crisis, wherein he revealed that our nations industries did not know how to control the shape of their manufactured hardware
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Document ID: F586D301

Improving Precision Through Test Optimization
Author(s): Aaron Wiest, Craig Macdougall, Stephen Vanwaus, Patrick Dietz, Jeremiah Doolittle, Jamie Lizarraga, Ryan Marcroft, David Ball
Abstract/Introduction:
Certain tests are assumed to be inherently qualitative. ASTM D3170 Standard Test Method for Chipping Resistance of Coatings is a prime example. The test involves bombarding a test plate with a given volume and size of gravel fired horizontally from a pipe under a fixed air pressure with an apparatus called a gravelometer. The diameter of the impacts and number of impacts is used to assign a letter and number score. A factor of 2 4 difference in results is acceptable for successive tests within the same laboratory and a factor of 3 12 difference in results is acceptable for interlaboratory results. By using gravity instead of air pressure as the accelerant and coupling the test with a quantitative optical measurement technique called verification (MIL STD 130N), greater reproducibility was achieved. The adapted ASTM D3170 was used to test labels with IUID compliant data matrices for chipping resistance
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Document ID: 749F77FD

Report Of An Interlaboratory Comparison Of Vector Network Analyzer Measurements Of Type N 2-Port Coaxial Fixed Attenuators
Author(s): Dr. Li Pi Su, Dexter Shelton, Garrett Barksdale, And Rebecca Shelton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper reports the results of an interlaboratory comparison (ILC) of measurements performed on vector network analyzers (VNAs). The ILC was pivoted by the U.S. Army Primary Standards Laboratory (APSL) and included the following participants: U.S. Air Force Primary Standards Laboratory, U.S. Navy Primary Standards Laboratory, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Agilent Technologies Santa Rosa Metrology Services, and the Anritsu Company Standards Laboratory. The purpose of this ILC is to provide an appraisal of the capabilities and degree of equivalence of the participant laboratories by measuring a set of Type N 2-port coaxial fixed attenuators at the following 21 frequencies: 0.05, 0.2, 0.6, and 1.0 to 18.0 GHz in 1 GHz increments.
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Document ID: 40A749C8

Cross Training - An Exercise In Precision
Author(s): Dexter Shelton
Abstract/Introduction:
Training for technicians or engineers who are performing high accuracy measurements must be an ongoing practice. One way the Electromagnetic Standards Laboratory of the U.S. Army Primary Standards Laboratory (APSL) addresses this is with cross training for multiple systems. This paper will give some examples of training for redundancy and uniformity. It will also show how the APSL incorporates this process in proficiency testing and evaluates individual and group performance. Some proposed changes to the APSL data structures will be discussed and their impact to the program
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Document ID: 3CEC6EDE

An Uncertainty Analysis For A Positive Displacement Liquid Flow Calibrator Using The Water Draw Technique
Author(s): Wesley B. England
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is an uncertainty analysis performed by the Liquid Flow Lab of the Army Primary Standards Laboratory (APSL) for the calibration of positive displacement piston prover using a volumetric water draw. The water draw calibration is conducted to establish a precise relationship between translator pulses and the volume of liquid displaced by the draw and is known as the KFactor (given in pulses/unit volume). For the APSL the term Water Draw is a misnomer, because the APSL uses hydrocarbons that are already in the flow calibrator at the time of the draw calibration
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Document ID: 4448813C

An Introduction To Mass Metrology In Vacuum
Author(s): Patrick J. Abbott Zeina J. Jabbour
Abstract/Introduction:
Mass metrology carried out in atmospheric pressure air is suitable for most every critical application. However, mass metrology in vacuum is important in several current research projects. Performing mass measurements in a vacuum environment eliminates the need for air buoyancy corrections and hence allows a more precise determination of true mass. In addition, the major experiments for redefining the kilogram in terms of a physical constant of nature, the watt balance and the Avogadro project, both operate in vacuum. A kilogram that is redefined by these experiments will require making the transfer from mass in vacuum to mass in air
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Document ID: 4585BCA2

Using A Metrology Measurement Kit For An Outreach Event
Author(s): Vernon Alt, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The NCSL International recognizes the need for a new generation of technicians, engineers and scientists in the calibration/metrology community. Metrology Ambassador is the title given to someone willing to go into the community and make a connection in an effort to excite and inspire young people to pursue further education in the technical sciences. One way to accomplish this is through an outreach event where you visit a local school or organization and involve the children in scientific experimentation. The NCSLI presently has six Metrologist Kits with four themes, containing a variety of sensors. The heart of these kits is the Vernier LabQuestTM, a powerful and easy to use data gathering and analysis tool. This paper provides tips on using a Metrologist Kit as the focal point of your metrology ambassador outreach event and outlines helpful steps from the inception of your outreach idea to the conclusion of your outreach event.
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Document ID: 90C78F57

Gaf: Determination And Evaluation Of Calibration Intervals
Author(s): Peter Jaeger
Abstract/Introduction:
Different approaches for the determination of calibration intervals for test and measuring equipment can be observed. Rigid standards are applied on the one hand (e.g. strict use of manufacturers recommendations) and different approaches for individual determination / calculation of an applicable interval on the other
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Document ID: D81B494B

Comparison Of Uncertainty Calculation Models
Author(s): Hening Huang
Abstract/Introduction:
Three models are available in the literature for calculating the expanded uncertainty using the experimental standard deviation: the Students t model, Craig model, and Bayesian model. This paper compares these three models by Monte Carlo simulation and by examining the random error and bias of the calculated expanded uncertainty. The results indicate that, among the three models, the Students t model is the least precise and accurate, the Craig model is more precise and accurate than the Students t model, and the Bayesian model is the most precise and accurate because of its use of prior information. When prior information is available, the Bayesian model is preferred for calculating the expanded uncertainty. When prior information is not available, the Craig model is preferred.
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Document ID: 704BFE4E

Learning To Apply Metrology Principles To The Measurement Of X-Ray Intensities In The 500 Ev To 110 Kev Energy Range
Author(s): Michael J. Haugh, Travis Pond, Christopher Silbernagel, Peter Torres, Kent Marlett, Fletcher Goldin, Susan Cyr
Abstract/Introduction:
National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), Livermore Operations, has two optical radiation calibration laboratories accredited by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and is now working towards accreditation for its X-ray laboratories. NSTec operates several laboratories with X-ray sources that generate X-rays in the energy range from 50 eV to 115 keV. These X-ray sources are used to characterize and calibrate diagnostics and diagnostic components used by the various national laboratories, particularly for plasma analysis on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) National Ignition Facility (NIF). Because X-ray photon flux measurement methods that can be accredited, i.e., traceable to NIST, have not been developed for sources operating in these energy ranges, NSTec, NIST, and the National Voluntary Accreditation Program (NVLAP) together have defined a path toward the development and validation of accredited metrology methods for X-ray energies. The methodology developed for the high energy X-ray (HEX) Laboratory was NSTecs starting point for X-ray metrology accreditation and will be the basis for the accredited processes in the other X-ray laboratories
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Document ID: 63D35BEF


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