Measurement Library

FLOMEKO (An IMEKO Conference) Publications (2010)

Establishment Of Air Flow Test Bench With Interact-Check Standards
Author(s): Li Chuanjing, Chen Yunqi, Guo Aihua, Wang Jizhong, Yue Jian, Gu Shunfeng
Abstract/Introduction:
To enlarge the calibration capacity of existing air flow test bench in SIPAI with turbine master meters traced to bell prover, a newly-designed 4500 m3/h flow test bench using critical nozzles as secondary standard traced to pVTt primary standard is successfully paralleled to the existing flow test bench for doubling the flow rate of original calibration capacity. It is proved that not only different secondary standards in kind, traced to both volumetric and gravimetric standards respectively, can be integrated to form an entire flow test bench, but the dependability of the test bench can be increased simply by interact-check principle instead of multi-laboratory inter-comparison test campaign. This flow test bench has been running for months, as a result a control chart of measurement uncertainty has been made. It shows the layout of this test bench is feasible and beneficial to improve the performance of the facility. Along with the running time goes by, an acceptable limitation between the divergent test results obtained from turbine and nozzle benches in accordance with regular interact-check procedure can be determined.
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Document ID: 8A86D986

Practical Application Of Simulation Of Electromagnetic Flowmeters
Author(s): Velt I.D., Khavin L.M.,Terekhina N.V.
Abstract/Introduction:
Technical possibilities of flowmeters simulation methods are formed by theoretical and experimental knowledge level about flow measurement method, and also by technology progress and by the circuit construction of the device. Now there were possible an application of simulation methods in metrology for research of majority of the electromagnetic flowmeters used in Russia. Here should be considered physical bases of an electromagnetic flowmeter simulation modeling. Usually conversion coefficient of the primary flow transducer is represented by following formula
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Document ID: C14FEF2B

Implementation And Application Of Sopc-Based Pulse Interpolation Technology
Author(s): Wei Wang, Yuming Shen
Abstract/Introduction:
When Pulse interpolation technology emerged and was introduced into flow calibration device, the volume is reduced , furthermore, the calibration time is shorten, so calibration efficiency is improved greatly.However, pluse interpolation technologies is difficult and complex to implement, and in this paper a simple, stable and multifunction method is presented
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Document ID: 4C4EE3E6

Numerical Simulation On The Flow Field Of A Vortex Flowmeter With Various Upstream Conditions
Author(s): Jiann-Lin Chen, Jhih-Wei Lin
Abstract/Introduction:
CFD technique has been used to simulate the flow field for a vortex flowmeter with different inflow conditions. The transient turbulent flows were simulated and the vortex shedding frequencies were obtained by FFT technique. The relation of Strouhal number versus Reynolds number with fully developed flow inlet was acquired numerically and experimentally for the standard case. The flow qualities along the piping were quantified by a specific definition. Several cases, including the asymmetric flows and unsteady sine-wave flows at the entrance, were studied and compared with the standard one. The reasons for the fundamental frequency shift caused by different inflow conditions were addressed several conclusions and future works based on numerical simulation were suggested
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Document ID: E930D91C

Reconstruction Of Chengdu Naturalgas Calibration Facility In China
Author(s): Ren Jia, Shi Chunyuan, He Min
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper gives an general introduction to reconstruction of Chengdu natural gas calibration facility(CVB),including analysis of the design criteria for process, mechanical and instrumentation and its impact on minimizing uncertainty. In addition such as the P&ID, calibration capability and estimated uncertainty after reconstruction are also included in the paper.
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Document ID: 1DB6DB41

Standards Systemfor Downstream Naturalgas Flowmeasurement In China
Author(s): He Min, Ren Jia, Duan Jiqin
Abstract/Introduction:
With the burgeoning natural gas industry in China recently, downstream natural gas metering standards are taken as an indispensable technical document for metering natural gas trade. As one of the major natural gas providers, PetroChina has been devoting to perfecting the natural gas flow metering system in China since 2000. Combining international standards with Chinas actual situations, PetroChina has gradually come near this goal. At present, the system of advanced natural gas measurement standards is set up with Technical Requirements for Natural Gas Metering System (GB/T18603) as the main body, including a series standards for flow meters and natural gas analysis & test methods. All these are developed to match international advanced standards, playing a significant role in guiding Chinas natural gas trade metering
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Document ID: 2A16739A

Optimization Of Geometric Parameters Of The Rotor In The Turbine Flowmeter
Author(s): Zhen Wang
Abstract/Introduction:
A new method is presented in this paper for improving the linearity of the turbine flowmeter by optimizing the geometric parameters of the rotor. An objective function is defined to improve the linearity. Four characteristic parameters: the ratio of the blade tip space to pipeline radius, the ratio of the rotor hub radius to the blade tip radius, the fitted angle of the blade at the mean square root radius and the cascade solidity of the blade tip, are used to optimize the rotor design according to the n dimension extremum complex configuration optimization method and the turbine flowmeters mathematic model. The newly designed optimal rotors of 50mm and 25mm bore turbine flowmeter were manufactured and evaluated on a water flow calibration facility. The linearity of the optimized flowmeters is found to be 0.3657% and 0.283% respectively.
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Document ID: F64A2F84

Present Status Of Water Flow Calibration Facility At National Physical Laboratory, India
Author(s): Shiv Kumar Jaiswal, I.S. Taak, Dalip Sharma, Chatar Singh And A.K. Bandyopadhyay
Abstract/Introduction:
The Water Flow Calibration Facility (WFCF) at NPLI was established in joint collaboration with PTB, Germany during 1992 to 1998 under NPLI-PTB Technical Collaboration Program for calibration of different types of water flow meters (WFM) using static-gravimetric method as per ISO 4185. The facility was active till 2001 and comprises of two test rigs, namely, DN50 and DN200 for calibration of WFM of different sizes ranging from 10 mm to 200 mm. Both of the Test Rigs were reactivated during 2008 and 2009. The present paper describes our R&D efforts for the reactivation of the facility. This reactivation of the system enables us to maintain the facility
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Document ID: D5DFBF0E

Fluid Dynamics Model For Liquid Flow Calibration Facility
Author(s): Yu-Ming Shen
Abstract/Introduction:
Some designs for liquid flow calibration facility are studied by employing liquid dynamics theory. The flow equation in test pipe ,The overflow formula in water tower and the module of liduid film attached in the tank are put forward and calculated. This paper provides theoretical references for designing liquid flow calibration facility.
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Document ID: A3249A08

Physical Bases Of Simulation Of The Electromagnetic Flowmeters
Author(s): I.D.Velt, S.I.Kuznetsov, N.V.Terekhina,
Abstract/Introduction:
The research problem of electromagnetic flowmeters metrological characteristics dependence on a velocity profile by a simulation method is considered. The simulating method of research of dependence of metrological characteristics of electromagnetic flowmeters on a velocity profile is considered.
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Document ID: 5541DC07

The CFD Simulation And Experimental Research Of The V Type Elbow Flowmeter
Author(s): Xian-Ju Meng, Shao-Feng Li, Zhi Li
Abstract/Introduction:
This article study the measurement characteristics of the V type elbow meter used CFD approach, the velocity and pressure distributions in the elbow meter were presented. The experiments were carried out in a DN100 pipe,the experimental results show that the flow coefficients of the V type elbow meter is stable,and the relative errors between CFD simulation and experiment are within 1.0%, the V type elbow meter can satisfy the fluid flow measurement in most industrial applications.
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Document ID: E55E0E97

The Reseach Of Correlation Between Flow Coefficent And Diameter Error Of Upstream And Downstream Pipe For Elbow Flowmeter
Author(s): Shao-Feng Li, Xian-Ju Meng, Zhi Li
Abstract/Introduction:
This article study the correlation between flow coefficent and diameter error of upstream and downstream pipe for elbow meter used CFD simulation and experiments, the results of CFD simulation and experiments all show that the flow coefficent is significantly influenced by the diameter error, so the diameter error of upstream and downstream pipe muse be strictly controled when the elbow meter is producted or used ,or modify the flow coefficent, if error of diameter can be measured, to improve the measure accuracy in industrial applications
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Document ID: 7D9603D3

Bell Prover - Calibration And Monitoring Of Time Stability
Author(s): Miroslava Benkova, Stefan Makovnik, Ivan Mikulecky And Vlastimil Zamecnik
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is focused on the calibration and measuring of the geometric parameters of a bell prover, that served as a standard of volume of gas flow. It also includes methods for monitoring of time stability of the bell prover: intra- and interlaboratory comparison measurements, Shewhart analysis and planned evaluation of recalibration intervals.
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Document ID: D6B44898

Recognition Of Flow Readings For Float Flowmeters Based On Digital Image Technique
Author(s): Xiao-Xuan Cao, Yu-Ming Shen
Abstract/Introduction:
Put forward a way to use MATLAB when processing the image of the glass flowmeter in order to automatically get its float lever. In the process of image collection, we study the phenomenon of uneven background brightness that caused by illumination, and decide to use diffuse. First, we use MATLAB image processing toolbox, such as edge detection, filtering, thresholding, expansion, thinning, etc, and then add our own algorithms according to the specific image feature, to detect the float position.
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Document ID: C773650B

Discussion On The Trend Of Natural Gas Primary Standard In China Mainland
Author(s): Duan Jiqin, Ren Jia, Chen Huiyu,Peng Liguo
Abstract/Introduction:
Presently there are several types of natural gas primary standards, such as the high pressure piston prover(HPPP), mass-time gravimetric flow standard(mt), PVTt, New optical primary standard with LDA-System (LDA )etc. Base on the analysis of advantages and disadvantages, the affection factors of these gas flow standards, the developing trends of natural gas flow primary standards in China are discussed in the paper. In addition suggestions for the future research directions on gas flow standard are given, so as to reduce the measurement uncertainty and approach a higher level of natural gas flow measurement.
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Document ID: D0D24A69

Performance Of Vortex Shedding From A Circular Cylinder With A Slit
Author(s): B. H. Peng, J. J. Miau, F. Bao, L. D. Weng, C. C. Chao And C. C. Hsu
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow-field study was conducted concerning vortex shedding from a circular cylinder with a slit. Experiments were carried out in a water channel and a low-speed wind tunnel with emphasis on the impact of the slit width on the quality of the vortex shedding signal measured. It is found that among the cases studied, whose slit widths ranging from 0 to 0.3 d, where d denotes the diameter of the circular cylinder, an optimal range of slit width, 0.1-0.15 d, was identifed, in which not only the vortex shedding signals show the best quality, but also the relation of the Strouhal number against the Reynolds number appears to be the most linear. By spanwise correlation of hot-wire measurements in the wind tunnel, it is further noted that in this situation the vortex shedding flow structures appear to be almost perferctly two-dimensional in the near wake region.
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Document ID: 302700F1

Implementation Of Quadruple-Timing Pulse Interpolation Applied To Compact Piston Provers
Author(s): Carlos Eduardo Jeronymo1, Valter Yoshihiko Aibe
Abstract/Introduction:
This work presents an electronic circuit for quadruple-timing pulse interpolation applied to compact piston provers. Compact provers are usually employed to prove meters with pulsed outputs. API and ISO standards 1, 2 recommend a minimum of 10000 pulses per run to obtain a resolution better than 0.01%. Since the volume of fluid displaced by a compact prover is relatively small, the number of pulses produced during a proving run is often considerably less than 10000 pulses. Pulse interpolation techniques are commonly used to increase resolution and to diminish uncertainty during a proving run by estimating the fractional part of meter pulses within the time interval of the calibration. In this way, pulse interpolation techniques are essential to obtain accurate flow measurements and to allow the calibration of meters with compact provers.
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Document ID: CB73436D

Low-Pressure Gap Discharge Ultrasonic Gas Flowmeter
Author(s): Jerker Delsing, Kristoffer Karlsson
Abstract/Introduction:
Low-pressure gas measurements are of increasing interest in the process industry for both control purposes and emission measurements. Industrial measurement environments include some very challenging components, such as:
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Document ID: 868F3B15

Transient Response Of Turbine Flow Meters During The Application At A High Pressure Piston Prover
Author(s): Bodo Mickan, Rainer Kramer, Volker Strunck
Abstract/Introduction:
In Germany, a high pressure piston prover has been operated as the national volumetric primary standard for high-pressure natural gas for more than 15 years. The reliability and the claimed uncertainty of this system was proven in international key comparisons in which all relevant physical principles of traceability for gas measurements were assed.
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Document ID: 72D111FC

The Application Of Critical Nozzles In Series For The Determination Of Small Flow Rates And The Generation Of Gas Mixtures
Author(s): Rainer Kramer, Bodo Mickan, Roland Schmidt
Abstract/Introduction:
Because of the low uncertainty and very good long term stability the application of critical nozzles became very important especially for test rigs. The majority of nozzles are used in the so-called suck mode using atmospheric air as test medium. In order to use nozzles for the generation of different flow rates as well as to generate gas flows with different kinds of gases the application with increased input pressure became more important. An other field of extended application is the usage for small flow rates. Nozzles which have a shape in accordance to ISO 9300 are available with throat diameters down to 80 m. Below this value the shapes have to be simplified. Even for simplified shapes the mechanical manufacturing of nozzles allows at the time being throat diameters of d 15 m
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Document ID: 09ACB169

Mems Mass Flow Technology: Striving For 30 Years
Author(s): Liji Huang
Abstract/Introduction:
Since late 1970s, MEMS mass flow sensors have been emerged for gas mass flow measurement providing cost effective alternatives. However, unlike the other MEMS technology, MEMS mass flow sensor market grows at a very slow pace dominating only in automobile air mass flow sensing. The MEMS mass flow meters have been few since year 2000 and are limited to low flow speed applications in dry and clean gases due to the vulnerability in design and adversity for moisture and particles. Siargo since 2003 has been dedicated to provide its patented MEMS mass flow technology excelling for the traditional counterparts and targeting as the alternatives to the century-old diaphragm utility technology and many others in industrial applications. A wide spectrum of product lines has been introduced to the market and has been well accepted by the customers. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the existing MEMS mass flow technology, products on markets, and the prospective of the MEMS mass flow technology in the coming years
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Document ID: A2066777

All Electronic Mems Flow Meters For City Gas Applications
Author(s): Liji Huang, Chihchang Chen, Yahong Yao And Gaofeng Wang
Abstract/Introduction:
City gas metering has been dominated by diaphragm meters for over a century. In the past 30 years, development of all-electronic meters for better energy management has been pursued by many companies using ultrasonic, thermal time-offlight, and MEMS calorimetric principles. Installations and trials have been reported but mostly in small quantity. The challenges for such meters come from reliability and cost requirements.
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Document ID: 14BCCA68

Mems Thermal Time-Of-Flight Flow Meter
Author(s): Yahong Yao, Chihchang Chen, Xiaozhong Wu And Liji Huang
Abstract/Introduction:
Thermal time-of-flight (TOF) technology has been considered to be one of the most effective approaches that could provide an accurate flow measurement at ultra low flow speed. While the technology remains on paper for over half a century without real implementation, the lack of market drive may be one of the major reasons. Current demands in energy management such as city natural gas metering, medical applications for respiratory machines and others have revitalized this technology. Thermal TOF technology in principle can provide accurate flow speed measurements for gases regardless of its gas compositions. However, traditional design of TOF sensors is often very vulnerable to fluidic conditions, in particular, moisture, particles and other contaminations. In this paper, we present a thermal TOF gas flow meter that is equipped with a robust MEMS thermal TOF sensor which can be used in fluid where moisture and particles exist. The design and fabrication of the MEMS TOF sensor are described followed by its circuit scheme. The design of the flow meter and the test results are presented
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Document ID: 9776BD93

Design Of Miniature Disposable Flow Sensors For Medical Applications
Author(s): Jian Luo, Yenan Liu, Xiaoping Liao And Jiliang Ruan
Abstract/Introduction:
The demands in homecare in North America and Europe have required cost effective disposable flow sensors for avoiding cross contamination and other damages. Examples are the infusion pumps and personal ventilators. For the infusion pump applications, a miniature liquid flow sensor is required to handle the micro flow during the injection of the medicine so that a constant injection can ensure the patient with ultimate comfort and prevention of side effects. This application also requires microfluidic design for the flow range of 0-500mL/hr. A MEMS flow sensor designed with the extended range capability could be the choice for this purpose. In this paper we present the design and prototype of such a sensor.
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Document ID: 10106B99

Numerical Simulation Of Electromagnetic Flowmeter On Gpu
Author(s): Julia Michailova, Pavel Frolov
Abstract/Introduction:
The role of numerical simulations in new device development and optimization sensor properties is steadily increasing. Last years we observe dramatic increase of computational power of GPU based chips with double point precision. With using CUDA architecture process of adapting old numeric code for modern parallel architecture is greatly simplified. In contrast to the modern universal CPU chips graphics accelerators are designed for parallel computing with a large number of arithmetic operations. Steadily increasing number of transistors on GPU works for its intended purpose - processing of data sets. As a result, the basis for the effective use of power of the GPU in scientific is the parallel algorithms for hundreds of execution units available in video chips. In addition, the use of the multiple GPUs greatly increases the processing power of the system at relatively low cost.
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Document ID: A40AB196

Cost Effective Mems Mass Flow Meters
Author(s): Kai Peng, Changming Jiang, Yongyu Liu, Wenhong Deng, Xiang Lan And Sugang Jiang
Abstract/Introduction:
Cost effective flow meters are dominated by rotameters or variable area flow technology. These meters only measure instant volumetric flow rate with a low accuracy. In addition, the meters are not capable for temperature and pressure compensation as well as remote communication. With increasing demands on data communication and remote control in current industrial processes or gas measurement applications, development of new technologies would be necessary. We present a series of MEMS mass flow meters that are cost compatible with the variable area flow meters while providing all digital data process including accumulated flow rate measurements, user programmable flow alarm and flow data storage. These in-line meters provide packages in pipe diameter from 4 mm up to 100mm. It is powered with battery and can be used as a stand-alone potable option.
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Document ID: 604EE5CA

Laminar Flow Element Type Flow Meter With Straight Glass Capillary
Author(s): Chih-Cheng Feng, Win-Ti Lin, Cheng-Tsair Yang,
Abstract/Introduction:
Center for Measurement Standards (CMS) developed a laminar flow element (LFE) type flow meter as a transfer standard. This LFE consists of a single straight glass capillary or multiple straight glass capillaries connected in parallel. Two gauges and one thermometer measured the inlet/outlet pressure and inlet temperature, respectively, and the differential pressure was restricted from 2 kPa to 100 kPa. The glass capillaries were manufactured by laser machining, resulting in consistent inner diameter and straight flow path. Characteristics of glass material also prevented the capillary from bending during installation. By means of regression, the turndown ratio of this LFE flow meter could be higher than 20 and the residual would be still within 0.11 %. The reproducibility within 0.03 % indicated that this LFE flow meter can be used as a transfer standard. Measurement with dry air demonstrated that these four LFE meter could span the flow rate at (0.8 to 986) mol/s within the deviation of 0.15 %. (1 mol/s could be converted as 1.3 cm3/min at 0 ? and 101.325 kPa) Additional measurement with nitrogen demonstrated the feasibility of measurement with multiple gases.
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Document ID: 8529D722

Ultrasonic Flow Meter Diagnostics And The Impact Of Fouling
Author(s): Jan G. Drenthen, Marcel Vermeulen, Martin Kurth & Hilko Den Hollander
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past decade, Ultrasonic flow meters have gained a wide acceptance. Main reasons for this are the high repeatability in combination with zero pressure loss and extensive diagnostic features. During this period meters with different path configurations have been put into the market, each of them trying to obtain the highest accuracy. Many of them show (often after multipoint linearization) almost perfect straight lines with errors close to the repeatability of the lab
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Document ID: 7C891416

Bilateral Comparison Of Primary Low-Pressure Gas Flow Standards Between Nimt And Cms
Author(s): Chun-Min Su1, Win-Ti Lin1 And Sutham Masri2
Abstract/Introduction:
To verify the measurement capability and performance of the newly established primary low-pressure gas flow standard, a mercury-sealed piston prover, at the National Institute of Metrology of Thailand (NIMT), a bilateral comparison with the piston prover at the Center for Measurement Standards (CMS, Taiwan) was conducted. The piston prover at NIMT has a measurement capability of 5 mL/min to 24 L/min flow range with a relative expanded uncertainty smaller than 0.13 %, whereas that of the system at CMS is 2 mL/min to 24 L/min with 0.10 % expanded uncertainty
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Document ID: 2EB10892

Electromagnetic Flowmeters With The Governing Boundary Conditions On The Channel Wall
Author(s): I.D.Velt, Ju.V.Mikhailova, Yu.A.Tyurin
Abstract/Introduction:
Electromagnetic flowmeters at which electric potential distribution to channel surfaces is controlled with using the foreign current brought to measuring electrodes are considered
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Document ID: D1C034E7

Measurement Of Metallic Weight Of The Pulp By The Electromagnetic Method
Author(s): Ju.V.Mikhailova, S.I.Kuznetsov, I.D.Velt
Abstract/Introduction:
In the paper, two methods are considered of exact measurement of the metal containing pulp mass. The first one consists in the continuous measuring of the pulp magnetic susceptibility and subsequent automatic correction when calculating the dry solid matter of the metal containing product. The second one provides for use of the special electromagnetic mass flow meters insensitive to the variations of the magnetic properties of the medium measured. The paper presents the technical solutions providing an additional electric signal characterizing the pulp magnetic susceptibility. Presence of such signal makes it possible not only to exclude the volumetric mass flow measurement uncertainty caused by the influence of the pulp magnetic constituent but also to measure the metal containing product mass. Use of such electromagnetic mass flow meters is the most prospective method of solution of the problem posed.
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Document ID: B2CBA2C0

Fluid-Structure Interaction Fsi() Simulations On The Sensitivity Of Coriolis Flow Meter Under Low Reynolds Number Flows
Author(s): Vivek Kumar, Martin Anklin, Benjamin Schwenter
Abstract/Introduction:
In process industries Coriolis mass flow meters (CMFs) are widely employed for measuring mass flow rates. Quite often especially in oil and gas (O&G) industry, owing to fluids with high viscosities, flow measurements may lie in low Reynolds number regions. At low Reynolds numbers (Re), a CMF reading may deviate under the influence of fluid-dynamic forces. With the help of extensive Fluid-Structure- Interaction simulations (FSI), a detailed insight into physical mechanisms leading to this deviation is provided. The main finding is that this deviation is a function of the Reynolds number and the effect can be explained by a periodic shear mechanism which interacts with the oscillatory Coriolis force.
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Document ID: 435D80C0

4, 0.63 Beta Ratio Cone DP Meter Wet Gas Performance
Author(s): Richard Steven, Charlie Britton, Joshua Kinney
Abstract/Introduction:
Cone DP meters are often used for unprocessed natural gas flow metering applications. Unprocessed natural gas flows can have entrained water and light hydrocarbon liquids. Hence, it is important to fully understand the wet gas flow response of cone DP meters. One method of metering the gas flow rate of a wet natural gas flow is to estimate the liquid flow rate (usually a mixture of hydrocarbon liquid and water) from an independent source (such as a tracer dilution technique or test separator histories) and then use a wet gas correction factor or correlation to correct for the liquid induced gas flow rate error. It is therefore necessary to have a reliable cone DP meter wet gas correlation for wet natural gas flows where the liquid component is a water and / or a light hydrocarbon liquid mixture.
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Document ID: EE2F30C6

Diagnostic System For Venturi Meters
Author(s): Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Venturi flow meters are popular for being simple, sturdy, reliable and inexpensive devices. Their principles of operation are easily understood. However, traditionally there has been no Venturi meter self diagnostic capabilities. In 2008 and 2009 a generic DP meter self diagnostic methodology 1,2,3 was proposed. In this paper these DP meter diagnostic principles are discussed specifically with respect to Venturi meters. In this paper the principles are proven with extensive experimental test results from Venturi meters. A diagnostics screen displaying the diagnostic results real time, first suggested in 2009 2, 3, is discussed and then used to present the experimental results.
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Document ID: 2667F3DD

A Mass Flow Meter Concept With Diagnostic Capabilities
Author(s): Jim Storer
Abstract/Introduction:
A simple, accurate, relatively compact and light gas mass flow meter has been developed with diagnostic capabilities. This fundamental mass flow meter concept revises a simple concept originally suggested four decades ago before the computer power existed to make a practical system. This paper revises the concept, discusses the development of a modern meter design and adds new diagnostic capabilities. The mass meters outputs are the volume flow rate, the fluid density and the mass flow rate. The system does not require the fluid density from an external source and can meter gas mass flows and measure gas density at low pressures. The system has significant qualitative diagnostics capable of signaling when the meter is malfunctioning. In cases where the fluid density is known from an external source some quantitative diagnostics are also available.
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Document ID: 0AF70350

Development Of A Self-Powered Pipe Flow Metering System
Author(s): Song Hao Wang, Ronald Garcia, Xinyin He, Jiacheng Chen
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow metering devices are one of the most important apparatus to measure/control fluid flows in pipelines, including industries such as chemical/petroleum plants, as well as residential/municipal facilities. In recent years, the systems have advanced into digital era with the development of science and technology. However, batteries and wired electricity are still the major operating power
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Document ID: 25C52923

A Novel Thermal Senor For Gas Flowmeter Measuring
Author(s): Mou Changhua1, Wang Maolin1, Peng Lihui2
Abstract/Introduction:
Thus far, the thermal gas flow sensor is commonly based on the constant current principle. However, the constant current thermal sensor suffers the zero drift because of the tolerance of manufacture. And the accuracy and the response time of constant current thermal sensor cannot fulfill the application with high accuracy requirement. The paper presents a novel thermal sensor for gas flow measuring, which is based on the constant power techniques. Experiment results demonstrate that the novel constant power thermal sensor is of high accuracy, short response time and small zero drift.
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Document ID: 58AED96F

European Comparison Of National Water Flow Laboratories
Author(s): Jan Gersl, Libor Lojek
Abstract/Introduction:
The results of supplementary comparison of European national water flow laboratories - Euramet 1046 - are reviewed. The comparison started in May 2008 and the measurements were finished in June 2009. Eleven laboratories took part in the comparison - namely: Austria (BEV), Bosnia and Herzegovina (IMBH), Czech Republic (CMI - pilot laboratory), France (CETIAT), Greece (EIM), Hungary (MKEH), Lithuania (VMT/LEI), Republic of Macedonia (BoM), Norway (Justervesenet), Slovakia (SMU) and Switzerland (METAS). Two electromagnetic flow-meters were used as transfer standards. Laboratories were compared in a range of flow-rates between 1 m3/h and 10 m3/h with water of temperature near to 20C. The data were evaluated by the standard methods
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Document ID: D5981B39

The Specification, Selection And Use Of Liquid Flow Rate Measuring Devices
Author(s): Richard Fertell
Abstract/Introduction:
Description of an international standard that ensures all liquid flow rate measurement technology specifications are consistent for evaluation and comparison as well as to document and advance the state-of-the-art of liquid flow rate measurement technologies. The standard will cover all liquid flow rate technologies, error sources, fluid and temperature applications, and expected measurement uncertainties
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Document ID: 5B031B58

The Effect Of Contaminated Orifice Plates On The Discharge Coefficient
Author(s): Michael Reader-Harris, Neil Barton And David Hodges
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice plates can be contaminated by oil, grease, pipeline sludge or other liquids or solids. Experience shows that sometimes the contamination extends to the sharp edge of the orifice plate, but that on many occasions any possible contamination near the edge is cleaned by the flow. The latter case is investigated here. In some of the existing sets of data the contamination in the form of soft deposits used to gather the data means that interpretation is not straightforward so Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used to assist in the interpreta
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Document ID: 977A5649

On The Online Detection Method For Gas Flow Meter By Using Mobile Standard
Author(s): Chen Huiyu, Xie Yu
Abstract/Introduction:
The accuracy of gas flow meter field measurement is directly associated with the economic benefits of both parties of the business. Thus, the accuracy of flow measurement is getting more and more attention. The field inspection, examination, and calibration of the gas flow meter are effective way and method to ensure the accuracy of gas measurement. The article explores and analyzes the method of using mobile standard device to online calibrate the gas flow meter, and proposes an accurate and reliable suggestion for ensuring the field examination of flow meter
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Document ID: DF60F66A

Dynamic Traceability Of A Sonic Nozzle Prover System1 Snps() To Other Cal Benches At Same Company, To An Outlander One, And To The National Standard
Author(s): Alex S. Kun Lszlo Juhsz Katalin Gal-Nyeste
Abstract/Introduction:
In calibration technique validation, reliability and the traceability of all are very important issues during operation. According to the currently applied rules the traceability or Key Comparison (KC) usually takes place every three-six months. But its also obvious, that in the case of relocation KC needs to be performed immediately. For such KC the so-called Youden-Analysis was used, which made the collection of very acceptable results at this ambiance possible.
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Document ID: 1FB33261

Bilateral Comparison Confirms Nims And Nists Gas Flow Capabilities
Author(s): Chunhui Li
Abstract/Introduction:
A bilateral comparison of the gas flow standards of the National Institute of Metrology (NIM) in China and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the USA was conducted from June 2008 to October 2009. Two critical flow venturis (CFVs) with nominal throat diameters of 10 mm and 20 mm, respectively, were selected as transfer standards. The CFVs were calibrated on NIMs 20 m3 PVTt system and then on NISTs 26 m3 PVTt system. The results demonstrate the equivalence between NIMs and NISTs gas flow measurement capabilities for flows ranging from 1000 liters per minute to 4000 liters per minute at reference conditions of 101.325 kPa and 293.15 K. The experimental data agreed with existing theoretical models within 0.07 %. All the data agree with the ISO 9300 emp irical equation within its 0.3% expanded uncertainty limit
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Document ID: 678EDA8B

Comparison Of Calibration Curves: An Application Example
Author(s): Pier Giorgio Spazzini, Luca Callegaro & Francesca Pennecchi
Abstract/Introduction:
The present paper discusses an example of application of a method for the comparison of calibration curves. The method, presently in development, is expected to be an useful tool for the analysis of complex sets of data in several situations two possible examples are the analysis of the drift of instrument with complex calibration curves or the analysis of data in Key Comparisons performed for quantities which require the use of measurement instruments as Transfer Standards. The proposed example is based on data from a Key Comparison. The paper discusses the merits of both the technique proposed for the determination of a reference calibration curve from the calibration curves pertaining to the various laboratories and the method for the computation of the distance between the single curves and the reference. Moreover, the advantages of the global evaluation of compatibility between calibration curves versus the point-to-point compatibility are discussed.
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Document ID: AC2A612B

The Foundation Of Release System And Investigation On The Calculation Method On Energy Determination Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Chi Wang, Chunhui Li Jingan Wang, Tao Li
Abstract/Introduction:
To achieve the change of trade balance from volumetric determination to energy determination for natural gas in China. The smallest release system of energy determination for natural gas was built. On the base of analyses of energy determination, the uncertainty for this system was conducted taking an example of Beijing experimental station. The results showed that the uncertainty of energy determination could be lower than 1% (k2), when the measurement process was kept in good control.
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Document ID: ABB088F7

Re-Design Of A Wind Tunnel Outflow Section
Author(s): Pier Giorgio Spazzini, Riccardo Malvano, And Aline Piccato
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper deals with some of the problems connected with the design of a wind tunnel. In particular, the flow in the diffuser is analyzed in detail. The tool for this analysis was the numerical simulation, which allowed to forecast possible problems and to set up strategies to overcome them before the device was built. The simulations required to reach this aim will be presented, alongside with the results obtained. The results will be discussed in the light of the objectives of the device, which is designed to improve the performance of a reference test rig for airspeed measurement
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Document ID: D2A4F2FD

Study On The Tests Of Large-Bore Flow Measurement Using Fjpe-Type Gauging Pipes
Author(s): Zhou Guo-Xiang, Wang Jing-an,Li Chunhui
Abstract/Introduction:
Several tests using FJPE-type gauging pipes for improving the accuracy of large-bore flow measurement have been described herein. The measuring test of non-fully developed pipe flow, which is formed in the elbow, is discussed especially, including research processes, part of data-processing result, and flow velocity profiles at the cross-section of pipes. The initial results indicate that, measurement of large-bore flow by varied-bore pipe is of significant flow-rectifying effects, which reduces the length-requirements of straight tubes as well. The gauge constant fluctuated little within the larger Reynolds number range. This kind of research provides a new method for large-bore flow measurement.
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Document ID: E8E0808D

Inter-Laboratory Comparison Results For Coriolis Mass Flow Meter Calibration Facilities
Author(s): Dean m. Standiford, Mark Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
Inter-laboratory comparison testing is fundamental to assuring the accuracy of a laboratorys stated measurement uncertainty, and a requirement for accreditation to ISO/IEC 17025:2005. Inter-laboratory comparisons using Micro Motion, Inc. (MMI), Coriolis mass flow meters support the claimed uncertainties of 0.014% (k2) for the high-accuracy liquid flow calibration facilities, and 0.03% (k2) for the production flow calibration facilities at Micro Motion, Inc.. This paper describes: multiple calibration methodologies, international traceability to National Metrology Institutes, test results and future design requirements of an inter-laboratory test program required to support multiple, accredited flow calibration centers around the globe
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Document ID: B98161CC

A New Calibration Facility For Small Flow Of Hydrocarbon Liquid
Author(s): Kar-Hooi Cheong, Takashi Shimada, Ryouji Doihara, Yoshiya Terao, Masaki Takamoto
Abstract/Introduction:
A new calibration facility for small flow of hydrocarbon liquid has been established at National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ). At present, the facility provides calibration service for hydrocarbon flowmeters in the mass flow range between 10 kg/h to 100 kg/h. The new primary standard adopts gravimetric calibration method with standing-start-and-finish using static weighing. Light oil is used as the working fluid
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Document ID: 52CC4107

Treatment Of The Time Dependent Residual Layer And Its Effects On The Calibration Procedures Of Liquids And Gases Inside A Volume Prover
Author(s): Anderson Ilha1, Mauro m Doria1,2 E Valter Yoshihiko Aibe1
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to minimize the uncertainty arising from measurements of volume provers, we consider the thin liquid films that form inside the provers inner surfaces, such as the interior walls of standard tanks and bell provers. These thin films adhere to the surface and may carry a given amount of mass and volume which can impact on the prover-side measurement uncertainties
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Document ID: 5F941E36

New Differential Producing Meters - Ideas, Implementation, And Issues
Author(s): Casey Hodges
Abstract/Introduction:
There are several relatively new differential producing meters that are available for end users. Each meter claims to have advantages over other meter types, specifically orifice meters. Meter types discussed include cone meters, Venturi meters, multi-ported averaging pitot tubes, multi-holed orifice plates, and diagnostic differential meters. This paper is intended to be used by purchasers of these meters to help them obtain the best meter for their application. The operating principles of these meters will be explored. This paper will look at the claims that the manufacturers of these meters make in terms of accuracy, required upstream lengths, and diagnostic capabilities.
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Document ID: 0B50A218

Cone DP Meter Calibration Issues
Author(s): Casey Hodges, Charles Britton, William Johansen & Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Cone DP flow meters are becoming increasingly popular for natrual gas flow metering. A cond DP meter operarates according to the same physical principles as other DP meters but it is not as yet included in the ISO 5167 report on DP meters. In this paper, thirty one cone DP meter single phase data sets from CEESI independent research, a wet gas research Joint Industry Project, and multiple third party cone DP meter calibrations are reviewed. The meters discussed have diameters ranging from 2 to 14, beta ratios ranging from 0.45 to 0.85, Reynolds numbers rangeing between 5e4 and 5e6, and pressures up to 75 bara. This paper discusses
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Document ID: 653E7DE8

Installation Effects Of Ultrasonic Flowmeter In Single Bend Pipe
Author(s): Dan-Dan Zheng1, Tao Zhang1, Li-Jun Sun1 Tao Meng2, He-Ming Hu2, Chi Wang2
Abstract/Introduction:
The downstream flow of 90single bend was investigated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). An acoustic transit time flowmeter was exposed to the downstream flow at various positions. Measurement errors with different meter configurations and effects of pipe wall roughness were discussed. Numerical simulation results of three diameter pipes 0.1m, 1m and 10m with increasing the roughness from 0 to 1mm were presented within Reynolds number (Re) range from 5 103 to 5106
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Document ID: 2D3C3E4D

Development Of Large Air Flow Calibration System
Author(s): Kyung-Am Park, Saeng-Hee Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
The volumes of a storage tank and a temperature control loop of the high pressure gas flow standard system in KRISS were increased about three times to calibrate large flow meters and to test the flow capacity of control valves. Sonic nozzle bank consisted of 15 sonic nozzles (10, 13, and 19 mm diameters) is used as reference flow meter. The performance of this large air flow calibration system was evaluated.
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Document ID: E60E264C

Novel Modification Of Large Water Calibration Facility
Author(s): Chun-Lin Chiang, Yi-Lin Ho, Jian-Yuan Chen
Abstract/Introduction:
Traditionally, the method used to determine measurement errors of water meters is the so-called collection method, in which the quantity of water passed through the water meter is collected in a vessel. Then the quantity is determined volumetrically or by weighing. Other methods with permitted accuracy levels are also accepted by international standards. Now some types of flow meters have relatively high accuracy and can be used to substitute volume tanks as flow standards for error tests of water meters. A flow laboratory which has the water meter test facility has the largest flow capacity in Taiwan
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Document ID: F93BC97F

In-Situ Impurity Concentration And Density Monitoring Of CO2 Fluid By Uv Absorption Method
Author(s): Shau-Wei Hsu, Bao-Jen Pong*, Zong-Ying Chung And Cheng-Hsien Chen
Abstract/Introduction:
In-situ detection of oil impurity concentration and density in CO2 fluid is achieved by a double beams ultra-violet (UV) absorption technique with detection ability as low as 0.01%. The weight of extracted impurity was found proportional to the integration of variation of concentration, and can be semiquantitatively calculated with a calibration process. Liquid CO2 phase change and liquid density fluctuation phenomena were also detected by abrupt change and oscillation of the photo current, respectively.
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Document ID: 7A79CB99

Research On The Two-Phase Flow Measurement Of Condensate Natural Gas
Author(s): Xu Ying 1, Zhang Qiang 2, Zhang Tao 3 , Li Tao 4, Duan Yu-Han 5, Li Zhen-Lin 6
Abstract/Introduction:
This research is on the implementation of online non-separation flow measurement of gas-liquid two-phase condensate natural gas. The V-cone throttle device, which has the shrinkage characteristics of fluid-flux sectional area along the outside surface of its core and the inside surface of its pipe wall, and the venturi throttle device, which has the shrinkage characteristics of fluid-flux sectional area along the center of its tube, are assembled.
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Document ID: 1D142789

Wet Gas Flowrates Metering Based On Double Differential Pressures Of Venturi Meter
Author(s): Zhang Qiang 1, Xu Ying 2, And Zhang Tao 3
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to measure the wet gas not separating, a wet gas measuring method based on double differential pressures of an alone venturi meter is presented in this study. In traditional over-reading (viz. OR) correlations, only the liquid phase fraction is known, can the OR be solved. This deficiency is analyzed by error propagation method theoretically. The change characteristics and the inherent physics laws of the differential pressures of the contraction and expansion sections of a venturi tube which were affected by the relative amount of liquid phase and gas flow rates were investigated deeply. Using a new dimensionless metering parameter, viz. the differential pressures ratio of contraction and expansion sections of venturi tube, a novel form of the OR correlation was, therefore, developed to improve the metering accuracy effectively
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Document ID: C4F55545

Development Of A Vortex Flowmeter With Good Performance At Low-Flowrate
Author(s): Hui-Min Shen, Xin Fu
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to the mechanism of vortex flowmeter, it is susceptible to the random disturbance from the ambient. With the goal of improving the poor sensitivity and noise immunity of conventional vortex flowmeter at low-flowrate, many researchers have done lots of work, focusing on innovation about the bluff, including the geometry or combinations, and the signal processing
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Document ID: C2B6A0CF

Experimental Investigation On Zero Drift Effect In Coriolis Mass Flowmeters
Author(s): Li-Jun Wang1, Liang Hu1, Xin Fu1, Peng Ye2
Abstract/Introduction:
It is claimed that Coriolis mass flowmeter (CMF) can accurately measure the mass flow-rate without being effected by temperature. However, evidences from practical industry applications show that sometimes CMFs still suffer so-called zero drift (ZD) effect: the origin of the flowmeter (reading at zero flow) varies as temperature changing. In this paper, series of experiments are carried out to systematically examine and analyze the performance of a Narrowed-U-CMF in a temp-changing environment. Based on the resutls of these experiments, possible reasons causing the ZD effect are analyzed, which provides a base for further solutions of the ZD effect.
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Document ID: 249E53E0

A Design Of Capacitance Sensor System For Void Fraction Measurement In Liquid-Gas Flow
Author(s): Jin-Ming Zhang, Yi-Ping Liu
Abstract/Introduction:
The sensors, consisting of METC axial synchro driving guard electrodes and two sets of detecting electrodes, make it possible to obtain simultaneously two groups of signals of the void fraction in liquid-gas two-phase flow. The quality of the reconstructed image and the performance of multielectrode capacitive system depend on the uniformity of sensibility distribution between electrode pairs. To determine the spatial sensitivity distribution over the pipe cross section and to study the static responses of the system, a numerical simulation has been employed to analyze the design parameters and the system performance of the capacitive systems. As a consequence, a prototype of 12-electrode internal sensors with METC configuration is presented as first part of ECT system used in liquid-gas flow void fraction measurement.
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Document ID: B9C3F1E9

Extending Flow Measurement Capacity With The Straighttube Coriolis Technology
Author(s): Tao Wang, Yousif Hussain
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis flowmeters had been mainly developed and used in line sizes less than DN100 (or 4-inch) because the size of the flow sensor itself could become too unwieldy and expensive for practical uses. This paper specifically reports the latest research and development of using the straight-tube Coriolis technology to extend flow measurement capacity to a high flow range. Design of the Coriolis flow sensor using a straight-tube configuration is firstly presented. Then, description of a special calibration procedure used in the manufacturers gravimetric water flow rig is provided. Finally, an extensive test programme within internal facilities and other independent facilities is also reported. Test results verified straight-tube flowmeters performance and showed a step forward in advancing the general Coriolis flowmetering technology.
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Document ID: 78B538BC

Research On Tank Volume Metrology For Petroleum And Liquid Petroleum Products Based On 3D Laser Scanning Method
Author(s): Jin-Tao Wang, Zi-Yong Liu, Long Zhang, Li-Gong Guo, Xue-Song Bao, Lin Tong
Abstract/Introduction:
One course radius measurement method for vertical tank volume metrology based on 3D laser scan principle was researched. Method of distance measurement by phase and angular measurement by optical grating was applied to acquire coordinates of points in each course under the control of servo system, and the permitted error of point location is 2mm. Fitting algorithms base on direct iterative method (DIM) and least square method (LSM) were used to process measured data and deduce equivalent radius of each course. In comparison experiment, one 1000m3 vertical tank was used as test object. Compared to strapping method (international mandatory standard), the maximal deviation radius value of method discussed is 2.8mm, and the maximal difference of radius value calculated by DIM and LSM is 0.1mm. The experimental results verified the method discussed in this paper.
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Document ID: C75110E9

Ultrasonic Flowmeter Calibration Intervals
Author(s): Bryan Trostel Thomas Kegel Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
Currently no recalibration interval has been recommended by ultrasonic meter manufacturers or required by the AGA in the United States. Ten years ago the natural gas industry in the United States began acquiring ultrasonic flowmeters. A large amount of data has been collected over the past few years detailing how the performance of an ultrasonic flowmeter is affected by use in the field. The data from 35 meters calibrated at CEESI Iowa will be analyzed to investigate the effects of time on the performance of ultrasonic meters
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Document ID: C8B9049D

Reducing Calibration Uncertainty By Expanding The Use Of Critical Flow Venturi Standards
Author(s): Kegel, T. m.
Abstract/Introduction:
For over forty years CEESI has operated primary calibration standards to provide traceable flow measurement services. Critical flow venturies (CFVs) have always been used as transfer standards to directly calibrate customer meters. Over the past ten years CEESI has invested in the fabrication and calibration of additional CFVs to reduce calibration uncertainty.
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Document ID: D39A88C4

The Development Of Ultrasonic Meter Performance Diagnostic Methods Velocity Profile Ratios
Author(s): William Johansen Thomas Kegel
Abstract/Introduction:
Check meters are commonly used by calibration facilities to monitor system performance. Check meters at the CEESI Iowa Natural Gas High Flow Facility have been installed in two different configurations: permanently installed check meters upstream of the customer meters and check meters installed downstream of the customer meters in variable configurations. The data from two 12 ultrasonic check meters normally placed downstream of customer meters will be examined to investigate the effect of velocity profile on the performance of ultrasonic flowmeters
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Document ID: 8887E88F

The ISO 5167 Compliant Design Venturi - A Further Summary Of Calibration Experience
Author(s): Kegel, T. m.
Abstract/Introduction:
This is the second paper describing a program to organize and analyze the results of a large number of venturi meters calibrated using compressed air. Part four of the ISO 5167 standard specifies discharge coefficient values. The calibration results are organized into four categories based on a qualitative judgment as to how well the calibration fits the ISO coefficients. The database contained 59 venturies when the first paper was published the current summary is based on 76 calibrations.
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Document ID: F9FEB751

Assessment Of Reproducibility And Linearity Of The Nmia Bell Prover Using A High Flowrate Sonic Nozzle Array
Author(s): Dr Khaled Chahine, Dr Mark Ballico
Abstract/Introduction:
Critical flow Venturi, or sonic, nozzles are widely used in gas flow metrology as stable and convenient transfer standards. Once the nozzle coefficient has been determined by calibration against a primary standard, the mass flowrate can be determined by knowledge of the upstream gas composition and its pressure and temperature. As these can be determined with great precision, the mass flow achieved can be more reproducible than the nozzle calibration
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Document ID: FA929C82

Development Of A Flame Calorimeter
Author(s): Ki Won LIM,Jin Yong Jun*, Byeong-Jun Lee**
Abstract/Introduction:
The calorific value of Natural Gas (NG), as a mixed gas fuel, strongly depends on composition. The composition of NG is mainly methane, ethane, propane, butane and nitrogen, which varies with time and place it was produced. In order to measure the calorific value of NG, a flame calorimeter was manufactured and characterized in this study. For development of the flame calorimeter, the electric substitution method initiated by Alexandrov was applied. Peltier elements on the calorimeter emit the heat supplied by a heater and a flame under the thermal equilibrium state. Freon-11 was used as a heat carrier for steady state heat flow. It was proved that the calorific value of methane as measured with the calorimeter deviates by -0.36 % from the theoretical entalpy.
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Document ID: D6E37F0C

Performance Evaluation Of Critical Flow Venturi Nozzle With Primary Standard Calibration Facilities At Fcri And Validation With ISO Standards
Author(s): Unnikrishnan.P.N(*), Sivaprakash.K.G(**),Cmde Rtd() S. Saseendran
Abstract/Introduction:
A 2 NB Critical Flow Venturi Nozzle (CFVN) of Nominal Flow capacity 25m3/h was designed at Fluid Control Research Institute (FCRI), India as a transfer standard for undertaking calibration of smaller capacity flow meters. The Nozzle fabricated was of Toroidal throat design and was assembled as per the general guidelines of ISO 9300:2005 Measurement of gas flow by means of Critical flow Venturi nozzles. The Air Flow Measurement facilities at FCRI is equipped with Primary Standards Pressure-Volume-Temperature-time (PVTt) facility of 2m3 Nominal volume and 90 m/h maximum flow capacity and a Bell Prover of 500 ltr volume and with a maximum flow capacity of 40m/h.
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Document ID: 3F4428E9

Measurement Of Helium Micro Flowrates With High Accuracy For Gas Chromatography
Author(s): J. Barbe, F. Dijoux, C. Yardin, T. Mace
Abstract/Introduction:
More and more chemical analysis laboratories using gas chromatographs need to measure the different flowrates involved during the analysis process (split ratio column flow).
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Document ID: 1288905D

Performance Of A Gas Flow Meter Calibration System Utilizing Critical Flow Venturi Standards
Author(s): Michael Carter, William Johansen, Charles Britton
Abstract/Introduction:
A set of Critical Flow Venturis (CFVs) were manufactured by Flow Systems and calibrated by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD. Subsequently these flow standards along with pressure and temperature standards have been integrated into a gas flow meter calibration (GFC) system. Performance data and an uncertainty analysis will be discussed. Calibration data on these CFV standards will be used to inter-compare the NIST and CEESI primary facilities.
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Document ID: E492685E

Improvements In The Implementation Of Laminar And Sonic Based Gas Flow Meters In The Range Of 2 X 10-5 GS-1 (1 Ncc Min-1) To 100 GS-1 (5000 NlMin-1)
Author(s): Michael Bair, Casey Rombouts
Abstract/Introduction:
During the middle of the last decade, DH Instruments (now Fluke Calibration) developed an improved primary calibration chain based on dynamic gravimetric measurements and a successive addition technique to provide significantly lower uncertainty in gas flow from 2 x 10-5 gs-1 (1 Ncc min-1) to 100 gs-1 (5000 Nlmin-1) 1. Recently, in order to disseminate the lower uncertainties achieved to the flow measurement community, significant improvements were made to the laminar and sonic based flow meters supported by the gas flow references. The improvements include the use of NIST (USA) Refprop gas property data, a new Reynolds number and pressure characterization, lower uncertainties in absolute and differential pressure monitoring, and filtration designed directly into the meter
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Document ID: AAD5A3C3

Discharge Characteristics Of Small Sonic Nozzles In The Shape Of Pyramidal Convergent And Conical Divergent
Author(s): Chih-Chung HU1, Win-Ti LIN2, Chun-Min SU3, Wen-Jay LIU4
Abstract/Introduction:
This study cooperated the KOH anisotropic etching with the laser machining to fabricate small sonic nozzles in the shape of a pyramidal convergent inlet followed by a conical diffuser with a divergent angle of 5o. Three different diffuser lengths were made for the nozzles. The throat diameters were around 100 m. Experiments were performed to obtain discharge coefficients and critical back pressure ratios in Reynolds numbers ranging from 5.8102 to 4.5103. The critical back pressure ratio for one of the nozzle type examined reached 0.486 at Re 4.4103.
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Document ID: F90998EB

Measuring Flowrates In Partially-Filled Pipes In Siphonic Roof Drainage Systems
Author(s): Ying Yan Qu1, Terry Lucke2, Simon Beecham1
Abstract/Introduction:
While a variety of flow measurement devices are available to measure the flowrate of water through closed pipe systems, these devices generally only function correctly when the pipes are completely full of water. Accurate measurement of water flowrates in partially-filled pipes is extremely difficult. In siphonic drainage systems, this problem is further compounded by the unsteady flow conditions that occur in the pipework during the priming process. This has been a major obstacle to understanding the performance of these systems in practice. In order to accurately model the priming process in multi-outlet siphonic roof drainage systems, a method of estimating the instantaneous flowrates through the partially-filled individual pipes needs to be developed
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Document ID: B8DAD284

Views On In-Service Inspection Of Ultrasonic Flow Meter
Author(s): ByMinWei,Liwanjun,Zhoufang
Abstract/Introduction:
The verification limit of gas ultrasonic flowmeter is two years according to Chinas verification regulation. However, the limit may be extended to six years if the real flow and annual in-service inspection on ultrasonic flowmeter are qualified through verification. In China, in-service inspection on gas ultrasonic flowmeter is initiated as an emerging field. Currently, two approaches are available: first, comparing it with one set of standard flow meter and second, on-line inspection based on sound velocity comparison method. Both of the approaches have pros and cons
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Document ID: E428DFC5

Traceable Calibrations From Primary Standard To On-Site Ultrasonic Flowmeter
Author(s): Fong-Ruey Yang, Yi-Lin Ho, Wen-Bin Wang, Jiunn-Haur Shaw Tsai-Wang Huang, Jyh-Rong Wu, Zhong-Yong Chen Yun-Ho Cheng, Zhi-Xiong Su, Trank Li
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the traceable calibrations from primary standard to onsite natural gas ultrasonic flowmeters. In practice, the National Metrology Laboratory constructed a gravimetric type air-flow calibration system with sonic nozzle array as the working standard in 1993. The flow measurement capacity of this primary standard at 1 bar and 20 ? is from 15 m3/h to 18000 m3/h with operating pressure range from 1 bar to 60 bars. A re-circulating high pressure gas flow measurement facility was constructed at Chinese Petroleum Corp in southern part of Taiwan. The pressure range is also from 1 bar to 60 bars with flow range from 20 m3/h to 4000 m3/h under actual pressure condition. The transfer standards of this re-circulating facility are four 6 Instromet ultrasonic flowmeters. The expanded uncertainty of these four transfer standards calibrated by NML compact nozzles was 0.18 %. For the Da-Tan distribution and metering station in Taiwan, four Sick 12 ultrasonic flowmeters are used as transfer standards.
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Document ID: DBF4826C

Influence Factors Upon Verification Of The Ultrasonic Heat Meter
Author(s): Shi zhendong,duan huiming,li Xu
Abstract/Introduction:
The ultrasonic heat meter are more and more used in the supply heating system.The paper gives the principle of the ultrasonic heat meter and analyze influence factor when verifying the ultrasonic heat meter,it includes balance,thermostatic bath,standard Pt resistance,water density, sonic velocity,and etc. It emphasizes the influence of sonic velocity to verification
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Document ID: 5CCF06E2

Calibration And Verification Of Mems Mass Flow Meters For Custody Transfer
Author(s): Wenhong Deng, Sugang Jiang, Rui Liu And Liji Huang Pujun Zhao And Li Lei Kaiyou Jin
Abstract/Introduction:
Thermal mass flow meters are commonly of full scale accuracy and not considered for applications where custody transfer is required. Recent advancement of MEMS mass flow technology in city natural gas metering has demanded a better calibration and verification procedure so that the custody transfer can be justified with regard to the traditional thermal mass flow meter technology. The thermal mass flow sensor could be impacted by the humidity, gas composition and temperature. Calibrations with one standard may often be not applicable to the others if each of the factors is not fully accounted even the meter itself has been well designed and immune to the variables. In this paper, we will discuss the calibration procedures and measurement uncertainties of the MEMS mass flow meters.
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Document ID: 00BB979B

Metrological Comparison Of Metering Characteristics Of Differential Pressure Meters
Author(s): R.Mascomani*1, S.Saseendran*1,BVSSS Prasad*
Abstract/Introduction:
It is often difficult to realize calibrated accuracy of a flow metering system over measurement range when it is installed under hostile and perturbed flow conditions. Though widespread studies are reported in literature on individual characteristics of meters, comparative evaluation of the performance of these devices under real life installation situations is relatively inadequate. Present study compares classical venturi, cone, standard orifice and new slotted orifice and four hole orifice meters. Experiments are carried out to investigate the effects of single elbow, double elbow in and out of plane, reducer, and expander on the response characteristics of these devices.
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Document ID: 5E8C687E

Experimental And Theoretical Investigation Of Thermoacoustic Oscillations In Natural Gas Metering Stations
Author(s): Andreas Brmmer, Roland Edlerherr Johann Lenz
Abstract/Introduction:
In natural gas flow metering and pressure regulation stations flowmeters, heat exchangers and control valves are usually connected in series. Especially in case of two and more measuring bars sometimes at minor flow rates untypical pipe vibration together with flow metering faults are observed. Based on field investigations the dependencies between the pipe vibration level, the gas pulsation inside the pipe and the operating conditions of the heat exchanger are analysed. It turns out that with increasing heat flow rates into the natural gas the pulsation and hence the metering faults as well as the pipe vibrations are amplified
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Document ID: 08A82BE3

Novel Water Flow Facility In France Range Extension To Low Flow Rates (10 000 ml/h Down To 1 ml/h)
Author(s): Christopher David, Pierre Claudel
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to extend the French water flow calibration range, LNE-CETIAT is on progress to build a new reference for flow rate measurements ranging from 10 l.h-1 down to 1 ml.h-1. This new facility based on a gravimetric principle (ISO 4185) will enable calibration with water temperature between 10C and 50C. Flow is regulated by the combined use of a tightly regulated upstream pressure (0,1 to 10 bar) and the use of capillaries under laminar flow. The expected relative uncertainty for the water flow rate is 0.1% with a coverage factor k 2 (95% confidence). The paper described the design and the ongoing implementation of this new calibration facility
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Document ID: 30DEB03D

Establishment Of Traceability System For Hydrocarbon Flow In Japan
Author(s): Takashi Shimada, Ryouji Doihara, Yoshiya Terao And Masaki Takamoto
Abstract/Introduction:
Generally the construction costs of a calibration facility for hydrocarbons are very high and it is difficult to cover every kind of hydrocarbon and all flow rate ranges required at industry. So far, at the primary standard in Japan, the calibration liquids are limited to kerosene and light oil, in spite of the demands from the industry for other hydrocarbons such as gasoline and heavy oil. Therefore the expansion techniques from the present primary standard to other liquids such as gasoline and heavy oil using flowmeters have been developed. Furthermore the standard flow has expanded to large flow rate range using flowmeters as accurately as possible at calibration laboratories. Consequently the traceability system for hydrocarbon flow using flow standard has been established.
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Document ID: F53BEF4D

Structural Optimization Of Orifice Rotameter Based On CFD
Author(s): Li-Hua Piao, Tao Zhang Tong Guo, Xiao-Zhong Li, Xing Chen
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice rotameter indicates the flowrate as a displacement of a symmetrical body(float) placed concentrically downstream of an orifice inside a vertical tube. Experiments study had been performed at five positions of the float to evaluate the performance of the most commonly used type of orifice rotameter. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method was employed to optimize the performance of orifice rotameter. A total of 20 numerical models were established corresponding to the five positions, four types of orifice rotameter. At the same position, the floats of four types of numerical models have the same stroke with experimental flowmeter.
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Document ID: DD505B2C

Extended Measurement Range Of Vortex Flow Meter In High Turbulent Range
Author(s): m. Akresh, L. Reindl, m. Vasic
Abstract/Introduction:
It is known that a vortex signal is fundamentally related to the fluid flow velocity. When, a vortex flow meter operates at a low flow velocity, the vortex signal is weak, which has been discussed by several researchers in recent years. Subsequently, when a flow meter operates at a high flow velocity, the vortex signal is superimposed on additional signals, making it difficult to extract the true vortex signal. Both problems directly influence the measurement range of a vortex flow meter. The investigation of the vortex signal in high turbulent range is rarely mentioned in literature, and is the focus of this work. A typical vortex flow meter has been optimized and its measuring range has been extended up to 55%.
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Document ID: 9CA9BF16

Modeling Laminar Flow Meters For Process Gases
Author(s): Thiago Cobu Robert F. Berg, John D. Wright, And Michael R. Moldover
Abstract/Introduction:
We calibrated three models of commercially-manufactured, laminar flow meters (LFMs) with nitrogen at four pressures (100 kPa, 200 kPa, 300 kPa, and 400 kPa) over a 10:1 flow range using NISTs primary flow standards and a physical model. Without additional calibration, each LFM was used to measure the flow of three process gases (Ar, He, and CO2) over the same pressure and flow ranges with a maximum error of only 0.5 %. The calibration and flow measurements used the gas-property data from NISTs database REFPROP 8.0 and a physical model for each meter that accounts for the viscous pressure drop, compressibility and non-ideal gas behavior, slip flow effects, kinetic energy effects, gas expansion effects, and thermal effects. The three LFMs have design differences that illustrate the dependence of the model corrections on LFM construction and the gas used. The LFM model improves results for the conditions tested by a factor of 4 over the flow coefficient and viscosity coefficient plots commonly used to present LFM calibration data
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Document ID: 49E6455A

Properties For Accurate Gas Flow Measurements
Author(s): John D. Wright
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate gas properties are needed to take full advantage of the low uncertainties provided by NISTs Gas Flow Calibration Services. If a flowmeter user and NIST use different values for these properties (molecular mass, compressibility, density, viscosity, and critical flow factor), the users flow measurements will have errors. Since January 2009, calibrations conducted by NISTs Fluid Metrology Group use the NIST-supported database REFPROP version 8.1 to reduce calibration data. Prior to 2009, NISTs calibration data were reduced using REFPROP 7.0. Flowmeter users who recalibrate their meters at NIST and ignore the January 2009 change of database may erroneously conclude that either their meters or NISTs standards are not stable.
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Document ID: 851222A6

Uncertainty Analysis Of Nists 20 Liter Hydrocarbon Liquid Flow Standard
Author(s): Aaron N. Johnson Chris J. Crowley Tt Yeh
Abstract/Introduction:
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses a bi-directional 20 L-displacement piston prover as its primary standard for measuring hydrocarbon liquid flows ranging from 1.86 10-5 m3/s (0.3 gpm) to 2.6 10-3 m3/s (40 gpm). Our analysis that shows that the provers uncertainty over this flow range is 0.074 % (k 2, corresponding to a 95 % confidence interval). Using a dual rotor turbine meter as the transfer standard, we compare the new 20 L piston prover standard with NISTs other hydrocarbon liquid standards and NISTs water flow standard. The results are consistent with the presented uncertainty analysis
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Document ID: 51807500

Gas Flow Measurment And Controller
Author(s): Mou Changhua1, Wang Maolin1, Peng Lihui2
Abstract/Introduction:
At present gas flow measurement and control are the key parts in the fuel cell and solar energy equipment. The percent of mixture gas would be calculated theoretically to achieve the high efficiency. Thus a new gas flow measurement and controller are presented for energy industry in this paper. Based on the thermal sensor and low pressure drop solenoid valve, the new gas flow measurement controller is integrated by temperature compensation. Experiment and customer testing results demonstrate the better performance of the new gas flow measurement and controller
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Document ID: 13D19A5E

Kind Of New Calibrationmethod For The Volume Of Bell Prover
Author(s): Cui Lishui, Lixu
Abstract/Introduction:
new 1m3 bell prover is developed by flow laboratory in china national institute of metrology. Laser tracker and laser interferometer is applied to measure the volume of the bell prover. The result suggests this kind of geometric method is feasible and the uncertainty of result is less than 0.1%.
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Document ID: 1B0C0370

Dependence Of The Flow Velocity Field In Critical Nozzles On The Pressure Ratio
Author(s): Masahiro Ishibashi And Toshihiro Morioka
Abstract/Introduction:
RTA (Recovery Temperature Anemometry), which estimates the flow velocity field based on the recovery temperature measured by a very thin thermocouple wire without disturbing the flow field, is introduced in the paper. Measurements of flow fields in critical nozzles by RTA reveal very interesting phenomena such as interaction of oblique shock system fixed on the nozzle geometry and a strong shock moving along the nozzle axis depending on the pressure ratio, which is considered to have a relationship with the premature unchoking phenomenon. Possibility to estimate the flow velocity distribution in the boundary layer is also discussed
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Document ID: ACBC986C

Experiment Research On Detecting The Small Throat Diameter Flowmeter For Critical Flow By Using A Bell-Type Facility
Author(s): Xiao-Ming Sang 1, Li-Fen Wan 1, Dong-Jun Li 2 Hu Ji
Abstract/Introduction:
This article introduces the detection method of the small throat diameter sonic nozzle by using a bell-type gas flow standard facility and its advantages. The related experiment researches have been done. It also describes the structure styles and the working principles. Meanwhile, it assesses the uncertainty of the outflow coefficient C for the small throat diameter sonic nozzle detected in this method. The feasibility of the detection method has been verified through the experiment data analysis.
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Document ID: 768D3822

Numerical Approach To Estimate The Accuracy Of Ultrasonic Flowmeter Under Disturbed Flow Condition
Author(s): He-Ming Hu, Chi Wang, Tao Meng
Abstract/Introduction:
The multi-path ultrasonic flowmeter is a well established method for accurate discharge measurement in large closed conduits. Although multi-path configuration and crossed paths are used to increase measuring accuracy, the error due to flow field distortions can not be ignored. This paper focuses on the numerical approach to estimate the accuracy of ultrasonic flowmeter under the disturbed flow condition. The flow field in the ultrasonic flowmeter can be simulated using FLUENT, and virtual acoustic paths are placed to investigate the flow error, which is the difference between the indicated flow and the real flow.
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Document ID: 74E2097F

Numerical Simulation And Experiment On Averaging Pitot Tube With Flow Conditioning Wing
Author(s): Li-Jun Sun, Li-Xiao Qi, Tao Zhang
Abstract/Introduction:
Cross-section of Averaging Pitot Tube (APT) flow sensor is a determinant factor in meter performance. In order to improve the performance of the APT flowmeter, three different cross-sections with Flow Conditioning Wing (FCW) were put forward. It was shown by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation and prototype test that the performance of the FCW II cross-section, such as the linearity, the repeatability, and the value of differential pressure generated, is better than those of traditional circle and diamond cross sections
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Document ID: 27A33FF1

A Computational Investigation Of Flowmeters
Author(s): Iryna Gryshanova
Abstract/Introduction:
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques provide investigations in conditions where the real experiment cant be fulfilled for some reasons, so these tools have found their applications in many spheres of science and technology in particular they are widely used in flow metering. Some of CFD applications we would like to propose and discuss in this work in the context of turbine and ultrasonic meters. We discover non-drag type of turbine flow meters to check if created design with hydro-dynamic bearings should provide really floating rotor. For this purpose only numerical research can solve verification problem with minimal costs and simple realisation. Another computational investigation is dedicated to transit-time ultrasonic flow meters to optimize their design and get improved performance not only in normal conditions
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Document ID: 552D785D

Research On Accuracy Evaluation Method Of Ultrasonic Flowmeter Used In Large Conduits
Author(s): Chi Wang, He-Ming Hu, Tao Meng
Abstract/Introduction:
It is always a difficult task to measure the flow in large conduits. Ultrasonic flowmeter developed in recent years is a good choice for the large flow measurement, especially for turbine performance testing in hydroelectric plant, because of its convenient installation but it is not easy to estimate the accuracy of ultrasonic flowmeter, and there is not even a acknowledged estimation method when its installation requirements are not satisfied. Aiming at the accuracy of the ultrasonic flowmeter installed in 3-Gorge power station, both experiment method and CFD method are introduced to analyze the effect of the complex flow field on the metering performance.
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Document ID: 5FB30CFD

On The Dead Volume Of A Standard Small Volume Prover
Author(s): Maria H. Farias, Marcos V. B. Ramos And Sandro R. Santoro
Abstract/Introduction:
The calibration procedures of compact provers, which are used as standards to calibrate volumetric meters, are well known. However, the reduction of uncertainty of measurement in a prover calibration or when using a prover as standard depends on several factors, among them, the way of controlling some quantities, the kind of valves in the hydraulic circuit and how they are operated, the kind of liquid totalizer in calibration etc. In general, position sensors installed close to the initial and final ends of the cylinder ruler of the prover indicate the useful displacement along the tube. Such sensors limit the dead volume in the cylinder ends, which is not defined by the equipment user
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Document ID: 4ADE417F

Analysis Of Flow Field Characteristics In The Hydroturbine Intake Penstock Of Three Gorges Power Station By Model Experiment
Author(s): Tao Meng*, Chi Wang*, He-Ming Hu*, Hai-Bin Chen**, Tao Zhuang
Abstract/Introduction:
The accuracy of ultrasonic flowmeter is closely related to flow field on the job site. Because the hydro turbine intake penstock of Three Gorges power station is very large and specially shaped, the flow field at position of ultrasonic flowmeter installed and its effect have a lot of uncertainty. A model pipe system and a model meter with 500mm diameter were designed and machined according to penstock of Three Gorge power station. The characteristics of velocity distribution were sketched from flow rate tested by each path at different altitude of the flowmeter, while the dispersion of each path shows the degree of disturbance.
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Document ID: F30EE710

The Effect Of Using Real Gas Absolute Viscosity And Isentropic Exponent On Orifice Flow Measurement: Proposed Adoption Of Refprop 8.0 As A Standard For The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): William R. Johansen
Abstract/Introduction:
Constant values for isentropic exponent and absolute viscosity are commonly used for the calculation of gas flow rates through differential producing flowmeters. Errors in flow measurement due to the use of constants for thermodynamic and transport properties are bias errors. Bias errors in natural gas orifice flow measurement due to incorrect isentropic exponent values can exceed 0.15%. When the adiabatic expansion factor is used to calculate natural gas flow rates the bias errors due to the use of a constant isentropic exponent can exceed 2%. Bias errors in natural gas flow measurement due to incorrect absolute viscosity values can approach 0.2% for natural gas. REFPROP 8.0 is recommended as a source of accurate thermodynamic and transport property values. REFPROP 8.0 can be used as a source of live values for use with flow computers or it can be used to select more appropriate constant values to minimize bias errors.
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Document ID: A54D56DA

Blockage Effects In The Calibration Of Anemometer In A Wind Tunnel
Author(s): Wu Jian, Chua Hock Ann
Abstract/Introduction:
Anemometers are commonly calibrated using wind tunnel systems. Due to the finite volume of the test section of wind tunnels, measurement results obtained in the wind tunnels often do not resemble those obtained under the condition of infinitely spaced boundaries as the blockage effects of anemometers cannot be neglected. This paper describes an experiment carried out to analyse the blockage effects of anemometers in a wind tunnel having effective test size of ?180 mm x 300 mm which covers the velocity range of 0.1 to 60 m/s.
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Document ID: D5D60057

Effects Of Upstream Butterfly Valve On The Accuracy Of A Vortex Flow Meter
Author(s): E. Von Lavante, A. Gedikli, A. Thibaut+, S. Tournillon*, H. Krisch
Abstract/Introduction:
The problem of accurate determination of volumetric flows by means of vortex- shedding flowmeters in the case of upstream disturbances caused by an butterfly valve, installed 5 diameters upstream of the meter, has been studied. To this end, the flow about the bluff body used in the presently studied vortex-shedding flow meter, having DN25 (simulation) and DN50 (experiments) test sections, was investigated experimentally and numerically
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Document ID: 542E4415

Numerical Investigation Of Turbulent Swirling Flows In Flow Metering Configurations
Author(s): E. Von Lavante, J. Yao
Abstract/Introduction:
Several types of axisymmetric internal configurations were numerically simulated in order to investigate the development of turbulent swirling and non-swirling flows along the axial direction. The governing equations were the Navier-Stokes equations with swirl velocity, requiring the computation of all three velocity components. The turbulence model used in the present work was the quadratic k-? formulation. Applying the above methods, both swirling and non-swirling flows in a pipe, in a typical Venturi-tube and in an orifice were simulated and the results were analyzed in detail
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Document ID: B7266413

Water Density Determination In High-Accuracy Flowmeter Calibration - Measurement Uncertainties And Practical Aspects
Author(s): Rainer Engel
Abstract/Introduction:
In liquid flowmeter calibration, the fluid density is one of the major quantities which impact the uncertainties in the measurement process of calibration. Thus, the in-process density determination in liquid flow standards reveals to be an essential component in the measurement uncertainty analysis. In the case when a volume-reading flowmeter is calibrated against a gravimetric reference system, the accurate density value of the actual fluid applied in the calibration facility must be available, by measurement or computation, in order to convert the respective volumetric meter reading into an equivalent mass value. That is necessary as the reading of the meter under test (MUT) has to be compared with the reading of the gravimetric reference
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Document ID: 8F427570

On The Design Of A Circulating Water Channel For The Brazilian National Institute Of Metrology - Inmetro
Author(s): Alexandre T. P. Alho, Maria H. Farias And Jose L. S. Neto
Abstract/Introduction:
Circulating water channels provide a controlled flow environment in which a wide variety of experiments may be conducted. The Fluid Dynamics Metrology Division of INMETRO - Brazil, has designed a circulating water channel that is particularly suited to the characterization of flow phenomena. The facility was designed to conduct research on general flow phenomena with liquids as those related to environmental management and pollution control, turbulence and velocity measurements, flow meters calibrations, among others. In this paper, major issues related to the design of the water channel for INMETRO are discussed.
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Document ID: 56D388A7

Compensation Method Applied To Coriolis Mass Flow Metering
Author(s): F. Koschmieder And H. Rck
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis mass flow meters (CMFM) are characterized by high accuracy and the ability to measure density and mass flow simultaneously. The sensitivity and zero point of the CMFM may change due to temperature gradients along the measuring pipe or mounting conditions. These changes have to be detected and corrected in order to assure high accuracy. A model based approach to estimate the zero point during normal operation and one-phase flow is presented. The approach exploits two characteristics of the measuring device: firstly the impact of mass flow upon the oscillation in the 2nd mode when the 1st mode is stimulated i.e. the operation principle of nearly all Coriolis mass flow meters and secondly the impact of mass flow upon the oscillation in the 1st mode when the 2nd mode is stimulated. Both of these characteristics are realized by compensation of Coriolis forces using MIMO-Phasor-Control
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Document ID: 39AFF15C

Numerical Simulation Of Flow In Rotor-Casing Gap Of An Rotary Piston Flow Meter
Author(s): E. Von Lavante, S. Poggel, H. Kaya, m. Franz
Abstract/Introduction:
In the theoretical assessment of accuracy of rotary piston meters, the leakage flow in the rotor-casing gap is of essential importance. The present work aimed at detailed investigation of this flow field employing realistic numerical flow simulation. The resulting flow displayed significant differences to the simple assumption
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Document ID: CCC4A571

Identification Of Vertical Upward Oil-Gas-Water Three-Phase Flow Pattern Based On Nonlinear Analysis Method
Author(s): Zhen-Ya Wang, Ning-De Jin* And Zhong-Ke Gao
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to study oil-gas-water three-phase flow characteristics in oil well, the vertical upward three-phase flow experiment at low velocity was carried out in a large diameter (125 mm ID) flow loop using the combination instrument of vertical multi-electrode array (VMEA) conducatance sensor and mini-conductance probe array, and the conductance fluctuating signals of five three-phase flow patterns with water as the continuous liquid were acquired. The nonlinear dynamical characteristics of the five flow patterns were represented by nonlinear analysis methode, which are chaotic attractor morphological description and complexity measures including Lempel-Ziv complexity and approximate entropy
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Document ID: B2CA536F

A New Laboratory For Calibration And Testing Of Oil Meters And Measurement Systems Components
Author(s): Kazuto Kawakita, Marcos Tadeu Pereira
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents a laboratory facility for calibration and testing of flow meters and measurement systems components for oil and liquid petroleum derivatives newly built in Brazil. The laboratory is installed in a fully air-conditioned four floors building with a total area of 700 m. The set of flow meter working standards is composed of two five path ultrasonic meters and two Coriolis master meters, calibrated by the laboratory reference standard, an especially designed 6 tons diverting type gravimetric system.
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Document ID: F9FEFBBC

Prover-By-Prover: Calibration Of Provers Using Compact Prover As Master Meter
Author(s): Valmir Ruiz 1, Marcos Tadeu Pereira 1, Nilson Massami Taira 1, Jose Fintelmam 2, , Danieli Guimares
Abstract/Introduction:
The article describes the calibration of petroleum products provers with a compact prover as reference (master prover), using the same fluid in the same conditions as used in the process line.
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Document ID: C9F0EF49

The Rct: Two Functions Integrated In One For Pressure Regulation And Gas Flow Metering
Author(s): J.-P. Vallet, P. Kervevan, A.Ouerdani
Abstract/Introduction:
Since January 2006, the MESURA company, located in FORBACH France, manufacturer of gas regulators for the distribution networks up to 4 bar, has been developing a design which integrates two functions on the same body, thus optimizing the volume (16 cm or 6.3 inch cubic volume), the pressure regulation and flow metering, and in addition, providing wireless data transmission and remote safety control. The evaluation and the qualification of the complete system and the process (including uncertainties) has been undertaken by the French laboratory LNE-LADG in order to confirm the metering of volume gas (converted with a 0.5% level of uncertainty with the global MPE less than 1% with a known density, and less than 2% with an integrated density corrector between the transitional and the maximal flow rate with the metering scale factor up to 150).
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Document ID: E96B938E

Frauds In The Measurement Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Kazuto Kawakita, Rui Gomez
Abstract/Introduction:
With the growing consumption of ntural gas that has occurred in recent years, Brazil has also seen a great ncrease in the number of cases involving frauds in the measurement of this product, specifically concentrated at points where the gas companies distributes the product to the CNG stations.
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Document ID: 6FA76E0C

The Production Of Swirl In Oiland Method Of Compensation In Multi-Path Ultrasonic Flowmeters
Author(s): T. Cousins, B. Griffith
Abstract/Introduction:
The paper describes a series of tests, which were initially intended to investigate performance of a two plane multi-path meter in the presence of severe swirl. With the two plane design it was clear that detailed data could be produced showing the level of the swirl, its changes with distance along the pipe and even the changes in position of the swirl centre
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Document ID: 39CE6EC9

New Primary Low-Pressure Gas Flow Standard At Nimt
Author(s): Sutham Masri122, Win-Ti Lin, Chun-Min Su
Abstract/Introduction:
To establish the traceability chain of low-pressure gas flow measurement within Thailand, a primary standard with the capacity of 0.005 L/min to 24 L/min (at 296.15 K and 101.325 kPa) was established at National Institute of Metrology (Thailand) NIMT. The standard facility is a mercury-sealed piston prover consisting of three precision-machined glass cylinders. With the positive displacement technique, the facility measures gas flowrate by determining the displaced volume, time, and pressure and temperature of the gas. Flow measurement can be carried out manually or semi-automatically. The electronics were installed in a separate console to minimize the heating effect on the gas temperature. Furthermore, special care was taken in designing the facility to ensure that gas pressure and temperature can be measured as accurate and representative as possible. The relative expanded uncertainty of gas mass flow measurement, evaluated according to ISO GUM, was less than 0.13 % of reading
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Document ID: 9FB04352

Ultrasonic Flowmeter For Accurately Measuring Flare Gas Over A Wide Velocity Range
Author(s): Lei Sui*, Toan H. Nguyen, James E. Matson, Peter Espina And Ivantew
Abstract/Introduction:
Flare gas ultrasonic flow measurement has now been well established with more than 3000 units installed worldwide in process plants and refineries. One of the remaining technical challenges in flare gas ultrasonic flowmetering is to deal with extremely high flare flows (greater than 80 m/s) during emergency flaring. High flare flows introduce soaring flow noise, cause ultrasonic beam drift and thus deteriorate ultrasonic signal quality, leading to an ultimate failure of the flare gas flow measurement. In this paper, the ultrasonic propagation in flare gas has been studied, the beam drift due to gas flow has been investigated and improvements from both mechanical and transducer perspectives have been made. An improved flare gas ultrasonic flow meter has been developed to demonstrate the accurate measurement of air flow up to 123.7 m/s.
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Document ID: 8E975D30


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