Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (2010)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 2010 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Determination Of H2S And Total Sulfur In Natural Gas
Author(s): Sam Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is a chemical compound comprised of one Sulfur Atom and two Hydrogen Atoms. It is a colorless, extremely poisonous gas that reeks of rotten eggs. Hydrogen Sulfide is highly corrosive and renders some steels brittle, leading to sulfide stress cracking. Hydrogen Sulfide is formed when bacteria breaks down organic matter in the absence of oxygen and therefore is often found in crude oil and natural gas deposits. Due to the toxic and corrosive properties of Hydrogen Sulfide and its natural presence in natural gas, it is imperative to measure and control of the concentration levels of this compound within natural gas pipelines. This paper will address the properties, purpose of measurement and measurement methods for H2S and discuss how these methods can be adapted to the measurement of Total Sulfurs as well as H2S in natural gas streams
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Document ID: B304408D

Determination Of Water Vapor Content In Natural Gas
Author(s): Sam Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
This is an overview of the main approaches to trace moisture measurements for natural gas. Natural gas presents a situation where the stream may have high levels of solid and liquid contaminants as well as corrosive gases present in varying concentrations. Additionally, the stream composition may change gradually or rapidly over time. This unique situation presents a challenge for the measurement of moisture.
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Document ID: 0B17C619

Basics Of High Pressure Measuring And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): E. D. Rusty Woomer, Jr.,
Abstract/Introduction:
There is more to the design of a measurement facility than the word measurement suggests. Generally, the measurement arena may include any or all of the following:
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Document ID: CB926361

Compressibility Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Jeffrey L. Savidge
Abstract/Introduction:
The accurate measurement of natural gas and natural gas related fluids is difficult. It requires care, experience, and insight to achieve consistently accurate measurements that can meet stringent fiscal and contract requirements. It is particularly difficult to measure complex fluid mixtures that are exposed to: (1) a range of operating conditions, (2) dynamic flow and fluid property behavior, and (3) changing equipment conditions
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Document ID: 90CE73E0

Determination Of Hydrocarbon Dew Point
Author(s): Noelle George
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the implementation in the last ten years of improved measurement equipment such as C9+ chromatographs and electronic chilled mirror devices, the hydrocarbon measurement industry has been debating the procedures for hydrocarbon dew point measurement. Which type of measurement is most accurate? What measurement most accurately predicts liquid dropout? What should be used as the standard? The debate is complicated by the needs of different types of companies within the industry. Which measurement technique is most relevant for a specific companys needs? Can there be an industry-wide standard for measurement of hydrocarbon dew point? These are questions that can not be answered in one paper and may not be answered without several years of additional research and debate.
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Document ID: 3B231ABD

Coping With Changing Flow Requirements At Exsisting Metering Stations
Author(s): James m. Doyle
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays competitive gas market, utility companies must meet aggressive market strategies or suffer the consequences. All industries have cash registers, and gas distribution is no exception. Our measuring stations are our cash register. The problem is, these stations were designed 10, 20, 30 or even 50 years ago, and are now performing tasks they were not designed for. Therefore, changes must be made.
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Document ID: 671448BD

Hydrocarbon Dew Point Effects On Gas Flow Measurement
Author(s): Fred Van Orsdol
Abstract/Introduction:
The hydrocarbon dewpoint (HCDP) of interest to the natural gas industry is simply an operating condition that causes liquids to condense out of the gas stream and form a liquid phase. Normal condensation occurs when increasing pressure or decreasing temperature causes liquids to form. Retrograde condensation occurs on a different portion of the phase envelope, wherein increasing temperature or decreasing pressure may cause the gas to cross the phase boundary and produce condensation. Both processes produce liquids condensing out of gas phase streams and are of interest to this presentation
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Document ID: 707A4346

Design Of Distribution Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Edgar Eddy() Wallace Collins Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
The design of natural gas distribution metering and/or regulating stations is a mixture of science and art, or knowledge and judgment. The process requires four areas of knowledge: product, application, components, and communication. The goal in design is to use judgment to select and combine compatible components to create a safe, effective, and economical unit
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Document ID: 18B1297F

D.O.T. Requirements For The Transportation Of Sample Cylinders
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The United States Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) is a department of the U.S. Federal Government which oversees all issues regarding transportation within the United States of America and U.S. Territories. Its influence around the world is great and widely respected, but its jurisdiction and power of enforcement is limited to the USA and its territories. As regards this paper, we will discuss the D.O.T. and its involvement surrounding sample cylinders for the hydrocarbon industry and the rules regarding the movement of these cylinders from point to point in the United States.
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Document ID: 504D9AA2

Energy Measurement Using Flow Computers And Chromatography
Author(s): Burt Reed
Abstract/Introduction:
The means and methods of transfer of quantities of natural gas between buyers and sellers have been changing for many years. When coal gasification was used to fuel the streetlights in Atlanta, Ga. There was no reason to even measure the commodity. The municipality generated the gas, transported it, and burned it. When Frank Phillips started purchasing gas rights back in the 1930s, every one thought he was more than odd. Natural Gas was considered at that time a messy by-product of oil production that had to be disposed of. Even during the 1960s natural gas was still being flared at the wellhead in Oklahoma. During the 1940s, it was said that one could drive from Kilgore, Texas to Tyler, Texas at night without turning on the head light on your car due to all the gas flares. In this economic environment, measurement was not an issue if you could sell the gas at all it was considered a business coup. Even then, a good price was 2 cents an MCF.
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Document ID: 2089DF5A

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted For Gas
Author(s): David Wofforda
Abstract/Introduction:
David Wofforda
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Document ID: 35F17570

Effects And Control Of Pulsation In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Ray G. Durke,Robert J. Mckee,
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most common measurement errors and the most difficult to identify in natural gas metering systems is that caused by pulsating flow. It is important to understand the effects that pulsations have on the common types of flow meters used in the gas industry so that potential error-producing mechanisms can be identified and avoided. It is also essential to understand pulsation control techniques for mitigating pulsation effects. This paper describes the effects of pulsation on orifice, turbine, ultrasonic, and other flow meter types. It also presents basic methods for mitigating pulsation effects at meter installations, including a specific procedure for designing acoustic filters that can isolate a flow meter from the source of pulsation
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Document ID: AA02CDF2

Energy Measurement Using Ultrasonic Flow Measurement And Chromatography The Technicians Perspective
Author(s): Charles W. Derr
Abstract/Introduction:
The demand for global energy increases with time as surely as the world population of users of gas energy has increased each year. Energy will ALWAYS be in demand. Good Systems for measuring it accurately and reliably are a Must. This paper will put some of the realities of assembling and operating an Energy Measurement Station for natural gas into perspective into A Technicians perspective!
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Document ID: A41B7D75

Effects Of Abnormal Conditions On Accuracy Of Orifice Measurement
Author(s): Mr. Dean Graves
Abstract/Introduction:
Whenever one focuses on gas or fluid measurement, he or she will eventually discover an abnormal condition at a measurement station. Invariably someone will ask, What effect will it have on measurement? A student of measurement may spend years answering this question. This and similar questions have generated many research studies. This research has enabled us to better understand measurement abnormalities and to improve measurement procedures and standards. Even though we have made great strides in measurement, we will continue to ask this question.
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Document ID: 58280A90

Energy Measurement Using On-Line Chromatographs
Author(s): J. David Hailey
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents fundamental information necessary to understand and appreciate the concept of energy measurement using on-line Gas Chromatographs in conjunction with Ultrasonic Flow Meters and Flow computers. Discussed is the historical transition from volumetric measurement to total gas energy including some of the basic terminology, physics, measurement, as well as the reasons for changes in methodologies due to governmental regulatory agency legislation
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Document ID: 718127AB

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement I
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
To truly understand gas measurement, a person must understand gas measurement fundamentals. This includes the units of measurement, the behavior of the gas molecule, the property of gases, the gas laws, and the methods and means of measuring gas. Since the quality of gas is often the responsibility of the gas measurement technician, it is important that they have an understanding of natural gas chemistry.
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Document ID: 68A6847B

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement II
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
knowledge of the Fundamentals of Gas Measurement is essential for all technicians and engineers that are called upon to perform gas volume calculations. These same people should have at least a working knowledge of the fundamentals to perform their everyday jobs including equipment calibrations, specific gravity tests, collecting gas samples, etc
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Document ID: 6F97653E

Field And Laboratory Testing Of Sediment And Water In Crude Oil
Author(s): Jane Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
The quantity of sediment and water in crude oil must be accurately established as part of the custody transfer process. Purchasers only pay for the crude oil received, and want to minimize the quantity of sediment and water they must dispose of. Consequently, monitoring of the sediment and water content is performed at the production site to prevent excessive sediment and water entering the pipeline system. The quantity of sediment and water a pipeline is willing to accept into their system depends on geographic location, market competitiveness and their ability to handle the sediment and water in the system. Each pipeline publishes the quantity of sediment and water it will accept.
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Document ID: F8271C8E

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement III
Author(s): James W. Keating
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement people are concerned with gas laws. To become proficient in all phases of gas measurement, one must fully understand what natural gas is and the theory of its properties. The theories about natural gas properties are the gas laws and their application is essential to natural gas measurement. Quantities of natural gas for custody transfer are stated in terms of standard cubic feet. To arrive at standard cubic feet from actual flowing conditions requires application of correction factors that are defined by the gas laws.
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Document ID: 58E6DFD8

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meter
Author(s): Mr. Wayland Sligh
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Turbine Meters were introduced to the US in the 1960s. Since their introduction the turbine meter has grown in popularity due the fact that they have a high degree of accuracy, repeatability and the ability to cover a large flow range. Gas turbine meters are available with an assortment of configurations, gear driven odometers, ID drives, fully electronic designs with a variety of outputs and self-correcting models. Many new and imaginative developments have been added to the turbine meter. This greatly improves the diversity of the meter and allows for the meter to be used in new flow measurement applications.
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Document ID: 8016211D

Fundamentals Of Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Mr. Shane Hale
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chromatography is one of the most widely used techniques for analyzing hydrocarbon mixtures. Some of the advantages of chromatography are the range of measurement (from ppm levels up to 100%), the detection of a wide range of components, and the repeatability of the measurements. Chromatography is used in the laboratory, in permanently installed online systems, and in the field with portable systems. No matter the location, style or brand, all gas chromatographs are composed of the same functional components that are the sample handling system, the chromatograph oven, and the controller electronics (refer Figure 1). This paper will cover the principles or sample handling, how chromatograph columns separate the components, why and how multiport analysis valves are used, the common detector type used in the hydrocarbon applications, and the analysis processing that provides the component concentrations and the other calculated values (such as heating value and specific gravity) through physical reports or interfaces to other devices.
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Document ID: 684BCCB6

Fundamentals Of Orifice Meter Chart Recorders
Author(s): David Cofer
Abstract/Introduction:
There are two basic components that need to be discussed to understand the fundamentals of orifice meter measurement. One is the Primary Element, which consists of the orifice fitting, orifice plate, meter tube, and other associated components
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Document ID: 5D5F7054

Installation And Operation Errors In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Dr. Thomas B. Morrow,Edgar B. Bowles, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Installation errors may occur when an instrument is used in a manner different from how it was calibrated. For example, suppose that a temperature sensor is calibrated in a stirred, constant temperature bath. During calibration, the sensor is in thermal equilibrium with the circulating fluid, and the fluid and sensor temperatures are the same. Next, let the same sensor be used to measure the temperature of natural gas flowing through a pipe at low velocity. If the pipe wall temperature is different from the flowing gas temperature, convection heat transfer will occur between the gas and the pipe wall, radiation heat transfer will occur between the pipe wall and the sensor, and convection heat transfer will occur between the sensor and the flowing gas. In this example, the sensor would not in thermal equilibrium with the flowing gas and the sensor temperature would be different from the flowing gas temperature
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Document ID: 2D20DCE2

On Line Water Measurement Devices In Liquid Service
Author(s): Kam Mohajer
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays competitive energy market there is a tremendous emphasis on cost saving and productivity at all levels of the industry. Online water detection provides vital real-time information regarding water concentrations in hydrocarbons empowering the user with the knowledge necessary to maximize efficiencies and cost savings while increasing many safety factors at the same time.
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Document ID: 6953D8FD

Mass Meters For Natural Gas Measurement
Author(s): Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early 1980s, Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in gas, liquid, and slurry applications with an installed base of more than one million units. Through significant design enhancements in the early 1990s Coriolis meters have rapidly gained worldwide acceptance in gas phase applications with over 120,000 meters installed worldwide and most notably the 2003 publication of AGA Report Number 11, Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis Meter.
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Document ID: E84A3DF8

Sampling And Conditioning For Natural Gas Containing Entrained Liquids
Author(s): Josh H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Wow! The world of sampling and conditioning for natural gas really becomes turbulent when entrained liquids or a two-phase fluid is incorporated. Entrained liquids in a gas stream inherently invoke a battle that those in the measurement industry must not ignore. On one side of the battle is the desire for repeatable, reliable equipment that was most likely designed to sample the wonderful clean, dry natural gas of the world. A very important sector of this side is to include the achievement of real-time billing through online analysis. The other side of the battle is the obligation to pull a REPRESENTATIVE sample of the flowing stream to bill for the correct quality of product
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Document ID: 72BBDE4B

Sample Conditioning And Contaminant Removal For Water Vapor Content Determination In Natural Gas
Author(s): Brad Massey
Abstract/Introduction:
The Natural Gas Industry experiences numerous operational problems associated with high water vapor content in the natural gas stream. As a result several problems are experienced such as, equipment freezes, dilution of physical properties reducing heating value, volume measurement interference, and pipeline corrosion. Contracts and Tariffs usually limit the amount of water vapor content allowed at the custody transfer point. For these and other reasons, accurate Water Vapor Dewpoint measurements are critical measurements for all companies involved in natural gas production, gathering, transmission and delivery.
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Document ID: 7AE481EB

Measurement Station Inspection Program And Guide
Author(s): Robert J. Rau
Abstract/Introduction:
Today, lets discuss an important phase of everyday planning for the Measurement personnel. A test and inspection guide is a corporations plan to meet government regulations. DOT requires pipelines to have a written operating and maintenance plan. This plan must meet the minimum federal standards and cover various phases of operations. A company may include items above the minimum federal standards but they must operate according to the plan they prepare. In plain words, what you write you must be ready to live and operate by whether they just meet the DOT minimums or exceed the DOT requirements and this becomes the company bible. The last item to remember is that as field personnel you must perform the required inspections, complete properly the administrative records to document and prove that required tests were made.
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Document ID: C662AAC9

Techniques Of Composite Sampling
Author(s): Paul P. Mcneely
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays cost-sensitive environment, it is important that the correct method be chosen to obtain consistent, repeatable and representative gas samples. This paper exams the principles and components that are integral to composite gas sampling. There are three (3) methods for sampling gas. Spot sampling (characterized in GPA 2166-05) is a relatively inexpensive sampling method. However, this snapshot in time approach creates an opportunity for the occurrence of expensive errors. Changes in the chemistry of the flowing gas between spot samples may generate inaccurate BTU values or compromise pipeline integrity. Using an online analyzer provides another approach to gas sampling. In applications requiring real time analysis of the flowing stream of gas, this is the optimum sampling method. But premium testing comes at a premium price, which in many cases cannot be justified by the return on investment in the equipment. Composite sampling is the pivot point between spot samples and online analyzers. It affords the accurate and repeatable gas samples at a user-friendly price.
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Document ID: 74D2AE27

Techniques Of Gas Spot Sampling
Author(s): Shannon m. Bromley
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will provide an overall view of the spot sampling task, identify the most significant factors which impact spot sampling, and offer recommendations. It will also acquaint the reader with the components used in the spot sampling process and introduce the GPA 2166 and API 14.1 standards. The main objective of the paper is to encourage the reader to approach the spot sampling task from a scientific standpoint rather than the blind cookie cutter approach.
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Document ID: 52794F8C

Multipath Ultrasonic Flow Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Eric Thompson John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of ultrasonic meters for custody (fiscal) applications has grown substantially over the past several years. This is due in part to the release of AGA Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters Ref 1, Measurement Canadas PS-G-E-06 Provisional Ultrasonic Specification Ref 2, and the confidence users have gained in the performance and reliability of ultrasonic meters as primary measurement devices. Just like any metering technology, there are design and operational considerations that need to be addressed in order to achieve optimum performance. The best technology will not provide the expected results if it is not installed correctly, or maintained properly. This paper addresses several issues that the engineer should consider when designing ultrasonic meter installations
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Document ID: 4E38A53B

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Arthur R. Farve
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to the cost of production and transfer of natural gas, the industry has demanded a higher level of accuracy and an economical method for measurement. Orifice fittings and meter tubes satisfy this demand for most natural gas measurement applications today. The level of accuracy achieved in orifice measurement has been continually refined and improved upon since it was first put to use for measurement of petroleum products. The accuracy of orifice measurement is controlled by published standards currently AGA 3 Part 2 / API 14.3 April 2000 that define the requirements to achieve a known level of accuracy and eliminate error in measurement. The intent of this paper is to focus on the basics of orifice measurement
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Document ID: A8DAB9D0

Determining Hydrocarbon Dew Point Per Gas Chromatographic Analysis And Equations Of State
Author(s): Shane Hale
Abstract/Introduction:
The determination of the hydrocarbon dew point (HDP) for natural gas has recently become a critical issue for the natural gas industry because of the rapid expansion of interconnecting pipelines and the rise of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) as an international source of natural gas. Whereas previously the gas in a pipeline would come from a small number of known producers, the gas flowing through the pipeline today could have come from many varied sources including traditional gas plant producers (de-hydration, CO2, H2S and N2 control and removal of condensates), coal bed methane producers (98% methane), low cost producers (de-hydration only) or global exporters of LNG
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Document ID: B4864C13

Orifice Meter Maintence And Operation
Author(s): Scott Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry has seen many changes lately. The world population is increasing and with this the energy demands in the world are also increasing. Producers and pipeline companies have seen tremendous growth and reorganization through these increased demands for energy. The advances in technology in the last decade have put a computer and cellular phone at everyones fingertips literally and increased the need for electricity, thus the need for natural gas to generate this electricity. With this increased demand for natural gas, the logistics involved in acquiring it, and the profit differential between these two, the need for proper maintenance is more important than ever.
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Document ID: AF797E9C

Problems Unique In Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): David Wofforda
Abstract/Introduction:
First, we need to clear up a few common misperceptions. Measurement is Measurement is Measurement. Natural gas compounds dont think, metering and analytical systems dont care whether they are over water or dirt, and measurement standards are not only relevant to specific time zones. These are not intellectual beings that choose to exhibit behaviors based upon geography, culture, socio-economics, political doctrine or the pursuit of spiritual fulfillment. Hydrocarbons are Hydrocarbons, Meters are Meters and Standards are Standards
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Document ID: B3424EFB

Fundamentals Of Sampling Natural Gas For Btu Determination
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the fundamentals of extracting, conditioning, and transporting natural gas samples for on line BTU analysis
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Document ID: 1E39322D

Moisture Measurement Using Laser Spectroscopy
Author(s): Samuel C. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for reliable moisture measurement is essential to natural gas companies because of the corrosive nature of the moisture in combination with compounds such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. Natural gas processors and pipeline operators must measure moisture and other contaminants to protect equipment and to conform to customer specifications. Since TDL analyzers provide very fast and reliable measurements, they are commonly used in the control loops of purification, separation, and liquefaction processes to optimize efficiency and costs.
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Document ID: A39819FE

Thermometry In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Dean Weber
Abstract/Introduction:
As the United States becomes more aware of the value of natural gas as an abundant domestic energy source that generates fewer emissions than other fossil fuel alternatives, the natural gas industry is going to see a greater focus on eliminating uncertainty in all phases of measurement including thermometry. Thermometry is the measurement of temperature which is a critical consideration in all types of flow measurement applications. Temperature used in gas flow calculations is typically measured in degrees Fahrenheit (F). It is then converted to degrees Rankine (R) and used in gas measurement calculations. Rankine is an absolute temperature scale which means that 0R is lowest temperature theoretically possible. The conversion between the Fahrenheit and Rankine temperature scales is shown in equation
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Document ID: C6BCCF1D

Wet Gas Measurement
Author(s): Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Demand for wet gas flow measurement technologies has been increasing steadily for many years. As natural gas wells age the once dry natural gas production flow becomes wet natural gas as the dynamics of the reservoir change. Furthermore, with the value of hydrocarbon products rising steadily, reservoirs that were once considered not profitable, or marginal, are being produced. These marginal fields often produce wet gas flows from the outset. It is essential that these wet gas flows are metered as accurately as possible.
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Document ID: CC9015D9

Flow Conditioning For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Blaine Sawchuk
Abstract/Introduction:
The most important aspects of flow measurement are the flow conditions within the pipe upstream of a meter. Flow conditions refer to: the gas velocity profile, irregularities in the profile, varying turbulence levels within the velocity or turbulence intensity profile, swirl (type I, full body rotation, Type II, complicated multiple axis rotation) and any other fluid flow characteristics which will cause the meter to register flow different than that expected.
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Document ID: 01BFAFC1

Reducing Measurement Uncertainty In Process Gas Quality Measurements
Author(s): Dr. Darin L. George
Abstract/Introduction:
The general term gas quality is used to refer to many different measures of the content of a natural gas stream. Common measures of gas quality include heating value water vapor content hydrogen sulfide or total sulfur content levels of inert gases, such as CO2 and hydrocarbon and water vapor dew points. These values determine how the gas stream must be handled, whether it can be used efficiently by customers, and whether the potential exists for damage to end-user equipment or pipelines that carry the gas stream. The presence of water and hydrogen sulfide in a gas stream, for instance, can create sulfuric acid and pit the walls of a carbon steel pipeline. Shifts in the heating value and specific gravity of the gas can lead to poor furnace performance, or require adjustments of gas-fired industrial equipment. High levels of non-hydrocarbon gases, such as nitrogen, will reduce the heating value and make transportation of the gas less economically efficient.
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Document ID: BB39E3F9

Contaminant Accumulation Effects On Gas Ultrasonic Flow Meters
Author(s): Charles W. Derr And Tina m. Newsome
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most significant discussions in the gas ultrasonic flow meter industry centers around the effect of accumulation of contaminants on the accuracy of flow measurement and the performance of the gas ultrasonic flow meter (GUSM). The effects of contamination on a gas ultrasonic metering systems are believed to be less than that of other measurement devices. The increasing usage of ultrasonic metering warrants a more in-depth study of these effects and the symptoms and measurement errors that may result. There are three important factors to consider when evaluating contaminant effects. They are ultrasonic meter performance inclusive of the flow dynamics through them, total system operation and measurement financial impact. Factors such as these have a direct correlation to the operating expenses which are monitored closely by virtually all gas companies. High volume throughput of expensive gas means that small errors when ignored are potentially large sums of money that may be Lost.
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Document ID: 9DF1F313

CO2 Determination Of Natural Gas Streams
Author(s): Charlie Cook
Abstract/Introduction:
Carbon Dioxide is measured in Natural Gas for two reasons. First and most often it is measured for energy determination (BTU/CV) by gas chromatography. And the second reason CO2 is determined is for pipeline integrity. The measured data is transmitted in various ways for records keeping as well as operational input
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Document ID: B10AE62B

Measurement And Regulation Operations Of A Ldc The Day To Day Operations Of A Ldc, Including Measurement And Regulation Techniques
Author(s): Joe Sargent
Abstract/Introduction:
What is an LDC? LDC stands for Local Distribution Company. These are the utility companies who provide natural gas service to retail end users. There can be several components to a Local Distribution Company. They include wellhead gathering, storage, transmission lines, compressor stations and LNG (liquid natural gas) plants, city gate stations and distribution lines.
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Document ID: CBC65188

Considerations For Sampling Wet, High Pressure, And Supercritical Natural Gas
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux,Shannon m. Bromley
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the problems encountered when sampling wet, high pressure and supercritical natural gas for on-line BTU analysis, and provides solutions and comments on how they relate to the API and GPA industry standards for natural gas sampling. It also discusses the use of phase diagrams in the design and operation of a natural gas sampling system
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Document ID: C4EE3EA8

Flare Measurement Advanced Ultrasonics
Author(s): John Chitty
Abstract/Introduction:
There has been an increased awareness by oil and gas companies in North America toward emissions monitoring and reduction for both environmental and economical reasons. For years, several countries worldwide have had stringent regulations in place. Regulations were implemented in 1993 relating to the measurement of fuel and flare gas for calculation of CO2 tax in the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Inevitably, oil companies operating in the region had to comply with these regulations. With new government legislation, producers, refineries and chemical companies have been looking for a cost effective solution to reduce emissions and to provide tighter control for both leak detection and mass balance
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Document ID: 03A2E819

Application Of Densitometers To Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Marsha Yon
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of density is required in many applications in the hydrocarbon industry for both mass and volume flow measurement, interface detection, quality control, and concentration measurement. Technology today offers density measurement from a densitometer as a single measurement device and from a Coriolis meter that will provide both density and flow measurement. This paper will discuss density terminology that differs by application, the factors that determine good density measurement, and will look at a variety of uses for a densitometer in the hydrocarbon industry
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Document ID: E3A9A4CC

Micro Gas Chromatography For Liquid Petroleum Gass
Author(s): Amorin A., Dagostaro L., Diersche Y., Gonzalez A
Abstract/Introduction:
For years, microGC analysis has been useful as a powerful tool for the fast and reliable analyses of natural gas and other gaseous matrices but, it is yet to prove its capabilities for liquid samples. In this paper, we present a a unique gasifying system for volatile liquid sample introduction in a microGC. The system has been tested with a wide range of different samples: liquefied gases (ethane/propane blends, volatile liquids (natural gasoline from fractionation plants), butane blends and samples with olefins and C6+s. Due to the different nature of the samples, a single point calibration was used. The system was designed for simple operation and maintenance, reducing time and increasing ease of operation when compared to regular Gas Chromatography analyses. All the samples were handled in the same way with the only variation being the response factors applied to each type of sample. Repeatability data will be presented from both calibration standard blends and from real world samples.
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Document ID: 9994DC4C

Application Of Turbine Meters In Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Mike Bridgforth
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to provide both novice and experienced measurement personnel with a better understanding of the operating principles and requirements of turbine meters used in liquid measurement applications. Most if not all material herein pertains to the custody transfer measurement of refined products, natural gas liquids (NGL), anhydrous ammonia (NH3), and crude oils.
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Document ID: F1027A17

Causes And Cures Of Regulator Instability
Author(s): William H. Earney
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the gas pressure reducing regulator installation and the issue of erratic control of the downstream pressure. A gas pressure reducing regulators job is to manipulate flow in order to control pressure. When the downstream pressure is not properly controlled, the term unstable control is applied. Figure 1 is a list of other terms used for various forms of downstream pressure instability. This paper will not address the mathematical methods of describing the automatic control system of the pressure reducing station, but will deal with more of the components and their effect on the system stability.
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Document ID: BEB7D9DD

Automated Truck Loading Systems
Author(s): Shoyeb Hasanali
Abstract/Introduction:
Function of bulk marketing storage facilities known as distribution terminals, is to facilitate distribution of liquid products from storage to trucks (also railcars, barges, pipeline). Safety, Security, measurement accuracy, regulatory and reporting requirements are the key driving force in automation of loading terminals. Over the years due to EPA regulations and cleaner fuel acts it has become essential to mix products for making, as an example, mid-grade fuel. Fuel additization became essential where a small percentage of additive had to be added to fuel
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Document ID: CAB8D348

Controlling Surges In Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): Ron Kennedy
Abstract/Introduction:
Numerous technical papers have been written on unsteady state surge flow or water hammer. This paper, unlike many of its predecessors, will present a view adapted to the engineer/technician who, for one reason or another, only needs a basic understanding of why surge occurs and how to control it.
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Document ID: BE8433AD

Calculation Of Liquid Petroleum Quantities
Author(s): Peter W Kosewicz
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Petroleum industry as hydrocarbons are purchased, sold or transferred there are two key elements that must be determined. These elements are the quantity and quality of the hydrocarbon in question. This paper will address one of those elements, the determination of the quantity of the hydrocarbon in the transaction.
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Document ID: 8CEF9572

Overpressure Protection Methods
Author(s): Craig Lam
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry utilizes many different types of pressure regulation equipment to control the flow of gas as it flows from systems with higher pressure ratings to systems with lower pressure ratings. In the event that the pressure control equipment fails, some form of over pressure protection is required to prevent the system with the lower pressure rating or lower MAOP (Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure) from being over pressured
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Document ID: C7F9BC14

Crude Oil Blending
Author(s): Kevin B. Macdougall
Abstract/Introduction:
There are a number of applications that require blending of crude oil or other hydrocarbons and they include transportation needs, pipeline capacity, product value and refining efficiency. Crude oil blending is accomplished by two methods: on-line blending and tank blending.
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Document ID: EC140193

Crude Oil Gathering By Truck Metering Versus Manual Gauging
Author(s): J. W. Sulton
Abstract/Introduction:
Normal procedures for custody transfer of oil from lease tanks requires the driver/gauger to manually gauge the producers storage tank to determine the volume of oil in the tank and the S&W content of the oil. This procedure requires the driver to climb to the top of the tank where exposure to H2S or injury from falling from the tank is a risk
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Document ID: C5909C67

Design, Operation And Maintenance Of Lact Units
Author(s): Miles Chaney
Abstract/Introduction:
The intent of this class is to give un-biased guidance to the design, operation and maintenance of Lease Automatic Custody Transfer units. A L.A.C.T. is an arrangement of equipment designed for the unattended custody transfer of liquid hydrocarbons from producing leases to the transporting carrier. An A.C.T. would be a truck or meter station where the transfer of liquid hydrocarbons takes place away from the producing lease itself. For the purpose of this class both will be referred to as L.A.C.T. units.
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Document ID: 3DBE31EC

Prevention Of Freezing In Measurement And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Stephen Palmitier
Abstract/Introduction:
The competitive business environment that exists in the energy industry demands reliable service. Even though it is expensive to change energy companies, customers do have options if they become dissatisfied with their service. Significant money can be lost with trading partners through erroneous data used in establishing the value of the trade. The regulatory environment is becoming more strident in demanding safe, controlled operations. Even minor excursions outside prescribed norms can lead to substantial fines, and worse, years of having regulators going over operations with a fine tooth comb looking for any discrepancy
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Document ID: 3379D60F

Displacement Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Tommy Rogers
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will examine the strengths and weaknesses as well as design principles that are fundamental to capillary seal PD Meters. It will also highlight the system and the parameters that must be considered before accurate meter selection can be made
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Document ID: 7CB3E558

Flow Conditioning For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Blaine Sawchuk
Abstract/Introduction:
The most important aspects of flow measurement are the flow conditions within the pipe upstream of a meter. Flow conditions refer to: the gas velocity profile, irregularities in the profile, varying turbulence levels within the velocity or turbulence intensity profile, swirl (type I, full body rotation, Type II, complicated multiple axis rotation) and any other fluid flow characteristics which will cause the meter to register flow different than that expected
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Document ID: 6E2DC85E

Selection, Sizing, And Operation Of Control Valves For Gases And Liquids
Author(s): Ross Turbiville
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper control valve sizing and selection in todays industrial world is essential to operating at a cost-effective and highly efficient level. A properly selected and utilized control valve will not only last longer than a control valve that is improperly sized, but will also provide quantifiable savings in the form of reduced maintenance costs, reduced process variability, and increased process availability. An undersized valve will not pass the required flow, while a valve that is oversized will be more costly and can cause instability throughout the entire control loop.
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Document ID: 19E2A1C3

Effects Of Petroleum Properties On Pipeline Measurement
Author(s): Jim Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of liquid hydrocarbons in most pipelines today is done on a standard volume basis or by mass. These measurement points typically are custody transfer and are the cash register measurements between the two parties involved in the transactions. This is one reason why the measurement accuracy is critical with another being product accountability. The volume or mass measurements must account for the entire liquid product received or delivered in order to track and determine if product is being lost or gained. Several fluid properties can change the accuracy of this measurement and knowing how they impact the measurement is crucial to its integrity. This paper will focus on dynamic measurement or measurement by metering and discuss several fluid properties and their affects on measured results involving the common types of metering technologies used today
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Document ID: 76C7B0D2

Flowmeter Installation Effects
Author(s): T. Cousins
Abstract/Introduction:
A major reason that there are so many flowmeter types available is that no one meter concept can solve all measurement problems. When new meters are discovered, they always are introduced as the elixir of metering, the meter that can solve all problems, and always as they develop the short comings become apparent. The successful meters then form a niche where they give some benefit over the incumbent meters. The major feature that differentiates meters is often their ability to withstand different installation conditions.
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Document ID: 2D1FAED0

API Mpms Chapter 20 - An Update
Author(s): Mark Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
Since its release in 1993, API MPMS 20.1 has been the single standard which governs allocation practices in the US. In 2007, BP went before the Committee on Petroleum Measurement (COPM) and suggested that a new subcommittee be formed to rewrite Chapter 20. Prior to this, the work developed under Chapter 20 had been a joint effort between sub-committees of the Committee on Gas Fluids Measurement (COGFM) and the Committee on Liquid Measurement (COLM). At the time the suggested new sub-committee was recommended, a working group was already in the process of updating API MPMS Chapter 20.1 to better define and recommend procedures to allocate pipeline or retrograde condensate.
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Document ID: 85D221F7

Measurement Of Dense Phase Fluids
Author(s): Ron Labus,Galen Cotton
Abstract/Introduction:
Dense phase measurement refers specifically to fluid measurement, of what is ostensibly a liquid regime, but due to the operating conditions encountered exhibits properties of both liquid and gas states. Most significant of these anomalies are increased compressibility and density values that are akin to a liquid while being neither a liquid or a gas a single phase plasma absent void fraction. From a mass measurement view point, this can result in a loss of correlation to published density tables for NGLs and a reliance on empirically derived tables for Ethylene
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Document ID: 6FE6B6E5

Orifice Meter Primary Elements Standards
Author(s): Jerry Blankenship
Abstract/Introduction:
The April 2000 revision to the API 14.3 part 2 Standard includes the results of considerable test work over the past few years. Numerous changes are noted, some of which will have major effects on users of orifice measurement. The most significant impact will be in the upstream length and flow conditioner areas. This paper will discuss most of the changes and go into some detail on the more important ones. Items not mentioned essentially remain as stated in the previous issue of the Standard
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Document ID: 8FA720D0

Auditing Electronic Gas Measurement Per API Chapter 21.1
Author(s): Danyelle Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the 1990s Electronic Gas Measurement has become more widely used than Barton chart recorders. With this comes the necessity of EGM auditing. It is rapidly transforming the element of interpretation by manual chart integrators to the evaluation of numeric data. EGM is quickly becoming the preferred method of gas measurement. Although EGM data is more accurate than chart recorders there is still the possibility of errors occurring. Therefore, EGM auditing is essential to verify the accuracy of the data that is used for volume reporting. Having all necessary data is imperative to the assessment process and is the foundation of a successful audit.
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Document ID: 13B450DB

Auditing Gas Measurement And Accounting Systems
Author(s): Stephen T. Steve() Stark
Abstract/Introduction:
Before the early 1990s, measurement auditing was often little more than verifying chart integration and struggling through piles of field test slips looking for missed orifice plate changes, incorrect gas quality information, and unnoticed calibration adjustments. Today, however, gas measurement auditing is more complicated than ever before as gas companies rely on high-speed communication and computer networks to gather massive amounts of information required in todays fast-paced energy industry. Flow rates, total energy, pressures, temperatures, gas quality, flow factors, meter performance data and a lot more is included in this enormous information mix
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Document ID: FBFD1412

Evaporation Loss Measurement For Storage Tanks
Author(s): Warren A. Parr, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
In the 1950s hydrocarbon evaporation loss from storage tanks was studied to develop emission estimating equations. At that time, the primary driver for knowing the evaporation rate was system loss control. During the early 1990s, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began programs for stricter record keeping and reduction of storage tank emission. This forced industry to scrutinize the accuracy
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Document ID: 6E1CD810

Auditing Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Linda A. Larson
Abstract/Introduction:
Presented by Ed J. Saccomanno, Internal Auditing Manager, Motiva Enterprises LLC, 910 Louisiana Street, Room 2596C, Houston, TX 77002, e-mail: ed.saccomanno@motivaent.com. An effective audit of liquid hydrocarbon measurement is dependent upon a solid understanding of the measurement process combined with the application of sound internal auditing principles. The quality of liquid measurement activities is contingent upon (1) the reliability of the measurement equipment and instrumentation used (2) the specific procedures and practices followed in performing the measurement activities (3) the adequacy of training and proper performance of the measurement technician and (4) the proper documentation of transactions based on a measured value. All four components must be taken into consideration when auditing liquid measurement. In addition, to ensure the efficiency of the audit process, auditors must identify those areas which present the greatest risk to the organization to achieving its goals, and concentrate audit effort on those areas
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Document ID: 2D47B794

Fundamentals Of Liquid Measurement - Part 1
Author(s): David Beitel
Abstract/Introduction:
Correct measurement practices are established to minimize uncertainty in the determination of the custody transfer volume (or mass) of products. Understanding and evaluation of the fundamental cause and effect relationships with the liquid to be measured will lead to a volume determination that most closely matches the true volume at the referenced standard pressure and temperature
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Document ID: 6776FC72

Measurement Management System
Author(s): Christopher Levy
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrocarbon measurement is a dynamic, unique field with unique challenges. The measurement field, including equipment, instruments, procedures, and computing systems, are undergoing continuous change as technology continues to evolve at an increasingly rapid pace. New technology requires new skills and companies are faced with the task of developing, maintaining, and delivering training for these necessary advanced work force competencies. Because a decrease in work force knowledge and skills coupled with an increase in infrastructure complexity can lead to a perfect storm of inefficiency and poor measurement performance, a process-based approach to measurement management is necessary to control and improve a companys measurement performance
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Document ID: 7258ABC5

Fundamentals Of Liquid Measurement II
Author(s): Doug Arrick
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurements of liquid petroleum can be performed with the liquid in a static or dynamic state. Custody measurements are made in both states. Static measurements of petroleum liquids are made with the liquid in a tank. This paper will discuss the steps required to calibrate, gauge and sample tanks. These are the steps necessary to measure liquid petroleum in a static state.
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Document ID: 36462EA8

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Paul J. La Nasa
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents methods for determining the uncertainty of both differential and positive metering stations. It takes into account the type of meter, number of meters in parallel, type of secondary instruments, and the determination of physical properties. The paper then relates this information to potential influence on system balance
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Document ID: 047C35E7

Fundamentals Of Liquid Measurement III - Dynamic
Author(s): Peter W Kosewicz
Abstract/Introduction:
Weve learned when measuring crude oil or any hydrocarbon that liquids expand and contract with increases and decreases in temperature. The liquid volume also decreases when pressure is applied. All these effects are part of the physical properties of liquid petroleum fluids. We learned in Fundamentals of Liquid Measurement I how these physical properties effect the measurement of liquid hydrocarbons. The objective of either static measurement or dynamic measurements is to determine the quantity and quality of hydrocarbons transferred. However these measurements are rarely performed at the standard conditions discussed in Fundamentals I, therefore not only must temperature be measured, but also density, sediment and water, vapor pressure, pressure and viscosity must be measured. With these measurements correction factors such as Volume Correction Factors (VCF) can be determined to allow volumes determined at operating conditions to be expressed at standard reference conditions
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Document ID: 88E350B8

Sarbanes-Oxley Act And Its Impact On Measurement Discussion Of The Effect Of Sox Requirements On Measurement
Author(s): Lisa Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
Sarbanes Oxley (SOX) is legislation that is here to stay. Sarbanes Oxley (SOX) has been around now for almost seven years and since its implementation it has not only evolved and become more defined, it has remained as robust as ever. Many companies have already reviewed and implemented controls and remediated any gaps that may have existed when the audit process began. Annual reviews of controls insure that once implemented, SOX will be forever embedded in the fabric of every publicly traded company. Through the utilization of SOX guidelines strong controls have emerged which have helped establish well documented, more efficient measurement and company processes. The benefit of knowing the facets of our business from beginning to end as well as finding where any opportunities for false or even fraudulent processes may be found have been invaluable . A more evolved sense of integrity and pride in our positions and knowing exactly where our companies stand with regards to the importance of good measurement and good solid practices has been beneficial for all employees
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Document ID: D5B511A9

API Mpms Chapter 22.2 - Testing Protocol For Differential Pressure Flow Measurement Devices
Author(s): Casey Hodges
Abstract/Introduction:
The performance characteristics of a new metering device can be determined in many ways. From the testing mechanism to the formatting, analysis, and presentation of the results, a consumer can have a very difficult time determining if two meters are comparable. For differential producing flow meters, there is only one meter type that standards have been developed for, the orifice plate. These standards are based upon decades of research and development. Even orifice plate standards are continually being updated based on current technologies and capabilities. For any other differential producing meter, there was no protocol by which the performance of the meter could be quantified. This paper describes the development of API MPMS Chapter 22.2 Testing Protocol - Differential Pressure Flow Measurement Devices, demonstrates how the standard is used, and discusses issues that exist when using differential meters
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Document ID: A96CEA4B

Overview Of Gpa 2172/API 14.5 Revision
Author(s): Don Sextro
Abstract/Introduction:
GPA Standard 2172-09 / API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards Chapter 14, Section 5, Calculating Gross Heating Value, Relative Density, Compressibility and Theoretical Hydrocarbon Liquid Content for Natural Gas Mixtures for Custody Transfer, Third Edition, January 2009 finds wide application in the natural gas gathering and processing business as well as related natural gas handling activities because it provides methods to calculate these often-used parameters from a gas analysis. Several important changes occurred in the recent revision of this standard that became effective January 1, 2009. The main changes comprised in this revision provide methods for incorporating water vapor into the analysis calculations, include theoretical hydrocarbon liquid content (GPM) calculations on a real gas basis in this standard, discuss characterizing heavy ends in the gas analysis as well as other analysis cautions and providing a number of detailed example calculations. Refer to the standard itself for requirements, procedures, details and further explanation
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Document ID: AC12D0D8

Fundamentals Of Liquid Turbine Meters
Author(s): Mitchell Reckner
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine meters have been used for the custody transfer of refined petroleum products and light crude oils for over 35 years. When correctly applied, they offer high accuracy and long service life over a wide range of products and operating conditions. Traditionally turbine meters were used for the measurement of low viscosity liquids and PD meters for higher viscosities. However, new developments in turbine meter technology are pushing these application limits while increasing reliability and accuracy. This paper will examine the fundamental principles of turbine meter measurement as well as new developments including: smart preamps for real-time diagnostics, helical flow turbine meters for higher viscosity applications, higher performance flow conditioners to increase accuracy, and viscosity compensation to extend the application limits.
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Document ID: F1D1D171

Calibration Using Portable Digital Pressure Indicators
Author(s): Leo J. Buckon
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of electronic pressure calibrators in the gas industry has added new concerns and issues in pressure measurement. Readings appeared that perhaps didnt match the old reliable standby calibration readings or methods, and terms like sensitivity, accuracy, resolution, stability and traceability have become common. Technicians began using correction factors to achieve standard conditions. These correction calculations presented challenges to technicians when performing their calibrations. They began to see the effects of temperature on their test instruments and how temperature affects the accuracy of the gas measurement. More recently, the wide spread use of digital field devices such as smart transmitters has continued to change the technicians world as new tools became necessary to configure and maintain field instrumentation
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Document ID: F0F8BD07

Combining Intrinsic Safety With Surge Protection In The Hydrocarbon Industry
Author(s): Dan Mccreery
Abstract/Introduction:
The Hydrocarbon Measurement Industry faces a rather unique combination of problems. First, many of the areas in and around pumping, custody transfer and storage areas are classified, or hazardous, that must, according to the National Electric Code, be assessed for explosion-proofing. This may be in the form of intrinsic safety barriers or isolators, explosion-proof enclosures and conduits, purged enclosures or nonincendive components.
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Document ID: C5D27024

Helical Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Mitchell P. Reckner
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine meters have been used for the custody transfer of refined petroleum products and light crude oils for over 35 years. When correctly applied, they offer high accuracy and long service life over a wide range of products and operating conditions. Traditionally, turbine meters were used for the measurement of low viscosity liquids and positive displacement meters for higher viscosity fluids. However, new developments in turbine meter technology are pushing these application limits while increasing reliability and accuracy. This paper will examine the fundamental differences between conventional and helical turbine meter measurement. It will also discuss new developments in flow conditioning, helical meter proving and viscosity compensation to extend turbine meter application limits
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Document ID: 1C2D1EA6

Installation And Operation Of Densitometers
Author(s): Paul Mullen
Abstract/Introduction:
densitometer is an on-line and continuously fed device used to measure the density of a flowing stream. A densitometer is used to measure the density of liquid hydrocarbons and finished products like propane, gasoline and liquid mixtures such as, Y-grade natural gas liquids (NGL). This article addresses on-line liquid density measurement. There are several applications in the oil and gas industry where measured density is an important and foremost component of total liquid measurement. The major use of densitometers is to determine the mass-volume that has passed through the flow meter. This quantity may be determined either through mass or volumetric measurement techniques.
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Document ID: 75E74ADE

Liquid Measurement Field Surveys
Author(s): Christopher Levy
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate measurement system performance is critically dependent upon liquid measurement tasks being performed consistently in accordance with established operational processes and procedures. For both design specifications and operating processes and procedures, a significant amount of effort is required to ensure measurement documents are kept current with respect to equipment advances and potentially changing operating criteria. Routine training and assessments are necessary to ensure equipment is operated and measurement tasks are performed as intended. Assurance programs provide a feedback loop that measures the success of the implemented measurement program so that adjustments can be made to address deficiencies and achieve desired results
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Document ID: 6FAFC025

Dot Qualification Training For Measurement And Control Technicians
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement and control technicians must possess certain knowledge and skills in order to effectively and safely perform their required tasks. These knowledge and skill sets are obtained through education and experience. While these requirements are common to all personnel working within these areas of technical discipline, those performing safety sensitive functions on facilities regulated under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Transportation (US DOT) are additionally required to be evaluated for these qualifications as defined within applicable regulation
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Document ID: FEFE109B

Liquid Measurement Station Design
Author(s): Al Odowd
Abstract/Introduction:
The industry continues to benefit from advancements in metering technologies, instrumentation and computer control systems applied to liquid measurement equipment. These advancements result in increasingly complex and sophisticated requirements for interfacing with the mechanical equipment. Complete compatibility of the instrumentation system with the metering components must be incorporated in the design to assure optimum functionality of the system. This paper outlines design considerations and other factors that should be considered in specification and construction of flow measurement stations for hydrocarbon liquids.
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Document ID: 8A2D5E90

Interface Detection In Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): Interface Detection In Liquid Pipelines
Abstract/Introduction:
The basic concept of interface detection is simple: detect and direct the flow of different fluids, or batches, through pipelines. The implementation, however, can be very complicated. The goal of interface detection is to time the switching or cut of the product in such a way that delivers the maximum quantity of product to customers without downgrading the quality of the product. Inaccurate interface detection leads to an increase in both downgraded product delivery and transmix, which requires storage and additional refining. Both significantly cut into the profit margins on delivered product
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Document ID: 949778DE

Multiphase Measurement
Author(s): Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of unprocessed hydrocarbon flows is becoming more prevalent in the hydrocarbon production industry. Multiphase meters are now often integral in the design plans for new developments. However, the phrase multi-phase flow covers a huge range of flow conditions and metering these varied flows has proven a major challenge to engineers. Furthermore, due to the relatively recent arrival of these technologies on the market, and, the relatively complex and proprietary nature of the products leading to the finer details of operation not being divulged, there is often a lack of technical understanding amongst the multiphase meter users. In this paper, definitions of the phrases multiphase flow and wet gas flow will be discussed. There will be a discussion on the requirement for multiphase metering before multiphase flow patterns and the methods of predicting them are discussed. Finally, an overview of the common multiphase meter generic principles will be given
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Document ID: 0F6465EA

Marine Crude Oil Terminal Measurement Systems
Author(s): Harold E. Osborn
Abstract/Introduction:
In this paper we will discuss the different types of measurement systems used at crude oil terminals, the requirements of these systems and why they are important.
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Document ID: F5257DC6

Mass Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquid Mixtures
Author(s): Eric Estrada
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to review methods for directly or indirectly determining the mass of Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) streams. NGLs by definition are hydrocarbons liquefied by gas processing plants containing ethane, propane, butane, and natural gasoline
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Document ID: 41FF0B33

Odorization Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Kenneth S. Parrott
Abstract/Introduction:
In the one hundred and thirty years, or so that we have known natural gas as a fuel source in the United States, the demand for natural gas has grown at an astounding rate. There is virtually no area of North America that doesnt have natural gas provided as an energy source. The methods of producing, transporting, measuring, and delivering this valuable resource have advanced, and improved in direct relation to the demand for a clean burning and efficient fuel. While todays economic climate determines the rate of growth the gas industry enjoys, in a broad sense, natural gas is certainly considered essential and a fuel of the future.
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Document ID: A007FA45

Orifice Meter Tube Dimensional Tolerances
Author(s): Ken Embry
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter is the most predominantly utilized device for measurement of natural gas. Its dominant presence in the natural gas industry stems from many years of acceptance as the primary means for accurate measurement. In 2000, revised manufacturing and inspection standards, along with new technology for flow enhancement have improved the overall accuracy of orifice metering. Though other measurement devices and technologies have made significant impact, the orifice meter offers stands as the dominant device for several reasons:
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Document ID: C5748158

Mass Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Jason Casilio
Abstract/Introduction:
French physicist and mathematician Gaspard Gustave de Coriolis (1792-1843) defined what is known today as the Coriolis principle. Surely at that time, he would not have guessed that over 200 years later his discovery would form the basis for one of the most important principles employed in industrial measurement and process control. The Coriolis principle (or force as it is more commonly referred to today) is a deflection force that is applied to an object in a rotating body. (The fundamentals of this force will be described in detail later on in this paper.)
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Document ID: 54E8987D

Program For Training A Gas Measurement Technician
Author(s): Eric Kelner
Abstract/Introduction:
Retirement, attrition, loss of internal training and the lack of adequate external training have created the need for a common training program, developed, owned and managed by natural gas industry operating companies. This need is supported in a recent study by the INGAA Foundation, entitled Securing Our Future: Developing the Next Workforce, which concluded that technical skill development is inadequate, while the need for training new-hires will increase in the coming few years. Furthermore, it is well-established among engineers and technicians working in the field that the technician shortage has arrived and will likely get worse, increasing the need for high-quality, standardized training.
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Document ID: CF8786A1

Measurement Accuracy And Sources Of Error In Tank Gauging
Author(s): C. Stewart Ash,
Abstract/Introduction:
Tank gauging is the means used to determine the quantity of oil contained in a storage tank. How the volume is to be used often determines the degree of desired accuracy. If the volume is to be used to quantify a custody transfer movement and money will change hands based on the result, a high degree of accuracy is required but if the volume is to be used only as an operational tool (i.e., is the tank nearly full or nearly empty), a high degree of accuracy is usually not required. If the volume is to be used for inventory control and/or stock accounting, the desired accuracy would be less than for custody transfer but greater than for normal operations
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Document ID: AAFB57FB

The Effects Of Additives On Metering In Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): Joseph T. Rasmussen
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays refined fuels are formulated using a recipe of chemical blending and complex processing. Current blends that make-up fuel & chemicals introduce new problems that challenge product quality and performance. Refined products can be altered or degrade prior use by secondary forces such as environment and handling. A wide range of performance and handling problems are minimized or resolved by use of chemical additives. Additives to fuel products are often included in the refining processes that address these problems. Fuels may require additional blending of additives separate from the refining process. The effect these additives have on liquid metering is variable based on their composition and concentration
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Document ID: 78DACFF7

Shrinkage Losses Resulting From Liquid Hydrocarbon Blending
Author(s): J. H. Harry() James
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline integrity balance and custody transfer accuracy have been the focus of measurement specialists since the industry began trading and transporting liquid hydrocarbons. Even with the best volumetric measurement equipment, unaccounted for discrepancies still were occurring. Temperature, pressure and meter factor corrections were not enough to explain these discrepancies
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Document ID: 12EF9490

Meter Selection
Author(s): Robert Fritz
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to provide general guidelines & criteria for the evaluation & selection of a high pressure gas meter, including a discussion of the basic operating principles and installation and maintenance considerations. This paper will concentrate primarily on three high pressure/high volume custody transfer flow meters, Orifice, Ultrasonic and Turbine. A short discussion will be provided for other types of flow meters and different gas stream conditions
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Document ID: 41A3B735

Cone Meters For Liquid And Gas Measurement
Author(s): Philip A Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
This technical paper will describe how generic differential pressure cone meters whilst similar in principle differ operationally from other differential pressure meters and how they are used for the measurement of liquid and gas. The cone meter has become synonymous with specialist metering applications over many years due to special traits that are inherent in this type of meter design.
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Document ID: 479ECC70

Measurement Of Cryogenic LNG
Author(s): Herry Kurniawan - Michael Scott
Abstract/Introduction:
The state of Qatar is one of largest LNG exporter in the word. Reduce capital cost is needed to keep the competitiveness as LNG exporter. Share storage and offloading facility along Qatars LNG exporter companies is one of ways to reduce the capital cost. As a result, the accurate inline fiscal measurement of LNG is needed. The industry standard practices for sale of LNG are generally base on shipboard measurement, therefore limited research conducted to determine accuracy and established standard for inline fiscal measurement of LNG. This paper present experience of using Caldon LEFM 280C ultrasonic meter for inline fiscal measure cryogenic LNG at RasGas as a part of common storage and offloading facility
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Document ID: F723DE70

Measurement Scene Investigations
Author(s): Chris Spriggs
Abstract/Introduction:
Oklahoma Natural Gas Company, one of three companies that make up the Distribution Division of ONEOK, Inc., provides natural gas distribution services to 80% of Oklahoma or approximately 850,000 total customers. This customer base includes service to more than 50,000 commercial and industrial customers. Many of these commercial and industrial customers now have the opportunity to buy their gas on the open market. Oklahoma Natural Gas currently allows any customer, (other than residential), that uses over 1,000 Dth/year to be eligible to participate in our gas transportation program. At this time about 5,000 customers participate. In the future, the company is considering the expansion of this opportunity to all customers
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Document ID: 5D61D2FB

Measurement Methods For Liquid Storage Tanks
Author(s): Robert Arias
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will provide, in general terms, an overview of the different technologies available to measure Net Standard Volumes in storage tanks. The Net Standard Volume (NSV) is used as the primary unit of measurement for custody transfer and/or Inventory Control. The Net Standard Volume (NSV) documents the agreement between the representatives of the interested parties (custody transfer) of the measured quantities and qualities of the transferred liquid
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Document ID: 23D47489

Measurement Of Petroleum On Board Marine Vessels
Author(s): John A. Jack Szallai
Abstract/Introduction:
Generally, marine measurements are used to confirm the validity of shore side custody transfer measurement. Marine measurements can also be used for custody transfer if no other valid means are available or the shore side custody transfer system is not available or functioning properly. Measurement of petroleum on board marine vessels, ocean or inland, are generally based on the American Petroleum Institutes Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards, Chapter 17, with cross references to other pertinent chapters.
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Document ID: 46919B12

Orifice Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Fred Van Orsdol
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice meters have been in common use for many decades, but in the energy industry their use has been primarily in gas metering systems. This is interesting, in that much of the research to develop orifice meter factors (discharge coefficients) has been performed using oil, water, steam and air - as well as natural gas. Orifice meters used in liquid measurement systems provide good accuracy without the requirement for meter proving as long as they are properly designed, installed, calibrated and maintained. If higher levels of accuracy are wanted, they can be proven using appropriate software and hardware and traditional meter proving systems
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Document ID: D5D09A71

Pycnometer Installation, Operation And Calibration
Author(s): Robert L. Bob() Armbruster
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes pycnometers that are used to calibrate density meters (densitometers). Within this paper, the fluid stream is to be considered a Natural Gas Liquid, Refined Product or Supercritical Fluid. Important points for consideration are:
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Document ID: DA35AC46

Resolving Liquid Measurement Differences
Author(s): Jim Godbolb
Abstract/Introduction:
Before we begin a discussion resolving liquid measurement differences, lets take a quick and very basic look at what measurements are, and why they are so important to our industry. Websters defines measurement as: 1) the act or process of measuring 2) a figure, extent, or amount obtained by measurement. Mr. Webster could not have given us a better description of what we do as petroleum measurements technicians. Our job is to obtain an accurate amount, or measurement, of a liquid using a process of measuring. The process used could be hand gauging a tank to determine liquid level, or using a turbine meter in a pipe line system to determine the amount of a liquid moved. We often say that measurements are the cash register of the industry. Lets take a closer look at what is meant by measurements being a cash register
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Document ID: 66FC09CE

Statistical Control Of Meter Factors - A Simplified Approach
Author(s): Dan Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will give a brief overview description of a simplified method for monitoring the performance of a flow meter and performing the same exercise on each meter in the system. The idea is to provide graphical assistance, through the use of meter factor control charts in: (a) developing preventive maintenance programs (b) heightening awareness of alarm situations, and (c) reducing risk to the financial bottom line. Meter factor control charts and logs make it easier to prepare reports to maintenance, operations, financial and executive managers from time to time and furthermore, they make it easier for the target audience to digest the points being made.
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Document ID: DD64B589

Troubleshooting Liquid Pipeline Losses And Gain
Author(s): Joseph T. Rasmussen,Michael R. Plasczyk
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays pipelines are multi-dimensional systems providing multiple services for many shippers and customers. Pipeline systems may connect multiple origins and destinations, and carry various products across long distances with changing profiles, pipe dimensions and directions. Monitoring pipeline losses and gains employs tools and analysis methods developed specifically to troubleshoot pipeline variances. Examination of pipeline losses and gains uses basic statistical tools as well as intuitive and creative insight into what controls losses and gains.
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Document ID: D2B1F8B4

Ultrasonic Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Daniel Hackett
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of Liquid Ultrasonic Meters for liquid petroleum applications such as custody transfer or allocation measurement is gaining world wide acceptance by the Oil Industry. Ultrasonic technology is well established but the use of this technology for custody transfer and allocation measurement is relatively new. Often users try to employ the same measurement practices that apply to turbine technology to the Liquid Ultrasonic. There are some similarities such as: the need for flow conditioning, upstream and downstream piping requirements but there can also be differences such as the proving technique. This paper will discuss the basics of liquid ultrasonic meter operation and performance. While proving liquid ultrasonic meters is not specifically discussed, diagnostic information available to troubleshoot meter performance in general will be presented
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Document ID: 61E99FD7

Viscosity And Its Application In Liquid Hydrocarbon Measurement
Author(s): Gary Rothrock
Abstract/Introduction:
The why and how of measuring viscosity in hydrocarbons. Why do you do it? The cost involved and the pros and cons of different ways of doing the measurement
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Document ID: 3F63977D

Measuring High Viscosity Liquids With Flowmeters
Author(s): Christopher B. Laird
Abstract/Introduction:
The worlds supply of light crude oil has been in decline for the last several years, forcing more and more use of heavy oil. Actually, the reserve of heavy crude oil is nearly twice that of conventional or light crude oil (see Figure 1). Heavy oil is generally defined as crude oils having an API gravity of 20 or less meaning a specific gravity of 0.933 or higher.
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Document ID: EB2D1B9A

Proving Liquid Meters With Microprocessor Based Pulse Outputs
Author(s): Galen Cotton
Abstract/Introduction:
The advent of microprocessor driven flow meters in the late 1960s and early 1970s was heralded as a new frontier in flow measurement. Little did we anticipate the unintended consequence of adopting these new technologies or how our conventional verification techniques would be challenged by them. We are still playing catch-up in the realm of flow meter verification where manufactured or, computationally derived flow meter pulse outputs are concerned.
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Document ID: 5D7D6C33

Accuracy Diagnostics Of Liquid Ultrasonic Flow Meters
Author(s): Joshua W. Rose
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid ultrasonic flow meters are not new to the measurement of crude oil, but over the last decade technology improvements have enabled liquid ultrasonic meters to meet the higher accuracy requirements needed for custody transfer measurement. The transit time principle of measurement has opened a window to allow observation and measurement of aspects of the flow stream that have never been visible to traditional measurement technologies such as PD meters and turbine meters but are critical to the proper operation of a liquid ultrasonic meter. This paper will discuss the specific diagnostic capabilities of the FMC Ultra6 liquid ultrasonic flow meter and how this information can contribute to maintaining high accuracy custody transfer measurement.
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Document ID: 1B32A07C

Offshore Liquid Fpso Measurement Systems
Author(s): T. Cousins
Abstract/Introduction:
Floating production, storage, and offloading systems (FPSOs) receive crude oil from deepwater wells and store it in their hull tanks until the crude can be pumped into shuttle tankers or oceangoing barges for transport to shore. They may also process the oil and in some later FPSOs to be used for Gas distribution. Floating productions systems have been utilized in remote offshore areas without a pipeline infrastructure for many years
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Document ID: A459BCB0

Applications In Liquid Measurement Using Clamp-On Ultrasonic Technology
Author(s): C. Tim Guest
Abstract/Introduction:
Clamp-On ultrasonic flow meters (UFMs) have been in use by various industries for flow measurement for about three decades. When Clamp-On UFMs were first introduced to the industrial market in the mid 1980s, they were primarily applied in the Water & Waste Water Industry. In those early days Clamp-On UFMs primarily used Doppler technology, whereas modern Clamp-On UFMs predominately utilize Transit Time technology. As the accuracy, repeatability, and reliability of these meters improved over the years, the acceptance of Clamp-On UFMs in the Oil & Gas Industry has grown. Today Clamp-On UFMs are becoming widely used in a variety of critical non-custody applications in the Oil & Gas, Hydrocarbon Processing, Chemical Processing and other industries.
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Document ID: 4091979C

Measurement Of Liquefied Petroleum Gases Lpgs()
Author(s): Brent H. Palmer
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is defined as butane, propane or other light ends separated from natural gas or crude oil by fractionation or other processes. At atmospheric pressure, LPGs revert to the gaseous state. This paper is intended to provide an overview of metering systems used for the volumetric measurement of LPGs. Operational experiences with measurement systems that degrade the performance of these systems will be addressed. It includes information for turbine and positive displacement meters used in volumetric measurement systems. The basic calculations and industry standards covering volumetric measurement will also be covered
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Document ID: 895CDECE

Viscosity Compensation Of Helical Turbine Meters
Author(s): Joshua Rose
Abstract/Introduction:
Helical rotor turbine meters can provide significant performance advantages over conventional rotor turbine meters for crude oil service. The use of viscosity compensation (also referred to as Universal Performance Curve Compensation or Viscosity Indexing) and the concept of Dynamic Similitude allows the application range of helical turbine meters to be extended even further.
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Document ID: 788E4EFF

Helical Rotor Turbine Meters Can Provide Significant Performance Advantages Over Conventional Rotor Turbine Meters For Crude Oil Service. The Use Of Viscosity Compensation Also( Referred To As Universal Performance Curve Compensation Or Viscosity Indexing) And The Concept Of Dynamic Similitude Allows The Application Range Of Helical Turbine Meters To Be Extended Even Further.
Author(s): Sami Halilah
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents information about applications of flow computers in the oil and gas industry for (a) Upstream Production, (b) Midstream Pipeline, and (c) Downstream Refining, Process plants, and Chemical Plants. Different applications in those three areas are presented in this paper. Some of the applicable standards are discussed and examples of few hardcopy print out of the flow computer are presented to provide some idea about the capabilities of the Flow Computers.
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Document ID: EE3726DA

Application Of Flow Computers For Gas Measurement And Control
Author(s): Tim Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
A flow computer senses a mixed gas stream flow rate, gas temperature, and pressure and performs the calculations necessary to yield gas volume. The most common method of measuring gas volume is based on the measurement of differential pressure as fluid passes through an orifice plate inserted into a flow metering pipe.
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Document ID: E0356240

Applications Of Portable Computers And Software
Author(s): Applications Of Portable Computers And Software
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry has undergone substantial changes over the last few decades. One of the largest changes has been in the way data is collected and stored. Laptops and PDAs are the most prevalent methods of data collection and storage in the field today. The use of these tools led to great leaps in productivity but in order for similar productivity increases to happen in the future and to maintain gains of the past, hardware and software must be chosen carefully. In this paper we will discuss mobile computing in the Natural Gas Industry.
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Document ID: A11E3FAA

Asic Application Of Flow Computers And Telemetering Systems
Author(s): Jerry Van Staalduine
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic flow computers (EFCs) have become the standard for real-time gas measurement. As these devices become more and more capable, advanced measurement and control strategies are becoming common place. As more and more EFCs are commissioned, customers sometimes learn hard lessons regarding electronic gas measurement. Many times these lessons could have been avoided if proper consideration was given to the selection of an EFC device and the applications at hand. This paper will discuss, in general, gas measurement and control applied through EFCs. It will focus on the importance of proper AGA EFC configuration, different control options, communications, SCADA and important selection criteria.
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Document ID: BED0A658

Basic Electronics For Field Measurement
Author(s): Dale Gary
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is written with the idea of presenting basic electronic principles and how to apply these to common applications in the oil and gas industry
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Document ID: 049A3723

Scada Systems
Author(s): Darin Molone
Abstract/Introduction:
The physical assets of natural gas companies can spread across large geographical areas. The great distances and need for reliable monitoring and control of these assets gave way to the control scheme called Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA). SCADA spans a broad range of control methodologies across many industries, but for the sake of this paper, SCADA will be used in the context of the natural gas industry. This paper will attempt to give the reader a basic understanding of the operating principles and fundamental components involved in a successful SCADA implementation including the communications infrastructure and end devices. In addition to the technical components, the paper will also touch on where SCADA fits into the corporate data chain, the history of how it got there, and some of the new challenges that have arisen as a result of the integration.
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Document ID: 1B1F132D

Communication Systems For Gas Measurement Data
Author(s): Ben Hamilton
Abstract/Introduction:
This is a rewrite of my 2006 ISHM paper it contains revisions and additional content. Communications systems range from the simple to complex we have a lot of choices to make! Making the best choices and avoiding the pitfalls can mean the difference between success and failure. Many good papers describe the SCADA system this discussion is focused on the connectivity between the SCADA server (Master Terminal Unit), Remote Terminal Units or Electronic Flow Meter (EFM) and Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). The trend is to locate the SCADA server in a data center or business office, remote from the production field or pipeline. This trend creates demands for connectivity options. The business reality is that we must use capital wisely and control recurring cost while providing the service that our internal and external customers demand. Connectivity must be well documented and maintainable. We must be able to define the quality of the connection and measure it (you cant manage what you cant measure). The connections to remote equipment may be isolated on hard to reach locations and they may be relocated from time-to-time. These and many other considerations may appear to make our decision making task impossible. The reality is that we dont have to choose a single option for all our needs. In fact complex systems usually rely on numerous connectivity methods. Some of the options are described here.
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Document ID: 08EBAC8D

Economics Of Electronic Gas Measurement
Author(s): Shawn Kriger
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic flow meters (EFM) or chart recorders? Old technology or new? These are two basic questions energy companies must answer when planning the short and long term goals for the measurement and control of their production, gathering or transmission systems. Many companies have already made the switch to electronics. They are using EFMs on every new field installation. They are also in the process of replacing charts that already exist in the field. Other companies have not made the switch. Chart recorders continue to be the main component of their gas measurement systems.
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Document ID: 2B6FA6D4

Production Equipment Effects On Gas Measurement
Author(s): David Pulley
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association (AGA) standard for measurement of natural gas by an orifice flow meter requires that the gas be in a single phase as it flows through the metering area. This condition will allow for accurate measure of the differential pressure across the orifice plate, the flowing gas temperature and pressure, and the component makeup of the gas stream at the metering point. Some gas contracts state that the producer shall condition the gas for metering, which will allow for accurate measurement of gas flowing through the metering station. To meet the AGA and other contractual requirements, personnel need to have a knowledge and operational understanding of production equipment used to condition gas prior to the point of measurement. To achieve the desired condition, field personnel should be properly trained to perform maintenance on and make adjustments to the production equipment in order to achieve optimum flowing conditions within the orifice meter tube.
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Document ID: 7B15479E

Ethernet For Scada Systems
Author(s): Ben Hamilton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to provide a brief low level discussion of Ethernet applications in SCADA system, communications and architecture. The quest for reliable and efficient access to production and control information, in the oil and gas industry, is driving the development of new products. Many of these products support Ethernet technologies. The applications seem to be focused on 2 areas, the production plant (LAN) and the wide geographic area of a pipeline or gathering system (WAN). The common component is wireless. The WAN includes gateways, repeaters and terminal services and may include 1 or more LANs
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Document ID: 5ECA44CA

On-Line Flow Computers For Custody Transfer
Author(s): Casey Hodges
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most important components in the measurement of natural gas is the flow computer. The flow computer has replaced the chart recorder as the preferred method of calculating and recording the proper volume of natural gas flowing through the meter. Flow computers are used with every kind of metering technology. Orifice meters, ultrasonic meters, turbine meters, cone meters, and require calculations to be performed in order to produce the final volumes that are reported. The accuracy of these final volumes is an extremely important issue when it comes to proper sales, billing, system balances, and accounting. This paper discusses what the function of a flow computer is, how the flow computer calculates flowrates and volumes, what information is necessary for a flow computer, and the causes and effects of possible errors. While flow computers are used in many applications, this paper will only cover the use of flow computers in natural gas measurement
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Document ID: 25896F9F

Real Time Electronic Gas Measurement
Author(s): Tommy Mitchell
Abstract/Introduction:
Methods of gas measurement have undergone tremendous change during the last couple of decades. Electronic measurement devices that are significantly more precise and contain manageable flow file databases are replacing mechanical dry-flow meters. This is commonly referred to as electronic flow measurement or EFM. In addition, these devices can communicate remotely utilizing radios, landline or cellular telephone, hard wire and / or satellite links.
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Document ID: E1575F76

Spread Spectrum Systems For Efm And Scada
Author(s): Jim Gardner
Abstract/Introduction:
As oil and gas companies work toward greater automation and e-business solutions, the challenges of getting real-time, reliable data from remote locations continues to be one of the greatest hurdles. Today, there are many fine choices in electronic flow measurement (EFM) and remote terminal unit (RTU) equipment available. There also are many fine bug free software programs to archive, audit, and display the collected data. The single biggest problem remains communications. It is a commonly held belief that over 80 percent of all SCADA system problems are communication failures
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Document ID: 7B4D35FE

Smart Transmitter Selection, Calibration And Installation
Author(s): Leon Black
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1985, while working on aeronautical transmitters at Honeywell Industries, Mr. Paul DuPuis described the definition of future transmitters. It has taken the industry 20 years plus to catch up with his forward thinking approach While researching the background for this paper, it became clearly evident that every manufacture in the industry has a different definition of SMART transmitter. Even the standards groups, IEEE, ANSI/ISA and others cannot agree on what constitutes a SMART transmitter.
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Document ID: 2317D2FD

Testing, Maintenance, And Operation Of Electronic Flow Computers For The Gas Industry
Author(s): Stephen T. Steve() Stark
Abstract/Introduction:
First developed in the middle 1960s, modern-era electronic natural gas flow computers came into wider use for custody transfer measurement beginning in the late 1970s. In the 1980s and 1990s, improvements in charging systems, microprocessors, and transducers made flow computers much more practical for everyday use even in remote locations. In the earlier days, gas flow computers were used to calculate flow - and not much more.
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Document ID: 2785E02E

Transient Lightning Protection For Electronic Measurement Systems
Author(s): Dan Mccreery
Abstract/Introduction:
Energy supply is now a critical part of todays economy. This fact places increasing demands of reliability and availability on the control systems we use in this industry. Maximum availability and system reliability is mandated for both safety and maximum profitability. While considerable effort is expended in the evaluation of methods to improve processes, many engineers have yet to grasp the threat lightning and surges pose to modern control systems. As we have moved from analogue to digital control, from TTL to IC logic, our instrumentation and control equipment have become much more sensitive to voltage spikes. TTL components could sustain damage from an impulse with as little energy as 10J. Todays IC logic can be damaged from an impulse with as little as 1J of energy. It is very important that the protective systems we use today are designed to address todays modern and more sensitive equipment as well as the higher demands for improved uptime and reliability.
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Document ID: 9782704D

Host Gas Measurement Audit Trail Data Handling And Maintenance Techniques
Author(s): Ed Smyth
Abstract/Introduction:
atural gas companies, from producers, to gatherers, to transmission companies to distribution companies, have similar requirements for host systems to manage their gas measurement data. First, this paper will examine some of the common requirements of these systems. Second, various types of software packages that provide some or all of the required functionality will be presented. Finally, actual system implementations will be examined.
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Document ID: F267E8ED

Calibration Of Liquid Provers
Author(s): William R. Young Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
A meter prover is used to calibrate custody transfer meters to establish a meter factor. The volume that passes through the meter is compared to the prover volume during the time taken for a sphere or piston to pass between two detector switches. The prover volume must be accurately determined by a calibration procedure known as the Water Draw method.
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Document ID: DA17FEBF

Design, Calibration, And Operation Of Volume Standards
Author(s): Sherry Sheckels
Abstract/Introduction:
Test measures are designed to deliver a known liquid volume when drained. Their primary use is to calibrate displacement and tank provers in the field by the waterdraw method.1, 2 Accurate test measure volume calibrations are critical to achieving low uncertainty calibrations with flow provers in the field. Test measures can either be invertible or bottom-drain type. Invertible test measures are usually less than 40 L (10 gal) while bottom-drain test measures are larger than 40 L (10 gal). Each year, approximately 100 test measures used for field calibrations are calibrated at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to comply with API standards.3 NIST uses several calibration methods depending on the size of the test measure: 1) the gravimetric method, 2) the gravimetric transfer method, and 3) the volumetric method.4 NIST calibrations include a neck scale calibration at five levels spaced over the range of the neck scale. To ensure accurate customer calibrations and to maintain an ISO 17025 compliant quality system5 NIST regularly performs calibrations of the 60 kg and 600 kg balances used during the calibration and calibrates volume check standards
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Document ID: F9F0C70F

Effective Use Of Deadweight Tester
Author(s): Scott Crone
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most difficult problems facing the instrument engineer is the accurate calibration of pressure or differential pressure measuring instruments. The deadweight tester or gauge is the economic answer to many of these problems. This paper describes methods to select deadweight testers and gauges. Also included are procedures for using pneumatic and hydraulic deadweight testers.
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Document ID: 715BF3C4

Guide To Troubleshooting Problems With Liquid Meters And Provers
Author(s): Jerry Upton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper deals with problems commonly experienced with meters and provers. It is general in nature and cannot cover every problem with either meters or provers. We will confine our discussion to displacement and turbine meters and pipe and tank provers. We will also discuss problems experienced with proving meters with different types of proving equipment
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Document ID: D6389B56

In-Situ On-Site() Gas Meter Proving
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas flow rate measurement errors at field meter stations can result from the installation configuration, the calibration of the meter at conditions other than the actual operating conditions, or the degradation of meter performance over time. The best method for eliminating these or other sources of error is with in-situ (on-site) calibration of the meter. That is, the measurement accuracy of the field meter station should be verified under actual operating conditions by comparing to a master meter or prover. Field provers have been developed for operation at high line pressures and flow rates. For purposes of this discussion, a high gas flow rate is any flow greater than 3,000 actual cubic feet per hour or (85 m3/h) at pressures to 1,440 psig (10 MPa).
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Document ID: 902959CD

L.A.C.T. Unit Proving - The Role Of The Witness Class
Author(s): C. Bynum Vincent
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid hydrocarbons removed from the ground and taken to market require a number of ownership changes or custody transfer transactions while en route to the marketplace. The hydrocarbons, or crude oils, are brought up from the ground by the exploration and production groups, transported to pipeline tank farms via pipeline gathering systems, and then on to the refinery via mainline pipeline. Each ownership change involves a custody transfer from one party to another
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Document ID: 79891054

Liquid Flow Provers
Author(s): David J. Seiler
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of a liquid flow prover is to provide a precise means for calibrating flow meters. Provers are most commonly used to calibrate turbine, displacement, coriolis and ultrasonic meters although they may also be used to calibrate other types of meters. A prover provides a known standard for comparison to the meter output, and, in application, is used to establish factors for correction of the indicated volume of the meter being proved, thereby resulting in more precise measurement. The most common types of provers include
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Document ID: B72D7350

Liquid Meter Proving Techniques
Author(s): Peter P. Jakubenas
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will cover the techniques that are important for proving various types of liquid meters in accordance with API Chapter 4.8. As the price of crude oil and refined products increases the need for proving and proper equipment and techniques for proving becomes more important and the justification for investment in proving equipment and maintenance of the equipment becomes easier. Mis-measurement of even 0.05% on a 6 inch pipeline flowing at 2,000 BPH or 48,000 BPD of 50 crude oil costs 439,000 per year. Under-registration deprives the company of entitled revenue, over registration raises the issue of customer complaints, retroactive rebates, and potential lawsuits.
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Document ID: A45249D9

Operation & Problems Associated With Prover Detector Switches
Author(s): Warren A. Parr, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
In many parts of the petroleum industry, sphere provers are used to dynamically calibrate volumetric meters. In order to accomplish this, sphere provers are required to be accurate and repeatable. This accuracy and repeatability is largely dependent on performance of the prover sphere detector. Any operational or design problems associated with the prover detector will affect the provers performance. This paper will review critical parts of a prover sphere detector that must be checked in order to obtain accuracy reliability and repeatability. The areas that will be covered are:
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Document ID: C705547B

Operational Experience With Small Volume Provers And Water Draws
Author(s): Kevin Fields
Abstract/Introduction:
The following document will focus on experiences working with the Small Volume Prover and addressing common questions and concerns. Small Volume Provers (SVPs) have become the standard in most custody transfer applications. Today, there are over 500 SVPs located throughout the US and abroad. Over 25 years ago, the first Small Volume Prover was put into service. The Small Volume Prover can be used on multiple fluids and over a wide range of flow rates. One of the most common reasons for choosing a Small Volume Prover is its compact size and large flow rate capacity. Todays SVP can handle rates from 0.01 gpm to 18,000 BPH. With a SVP sized to handle 18,000 BPH, the total prover volume is approximately 120 gallons
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Document ID: 73CF7D2C

Proving Coriolis Meters
Author(s): Marsha Yon
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis meters are in use throughout the hydrocarbon industry for the measurement of fluids including crude oil, products such as fuel oil, gasoline, and diesel, and light hydrocarbons such as natural gas liquids, propane, etc. When used for custody transfer, it is most often required by contract between the buyer and seller that the meter be proven in the field on the fluid that is being measured and at the conditions under which it will be operating. This paper will utilize the American Petroleum Institutes Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) as the reference for industry practices for field proving methods and calculations.
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Document ID: D892BC95

Theory And Application Of Pulse Interpolation To Prover Systems
Author(s): David J. Seiler
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulse interpolation, by definition, is the ability to estimate values of (a function) between two known values. Therefore, pulse interpolation enables pulse counts to be made to a fraction of a pulse, thus greatly reducing the rounding - off errors that occur when pulse counts are made to the nearest whole number which always happens in the absence of Pulse Interpolation.
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Document ID: 1EE61995

VERIFICATION/CERTIFICATION Of Devices Used In Liquid Measurement And Implications Of How Mercury Issues Will Impact These Processes
Author(s): Anne Walker Brackett
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past the standards from the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the American Society for Testing and Measurement (ASTM) provided specifications for instruments and equipment. Simple compliance with these standards was not enough. Therefore, a system of verification and/or certification of equipment used in measurement of liquids was instituted. These requirements were written into the standards as they came up for review. An excellent example of such a standard is Chapter 3.1.A. Standard Practice for the Manual Gauging of Petroleum and Petroleum Products of the APIs Manual of Petroleum Measurement. 3.1.A. calls for field verification of working tapes against against a National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable master tape when it is new and every year thereafter. This is an example of the requirements to insure the instrument and the equipment meets the specifications of each standard. It is important to understand the definitions of traceability, verification, and certification before discussing the specifications for equipment used in liquid measurement
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Document ID: 4C92FFC4

Witnessing Orifice Gas Measurement And Field Testing
Author(s): Olen Douglass
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry is an ever changing field. While the basic concept of orifice measurement remains the same, new methods of obtaining and storing data are constantly being introduced. Because of this, the need for witnessing orifice gas measurement and field testing is more important than ever.
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Document ID: 83C76969

Improving Flow Measurements With Improved Calibration And Data Handling Procedures
Author(s): Michael Perez
Abstract/Introduction:
The knowledge base from a field measurement technician to a back office volume analyst is extremely demanding. Every field technician is tested in both knowledge and skills on a daily basis for: electronic controls to pneumatic controls communication system support multiple disciplines support of measurement equipment procedures that must be followed regulatory requirements governing the facilities ongoing training of field personnel These factors and many more create a tremendous and constant challenge for every organization.
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Document ID: CECF01D9

Proving Liquid Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Michael Scott
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic flow meter (UFM) technology has become a popular choice for metering liquid hydrocarbons throughout the petroleum industry. Some of the more common measurement applications for UFMs include Check Metering, Line Balance, Leak Detection and Custody Transfer. As with all current flow meter technologies, UFM performance is subject to installation variables as well as differences in the hydrocarbon liquids being measured, hence the need to prove the UFMs performance
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Document ID: 310EEF29

Auditing Gas Laboratories
Author(s): John Renfrow
Abstract/Introduction:
A Gas Laboratory is the process of sampling a selected gas and comparing to a standard with the same components and determining the combined molecular percentages using Gas Chromatography. A Gas Chromatograph may be installed at an off site location, installed in a vehicle or installed permanently on site. Regardless, the object should be to obtain a sample from the gas stream and determine the component molecular percentages without changing the physical characteristics or environment of the product. In Gas Chromatography Auditing, 3 different audits should be performed.
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Document ID: 4355C180

Btu Analysis Using A Gas Chromatograph
Author(s): James W. Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Chromatographs, or GCs, are commonly used to analyze both liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons, from which analysis the heating value of the sample can be calculated. Following is an explanation of how GCs operate, how calculations of heating value are made and discussion of elements of the GC that can be monitored and trouble shot to insure that correct heating value results are obtained. GCs are configured in a variety of ways depending on the operating environment and gas to be analyzed, but the operating principle is common to all types. Consideration in this paper is limited to on-line units typically installed in field or industrial environments.
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Document ID: 0EDD5F59

Btu Determination Of Natural Gas Using A Portable Chromatograph
Author(s): Burt Reed
Abstract/Introduction:
The analysis of natural gas by using a gas chromatograph has become the one of the most important components in gas measurement in todays energy industry.
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Document ID: 64C0A814

Chromatograph Applications And Problems From A Users Standpoint
Author(s): Fred Ryel
Abstract/Introduction:
Chromatographs are available for all types of applications in the natural gas industry. The main applications that this class will discuss are: process monitoring of liquids and gases, environmental flares and ambient air, landfill gas and contaminates. These can also include corrosives such as H2S, CO2 and O2, etc. Regardless of the application, the main priority is to capture an accurate sample and not change the properties before it can be analyzed. Maintaining the sample integrity is by far the most difficult process. The procedure of acquiring the sample and the way it is analyzed depends upon the media being sampled.
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Document ID: 9B084CF6

Chromatograph Maintenance And Troubleshooting
Author(s): Shane Hale
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas is sold as Energy. Gas Chromatographs calculate the Energy value of the Gas (as well as other calculated values used in the Flow Calculation). When there is only a single Gas Chromatograph (GC) on a Custody Metering station, the downtime for a GC must not only be at a minimum but it should be planned ahead of time, rather than occurring only when a failure has occurred. To allow for predictive maintenance an appropriate maintenance program should be instituted so that analysis problems are identified before they cause measurement errors. Thus maintenance can be performed on a predictive basis, rather than on an ad-hoc or breakdown basis.
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Document ID: DEEF4D40

Chromatographic Analysis Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): Brad Vidrine
Abstract/Introduction:
The analysis of natural gas liquids has become an integral part of the measurement process. Two methods that are commonly used in the gas industry to provide this analytical data are the GPA Standard 2177, Analysis of Demethanized Hydrocarbon Liquid Mixtures Containing Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide by Gas Chromatography and the GPA Standard 2186, Method for the Extended Analysis of Hydrocarbon Liquid Mixtures Containing Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide by Temperature Programmed Gas Chromatography. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the standards and the steps needed to obtain accurate results.
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Document ID: 9938CA54

Crude Oil Quality - What Is Involved And Why Its Important A Pipeline Perspective
Author(s): Douglas Arrick And Patti Edens
Abstract/Introduction:
Crude oil quality is important to all areas of the petroleum industry and for a variety of reasons that cross disciplines such as safety, enhanced production, pipeline hydraulics or pumpability, refinery operations and regulatory compliance. Pipelines are in the center of crude oil quality. Knowledge of crude oil quality is both important to pipeline operations and to ppipeline customers. Some knowledge of the aspects of crude oil quality all the way from well (production) to wheels (refinery finished products) is necessary to understand the importance of protecting crude oil quality in the transportation system. When we understand our needs as well as the needs of our suppliers and end users, we can begin to appreciate the importance of all of the testing and communications we must consider from our middleman position on pipelines
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Document ID: D1C8902D

About Ishm 2010
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
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Document ID: 55200126


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