Measurement Library

Western Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (2009)

Western Gas Measurement Short Courses

Theory Of Differential Testing
Author(s): Gregory A. Germ
Abstract/Introduction:
To determine the accuracy of a natural gas meter, a known volume of air is passed through the meter, and the meter registration is compared against this known volume. The known volume of air originates from the meter prover. In earlier times, the gas meter prover was a stand-alone device (usually a bell-type prover), manually operated without any electronics or automation. Today, the majority of gas meter provers are fully automated computer controlled and operated, and responsible for other job functions besides the proving of gas meters. The bell-type meter prover - though still commonly used in the industry - is not the only kind of meter prover used today. The advancements and developments in electronics and computer technology has lead to an evolution of meter proving equipment - far from the manual proving methods that were commonplace only a few decades ago.
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Document ID: B1E644B3

Diagnosis And Evaluation Of Ultrasonic Clamp-On Measurements
Author(s): Mathias Panicke
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic clamp-on flow meters offer great flexibility of use, thanks to the fact that they are non-invasive and installed on the outside of the piping. They are used for a wide range of measuring tasks. The evaluation of the gathered measurement data, and its reliability, are as important as the measuring value itself. Ultrasonic flow meters inherently offer extensive self-diagnostic possibilities, both during installation and for long-term monitoring. This article presents both devicesupported procedures and measures that can be taken by the user to evaluate an application that has been or is to be implemented.
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Document ID: 576B6209

Ultrasonic Meters For Industrial And Commercial Applications
Author(s): Paul Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
An ultrasonic meter falls into the classification of inferential meters. Unlike positive displacement meters that capture volume to totalize volume, inferential meters measure flowing gas velocity to totalize volume. Orifice meters use pressure drop to measure velocity to eventually infer volume, turbine meters use the speed of the rotor to measure velocity to infer volume, while ultrasonic meters use sound waves to measure flowing gas velocity to infer volume. Ultrasonic meters have been around for many years in primarily liquid measurement. However, their application in the measurement of natural gas is relatively new, and has become more commercialized over the last decade. A significant contributor to the commercialization of ultrasonic meters in gas is affordable, highly accurate timing devices, that are being mass produced for computers and digital devices. Since changes in the speed of sound are much less in gas than in liquids, measurement of these timing changes needs to be measured to greater precision
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Document ID: 9525811F

Ultrasonic Meters For Residential And Commercial Applications
Author(s): Paul Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
An ultrasonic meter falls into the classification of inferential meters. Unlike positive displacement meters that capture volume to totalize volume, inferential meters measure flowing gas velocity to totalize volume. Orifice meters use pressure drop to measure velocity to eventually infer volume, turbine meters use the speed of the rotor to measure velocity to infer volume, while ultrasonic meters use sound waves to measure flowing gas velocity to infer volume. Ultrasonic meters have been around for many years in primarily liquid measurement. However, their application in the measurement of natural gas is relatively new, and has become more commercialized over the last decade. A significant contributor to the commercialization of ultrasonic meters in gas is affordable, highly accurate timing devices, that are being mass produced for computers and digital devices. Since changes in the speed of sound are much less in gas than in liquids, measurement of these timing changes needs to be measured to greater precision
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Document ID: 83152703

Fundamentals Of Gas Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Fundamentals Of Gas Pressure Regulation
Abstract/Introduction:
The following paper will provide an introduction into the fundamentals of gas pressure regulation as used in the natural gas industry. For all practical purposes, gas regulators can be generally classified as either self operated or pilot operated. Since self operated regulators are the simplest in design, we will examine their operation first
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Document ID: 6EB6CAB9

Introduction To Over Pressure Protection
Author(s): Steve Pastrano
Abstract/Introduction:
As far as we know, the first over pressure protection equipment used for natural gas, was a pressure relief device. It consisted of a pressurized pipe faced down into a pool (pot) of liquid (water, oil or mercury). On an over pressure, the gas would displace the liquid seal over the end of the pipe and bubble to the atmosphere. The gas industry has progressed since the use of liquid seal devices. We will discuss the various types of over pressure protection that is currently utilized by gas companies worldwide
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Document ID: 86E5EAD3

Fundamentals Of The Basic Gas Laws
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
Science interprets nature in terms of matter and energy. Energy is defined as the capacity to do work. There are many types of energy such as heat energy, electrical energy, kinetic energy (energy of motion), and potential energy (intrinsic energy of an object due to the position of the object
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Document ID: E6ABE8BB

Indroduction To Regulator And Relief Sizing
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
A regulator may be defined as a mechanism for controlling or governing the movement of machines or the flow of liquids and gases, in order to meet a standard. The primary function of a gas or liquid regulator is to match the supply of the fluid moving through it to the demand for the fluid downstream. To accomplish this, it measures the downstream pressure and makes adjustments accordingly
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Document ID: A58B645C

Flexible Element Regulators
Author(s): Rick F. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
Regulators that utilize a single rubber element that performs the same function as both valve and actuator are known as flexible element regulators. The first type of flexible element regulator was developed and manufactured by the Grove Regulator Company in the 1950s. The Grove Flexflo was referred to as an expansible-tube type because a tube or rubber sleeve was stretched over a slotted metal core separating the inlet and outlet of the regulator. The tube expanded when flow passed through the regulator
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Document ID: BC3CEA08

Regulator Station Design
Author(s): Matt Bartol
Abstract/Introduction:
Regulator stations reduce and control the gas pressure from a high-pressure main or feeder line to a distribution system. They are a critical component of the distribution system and deserve serious design consideration. The design of regulator stations takes into account many factors including
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Document ID: 520D4C8E

Industrial Pressure Control
Author(s): Jim Green
Abstract/Introduction:
Regulator station designs for pressure control to large industrial loads have always presented unique challenges that differ from standard pipeline pressure control applications. A large industrial load with little buffering between the regulators and burner tips requires a different approach to station design. The design approach becomes even more complicated if the large industrial load also has additional small auxiliary requirements such as duct burners, waste heat recovery boilers, or building heat requirements. In this paper, the focus will be on a regulator station design for the newer Advanced Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine (CT) Power Plants that meet the load requirements for power plant operation as well as the load requirements for ancillary equipment
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Document ID: CE517E0D

Noise Mitigatin In Regulator Stations
Author(s): Ken Goodwin
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss noise and noise mitigation in natural gas pressure reducing regulator stations. We will look at what noise is, the types of noise, regulators/valves as noise generators and types of noise mitigation treatments. From this information one will be able to make an informed decision on how to treat noise and why
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Document ID: 54C966B1

Regulator Freeze Protection
Author(s): David Record
Abstract/Introduction:
Regulator freezing is a phenomenon that can occur with pressure reduction of natural gas. This phenomenon is due to the absorption of heat as the pressure of a gas is reduced and the gas expands. This effect is known as the Joule - Thompson effect named for James Joule and William Thompson who in 1852 developed a number of formulae to predict this effect
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Document ID: 28BCD71D

Three Mode Control
Author(s): James L. Robertson
Abstract/Introduction:
Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controls are descriptive terms for the fundamental process used to achieve feedback control of a measured variable within acceptable bounds. In the natural gas industry that variable is usually pressure. Flow and ratio control are two other examples
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Document ID: 70458AF5

Troubleshooting Regulators And Control Valves
Author(s): John R. Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address gas pressure reducing regulator installations and the issue of erratic control of the downstream pressure. A gas pressure reducing regulators job is to manipulate flow in order to control pressure. When the downstream pressure is not properly controlled, the term unstable control is applied. Figure 1 is a list of other terms used for various forms of downstream pressure instability. This paper will not address the mathematical methods of describing the automatic control system of the pressure reducing station, but will deal with more of the components and their effect on the system stability
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Document ID: 677433D6

Natural Gas Sampling Methods
Author(s): Kris A. Kimmel
Abstract/Introduction:
Since a gas sampling system can be referred to as a cash register it is very important that the correct sampling method be selected and the appropriate industry standard be followed. Methods reviewed by this paper will include spot sampling, composite sampling, and on-line chromatography. In addition, Gas Processors Association (GPA) 2166-86 and American Petroleum Institute (API) 14.1 will be described
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Document ID: C3549AA2

Calibration Of Turbine Gas Meter By Matching Reynolds Number And Density
Author(s): Paul W. Tang
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate metering is essential to fair trading in the natural gas industry. The accuracy of a turbine meter starts with good calibration practices. The most common medium used for calibrating gas turbine meters is natural gas. Using natural gas as a calibration medium offers the closest physical properties match for turbine meters used in the natural gas industry. Unfortunately, it is often difficult and costly for natural gas based meter calibration facilities to operate over a wide pressure and temperature range due to the restrictions in their physical configurations
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Document ID: 317805B0

Pulsation Mitigation And Its Effects On Metering
Author(s): Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate flow measurement is essential for todays gas metering, however pulsations, which are frequently present at field sites, adversely affect flow meters and are one of the factors that must be mitigated in order to achieve accurate flow measurement. Pulsation is any periodic variation in pressure and flow velocity either at one location in a pipe or from point to point along the pipe. This paper not only discusses the sources of pulsation and briefly shows how pulsation adversely affects flow meters, but also explains in detail applicable methods for mitigation of pulsation effects. Properly designed acoustic filters are the most effective means for eliminating pulsation and a design method for a simple acoustic filter is presented. Other methods to control the sources, reduce the effects, or attenuate the amplitude of pulsation are also discussed
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Document ID: 7769C3BB

Fundamentals Of Gas Metering
Author(s): Paul m. Dallapiazza
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will provide the reader with a general overview of the fundamentals of natural gas metering. I will describe the basic operation and characteristics of the natural gas meters used in the industry today
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Document ID: 4FEF8340

Introduction To Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): G. Grudeski, J. Mantilla, W. Haner, R. Lagace
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic Meters (USM) have become more prevalent in Natural Gas measurement applications over the past decade. Ultrasonic measurement devices are being manufactured by no less than eight companies and are available in both permanent and clamp-on configurations in sizes ranging from NPS 3 to NPS 32+.
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Document ID: 9BB22E3A

Electronic Volume Corrector Basics
Author(s): Gary Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic volume correctors are generally battery powered, microprocessor based instruments used in the natural gas industry to convert the volume of natural gas as measured from gas meters, to corrected volume. During the conversion process, the electronic corrector obtains measurements of the meters gas pressure and temperature so pressure and temperature factors can be computed and applied to the uncorrected volume. Another factor, called the Supercompressibility Factor is also computed and applied. Other functions such as scaling various parameters to the desired units of measure, alarm detection, alarm notification, pulse output, digital readouts, and user interface, are some of the necessary functions of todays electronic correctors.
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Document ID: C8E4BE84

Fundamentals Of Turbine Meters
Author(s): Paul Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of all gas measurement used in the world today is performed by two basic types of meters, positive displacement and inferential. Positive displacement meters, consisting mainly of diaphragm and rotary style devices, generally account for lower volume measurement. Orifice, ultrasonic and turbine meters are the three main inferential class meters used for large volume measurement today. Turbines are typically considered to be a repeatable device used for accurate measurement over large and varying pressures and flow rates. They are found in a wide array of elevated pressure applications ranging from atmospheric conditions to 1440 psig.
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Document ID: F56ECB98

Clamp-On Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Ron Mccarthy
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas and Oil are different in their physical, chemical, and ultrasonic properties. Nevertheless, each fluid state can use Widebeam technology that uses the pipe wall as a Sonic Waveguide, permitting accurate, repeatable and reliable nonintrusive flow metering. This paper explains non intrusive gas ultrasonic metering, providing field and laboratory test data demonstrating the ability of WideBeam Clamp-On Ultrasonic flow meters to provide highly accurate Check Metering
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Document ID: B9F74269

Application Of Coriolis Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Karl B. Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early 1980s, Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in gas, liquid, and slurry applications with an installed base of more than 550,000 units. Through significant design enhancements in the early 1990s Coriolis meters have rapidly gained worldwide acceptance in gas phase applications with over 51,000 meters installed world wide and most notably the 2003 publication of AGA Report Number 11, Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis Meter
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Document ID: 316852D5

Theory Of Differential Testing
Author(s): Madeline S. Vecellio
Abstract/Introduction:
A Differential Rate Test is an accurate and convenient method of comparing a meters performance to previous or original performance records. It is widely recognized that many State Utility Commissions or other regulator agencies accept it as a means of periodically substantiating that the original accuracy of a meter has remained unchanged
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Document ID: 373C3B52

Fundamentals Of Electronic Flow Meter Design
Author(s): Jim Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic flow measurement as applied to the natural gas industry has advanced considerably over the last 30 years. Applications to address Upstream, Midstream and Downstream gas measurement technologies have become more complex. Over time it has become necessary to understand the fundamentals that make up this ever-changing environment
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Document ID: AFF18A34

Essentials Of Meter Station Design
Author(s): Al Michini
Abstract/Introduction:
Of the components involved in meter station design the selection of the regulation and measurement equipment is arguably the most critical in ensuring trouble free operation of the facility. Regulation is imperative to ensuring effective overpressure protection. And selecting the correct size and type of meter to meet the application is also important in creating a lowmaintenance facility. Unfortunately these components are often the hardest to properly select. The following illustrates what goes into making the proper choices for a given set of parameters
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Document ID: A8D9C915

Dual Rotor Turbine Meters
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement in the U.S. and around the world is dominated by diaphragm, rotary, turbine, and orifice meters. Each serves a different segment of the gas industry and each has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. These four main types of meters can be broken into two distinct categories: positive displacement, and inferential. Diaphragm and rotary meters fall into the positive displacement group because they have welldefined measurement compartments that alternately fill and empty as the meter rotates. By knowing the volume displaced in each meter revolution and by applying the proper gear ratio, the meter will read directly in cubic feet or cubic meters
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Document ID: 0CA9B4E4


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