Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (2010)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Fundamental Principles Of Diaphragm Displacement Meters
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the U.S., The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat rate basis. Its growth was slow with the charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority. By comparison, the New York Gas Light Company, founded in 1823, prospered and expanded. They had built their system on the use of gas meters to measure the supply of gas to customers, and a large one to register the quantity made at the station before it is conveyed to the gasometers
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Document ID: 23F75B5D

Fundamentals Of Electronic Flow Meter Design, Application & Implementation
Author(s): Jim Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic flow measurement as applied to the natural gas industry has advanced considerably over the last 30 years. Applications to address Upstream, Midstream and Downstream gas measurement technologies have become more complex. Over time it has become necessary to understand the fundaments that make up this ever changing environment.
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Document ID: 9CD3B243

Field Inspection And Calibration Of Volume Correcting Devices
Author(s): George E. Brown III
Abstract/Introduction:
Timely, diligent field testing and calibration of gas volume recording and correcting instruments ensure that measurement information fairly represents actual volumes. The instruments save a company capitol and operating costs because they can record or integrate volumes at pressures and temperature above the normal pressurebase conditions specified in contracts for volume calculation. This allows the company to use smaller and fewer meters
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Document ID: E77B2447

Onsite Proving Of Gas Flow Meters
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increased use of Natural Gas as a fuel, higher natural gas prices, and the new federal regulations, buyers and sellers of natural gas are seriously looking at ways to improve their natural gas measurement and reduce the amount of natural gas that is unaccounted for. An error in measurement of only one tenth of one percent (0.1%) on 100 MMSCF/D Natural Gas selling at 5.50/MCF will cause an over or under billing of 200,750.00 in one year. This will more than pay for a proving system. If the company undercharges it has lost money and if it over charges it has the risk of lawsuits later for huge amounts of money
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Document ID: 606E11FB

Calibration Standard Gases
Author(s): Fred Deangelo
Abstract/Introduction:
Calibration Standards are known concentrations of components of interest used to confirm or determine component concentrations in samples. Calibration standards are used for quality assurance, quality control, measurement and balance, quantitative sample analysis and custody transfer. They should be used anytime it is important to know the composition of your samples and to determine if your process is performing as expected.
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Document ID: 749EA47C

Production Equipment Effects On Gas Measurement
Author(s): David Pulley
Abstract/Introduction:
American Gas Association states that measurement of natural gas by an orifice meter requires a single-phase hydrocarbon through the metering area, which allows an accurate measurement of differential pressure across the orifice plate, flowing temperature, and component analysis at a metering station. Some gas contracts state that the producer shall condition the gas for metering which would allow accurate measurement of gas flowing through the metering station.
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Document ID: C9EEE0AE

Field Testing By Transfer Proving
Author(s): Larry K. Wunderlich
Abstract/Introduction:
Transfer proving was initially developed to provide an easier and more accurate field meter proving method. Because of the capacity capabilities of transfer provers (2000 CFH to 80,000 CFH) transfer provers are utilized in meter shops where bell prover capacity is limited and allow for shop testing of the larger capacity meters.
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Document ID: 38DB170F

Web Solutions For Orifice Measurement And Monitoring
Author(s): Web Solutions For Orifice Measurement And Monitoring
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline and production companies are continually faced with the challenge of obtaining operational data and making it available to their employees. In recent years the convergence in the advances in the technologies of the client/server technology, and IP ready communications have brought forth a new lower cost alternative to traditional SCADA systems. With the growing numbers of experienced and reputable suppliers of web based data monitoring and control systems in the market today, the feasibility of automating locations has changed
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Document ID: AD02AEA3

Periodic Inspection Of Regulators And Relief Valves
Author(s): James m. Doyle
Abstract/Introduction:
Inspections and tests on regulators and relief valves are a Department of Transportation (DOT) compliance rule. The sections within the DOT manual stating the rule include 192.351 through 192.359, 192.751, 192.479, 192.481, 192.739, and 192.741. Keep in mind these rules are the minimum required tests. Your company or governing regulatory agency may be more stringent and require more detailed testing. You must also keep in mind that the manufacturer of your equipment will provide guidelines pertaining to maintenance of the equipment. These tests are not only required for safe, reliable service to your customers, but the results could also be used in any legal proceeding for documentation purposes.
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Document ID: 41E9D7DE

Wireless Communication To A Plunger Lift Well
Author(s): Jim Gardner
Abstract/Introduction:
Artificial lift is a process that allows oil and gas producers the ability to optimize well production while also minimizing overall maintenance and life cycle costs. Plunger lift control is a form of artificial lift used by natural gas producers who experience heavy downhole fluid loads. In many cases, when a gas well produces excessive fluid volumes, the natural gas pressure of the well is unable to overcome the weight of the fluid trapped inside the tubing. That means that the well is unable to produce the natural gas because, essentially, it is blocked by the fluids.
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Document ID: E050778A

Line Locating A Complete Theory
Author(s): Travis Leintz
Abstract/Introduction:
Rycom Instruments Theory of Locating is an easy-to-understand guide that will give you an indepth understanding of the principles of locating. This guide will arm you with the knowledge needed to be an effective locator. After training on the Theory of Locating, trouble spots in the field last week will be childs play. By the end of this guide you will be a better, more accurate locator.
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Document ID: F689D311

How Not To Measure Gas
Author(s): Dee Hummel
Abstract/Introduction:
Measuring natural gas is both a science and an art. Guidelines and industry practices explain how to accurately measure natural gas. The art comes in trying to minimize errors and prevent measurement problems. However, sometime its easier to explain how not to measure gas when reviewing measurement errors.
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Document ID: 22B66483

Fundamental Principles Of Clamp-On Ultrasonic Flow Meters
Author(s): William E. Frasier Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is aimed at ultrasonic natural gas meters that use transit time across the gas pipe as the measurement variable. Custody transfer meters using sensors wetted with gas are the more familiar meter format. Clamp-on meters are quite similar.
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Document ID: 7858BB67

Utilizing Wireless Instrumentation In Well Optimization
Author(s): Denis Rutherford
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of wireless instrumentation in well automation and production optimization has just started gaining momentum in the marketplace. Driven by cost-cutting measures and the need to gain more operational visibility (to meet regulatory requirements), wireless instrumentation eliminates expensive trenching and cabling while providing access to hard-to-reach areas using self-contained, battery-powered instruments
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Document ID: 849A7C42

Characteristics Of Rotary Meter Performance
Author(s): Kevin C. Beaver
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper highlights several rotary meter performance characteristics. These characteristics profile a rotary meters capabilities in a wide array of applications from production to transmission, and distribution. Most of the characteristics have minimum standards adopted by agencies like AGA or ASTM. Ill identify these standards, and incorporate themwhere applicableinto my paper. In discussing these characteristics, I hope to give the reader a better understanding of the capabilities of rotary meters, and how the gas industry assesses these characteristics
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Document ID: 6DB867AD

Continuous Monitoring Of Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Randy Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Utilizing electronic flow computers and SCADA systems to collect and analyze ultrasonic meter data can provide many benefits for Natural Gas Pipeline Company. The Natural Gas Pipeline industry has seen tremendous changes in the past 20 years including a smaller multi skilled workforce. In fact, a Measurement Technician on for wide range of tasks and skills necessary for operating and maintaining a pipeline.
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Document ID: 875738BD

Fundamentals Of Egm Electrical Installations
Author(s): Leon Black
Abstract/Introduction:
We have all heard of or seen the devastating effects of a direct lightning burst. Communication equipment destroyed. Transmitters and EFM devices vaporized into slag metal. Complete process and measurement systems down with extended recovery times. These effects are the most dramatic and the easiest to trace. However, these kinds of events are rare. The more prominent events are those that occur on a day-to-day basis without we, the user, even knowing.
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Document ID: 78069D0A

Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses both basic and advanced diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USM), identify problems that often may not have been identified in the past. It primarily discusses fiscalquality, multi-path USMs and does not cover issues that may be different with non-fiscal meters as they are often single path designs. Although USMs basically work the same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in AGA 9 Ref 1. However, some provide more advanced features that can be used to help identify issues such as blocked flow conditioners and gas compositional errors. This paper is based upon the Westinghouse configuration (also knows as a chordal design) and the information presented here may or may not be applicable to other manufacturers
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Document ID: F8B70557

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Chemistry
Author(s): Steve Whitman
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to understand the chemistry of natural gas, it is important to be familiar with some basic concepts of general chemistry. Here are some definitions you should know: Matter - anything that has mass and occupies space. Energy - the capacity to do work or transfer heat. Elements - substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical changes. There are approximately 112 known elements. Examples: carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. Atom - the smallest unit in which an element can exist. Atoms are composed of electrons, protons, and neutrons. Compounds - pure substances consisting of two or more different elements in a fixed ratio. Examples: water and methane.
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Document ID: 177C9B8E

Training Field Measurement Personnel
Author(s): Russel W. Treat
Abstract/Introduction:
Technology in the field of gas measurement and control is constantly evolving. While many are well trained in the specific equipment used in their own companys operation, it is also important to have a solid understanding of the fundamentals and theory of operation of the mechanical and physical processes involved. Therefore, the training of field measurement technicians is of the utmost importance. These technicians must be continually educated to have the most current knowledge of the latest equipment, electronics, communications, and metering devices on the market. Also, it is essential that this type of instruction be taught in a controlled environment where the technicians can learn and develop the necessary skills with the least amount of interruptions from external sources.
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Document ID: 6F3F8628

Advance Communication Designs
Author(s): Bob Halford
Abstract/Introduction:
We say Advanced Wireless Data Radio Communication Systems Design Process not because this is a more indepth and more technical process, but because the systems involved are complex in nature and must be carefully designed and programmed. If anything, what I want to do is teach you a more simplified approach and technique to design a SCADA or Telemetry project, but one which you do the same whether the system is large or small
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Document ID: 7722C196

Determination Of Hydrogen Sulfide And Total Sulfur In Natural Gas
Author(s): David Haydt
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur bearing compounds exist naturally in many natural gas fields throughout the world. It is generally necessary to remove these sulfur bearing compounds from the gas in order to preserve public safety, reduce corrosion in pipelines, meet contractual agreements and to control odor in the gas. Thus the determination of hydrogen sulfide and total sulfur in natural gas is critical to the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: 8A957DA6

Devices For Field Determination Of H2O In Natural Gas
Author(s): Sam Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
H2O vapor is an undesirable component of natural gas. It takes up space in the pipeline and provides no fuel value. In higher concentrations it can condense into liquid water in the pipeline and cause corrosion, especially in the presence of carbon dioxide or H2S. Liquid water can also cause damage to the equipment utilizing the gas, for example turbines. Because of this, most gas transfer tariffs include a limit on the acceptable concentration of H2O in the gas stream. This paper reviews the devices that can be used in the field to determine the amount of water vapor present in a natural gas stream.
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Document ID: 2A837FEC

Communication Between The Office And Field
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Transferring the knowledge base from a field measurement technician to a back office volume analyst can be extremely challenging. A Field technicians skill set is tested on a routine basis therefore, the technician must be knowledgeable in: electronic controls to pneumatic controls communication system support multiple disciplines support of measurement equipment procedures that must be followed regulatory requirements governing the facilities ongoing training of field personnel Each organization is constantly facing challenges due to these factors as well as many others
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Document ID: 7C978C94

Requirements Of An Egm Editor
Author(s): R. Michael Squyres
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry has adopted EGM as a means of increasing the speed and accuracy with which measurement information is obtained. This has created the need for an electronic data management system. These systems, if not properly designed and implemented, could potentially render the entire process useless. Therefore, it is essential that the system add functionality that complements the power of the hardware. With proper implementation, such a system will not only facilitate operations in todays fast paced, post-FERC 636 environment, but also will establish a foundation for meeting tomorrows measurement challenges
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Document ID: 93137C12

Ultrasonic Meters For Residential And Commercial Applications
Author(s): Paul Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
An ultrasonic meter falls into the classification of inferential meters. Unlike positive displacement meters that capture volume to totalize volume, inferential meters measure flowing gas velocity to totalize volume. Orifice meters use pressure drop to measure velocity to infer volume and turbine meters use the speed of the rotor to measure velocity to infer volume, while ultrasonic meters use sound waves to measure flowing gas velocity to infer volume. Ultrasonic meters have been around for many years in primarily liquid measurement. However, their application in the measurement of natural gas is relatively new, and has become more commercialized over the last decade.
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Document ID: E48EDB8D

Techniques Of Composite Gas Sampling
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The level of interest in effective and accurate gas sampling techniques is currently at a very high priority within the natural gas industry. With the fluctuating ranges in natural gas prices, exploration interests, profitability, deregulation and consolidation of the work force, recoverable revenue must be accounted for. At large volume delivery points, a 3-5 BTU error in energy determination can cost companies tens of thousands of dollars within a very short time period. Accurate sampling techniques must be implemented with equal interest as is given to accurate volume measurement. MMBTU is the total of volume and energy. Sampling is the energy determination delivery system for this equation
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Document ID: 8D0BEC39

Composition Analysis In Pipeline Gas & Ngl With Process Mass Spectrometry
Author(s): Larry E. Sieker, Pe.
Abstract/Introduction:
Mass Spectrometry (MS) can be found in most industrial laboratories for detailed compositional analysis of process fluids and gases. Though accurate, fast, and complete, laboratory analysis using MS can only provide process information regarding intermediate or final product analysis for quality control programs and production history.
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Document ID: 886CF1C1

Fundamentals Of Energy Determination
Author(s): David Hailey
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents fundamental information necessary to understand and appreciate the concept of total gas energy in a natural gas pipeline. That is, to be able to converse with peers within the natural gas industry and understand basic concepts and terminology
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Document ID: 221CCEFA

Understanding DOT/PSM Operator Qualification Program
Author(s): Britt Mcneely
Abstract/Introduction:
The Operator Qualification (OQ) rule has greatly impacted pipeline operations for all major pipeline system operators. For Panhandle Energy, the efforts to satisfy all segments of the rule have required a significant investment in money and manpower, with many changes to most aspects of field operations.
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Document ID: 8B2A62F8

Electronic Calibrators Associated Techniques, Uses, Traceability, And Problems
Author(s): Roger Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure calibration is as important today as it has been for a very long time, but the way calibration is done and the equipment used to do it has changed drastically. In the past, it was a standard practice to use a primary standard for pressure calibration. That standard was normally a deadweight tester or a manometer. Today, with more accurate secondary standards available, there is a larger choice in what can be used for pressure calibration. What is used normally will depend on the requirements that have to be met and the equipment that is available. This paper discusses issues that should be taken into consideration when choosing a pressure calibrator from the many that are available today
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Document ID: 542D6294

Automating Gas Measurement
Author(s): Richard L. Cline
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address concepts of SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems) and their application to the measurement industry. An important focus of the paper is to provide the reader with an understanding of the technology and with guidelines to be used to evaluate this equipment as part of an automation project.
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Document ID: 7EE05101

Use Of Equations Of State Eos() Software
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper sample conditioning is essential to providing a representative sample of natural gas to the analyzer. Sample conditioning consists of extracting a sample from a process stream, transporting it to an analyzer, and conditioning it so that it is compatible with the analyzer. Conditioning generally consists of controlling the gas temperature, pressure, and flow rate. It also includes the removal of contaminates which may alter the sample composition and/or damage the analyzer. It is imperative that the gas sample composition is not altered or distorted during the conditioning process.
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Document ID: D83E7165

Ethics
Author(s): John L. Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the discussion of ethics the first issue is always nomenclature. Sadly, this is often the topic that gets the least attention and frequently those involved in the conversation conduct deep insightful discourses in which there is virtually no understanding exchanged, although the participants will all agree that the quality of the rhetoric was outstanding.
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Document ID: 0B05824E

Lessons Learned From The API Mpms, Chapter 14.1 Gas Sampling Research Project
Author(s): Dr. Darin L. George And Eric Kelner
Abstract/Introduction:
Between 1999 and 2005, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), the American Petroleum Institute (API), the United States Minerals Management Service (MMS), and Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) cosponsored an extensive natural gas sampling research program at the Metering Research Facility (MRF), located at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The results of this research provided a basis for the most recent revisions to the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) Chapter 14.1, Collecting and Handling of Natural Gas Samples for Custody Transfer. The research supported revisions that produced both the 5th edition of the standard, published in 2001, and the 6th edition, published in February 2006
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Document ID: 73903E4A

How To Perform A Lost & Unaccounted For - Gas Program
Author(s): John Mcdaniel
Abstract/Introduction:
Many (likely most) gas pipeline companies struggle with lostand- unaccounted-for-gas (L&U) and it can be a significant cost to their bottom line as shown below. As shown in this inset, by reducing L&U from 0.6 percent to .25 percent, a typical company with a 2 BCF daily throughput could save almost 18 million annually based on 7.00 gas prices, which is a daily loss of 49,000.
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Document ID: C0154B6D

A Review Of The Revisions To API 14.3/AGA 3 Part 2
Author(s): Fred G. Van Orsdol
Abstract/Introduction:
API Chapter 14.3 is a living document, constantly reviewed and considered for revision as new information and research data become available relative to the design and operation of orifice metering systems. In spite of this scrutiny within the API, AGA and ISO, the latest recommendations and revisions are not well known in many areas of our industry and they are about to be changed again (During late 2010). Many companies are still designing to AGA 3 1985 standards or internal standards that do not meet current API recommendations
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Document ID: F1BFB6C8

Ultrasonic Meter Flow Calibrations Considerations And Benefits
Author(s): Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary method for custody transfer measurement has traditionally been orifice metering. While this method has been a good form of measurement, technology has driven the demand for a new, more effective form of fiscal measurement. Ultrasonic flowmeters have gained popularity in recent years and have become the standard for large volume custody transfer applications for a variety of reasons. Most users require flow calibrations to improve meter performance and overall measurement uncertainty. The latest revision of AGA Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters, Second Addition Ref 1, now requires flow calibration for ultrasonic flow meters when being used for custody transfer applications
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Document ID: 9F5E75D6

Problems Unique To Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jackie R. Tims
Abstract/Introduction:
Some major problems and unique solutions will be addressed with gas measurement on offshore platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. This presentation will show the major roll safety, transportation, and weather play in the measurement facility. Proper operation, design, and installation will ensure accurate measurement
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Document ID: 1A890139

The Importance Of Discerning The Impact Of New Measurement Technolgy
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
With the current demand for improved technologies in the area of fluid measurement, the rush to the market place is raising as many questions as it is answering. In the last 30 years, the natural gas pipeline industry has transitioned from the supplier of clean, dry gas to the mover of billable gas energy clean and dry or dirty and wet. The LNG market has impacted the operations of the typical gas supply systems worldwide. The demand for more and more crude oil has put pressure on old measurement designs to become increasingly flexible to a variety of crude oil deliveries
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Document ID: F4F945D4

Methods Of Gathering Egm Data
Author(s): Ronald Sisk
Abstract/Introduction:
it is of paramount importance that we focus on the accuracy and timeliness for the transfer of gas measurement data from the field measurement sites to a centralized gas measurement database to be verified, edited, and shared with all applicable groups. Measurement of wellhead deliveries, pipeline interconnects to town plants, city gates, and ultimately the end-user must be efficient and verifiable. To achieve this goal, various methodologies for gathering EGM data have evolved and improved over the past few years.
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Document ID: 6571A15A

Understanding The Advantages Of Ip Networks
Author(s): Burke Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Convergence in the Oil and Gas Sector Todays oil and gas industry faces increasing pressure to maximize the capability of its wireless infrastructure while minimizing operational and developmental costs. Unprecedented uncertainty and business volatility are transforming the landscape, as the oil and gas industry becomes more competitive, profit-oriented, and responsive to a fickle and savvy clientele. The key to developing a successful enterprisewide networking strategy is to recognize that it is only part of a larger strategy-one in which modern oil and gas facilities must literally reinvent themselves.
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Document ID: 2A14E442

Freeze Protection For Natural Gas Pipeline Systems And Measurement Instrumentation
Author(s): Tom Fay
Abstract/Introduction:
One way businesses in todays natural gas industry can be certain to maintain a presence in a competitive market is to be able to deliver a consistent supply to their customers. To ensure a reliable supply, companies must be aware of potential problems that could lead to interruptions or shutdowns in service and the procedures that can prevent these costly situations. Freezing is a major culprit not only in these pipeline shutdowns and interruptions, but it can also affect the accuracy of gas measurement
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Document ID: 922115F8

Training Office Measurement Personnel
Author(s): Perry Dee Hummel
Abstract/Introduction:
Experience is the best teacher. Weve all heard that saying, but, what if there arent any experienced personnel left to hire? After years of downsizing, mergers, and attrition, the industry finds itself in a shortage of good trained personnel. The only way to overcome this problem is to provide the new employee with comprehensive training. Successful training is paramount to the success of the gas measurement department and your company.
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Document ID: 7EDC0977

A New Perspective On Measurement The Impact Of Measurement In A Changing Business Environment
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of hydrocarbons has evolved significantly through the years, from both a technical and business application perspective. Developments and advances in technology have made the measurement of hydrocarbons more precise, efficient, and available. Changes in the energy business environment have placed the measurement of hydrocarbons into a more significant role within organizational and industry business processes
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Document ID: 01129067

D.O.T. Requirements For The Transportation Of Sample Cylinders
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The United States Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) is a department of the U.S. Federal Government which oversees all issues regarding transportation within the United States of America and U.S. Territories. Its influence around the world is great and widely respected, but its jurisdiction and power of enforcement is limited to the USA and its territories. As regards this paper, we will discuss the D.O.T. and its involvement surrounding sample cylinders for the hydrocarbon industry and the rules regarding the movement of these cylinders from point to point in the United States
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Document ID: B26D4D67

High-Pressure Calibration Of Gas Turbine Meters Using The Reynolds Number Method
Author(s): Paul W. Tang
Abstract/Introduction:
The pressure sensitivity of turbine meters is a well observed phenomenon since the inception of these devices. Unfortunately, very little organized experimental data were available for study until recently. Due to the ever rising energy costs, the natural gas industry is paying much more attention to improve the accuracy of natural gas flow measurement. The latest revision of the AGA No.7 report recommends that a turbine meter should be calibrated close to its intended operating conditions in order to minimize measurement error caused by pressure variation. This paper describes a novel approach in high pressure turbine meter proving using carbon dioxide gas as a test medium. The concept of Reynolds number turbine meter proving is explained. Test data demonstrating the validity of the Reynolds number matching method are presented and the description of a high pressure turbine meter calibration facility based on this new technology is given.
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Document ID: 4B42F711

Protection Of Natural Gas Measurement Equipment Against Moisture And Corrosion
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation addresses problems associated with moisture and corrosion caused by high relative humidity and airborne contaminants. By controlling moisture and corrosion long-term, many problems associated with sensitive field electronics can be avoided.
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Document ID: C6322258

Techniques For Natural Gas Sampling
Author(s): Kris Kimmel
Abstract/Introduction:
method be selected and the appropriate industry standard be followed. Methods reviewed by this paper will include spot sampling, composite sampling, and on-line chromatography. In addition, Gas Processors Association (GPA) 2166-86 and American Petroleum Institute (API) 14.1 will be described.
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Document ID: 40ECBCEF

Fundamentals Of Hydrocarbon Dew Point Measurement
Author(s): Jack Herring
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrocarbon Dew Point has always been a vital operational parameter and but it is becoming a critical tariff parameter for the natural gas industry. Measuring it must be done accurately or even small errors can jeopardize tariff compliance and potentially result in shutins. If liquids build up in the pipeline, this can damage compressors and other in-pipeline equipment. Overcompensation for poor analysis techniques, or a less than optimal choice of instrumentation, adds significantly to operational costs. The focus of this paper is to identify the best practices for measuring the hydrocarbon dew point (HCDP) in natural gas. The three most popular methods for measuring this parameter will be discussed
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Document ID: 4B5F1DF0

Principals Of Odorization
Author(s): Kenneth S. Parrott
Abstract/Introduction:
In the one hundred and thirty years, or so that we have known natural gas as a fuel source in the United States, the demand for natural gas has grown at an astounding rate. There is virtually no area of North America that The methods of producing, transporting, measuring, and delivering this valuable resource have advanced, and improved in direct relation to the demand for a clean climate determines the rate of growth the gas industry enjoys, in a broad sense, natural gas is certainly considered essential and a fuel of the future.
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Document ID: F07F396E

Gas Contracts Impact On Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): T. Dean Graves
Abstract/Introduction:
Much effort is spent to achieve accurate measurement. Up to date measurement standards, modern meter station design, high quality equipment, and proper measurement operations are all necessary for measurement accuracy. Unfortunately these processes do not assure measurement accuracy if the contract does not also support accurate measurement. The contract impacts measurement accuracy by what it addresses and what is left unaddressed. More focus needs to be applied to the measurement sections of the contracts. Hopefully this paper will help the reader better understand the relationship between the contract and accuracy
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Document ID: 7B88EABF

Meter Selection For Various Load Requirements
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to provide meter station designers with a basic methodology for selection of an appropriate flow meter (or meters) for a given application. Since many applications require that a meter station operate over a broad range of flow rates or loads, an example is provided on how to address system rangeability while maintaining accurate flow measurement. Detailed technical descriptions of the functionality of the various available gas metering technologies is beyond the scope of this paper, but information of that type can be found in other papers in these Proceedings.
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Document ID: 07916AD8

Flow Meter Installation Effects
Author(s): Eric Kelner
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter station piping installation configuration is one of a number of effects that may adversely affect meter accuracy. Some piping configurations can distort the flow stream and produce flow measurement bias errors (i.e., offsets in the meter output) of up to several percent of reading. Valves, elbows, or tees placed upstream of a flow meter are just some of the piping elements that can distort the flow stream. In this paper, installation effects are discussed with respect to two of the four main components of a flow measurement system: the meter, or primary element, and the secondary (pressure and temperature) instrumentation. The effect of the velocity profile of the flow stream on orifice, ultrasonic, and turbine flow meters is discussed next. Installation conditions that may adversely impact the accuracy of pressure and temperature measurements are discussed after that. The gas chromatograph and the flow computer, the third and fourth components, are treated in separate courses
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Document ID: 6AC81BAA

Pulsation Reduction By Acoustic Filters For Metering Applications
Author(s): Ray G. Durke
Abstract/Introduction:
Because of the adverse effects of pulsations on orifice and other types of flow meters, there is a need at many installations to decrease the amplitude of pulsations in the piping. This task has been the primary domain of acoustical piping designers who have had both theoretical and practical field experience in such areas. The most common and effective treatment for pulsation control is the design and installation of acoustic filters. However, poorly designed filters can be ineffective or expensive to operate. This paper discusses the basic principles and considerations in acoustic filter design
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Document ID: 9C7A59BB

Orifice Plate Meter Diagnostics
Author(s): Dr Richard Steven,
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice plate meters are a popular for being relatively simple, reliable and inexpensive. Their principles of operation are easily understood. However, traditionally there has been no orifice meter self diagnostic capabilities. In 2008 & 2009 a generic Differential Pressure (DP) meter self diagnostic methodology 1,2 was proposed. In this paper these diagnostic principles are applied to orifice meters and proven with experimental test results. The diagnostic results are presented in a simple graphical form designed for easy use in the field by the meter operator.
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Document ID: 5D56B446

Comparing Plug & Seat Regulators & Control Valves
Author(s): Lamar Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper will be to compare a plug and seat regulator to a control valve for high-pressure natural gas installations such as: power plants, city gate stations, large industrial customers, compressor stations, and storage fields. The features, benefits, capabilities, and differences of both devices will be outlined, to enable the reader to make an educated selection. In addition, acceptable design practices will be reviewed concerning sizing, gas velocities, noise levels, equipment layout, and performance. The ball valve is the most commonly used type of modulating valve for natural gas pipeline applications, for that reason, we will limit this discussion to comparison between the plug and seat regulator and versions of a 1/4 turn ball valve.
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Document ID: 0C26E302

Fundamentals Of Gas Laws
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters
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Document ID: 7AFBEE66

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): Bob Carlson
Abstract/Introduction:
Throughout the oil and gas industry, there stems the need for accurate and economical measurement of process fluids and natural gas. Orifice Meters, sometimes referred to as Orifice Fittings, satisfy most flow measurement applications and are the most common flow meter type in use today. The Orifice Meter, sometimes also called a head loss flow meter, is chosen most frequently because of its long history of use in many applications, versatility, and low cost, as compared to other available flow meter types.
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Document ID: 63739854

Fundamental Principles Of Turbine Flow Meters Overview Of Selection, Installation, Operation And Maintenance Of Turbine Flow Meters
Author(s): James Meier
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine metering has been around for many years now and has proven itself to be a very accurate way of measuring flow in both liquids and gases in properly applied applications. There are basically two types of turbine meters that sold. The most common is an inline turbine meter. These devices use a pipe spool type of installation where they are either flanged or threaded in to the pipe and make up a part of the pipe with the measuring point within it. The other type is an insertion type turbine meter, in which the turbine is mounted on the end of a stem and inserted to a certain depth depending upon pipe size and manufacturer specifications.
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Document ID: 66270C8C

Fundamentals In LNG
Author(s): Tom Quine
Abstract/Introduction:
The following discusses the historical use and future opportunities relating to natural gas, LNG and geological gas storage. New opportunities are presented by the nonlinear 23.5 tcf/y US gas use and declining production. This fact has created a significant need for LNG imports and LNG distributed assets in the US. In addition it has created a need for market based and production based geological storage with services ranging from firm contracts, wheeling and hub based park and loan
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Document ID: B499024E

Fundamentals Of Pressure Regulators
Author(s): Paul J. Murtaugh
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry, there are two basic types of regulators used for both pressure reducing and back pressure (relief) control. The two types are: 1.) Self Operated Type 2.) Pilot Operated Type The primary purpose of this paper is to discuss the basic principle of Self Operated and Pilot Operated Regulators including components of the system, principles of operation, advantages and disadvantages, and some maintenance and inspection procedures
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Document ID: 12F65C41

Advances In Natural Gas Sampling Technology
Author(s): Donald Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
The monetary value of natural gas is based on its energy content and volume. The energy content and physical constants utilized in determining its volume are computed from analysis. Therefore correct assessment of the value of natural gas is dependent to a large extent on overall analytical accuracy. The largest source of analytical error in natural gas is distortion of the composition during sampling. Sampling clean, dry natural gas, which is well above its Hydrocarbon Dew Point (HCDP) temperature is a relatively simple task. However, sampling natural gas that is at, near, or below its HCDP temperature is challenging. For these reasons, much attention is being focused on proper methods for sampling natural gas which have a high HCDP temperature.
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Document ID: 753BF194

Fundamental Principles Of Rotary Displacement Meters
Author(s): Sharmila Mukandrai
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classifications of gas meters. The first consists of inferential type meters, including, orifice, ultra-sonic and turbine meters, and the second is the positive displacement meters, which consist of diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferential type meters are so-called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas flow and calculating the volume based on the measurements. The positive displacement type meters are so-called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them
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Document ID: FD1EF047

An Overview And Update Of AGA 9
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association published Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters Ref 1 in June 1998. It is a recommended practice for using ultrasonic meters (USMs) in fiscal (custody) measurement applications. This paper reviews some of history behind the development of AGA Report No. 9 (often referred to as AGA 9), key contents and includes information on meter performance requirements, design features, testing procedures, and installation criteria. This paper also discusses changes that will be incorporated in the next revision. At the time of this paper the expected publication date is the Fall of 2006
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Document ID: B10950D9

Fundamentals Of Multipath Ultrasonic Flow Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Eric Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the operating principles and application of ultrasonic gas flow metering for custody transfer. Basic principles and underlying equations are discussed, as are considerations for applying ultrasonic flow meter technology to station design, installation, and operation. These applications are illustrated based on operating experience with the SICK ultrasonic flow meter, however many of these issues can be generalized to other meter manufacturers
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Document ID: 152793FF

Micro Gas Chromatography For Liquid Petroleum Gass
Author(s): Amorin A., Dagostaro L., Diersche Y., Gonzalez A..
Abstract/Introduction:
For years, microGC analysis has been useful as a powerful tool for the fast and reliable analyses of natural gas and other gaseous matrices but, it is yet to prove its capabilities for liquid samples. In this paper, we present a a unique gasifying system for volatile liquid sample introduction in a microGC. The system has been tested with a wide range of different samples: liquefied gases (ethane/propane blends, volatile liquids (natural gasoline from fractionation plants), butane blends and samples with olefins . Due to the different nature of the samples, a single point calibration was used. The system was designed for simple operation and maintenance, reducing time and increasing ease of operation when compared to regular Gas Chromatography analyses. All the samples were handled in the same way with the only variation being the response factors applied to each type of sample. Repeatability data will be presented from both calibration standard blends and from real world samples. Also presented are comparisons of the microGC results with conventional GC data.
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Document ID: F2D6C416

Considerations For Sampling Wet, High Pressure, And Supercritical Natural Gas
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux Shannon m. Bromley
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the problems encountered when sampling wet, high pressure and supercritical natural gas Comments on how they relate to the API and GPA industry standards for natural gas sampling. It also discusses the use of phase diagrams in the design and operation of a natural gas sampling system
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Document ID: FE073634

Design And Installation Of A Complete Measurement & Control Facility
Author(s): Thomas G. Quine
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation is intended to illustrate the implementation of a successful project. These principles can be applied to measurement and control projects, LNG projects, and LPG projects. The strategy presented involves performing through preliminary engineering, performing final design and procurement, qualification of installers, construction, testing, commissioning and finally, training and documentation.
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Document ID: ED1B8017

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Paul J. La Nasa
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents methods for determining the uncertainty of both differential and linear metering stations. It takes into account the type of meter, number of meters in parallel, type of secondary instruments, and the determination of physical properties. The paper then relates this information to potential influence on system balance
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Document ID: 470E2EA5

An Overview Of Industry Standards Related To Natural Gas Measurement
Author(s): Barry Balzer
Abstract/Introduction:
Standards are a vital part of our every day lives. Many of the benefits that we have gained as a result of standards often go unnoticed. We are usually unaware of the role of standards in raising quality levels, reliability, safety, interchangeability and efficiency. We often take for granted that a pipe fitting we purchased at one store will thread onto a pipe we purchased from a different store.
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Document ID: 393219F2

Electronic Gas Measurement Auditing
Author(s): Perry Dee Hummel
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic Gas Measurement or EFM auditing is a very important process of the natural gas industry. Only a few short years ago, the dry recording device for custody gas measurement. All that has changed with the advent of the flow computer volumes are recorded and generated at the field level, and imported to the measurement system. Careful review of meter data should be part of the monthly close process
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Document ID: C9D25817

Verifying Gas Chromatographs At Custody Transfer Locations
Author(s): Shane Hale
Abstract/Introduction:
Verifying the correct operation and accuracy of the Gas Chromatograph (GC) is an integral part of a custody transfer metering system, and involves ensuring the accuracy of the analyzer at the time of testing, as well as confirming that the GC performed properly during the periods between validations and assessing the likelihood of continued proper functioning until the next validation.
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Document ID: 37E62BF7

Effects Of Wet Gas Flow On Gas Orifice Plate Meters
Author(s): Josh Kinney & Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice plate meters are one of the most widely used technologies in industry for gas flow metering. This is due to their relative simplicity, the extensive publicly available data sets that led to several orifice plate meter standards 1, 2, 3, 4 and the fact that they are a relatively inexpensive method of gas metering. However, it is common in industry for gas meters to be installed in applications where the flows are actually wet gas flows, i.e. flows where there is some liquid entrainment in a predominantly gas flow. This is usually done out of economic necessity or due to the fact that the system designers were not aware at the systems conceptual design stage that the gas flow would have entrained liquid. Therefore, with the orifice plate meter being such a popular gas flow meter it is by default possibly the most common wet gas flow meter.
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Document ID: 435F8FE3

Operations Of Online Gas Chromatographs
Author(s): Shane Hale
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas chromatograph (GC) is an integral component of the natural gas custody metering station and has a large impact on the accuracy of the fiscal flow calculation. For this reason it is imperative that you install, operate and maintain the GC with the goal of maximum reliability and accuracy
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Document ID: 6DDAF116

Application And Verification Of Coriolis Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early 1980s, Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in gas, liquid, and slurry applications with an installed base of more than 600,000 units. Through significant design enhancements in the early 1990s Coriolis meters have rapidly gained worldwide acceptance in gas phase applications with over 40,000 meters installed worldwide and most notably the 2003 publication of AGA Report Number 11, Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis Meter.
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Document ID: 5C18BD14

Determining Proper Odorization Levels
Author(s): Paul D. Wehnert
Abstract/Introduction:
Over 300 people died in an explosion on March 18, 1937 in a New London, Texas public school building. The natural gas that was being delivered to the school building was not odorized. At that time the natural gas was odorless, Odorization
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Document ID: 8EE47EAE

AGA Calculations - 1985 Standard Vs 1992 Standard
Author(s): Brent Berry
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to help bridge the gap between the Old AGA-3 equation (hereafter referred to as AGA-3-1985) and the New AGA-3 equation (hereafter referred to as AGA-3-1992). As such the paper begins with a background section aimed at assisting those who are mostly familiar with the factored form of the orifice metering equation.
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Document ID: 340009AF

Unaccounted Gas Study In Distribution Networks
Author(s): Jay Shiflet
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Gas Distribution business Unaccounted Gas is referred to by various names or terms such as: Lost and Unaccounted-For, LUG, L&U, and UAF. In simplest terms, Unaccounted Gas is the result of the formula gas receipts minus gas deliveries. For the Measurement Group the process amounts to a gas inventory reconciliation based on the recorded volumes into the system(s) less the sum of the volumes out of the system(s). This can be a town by town or a total-system reconciliation.
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Document ID: 2A2881EF

Improving Flow Measurements With Improved Calibration And Data Handling Procedures
Author(s): Duane Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The back office gas measurement analyst requires a completely different set of skills to interpret and understand the information documented by the field regarding testing and calibration procedures. The task for the measurement analyst is to absorb the wealth of information presented, and utilize their extensive knowledge base in determining when a current month adjustment or even a prior month adjustment is warranted. Each time an analyst reviews data from the gas field, a question should be asked, Did the technician follow the correct procedures in performing the calibration?
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Document ID: AD26CB5E

Scada And Telemetry In Gas Transmission Systems
Author(s): Edward H. Smyth
Abstract/Introduction:
SCADA systems provide for safe, reliable, semi-efficient operation of gas transmission systems. Advanced applications and interfaces to business systems provide the keys for highly profitable operation. This paper introduces the basic building blocks of the SCADA system, including field devices. The SCADA host and advanced applications are discussed in detail. The paper concludes with a discussion of SCADA trends.
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Document ID: B0811EFB

Overview Of AGA 7 Revision
Author(s): Angela Floyd
Abstract/Introduction:
Just when you thought you knew everything there was to know about Turbine meter measurement, wham, out comes a revised AGA 7 standard. Now those basic principles are all still valid but maybe those operating practices we have built into our operating procedures need a little review. Rather than proceed as generations have done before us, research has been completed on the meters, their installation and operating practices and the way we calibrate and field test them. So now we have some data to back up our methods and madness.
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Document ID: DC8C4F00

Basic Electronics For Field Measurement
Author(s): Myles Mcdonough
Abstract/Introduction:
The three basic laws we will discuss are Ohms law, Kirchhoffs voltage law, and Kirchhoffs current law. The main terms used are voltage (units are Volts), current (units are Amps or milliamps), and resistance (units are ohms). These terms by themselves are meaningless unless a relationship can be established. An analogy that we can use to visualize the relationship between voltage, current and resistance is water flowing through a pipe. In the water analogy, pressure that pushes the water would correspond to voltage. The water flowing through the pipe would correspond to current. Any obstruction in the pipe restricting the flow would correspond to resistance
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Document ID: 91748C03

Understanding AGA Report No. 10, Speed Of Sound In Natural Gas And Other Related Hydrocarbon Gases
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
The speed of sound in natural gas is the velocity a sound wave travels in the gas. There are a number of gas properties that affect the speed of sound and they include the composition of the gas, the pressure of the gas and the temperature of the gas. The American Gas Association Report No. 10 Speed of Sound in Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbon Gases provides an accurate method for calculating the speed of sound in natural gas and other related hydrocarbon fluids
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Document ID: 5BCBD27A

Intelligent Electronic Flow Measurement Data Communication
Author(s): Intelligent Electronic Flow Measurement Data Communication
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry today has many systems and processes that are artifacts of non-telemetered chart recorders and the manual collection and analysis of electronic flow measurement (EFM) data. As operational and regulatory drivers increase the demand for rapid publishing of measurement data, the corporate EFM stack (layered systems) must be aware of each layer within the stack if it is to meet these demands in a timely and effective manner.
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Document ID: EC6DA7BC

Flow Conditioning And Effects On Accuracy For Fluid Flow Measurement
Author(s): Blaine D. Sawchuk Dale P. Sawchuk Danny A. Sawchuk
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the last several years research has shown that by improving on the flow conditioners used in natural gas metering applications, measurement is improved and installation cost can be reduced. The standards developed for orifice meters (AGA 3/API 14.3 and ISO 5167) addresses the question of flow conditioner design and testing to ensure the meter performance when subjected to various flow perturbations.
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Document ID: C7DE09B9

Get It Right The First Time - Field Data Capture Without Paper Forms
Author(s): Bruce Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
Field data capture describes the retrieval, storage, and reporting of data generated from measurement asset maintenance and configuration activities. Equipment inspections, configuration changes, calibration verification, troubleshooting, and gas sampling provide important subsets of measurement data. To Get it right the first time means capturing and distributing this data with minimal effort, error, time, and resources. Leveraging automated field data capture tools is one step companies can take to help technicians Get it right the first time
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Document ID: 5FD726F8


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