Measurement Library

Natural Gas Sampling Technology Conference Publications (2011)

The Physics And Chemistry Of Natural Gas Sampling And Conditioning
Author(s): Darin L. George
Abstract/Introduction:
Recent research has led to changes in industry standards for natural gas sampling, such as the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards Chapter 14.1 and GPA 2166. To best apply these standards, users should understand the physical phenomena that can lead to inaccurate samples. This presentation will review the physics of natural gas sampling, including phenomena such as adsorption and desorption, vapor-liquid equilibrium, and Joule-Thomson cooling the use of the phase diagram as a sampling tool and results of research on the physics of natural gas sampling that have led to new industry standards.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: A079B160

Benefits Of Training Company Personnel In The Science Of Sample Conditioning And Analysis
Author(s): Brad Massey
Abstract/Introduction:
Sample conditioning and analytical processes have become greater focal points within the natural gas industry in recent years. This has led to more research and technological advances relating to these areas within our industry. Understanding the science of these technologies continues to be challenging among a vast majority of natural gas companies. Each sector, production, processing, transmission and end users, have specific analytical and sample conditioning challenges that must be dealt with. Our industry faces ongoing challenges of educating not only incumbent personnel but also a growing number of those newly hired. Conducting the proper level of training to personnel in the design, installation and utilization of sample conditioning and analytical methods will be critical in assuring that the potential problems associated with sample conditioning and analysis can be avoided. This paper will discuss the benefits of conveying reasoning, knowledge and recommended practices of sample conditioning and analytical procedures to all individual involved in the design, installation, operations and maintenance of this equipment.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 10828FA4

Are Company Sampling Procedures In Line With Current Standards?
Author(s): Matt Holmes
Abstract/Introduction:
Involvement in measurement standard review and development varies from organization to organization in the natural gas industry, even though any changes to a measurement standard can affect all industry organizations relatively equally. Changes to measurement standards can affect organizational operating procedures in the field as well as in the main office. Not keeping up with the latest versions of measurement standards can create liability for an organization, as well as preventing them from encountering information that could reduce their lost and unaccounted for gas, ultimately affecting their bottom line.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 40EAC154

Impact Of Incorrect Analysis On Company Profits
Author(s): Don Sextro
Abstract/Introduction:
The value of natural gas is often based on its energy quantity which is determined from the volume of gas delivered and its heating value or it is based on the volume of gas delivered combined with other results from the gas analysis. Compositional analysis of the natural gas is used in the calculation of the volume delivered, in the heating value of the gas itself and in the related physical properties of the gas. There are numerous sources for sampling and for analysis error, but it is safe to assume that sample conditioning can be the largest source of error in the analysis reported for a natural gas stream. At the end of the day, sampling errors impact company profits
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 7169591D

The Standards Pertaining To Sampling And Conditioning Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Fred Van Orsdol
Abstract/Introduction:
In the mid 1980s, the industry was deeply involved with the United States Bureau of Land Management (BLM), dealing with allocation measurement. The government was seriously considering eliminating allocation measurement wherever there was federal jurisdiction. During this process, the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the Gas Processors Association (GPA) member companies had worked extensively with the government to educate them on allocation practices and contractual obligations to provide fair and equitable measurement for all parties with a direct financial interest, while significantly reducing the costs associated with measurement
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 150BD2D7

Spot And Composite Sampling For Btu Analysis Determination And Natural Gas Physical Properties
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to be able to take a representative sample of a hydrocarbon product is necessary to ensure proper accounting for transactions and efficient product processing. The various sampling methods that are available and the options and limitations of these methods are investigated the most appropriate equipment to use the reasons for its use and correct installation of the equipment are also addressed.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 9C1EB0EE

Sample System Design Considerations For Online Btu Analysis
Author(s): Matthew Kinsey
Abstract/Introduction:
The reliability of readings from analytical devices is completely dependent upon the integrity of the sample being representative of the flowing gas. In order to ensure the validity of the sample, measurement personnel should have an understanding of how processes involved with sample extraction, pressure reduction, sample temperature stability, and sample transport time impact the sample integrity. This presentation will discuss considerations in the proper design of sample conditioning systems.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 402E86E9

Modular Sample Conditioning Systems For Natural Gas Analysis
Author(s): Jay St. Amant
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to 1992, analytical sample conditioning systems consisted of components mounted to a back plane and interconnected with pipe and tubing. This type of construction required a large amount of space. The interconnecting tube and piping had a large internal volume and were difficult to purge. To make matters worse, the components, for the most part, were originally designed for pneumatic and hydraulic service and modified for analytical sample conditioning. One might say that the systems were not analytically correct. Analyzer designs improved rapidly but the sample system designs were slow to change. Although sample systems have improved substantially, they still are the weak link in on line analytical systems.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 89C67E47

Analytical Devices For The Measurement Of Water Vapor And Hydrocarbon Dew-Point In Natural Gas
Author(s): Daniel R. Potter
Abstract/Introduction:
The determination of water vapor (water dew point) is crucial in the processing, custody transfer and transport of natural gas. High levels of water vapor in a natural gas stream can lead to a number of problems which include the formation of hydrates and the contribution to corrosion of plant and equipment. Furthermore, water vapor present in natural gas streams affects the overall quality of the gas, making the measurement of water vapor in natural gas an important requirement to producers, suppliers and end users in the industry.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: BFCDD573

Sampling And Conditioning Natural Gas For H2S Tdlas Analyzers
Author(s): Sam Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
The H2S concentration is a critical quality parameter for custody transfer in natural gas pipelines. The H2S level is driven by tariffs and off-spec gas usually results in a shut-in of an offending source. Additionally, H2S measurements are made in a variety of sweetening plant streams for the purpose of process optimization. There are several technologies for measuring natural gas with similar sample conditioning requirements however this paper focuses on TDLAS (laser-based) analyzers, specifically, the sample conditioning requirements. With respect to sample conditioning, the requirements include high speed of response as well as measurement precision which is achieved by maintaining a representative sample from the process stream to the analyzer
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 49EE24FE

Sampling Wet Natural Gas For Btu And Moisture Analysis
Author(s): Shannon Bromley
Abstract/Introduction:
Current industry standards, by virtue of their scope, do not address the sampling of wet natural gas. There is no consensus on a clear definition of the term wet natural gas. For the purpose of this paper, wet natural gas is defined as a natural gas stream containing liquid of any type. Wet gas is sometimes referred to as multi-phase flow. It is a well known fact in the industry that the largest source of sample distortion in natural gas sampling stems from the sample system. Sampling clean, dry natural gas, which is well above its dew point temperature, is a relatively simple task. Sampling natural gas that is near or below its dew point temperature is not so simple. For this reason the industry is now focusing on proper methods for sampling wet natural gas. This document will present an overview of the problems involved with sampling wet natural gas for on-line BTU and moisture analysis, give guidance on designing sample systems tailored for wet gas sampling, and provide updates on where the industry is on research and standards involving wet natural gas sampling.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: E0D0C31E

Sampling And Conditioning During Loading, Unloading, And Storage Of LNG
Author(s): James N. Witte
Abstract/Introduction:
For LNG terminal operators sampling of LNG has proven to be a challenging task to get right. This paper will discuss some of these challenges and approaches to resolving LNG sampling problems from the perspective of the operators point of view.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 0820B2C2


Copyright © 2017