Measurement Library

North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop Publications (2010)

Clamp-On Two Phase Measurement Of Gas Condensate Wells Using I Ntegrated Equation Of State Compositional Models
Author(s): Daniel L. Gysling Minfu Lu Ting Wen
Abstract/Introduction:
Production surveillance of gas condensate wells plays an important role in many production optimization and yield enhancement strategies. Unfortunately, production surveillance of gas condensate wells using conventional well testing methods is normally associated with high capital and operational costs. This paper describes an approach which provides costeffective and convenient production surveillance of gas condensate wells using multiphasetolerant, clamp-on sonar flow meters, integrated with an Equation of State (EoS) model for the Pressure, Temperature and Volumetric (PVT) properties of the produced fluids
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Document ID: 2B85263F

The Development Of And Initial Data From A New Multiphase Wet Gas Meter
Author(s): Alistair Collins Jin-Lin Hu Mark Tudge Carol Wade
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the last decade, Wet Gas flow metering has been a significant growth area in the Upstream Oil and Gas market. Wet Gas flow meters are now deployed world wide for hydrocarbon allocation, well testing and reservoir optimisation. Solartron ISA has over 20 years of experience successfully deploying the Dualstream range of Wet Gas meters into more than 200 gas fields. There have been previous papers at North Sea Flow Measurement Workshops detailing Dualstream 2 and other Solartron ISA developed technologies (see 1 to 8, for example). This paper provides an insight into the experience of developing a new Wet Gas flow meter - the Dualstream 3 - from initial concepts to a product ready for the marketplace
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Document ID: AB5DDF4E

Developments In The Self-Diagnostic Capabilities Of Orifice Plate Meters
Author(s): Mark Skelton Simon Barrons Jennifer Ayre Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
In 2008 1 & 2009 2 DP Diagnostics disclosed a generic differential pressure (DP) meter diagnostic methodology. Swinton Technology (ST) has subsequently developed the solution Prognosis in partnership with DP Diagnostics. Prognosis allows these generic DP meter diagnostic methodologies to be applied via software on a PC automatically reading live instrument signals thereby making these principles available for field applications. Whereas initial DP Diagnostics technical papers concentrated on proving the diagnostic principles a simple way of presenting the diagnostic results was also proposed. The diagnostic analysis could be plotted as points on a graph which could be shown live in a control room (or archived for later analysis). After a review of the diagnostic methods this paper discusses diagnostic pattern recognition for this graphical representation
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Document ID: 4C31A76E

When Should A Gas Ultrasonic Flow Meter Be Recalibrated?
Author(s): Jim Hall Klaus Zanker Eric Kelner
Abstract/Introduction:
How often and under what circumstances should a gas ultrasonic flow meter (USM) require recalibration? Within the Natural Gas Industry in most countries, there are currently either no standards requiring periodic recalibration or a standard based on arbitrary criteria. Removing an USM from service for recalibration is costly and inconvenient. However, the primary reason that a recalibration standard does not exist is the lack of definitive data regarding the long-term stability of installed USMs and data regarding the effect of replacing transducers, electronics and firmware
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Document ID: 5F5F1485

Field Comparison Of A Mechanical And Electronic Custody Measurement Loop For Hydrocarbon Liquids
Author(s): Mohammed Salim Ibrahim m. Al-Qahtani Yousef A. Al-Jarallah Waleed A. Al-Shaya Ali A. Haddad
Abstract/Introduction:
Metering systems typically use turbine meter(s) and a prover as the primary source of measurement. Both the turbine meter and the prover are mechanical devices - mechanical loop. The performance of a turbine meter changes under various operating conditions and requires regular calibration using a prover for maintaining the accuracy. Mechanical loops are also prone to frequent failures during their life cycle. If the mechanical loop can be redesigned using the ultrasonic meters in a meter/prover combination (master metering) significant improvement can be realized in the operation and maintenance of these critical systems. The main concern is if the electronic loop can provide the same or better level of measurement accuracy while retaining the same repeatability, reproducibility, etc., of the presently accepted mechanical loop
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Document ID: BEEA3B8C

Fiscal Oil Ultrasonic Meters: Introducing The Calibration Performance Monitoring Cpm()
Author(s): Denis Laurent
Abstract/Introduction:
Off-site calibration of USMs is now considered in more and more applications and projects: - The cost of a displacement prover is not acceptable for the project, - The big size of the meter will lead to an unacceptable volume for the prover, - Ultrasonic Master Meter is preferred, due to their unique features in terms of CAPEX / OPEX savings and to their wide operational range. So securing the transition from calibration laboratory to field is of primary concern. Thanks to their large number of ultrasonic beams, a new generation of meters give a rich and reliable access to quantitative, traceable and accurate information on the velocity profile inside the metering section.
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Document ID: 4BBE2527

Thermal Gradient Effects On Ultrasonic Flowmeters In The Laminar Flow Regime
Author(s): Gregor Brown Don Augenstein Herb Estrada Chris Laird Terry Cousins
Abstract/Introduction:
With the rising oil price and depletion of conventional oil reserves the production of heavy oil is becoming increasingly common. The high viscosity of heavy oils presents measurement challenges for most types of flow meter. Ultrasonic meters can be used for measurement of high viscosity oils. In order to do so there are two challenges that are commonly acknowledged: (1) the need to overcome increased signal attenuation and (2) the requirement to operate accurately through the transition region where velocity profiles vary dramatically. It is often assumed that accurate measurement is the laminar regime is less difficult than in transitional flow. However, relatively little information on the performance of ultrasonic meters in laminar flow has been published.
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Document ID: 6287E30F

Multiphase Flow In Coriolis Mass Flow Meters - Error Sources And Best Practices
Author(s): Joel Weinstein
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis mass flow meters are used throughout the oil and gas industry, from upstream allocation and net oil measurement to custody transfer of pipeline quality oil. Coriolis meters have an inherent advantage over volumetric meters in measuring pure liquid quantities in applications involving liquids with entrained gas because the mass flow rate of an aerated mixture is close to that of the liquid flow rate. Likewise, volumetric meters may be preferred for measurement of wet gas, as the volumetric flow rate of a wet gas is close to that of the gas flow rate, which is typically the desired quantity. With that in mind, multiphase flow in the context of this paper refers to any mixture of two or more components in which the base phase is a liquid. This includes bubbly liquids, particle-laden flows, slurries, emulsions, and multi-liquid mixtures.
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Document ID: 44F91013

Use Of Dual-Modality Tomography For Complex Flow Visualisation
Author(s): Norman Glen Amy Ross
Abstract/Introduction:
The development of new flow metering techniques and the use of existing flow meters in more challenging applications requires more data than just bulk flow calibration measurements. The flow structure and its impact on the meter performance are vital pieces of information, without which the value of experimental research data can be limited. This is particularly true for complex flow characterisation. With the development of more sophisticated technologies to measure increasingly complex flows there is a need for additional knowledge of flow patterns in National Standard flow facilities, as well as accurate measurement of the individual phases which constitute the multiphase mixtures
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Document ID: 17CBBBD8

First Ever Complete Evaluation Of A Multiphase Flow Meter In Sagd And Demonstration Of The Performance Against Conventional Equipment
Author(s): Bruno Pinguet Fernando Gaviria Laurie Kemp John Graham Cal Coulder Carlos Damas Karima Ben Relem
Abstract/Introduction:
Suncor and Schlumberger have been working over several years to establish the performance of multiphase flow meters and determine the accuracy and reliability of flowtesting equipment for thermal heavy oil production, the first test was carried out in 2007. The test marked the first successful application of multiphase flow metering in Canadian thermal recovery operations. The initial introduction leads to selection of a well for its dynamic conditions and production history factors such as flowrate, line pressure, line temperature, and fluid properties and allowed the connection of the MPFM (the Vx) in series with an existing test separator. The multiphase initial objectives were to measure the wells oil, water, steam, and gas flowrates, understand the wells SAGD dynamics, and the impact of changes in ESP frequency to experience different production conditions, including line pressure, flowrates, phase fractions and ratios, i.e., Water/Liquid Ratio (WLR). Finally, to study the Vxs sensitivity and performance against a valid reference by defining the results for stability, dynamic response, repeatability and reproducibility. This leads to several papers presented in different conferences (Ref 1-3, and in the meantime to work closer to define what should be the optimal test of a cluster to have a full understanding of the technology and the potential for permanent installation.
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Document ID: DEBD0892

The Effects Of Upstream Piping Configurations On Cone Meter And Venturi Meter Discharge Coefficients
Author(s): Gary Fish Dion Creighton Graeme Swainston David Hodges Michael Reader-Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Solartron ISA has been a leading manufacturer of differential pressure flow meters for over 40 years. Due to a significant interest in the employment of cone meter technology within the industry, Solartron ISA decided to develop their own meter during 2009. This project was undertaken with a particular focus on subsea single phase flow measurement for well management applications. As part of the research and development programme, various cone meters were calibrated at TUV NEL in order to establish discharge coefficient characteristics. Of particular interest to Solartron ISA were the effects of non-ideal upstream pipe configurations and the general claims relating to cone meters being insensitive to these upstream disturbances.
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Document ID: E3E4B727

Wet Gas Test Comparison Results Of Orifice Metering Relative To Gas Ultrasonic Metering
Author(s): John Lansing Toralf Dietz Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Traditionally orifice meters have been used in wet gas applications rather than gas ultrasonic meters (USM). There are many reasons for this, but certainly one has been the question regarding reliability of a gas ultrasonic meter when subjected to liquid loading. The question is this: How does the accuracy of the orifice compare to the gas USM when liquids exist? Another question might be asked is: Can the USM clearly identify when liquids are present, and give the operator an idea of what gas volume has passed through the meter during this time? To investigate these questions, two different meters were tested at the CEESI Nunn Wet Gas loop in Nunn, Colorado. The first test involved a 4-inch orifice and 4-inch USM in series (the USM was a 4 and 2-path meter all in one body). For the second test a 3-inch orifice and 3- inch, 2-path USM was tested. Both tests involved several flow rates, 2-3 different pressures, and up to 8 different levels of liquid loading. The fluid used in most of the tests was Exxsol, a kind of kerosene that is popular for this type of testing. For the 3-inch tests, a limited number of data sets were also taken using water
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Document ID: D92C58A8

Subsea Deepwater Measurement - Technology Gaps And Solutions
Author(s): Chip Letton Nick Paris Bob Webb Frank Ting Angela Floyd Charlie Tyrrell Eirik Aabro Moussa Kane
Abstract/Introduction:
As early as 1999 when Gulf of Mexico Deepwater projects passed the one-mile water-depth mark, the importance of good flow measurement on the deep sea floor was apparent. In contrast to the comparatively simple exploration and production operations carried out on the continental shelf, similar work in deepwater is exponentially more challenging. A good example of this is the recently started Perdido development in the Alaminos Canyon region of the GoM, about 350 kilometers south of the city of Galveston, Texas near the boundary with Mexican waters. Shell operates the Perdido Regional Development (35%) on behalf of partners Chevron (37.5%) and BP (27.5%). As illustrated in the Figure 1 below and described in Reference 1, there are currently three fields in development, all being produced back to a common set of production facilities on the Perdido Regional Spar. Wells in the Great White, Silvertip, and Tobago developments are in water depths ranging from 2360 to 2940 meters.
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Document ID: B9BD7497

Challenges In Multiphase- And Wet Gas Flow Metering For Applications With Limited Accessibility
Author(s): Lex Scheers
Abstract/Introduction:
The upstream oil- and gas business is facing some new challenges if it comes to the application of Multi-Phase Flow Meters (MPFMs) or Wet Gas Flow Meters (WGFMs)1 in remote areas. In the past these meters where mainly used for well testing and well/reservoir allocation. Their uncertainty and repeatability were considered adequate for this purpose. However, today we see that MPFM concepts are being used in applications where money flow between oil companies or between oil companies and host government is dependent on the MPFM flow rate readings (e.g. sales allocation, transportation fees, custody transferand royalty payments)1.The move of MPFMs into this application is a consequence of the fact that the upstream oil and gas business is becoming more complex in terms of infrastructure, i.e. facilities are being shared between various producing companies
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Document ID: A67EFF57

Celebrating Quarter Of A Century Of Gas Ultrasonic Custody Transfer Metering
Author(s): Klaus Zanker Tom Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
25 years have passed since the first production prototype ultrasonic meters for gas custody transfer were deployed. This marked the beginning of a revolution in the metering industry with a migration from conventional mechanical devices to sophisticated electronic devices and the associated diagnostics information they afforded. The study will commence with a detailed literature review that will capture the many significant advances that have been reported by vendors and operators over the years and so provide a comprehensive ready reference for interested individuals and the industry in general
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Document ID: 47C486DE

Online Gas Chromatography: A Technical And Historical Overview - Design And Maintenance Advices To Achieve An Accurate End Result
Author(s): Steinar Fosse Reidar Sakariassen Viktor Hauge
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chromatography was invented over 100 years ago by a Russian scientist. In the late 1940ies and early 1950ies the gas chromatograph principle was further developed by German and American scientists into an important practical analytical instrument. It was then used as a laboratory piece of equipment and the laboratory engineer/technician would have the full responsibility and control of the operation of the equipment. Our business the offshore oil and gas business came a bit later. Our needs were connected to online sampling and analysis of natural gas. This was traditionally done by automatic sampling
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Document ID: 85F3E2C1

Developing Measurement I Nfrastructure In Bp Azerbaijan
Author(s): Bill Pearson Faig Nasirov I Lgar Gurbanov
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper covers the development of a sustainable Measurement Operation in BP Azerbaijan Strategic Performance Unit (AzSPU). The Early Oil Project (EOP) metering consisted of 7 BP operated Fiscal, or Class 1 1, metering stations in 2004, burgeoning to 16 operated and 3 non-operated Fiscal metering stations in 2009 through the Azeri-Chirag-Guneshli (ACG) Field Development Project Phases. In addition to the Fiscal meters, there are around 120 Allocation, or Class 2, 1 meters either as standalone instruments or as virtual meters
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Document ID: 531F6C49

Equitability, Allocation And Game Theory
Author(s): Phil Stockton Allan Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
not actually written into allocation agreements, equitability is often assumed to be one of their governing principles. The belief being that, if the system is equitable, then it should be free from bias and all participants treated equally. But what exactly does equitability mean in this context and can it mean different things according to different viewpoints? This question has been addressed in detail, and at a fundamental level, by industries outside of oil and gas, in developing fair methods to allocate costs, resources and products
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Document ID: F7752867

A Cost-Effective Approach On CO2 Emission Factor Estimation For Flare Ultrasonic Metering Systems
Author(s): Kjell-Eivind Frysa Anders Hallanger Endre Jacobsen Anders Lvoll Johansen
Abstract/Introduction:
In flare gas systems, flow measurement is important both for reports of gas emissions and for process control. Due to the nature of such systems, the flow rates in a flare line varies from very low at normal operations to full flare with very high flow rate in the case of flaring events. This means that a flow metering system for flares typically has to be able to measure flow velocities from 0.1 m/s or less, to more than 100 m/s in order to cover all cases. The measurement of the amount of flare gas is usually carried out by an ultrasonic flare gas meter. Such meters have been in operation for several decades. They are primarily volumetric flow meters measuring the actual (line) volume flow rate of the flare gas. By calculations using the measured pressure and temperature, the volume at a selected reference condition (in Norway typically standard condition of 1.01325 bar and 15 C) is found. Then accumulation of standard volume is carried out
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Document ID: 59D0A549

Calculation Of The Uncertainty In The CO2 Emissions Factor In Flare Lines With Nitrogen I Njection
Author(s): Jeff Gibson Richard Paton Pal Jagh
Abstract/Introduction:
reduce CO2 emissions from process and production facilities. Talisman Energy in Norway (Talisman Energy Norge AS) are reducing the amount of gas flared on their Gyda and Varg facilities using various process improvements. In order to do this a proportion of the fuel gas, used to keep the flare line pressurised and the flame burning during low-flaring conditions, is being replaced with injected nitrogen. This has the effect of reducing the CO2 emissions. Talisman have installed ultrasonic flare gas meters as the primary flow measurement devices in the flare lines on their Gyda platform. The output of molecular weight from the ultrasonic flare gas meters is being used to determine the composition and, hence, the CO2 emission factor. Accounting for the gas flared, and therefore the CO2 produced, requires measurement and calculation methods which account for the proportion of injected nitrogen. A similar system is proposed for the Varg FPSO
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Document ID: A3B9B907

Ultrasonic Flare Gas Flow Meter Techniques For Extremes Of High And Low Velocity Measurement And Experience With High CO2 Concentration
Author(s): Jed Matson Lei Sui Toan H. Nguyen
Abstract/Introduction:
The ultrasonic transit time gas flowmeter has been established as the preferred method for Flare Gas flow measurement with more than 3000 units installed worldwide in process plants and refineries, on and offshore. New requirements around total emissions have been, or are being, implemented around the world and this presents additional technical challenges for ultrasonic flowmeters in the areas of (1) extremely low flare flow rates (0.3 m/s and below) during normal, or base load flaring, (2) extremely high flare flows (80 m/s and above) during emergency flaring and (3) measuring the flow rate of gas with a high CO2 concentration. Low flare flows are influenced and asymmetric due to convection flow and stratification High flare flows introduce soaring flow noise, cause ultrasonic beam drift and thus deteriorate ultrasonic signal quality. High CO2 gas concentration can drastically attenuate ultrasonic energy
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Document ID: 316865E2

In-Situ Measurement Of Fluid Properties And Integrity Verification For Multiphase And Wet Gas Metering Applications
Author(s): Arnstein Wee ystein Lund B
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate flow measurement of all three components in multiphase and wet gas applications can be extremely challenging. For a multiphase meter to manage it, it must be capable to operate and provide reliable results for all combinations of oil, water and gas rates. In most field applications, the fluid properties may vary over time and the meter must be able to provide accurate results even if the PVT properties change. Frequent sampling and associated lab analysis are preferably to be avoided, especially in remote sites, to reduce OPEX and HSE risks
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Document ID: 29F80234

Well Testing - An Evaluation Of Test Separators And Multiphase Flow Meters
Author(s): Amy Ross Gordon Stobie
Abstract/Introduction:
National and International Oil and Gas Companies and Government Regulators all have an interest in managing their, or their countries assets in the most expedient manner possible. The assets are the oil and gas reserves in the ground. Management of these reserves is generally carried out by Production and Reservoir Engineers though the use of Well Testing. To date the gold standard for well testing has been the test separator. Whilst many Regulators mandate the frequency of well testing (and in the UK North Sea sector this is generally every 30 days) there is little in the Regulations about the expected flow measurement uncertainties required. This paper will review the test separators used and the 30 day timing and highlight what this can mean under real world conditions and take a jaundiced look at the expected measurement uncertainties which might be achieved in the field
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Document ID: 67EB4503


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