Measurement Library

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (2009)

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course

High Pressure Services
Author(s): George Levesque
Abstract/Introduction:
The code governing pressure control of gas delivered from high-pressure distribution systems is 192.197. This part of the code has been updated several times (11/07/1970, 07/13/1998, and 09/15/2003) since its inception on August 19, 1970. 192.197 details when overpressure protection is required and lists some acceptable methods of overpressure protection. For distribution systems with MAOPs over 125 PSIG, the code is pretty clear on the requirement for, and the application of, overpressure protection. For MAOPs below 125 PSIG, there are several factors that are looked at like the design of the service regulator, whether the gas is free from materials that could interfere with the proper operation of the regulator, the body size of the regulator, as well as other factors. For the purpose of this class, we will focus on applications above the 125 PSIG MAOP which is covered by 192.197.c.1 & 2.
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Document ID: 7CF1457F

Freeze Protection For Instruments And Instrument Supply Lines
Author(s): James E. Mueller Tom Kerr And David Kerr
Abstract/Introduction:
FREEZE PROTECTION FOR INSTRUMENTS AND INSTRUMENT SUPPLY LINES Many natural gas systems suffer from time to time from bothersome equipment failures or line shut-off due to freeze-up. Cold, moist climates accentuate the problems of external freeze-up. With the temperature drop accompanying gas regulation, ice often accumulates on instrument gas regulators, plugs the vents and makes the equipment inoperable.
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Document ID: 5BE9BE13

Odor-Free Odorant Deliveries
Author(s): Jan Strmen And Juraj Strmen
Abstract/Introduction:
Odorization of natural gas is providing public and natural gas utility with tools to signal leaks or other problems in the natural gas distribution system. Regulation CFR 192.625 describes requirements of odorization. Since public associates smell of odorants with presence of natural gas and danger, it is important to eliminate all sources of odorant smells from distribution system, which could cover or simulate actual natural gas leaks and lower dependability of the natural gas delivery system. Odorant deliveries and odorant transfers are one of the sources of odorant releases and false leak calls
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Document ID: 0AB5627F

Practical Considerations Of Gas Sampling And Gas Sampling Systems
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to be able to take a representative sample of a hydrocarbon product is necessary to ensure proper accounting for transactions and effi cient product processing. The various sampling methods that are available and the options and limitations of these methods are investigated the most appropriate equipment to use the reasons for its use and correct installation of the equipment are also addressed
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Document ID: 5001BE57

The Basics Of Well Tendering
Author(s): Twain Faulkner Matt Vavro
Abstract/Introduction:
The well tenders job duties are classifi ed into the following areas: 1. Safety 2. Field Integrity and Inventory 3. Deliverability Maintenance 4. Troubleshooting 5. Operations
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Document ID: 6674CBD7

Communications For The Gas Industry
Author(s): Jeff Randolph
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss communication basics and communication options for the gas industry. An overview of communications basics and communication technologies available to the Gas Industry will be discussed.
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Document ID: 96CDE3BD

Controller Fundamentals And Tuning
Author(s): Greg Thomas Shumate
Abstract/Introduction:
It is not very easy to start talking about PID controllers. But, once we get started we will go over many aspects of control and how PID controllers help us. Do we start with what they are used for, or how they work? Or for that matter, what is PID? That might be a good place to start. Proportional - Integral - Derivative. Thats it! PID. In this paper we will go over the practical aspects of using and tuning mechanical, pneumatic, and electronic controllers
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Document ID: E1ACA50A

Basics Of Using Modbus Rtu In Monitoring And Control Production
Author(s): Walter Flasinski
Abstract/Introduction:
MODBUS is a common industrial communication protocol that has been around for decades. It is widely available either as a standard or option in industrial control and monitoring equipment and can be easily utilized. While it is simple, it is slow in comparison to some of todays available networking architecture, but has been so widely adopted because that simplicity.
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Document ID: AA012BBE

Basics Of Self-Operated And Direct-Acting Spring Regulators
Author(s): Rick Schneider
Abstract/Introduction:
Spring operated gas regulators are force balanced mechanical devices that operate everything from your gas grill at home to large transmission systems. Regulators are often referred to as a control valve, governor, or pressure reducers. The system designer uses regulators for several reasons, fi rst comes safety, economics, and to improve the effi ciency of utilizing the gas. With gas fi red equipment becoming more sophisticated due to effi ciency and emissions, proper selection, application and understanding of spring operated regulators is becoming more critical.
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Document ID: A6DFB347

Basic Pressure And Flow Control
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry utilizes two devices to reduce gas pressure and control gas fl ow. The fi rst is the regulator and the second is a control valve. The control valve is utilized for high volumes and it can perform fl ow control as will as pressure control. This paper will provide the fundamentals of control valve types, sizes, and the controllers that are utilized to operate the control valves. We will also investigate the differences between the regulator and the control valve and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
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Document ID: 2E55762E

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): John A. Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of all gas measurement used in the world today is performed by two basic types of meters, positive displacement and inferential. Positive displacement meters, consisting mainly of diaphragm and rotary style devices, generally account for lower volume measurement. Orifi ce, ultrasonic and turbine meters are the three main inferential class meters used for large volume measurement today. Turbines are typically considered to be a repeatable device used for accurate measurement over large and varying pressures and fl ow rates. They are found in a wide array of elevated pressure applications ranging from atmospheric conditions to 1440 psig. Turbine meters have also become established as master or reference meters used in secondary calibration systems such as transfer provers. A signifi cant number of both mechanical and electrical outputs and confi gurations have become available over the past 50 years of production
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Document ID: 333EB951

Rotary Displacement Meters Basics
Author(s): Todd Willis Larry Nielsen
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classes of gas meters. These are inferential type meters, which include orifi ce and turbine meters, and positive displacement meters, which include diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferential type meters are so-called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas fl ow and calculating the volume based on the measurements. The positive displacement type meters are so-called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them.
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Document ID: D39F03E6

Proper Operation Of Gas Detection Instruments
Author(s): George Lomax
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the operation, maintenance and calibration for a number of instruments available today for the detection of combustible and toxic gases. The applications for these various instruments will also be discussed. This will include the investigation of odor complaints on a customers property, leakage survey applications, and other safety requirements
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Document ID: C2369606

How To Perform A Lost & Unaccounted-For Gas Program Revised( For 2005)
Author(s): Rick Feldmann John Mcdaniel
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is written for the natural gas pipeline industry, from the vantage point of wellhead to burner tip. Its for: Production Companies wanting to ensure proper measurement of the Btus delivered to, and normally measured at their wellheads by, gathering companies, Gathering and Processing Companies wanting to control losses across their gathering lines and across treatment and processing plants, Transportation Companies wanting to control gas losses across high pressure pipe that extends for thousands of miles, and Distribution Companies that are concerned with gas losses across both high and low pressure distribution systems within city plants.
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Document ID: F13CFAFC

Differential Testing Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): R.A. Ron() Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
Over a hundred years ago, the Brothers Root were searching for an innovative way to convert water into power. Their search led to two fi gure eight shaped lobes. Legend has it that the lobes did not pass water effi ciently, but when the contraption blew one of the brothers hats into the air they knew they had an industrial strength blower. Nearly eighty years ago, the Roots Brothers Blower Company decided that their basic design, when a counter replaced the blower motor, could be used as a gas measurement device. The era of rotary gas measurement was born.
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Document ID: C5E5E02C

Application Of Common Conversion Factors
Author(s): Alfred Wettemann
Abstract/Introduction:
Purpose of this program is to review some basic conversion factors used in Measurement, and how they are used in everyday Measurement applications in the natural gas industry. 2. This chart shows that even in measurement systems that are closely related there are changes that have been made over time. Both American and British systems are the same to one million then, denominations change after that point The American billion equals the British milliard Above a billion, American denominations are 1000 times the preceding one. Above a milliard, British denominations are 1,000,000 times the preceding one. (Merriam- Webster Dictionary) Unit conversions are always a common issue we must deal with
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Document ID: 3B9EA0B1

Orifice Meter Basics
Author(s): Kevin Finnan Dan Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
This class is going to be faithful to the title and focus on basics of orifi ce meters. It is intended as an introduction to any gas company employees who are interested in gaining a working knowledge of orifi ce meters, including where they are used and why. We will also briefl y discuss the orifi ce meter from an operation and maintenance point-of-view. For fi eld technicians and anyone else, who will be directly involved with orifi ce meter operations and maintenance, this class is an introduction and will give you an understanding of the basic concepts. However, it is not a replacement for your companys operating procedures but is, rather, a supplement to them.
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Document ID: AAA53714

Natural Gas Dehydration
Author(s): Matthew E. Vavro Scott Glascock
Abstract/Introduction:
Minimizing Natural Gas Dehydration Costs With Proper Selection of Dry Bed Desiccants and New Dryer Technology Matthew E. Vavro, SPE, Vavro Consulting Copyright 1996, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Inc. This paper was prepared for presentation at the 1996 SPE Eastern Regional Meeting held in Columbus, Ohio, 23-25 October 1996. This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily refl ect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its offi cers, or members. Papers presented at SPE meetings are subject to publication review by Editorial Committees of the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper for commercial purposes without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O. Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836, U.S.A., fax 01-214-952-9435
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Document ID: 8BA84FCD

Underground Storage Of Natural Gas An Introduction
Author(s): Andrea I. Horton
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas storage is playing a continually growing role in the United Stated energy industry. As more and more interstate pipelines bring natural gas to the high gas-demand areas, such as the Northeast, from the high production areas, such as the Gulf, the Rockies, and Canada, energy companies seem to all be scrambling to fi nd potential new storage reservoirs to hold and cycle gas being transported to high market areas. What started in 1915 as an experiment and grew into an important sector of the natural gas industry by the 1950s was a fairly regular operation of injecting gas into the ground during summer when demand was low and withdrawing it in the winter when demand was high. This has evolved into a marketers dream, with services ranging from loaning and parking, to fi rm, interruptible, summer peak demand, and even virtual gas transactions. Quite simply, gas storage provides continuing stability in a volatile energy market. So what is Gas Storage?
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Document ID: D3432ADF

Operation And Maintenance Considerations For Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses both basic and advanced diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USM), and how capabilities built into todays electronics can identify problems that often may not have been identifi ed in the past. It primarily discusses fi scal-quality, multi-path USMs and does not cover issues that may be different with non-fi scal meters as they are often single path designs. Although USMs basically work the same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in AGA 9 Ref 1. However, some provide more advanced features that can be used to help identify issues such as blocked fl ow conditioners and gas compositional errors. This paper is based upon the Westinghouse confi guration (also knows as a chordal design) and the information presented here may or may not be applicable to other manufacturers
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Document ID: 961668C7

Fundamentals Of Hydrocarbon Dew Point Measurement
Author(s): Jack Herring
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrocarbon Dew Point is becoming a critical tariff parameter but it has always been a vital operational parameter for the pipeline industry. Measuring it must be done properly or serious errors can jeopardize tariff compliance resulting in shut-ins. If liquids build up, especially if water condensates are present allowing hydrate formation to occur, in the pipeline, that can damage compressors, valves and other in-pipe devices. Overcompensation for poor analysis techniques, or a less than optimal choice of instrumentation, will also add signifi cantly to operational costs. The focus of this paper is to identify the major factors that contribute to best practices for measuring the hydrocarbon dew point (HCDP) in natural gas. The three most popular methods for measuring this parameter will be discussed. These three techniques are: Manual visual method with a Bureau of Mines chilled mirror dew point instrument. Equation of state calculations from constituent analysis by gas chromatography. Automatic optical condensation dew point in stru ment
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Document ID: F7CC1598

Well Testing Using Non-Intrusive Ultrasonic Flow Measurement Technologies
Author(s): Kevin Gross
Abstract/Introduction:
A variety of well test procedures are currently utilized in the natural gas industry. All include a requirement to measure fl ow during test periods. Measuring fl ow rates from gas wells has been conducted almost exclusively using orifi ce plates and related electronics. Orifi ce measurement, while accurate and proven, can present several challenges and problems for periodic or temporary measurement of gas wells. New, non-intrusive ultrasonic gas measurement technology allows for faster, simpler and more environmentally friendly testing of fl ow rates in gas wells.
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Document ID: 8C20EF12

Basics Of Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): Jerry Kamalieh Bob Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
The fi rst gas company in the United States, The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with fi nancial and technical problems while operating on a fl at-rate basis. Its growth was slow, its charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority. By comparison, the New York Gas Light Company founded in 1823 prospered and expanded. They had built their system on the use of gas meters to measure the supply of gas to customers, and a large one to register the quantity made at the station before it is conveyed to the gasometers
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Document ID: E57B64F4

Pressure Control Basics
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure control is the fundamental operation of all natural gas delivery systems. It provides a safe and reliable energy source for manufacturing and heating systems throughout the world. Pressure control is utilized to balance the system supply demands with safe delivery pressures. Pressure control is used in all phases of the delivery system as follows: Production Wells Up to 5,000+ psig Compressor Stations Pumping into Storage or Boosting Transmission Supply. City Gate Stations Reduce Transmission Pressures to Distribution Pressures. District Regulation Stations cutting pressures for safe delivery End User Regulation Providing a safe pressure for end user appliances.
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Document ID: 6C869272

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Water Vapor Measurement
Author(s): Samuel C. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
This document will introduce the basic approaches to trace moisture measurements for natural gas and provide some advantages and disadvantages of each approach. There are many applications where trace moisture measurements are necessary such as in clean dry air, hydrocarbon processing, heat treatment processes, pure semiconductor gases, bulk pure gases, insulating gases such as those in transformers and power plants, and in natural gas pipelines. Natural gas presents a unique situation where the gas can have extremely high levels of solid and liquid contaminants as well as corrosive gases present in varying concentrations.
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Document ID: B96E08EB

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement
Author(s): Pat Donnelly
Abstract/Introduction:
Samuel Clegg made the fi rst practical gas meter in England in 1815. It was a water-sealed rotating drum meter that was improved in 1825 however, it was still very costly and very large. Thomas Glover developed the original diaphragm meter in England in 1843. It consisted of two diaphragms, sliding valves and linkage. T. S. Lacey patented the pre-payment meter in 1870. The most signifi cant change to diaphragm meters over the years has been in the materials of construction. Brass parts have been replaced by plastic, and leather diaphragms have been replaced with synthetic rubber
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Document ID: 1F65EB52

Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meter Basics
Author(s): James W. Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the operating principal and application of ultrasonic gas fl ow metering for custody transfer. Basic principals and underlying equations are discussed, as are considerations for applying ultrasonic fl ow meter technology to station design, installation and operation. These applications are illustrated based on operating experience with the Instromet 3 path and 5-path Q.Sonic custody transfer fl ow meter, however, many of these issues may be generalized to devices manufactured by others
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Document ID: 90738BF7

Meter Selection For Various Load Requirements
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr Dr. Darin L. George
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to provide meter station designers with a basic methodology for selection of an appropriate fl ow meter (or meters) for a given application. Since many applications require that a meter station operate over a broad range of fl ow rates or loads, examples are be provides on how to address system rangeability while maintaining accurate fl ow measurement. Detailed technical discussions pertaining to the various available gas metering technologies is beyond the scope of this paper, but information of that type can be found in other papers in these Proceedings
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Document ID: 31FD0081

Fundamentals Of Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Derrill Meyer
Abstract/Introduction:
Btu is the three letter acronym for British thermal unit. One Btu is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water from 58.5F to 59.5F (about 1055.056 joules (SI)). Heat (Btu), is gained from the burning of Natural Gas otherwise known as Oxidation, which is shown in the chemical equations below:
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Document ID: 92DDB427

Flow Measurement And Scada Technology
Author(s): Robert Findlay And Michael Rozic
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement and process control equipment has been on a progressive trend over the past decade. Due to continuous improvements, products have developed from pneumatic to electronic processes, reduced in physical size, minimized proprietary programming languages and protocols and increased overall functionality and accessibility. While the core AGA fl ow/energy equations have not altered, the electronic equipment calculating these equations has undergone dynamic changes. These changes will dramatically affect the gas industry, bringing new ideas, concepts and realities. The goal here is to provide the reader with information on recent advancements in measurement and control (M&C) equipment, and what they may offer in the future
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Document ID: EE2B6F8B

Gas Meter Proving: The Equipment And Methodology Used Today In The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): Gregory A. Germ
Abstract/Introduction:
To determine the accuracy of a natural gas meter, a known volume of air is passed through the meter, and the meter registration is compared against this known volume. The known volume of air originates from the meter prover. In earlier times, the gas meter prover was a stand-alone device (usually a bell-type prover), manually operated without any electronics or automation. Today, the majority of gas meter provers are fully automated computer controlled and operated, and responsible for other job functions besides the proving of gas meters. The belltype meter prover - though still commonly used in the industry - is not the only kind of meter prover used today. The advancements and developments in electronics and computer technology has lead to an evolution of meter proving equipment - far from the manual proving methods that were commonplace only a few decades ago. Many utilities have replaced the bell-type prover with sonic nozzle and transfer provers. Provers can now store and retrieve information from a utilitys meter management system, reduce the human error factor in the proving operation, and provide self-diagnostics to assist the prover operator in maintenance and in troubleshooting problems
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Document ID: F9FDB81B

From The Wellhead To The Burner Tip: A System Overview
Author(s): John Rafferty Pat Callahan
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is presented at the Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course - Fundamentals Section. The paper is designed for the fi rst year student to understand the basic fl ow of natural gas and the terminology utilized from Production and Storage areas to end use by consumers. Specifi c focus is given to history of natural gas, gas transmission, city gate stations, and distribution systems.
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Document ID: 4BCB5C68

Elements Of Proper Chart Integration
Author(s): Charles T. Tom() Hunter R.L. Laughlin
Abstract/Introduction:
Chart Integration is the process of measuring (interpreting) the amount of natural gas recorded on a chart. It is a manual process that has been around for decades and is a MAJOR COMPONENT of the gas industry. A large part of sales are based upon proper measurement as well as royalty payments to land and lease holders. Chart Integration information becomes the basis for ultimately how revenue is received and paid. This session will explain the process of CHART INTEGRATION and show examples of GOOD and BAD charts
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Document ID: 9A9AD20A

Integrating Metering, Billing, Security And Control Processes
Author(s): Robert Findley Michael Rozic And Bob Findley
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement and process control equipment has been on a progressive trend over the past decade. Due to continuous improvements, products have developed from pneumatic to electronic processes, reduced in physical size and increased in overall functionality. While the core AGA fl ow/energy equations have not altered, the electronic equipment calculating these equations has undergone dynamic changes. These changes will dramatically affect the gas industry, bringing new ideas, concepts and realities
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Document ID: 0E2941AB

AGA 7 (2006) Understanding And Applying The Measurement Report For Turbine Meters
Author(s): Daniel W. Peace
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides an overview of the 2006 revised AGA 7 document, which updates the recommended practice for measurement of natural gas by turbine meter into the form of a performance-based specifi cation
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Document ID: 3A94A802

Fundamentals Of District Regulator Station Design
Author(s): James P. Davis And Scott A. Laplante
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the fundamental steps necessary to begin and complete a district regulator design. It will focus on the techniques NSTAR uses to develop target locations and the subsequent designs. This paper will cover replacements and new installations
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Document ID: 1462D81D

Proper Grounding Techniques At Plants And Gate Stations
Author(s): Donald R. Long Matthew G. Esmacher
Abstract/Introduction:
Grounding is defi ned as electrical equipment connected directly to mother earth, or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth, such as the steel frame of a high-rise building on a concrete footing. Proper grounding is an essential component for safely operating electrical systems. Improper grounding methodology has the potential to bring disastrous results. There are many different categories and types of grounding principles. This papers focus is to demonstrate proper grounding techniques for low voltage Instrument and Control Systems (IACS) that have been proven safe and reliable when employed in natural gas facilities
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Document ID: BFD46061

Methods Of Proving High Volume Meters
Author(s): T.M. Kegel
Abstract/Introduction:
The past several years have seen increasing use of large ultrasonic meters. In many instances these meters can measure much higher volumes than large orifice or turbine meters. A thirty inch ultrasonic meter, for example, can measure the same volume as ten twelve inch turbine meters. Such high capacity meters require specialized proving or calibration services. The first part of this paper describes the basic process of calibrating large volume ultrasonic meters. The second part briefly describes some options when a meter recalibration is being considered
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Document ID: C9B7FFC4

Clamp-On Gas Flow Technology Advancements Increase Performance And Diagnostic Capabilities For Check Metering And Custody Transfer Applications
Author(s): Mark Imboden Ron Mccarthy
Abstract/Introduction:
The recent buzz created by the clamp-on wide beam technology in the gas measurement world has compelled even the gas industry skeptics among us to take notice. Rapid acceleration of successful installations across the globe and the surprising performance results being obtained (as shown in the following pages) has only added fuel to the excitement. Field clamp-on gas fl owmeters provide a unique tool for solving fl ow related challenges without interrupting the operation of a gas pipeline
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Document ID: A792F6A9

Molecules That Smell
Author(s): Tyler Kerr
Abstract/Introduction:
In the odorization industry, there are many different odorant compounds and various different blends of these chemicals. Each blend has its unique strengths and weaknesses which make some blends better for a certain application than others. In the last 30 years, there has been little change in the blends of odorants developed. This paper will attempt to explain some of terms we often see in odorant blends
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Document ID: A076AEC2

Corrosion Control Considerations For M&R Stations
Author(s): Michael J. Placzek John Otto Jay Keldsen
Abstract/Introduction:
Corrosion control for a measurement/regulation station can be very challenging. The majority of scenarios that can cause corrosion occur at M&Rs. Corrosion at an M&R can be broken into three major categories: External (external surface of the piping in contact with the soil or water electrolyte), Atmospheric (external surface of the piping in contact with the air) and Internal (internal surface of the piping exposed to liquids, bacteria or other contaminants in the product or gas fl ow).
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Document ID: 90AAC44F

Steel Pipeline Pickling Using The Wisconsin Public Service Methodology
Author(s): Patrick J. Callahan
Abstract/Introduction:
New pipeline construction provides for many opportunities to enhance the safety of the installers and the owners and the public. All throughout pipeline construction we look for areas of improvement, the excavation, installation, backfi lling, restoration and public relations, but once the pipeline is fi nished and ready for commissioning everyone wants the gas to start fl owing. The introduction of natural gas into a pipeline means the job is complete and the new line is in service. But during the fi rst few hours, days, weeks and months can be a worry for pipeline operators until the natural gas is at the proper odor level. Is odor fade real or just a rare occurrence and is it much ado about nothing. It is real and it is even documented by various entities such as odorant vendors and pipeline operators.
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Document ID: 95D0CD38

Fundamentals Of Gas Laws
Author(s): John Chisholm Gary Hudson
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters.
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Document ID: BA079D0B

Coriolis Expands The Capabilities For Measuring Natural Gas
Author(s): Keven Conrad
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis mass fl ow measurement for natural gas proves to minimize the uncertainties associated with volumetric fl ow measurement. The installation requirements and overall cost can be greatly simplifi ed and reduced. The need for proper straight run and fl ow profi le dependencies are shown to be virtually eliminated. While simulating such high level perturbation and installation effects, Coriolis continues to perform well within the accuracy specifi cation of custody transfer. Engineering and manufacturing enhancements allow for Coriolis to now measure gas over an extended range of fl ow while maintaining a very precise method on inline, in-situ meter verifi cation. The sensor itself and the electronics can also be tested periodically for defi ned tolerances and provide a preventative maintenance plan. Advanced diagnostics in Coriolis fl owmeters today can allow one to monitor the quality of measurement and detect at an early phase trace amounts of liquid or condensate entrainment in the gas fl ow.
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Document ID: 803DC62E

Implementing A Major Odorization Project - British GAS/TRANSCO
Author(s): Ed Flynn
Abstract/Introduction:
The British Gas Project was to me a challenge of a life time. At the time I had just completed a 5 year odorization upgrade project at Boston Gas Company. The project included the design, installation, commissioning and decommissioning of (28) twenty eight odorization systems including bulk storage tanks. The fi rst system was commissioned in December of 1992 and the project was completed in 1996 by utilizing in house personnel the majority of the time
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Document ID: CB839096

Basic Properties Of Natural Gas
Author(s): John H. Batchelder Robert Findley
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is misunderstood by many. It is believed by some that all gas is a liquid that is pumped into automobiles or into tanks and is used as a fuel. It is thought of as a dangerous material that will blow up easily. Others do not differentiate between LP gas, natural gas, or gasoline - They are all the same thing, right? While it is true that the above mentioned materials are all made up of the same basic components, each has its own physical and chemical characteristics
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Document ID: 0D032486

Self-Operated Regulator Basics
Author(s): Trent Decker Steve Ludtman
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application that we need to look more deeply into the fundamental of the regulators operation.
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Document ID: 4BD99021

Flow Meter Installation Effects
Author(s): Eric Kelner
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter station piping installation confi guration is one of a number of variables that may adversely affect meter accuracy. Some piping confi gurations can distort the fl ow stream and produce fl ow measurement bias errors (i.e., offsets in the meter output) of up to several percent of reading. Valves, elbows, or tees placed upstream of a fl ow meter are just some of the piping elements that can distort the fl ow stream. In this paper, installation effects are discussed with respect to two of the four main components of a fl ow measurement system: the meter, or primary element, and the secondary (pressure and temperature) instrumentation. The effect of the velocity profi le of the fl ow stream on orifi ce, ultrasonic, and turbine fl ow meters is discussed next. Installation conditions that may adversely impact the accuracy of pressure and temperature measurements are discussed after that. The gas chromatograph and the fl ow computer, the third and fourth components, are treated in separate courses
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Document ID: 1A52CC4E

High Volume Measurement Using Turbine Meters
Author(s): John A. Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
For over one hundred years the turbine meter has been servicing large volume applications of the natural gas market. During this time the turbine has continuously evolved into a device that offers the industry new and unique features. This paper will focus on the signifi cant advancements of this technology as well as how they are applied in the fi eld today.
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Document ID: 5109A0BD

Basic Principles Of Pilot Operated Flexible Element Regulators
Author(s): Michael Garvey Bill Teliska, Cj Nolte
Abstract/Introduction:
Pilot Operated Flexible Element Regulators are capable of providing very accurate control in natural gas transmission and distribution pipelines. The Pilot Operated Regulator provides advantages over both self-operated regulators and control valves. Primary benefi ts include simplicity of operation and elimination of any fugitive emissions caused by atmospheric bleed gas. However, it is important to recognize the limitations of the pilot operated fl exible element regulator and apply it accordingly. The original Flexible Element Regulator, the Flexfl o, was developed by the Grove Valve and Regulator Company circa World War II. The original intent for the regulator was to regulate water in submarine ballasting systems. However, Grove quickly recognized that the Flexfl o regulator product was ideally suited for pressure control applications in natural gas pipelines. Many advances have been made since the original Flexible Element was created more then fi fty years ago, but the same basic operational advantages and principles of operation remain unchanged
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Document ID: 1D97A3AD

D.P. Cone Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Philip A. Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will describe how generic differential pressure cone meters differ from other differential pressure meters as well as how they may be used for the measurement of gas and other hydrocarbons.
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Document ID: 235FF555

A Brief History Of The Natural Gas Industry
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas was once an unwanted byproduct of oil production. Since it is the gas that pushes oil and brine to the wellbore, the gas was fl ared, sometimes in great quantities in order to produce the oil. No effort was made to conserve the gas so, ironically, the fi eld pressure would decline rapidly and most of the oil would be left in the reservoir. Its fi rst use as a fuel was in the immediate areas the surrounding oilfi elds and even then many times it was fl ared in the town square as a source of lighting and entertainment. No effective transportation system was in place to distribute the gas from the remote fi elds to metropolitan areas. It was not until after World War II that cross country pipelines were laid and large and reliable supplies of gas were available for residential, commercial and industrial consumers. The natural gas industry as we know it has developed in approximately 50 years. Im sure the wildcatters of the early 1900s would be amazed that today you could buy and sell 100 million BTU of gas from a computer screen in any given day!
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Document ID: 3E5F259D

Basic Electronics And Calibration For The Gas Measurement Technician
Author(s): Greg Shumate
Abstract/Introduction:
These basic topics will be discussed. Electronic Terms Measurements using a Multi-Meter Using a Pressure Calibrator Using a Temperature Calibrator Electronics plays a major role in todays gas measurement and control. The following basic information will better prepare the measurement technician for the tasks related to electronic measurement and control.
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Document ID: 1624A95B

Field Communications For Ldc Pressure Monitoring
Author(s): Michael Marsters Matthew Pawloski Mike Dillon
Abstract/Introduction:
Communications technology - Its still hard to beat a landline . . . It seems that the next logical step for our increasingly intelligent correctors, data loggers and fl ow computers would be to give them the ability to communicate. This would seem natural, with the growing number of personal computers in the gas industry and the tendency toward automatic data collection for large industrial and commercial customers. New challenges arise almost every day in the timely collection of billing data from interruptible service monitoring to the daily balancing of transportation gas. Already, many electronic correctors are being used to store load profi le and other time-related data in onboard memory. This can be downloaded into a handheld terminal, a portable computer or into a remote computer via telephone modem link
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Document ID: 56396CB5

The Proper Application Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): Kevin C. Beaver
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper highlights several rotary meter performance characteristics. These characteristics profi le a rotary meters capabilities in a wide array of applications from production to transmission, and distribution. Most of the characteristics have minimum standards adopted by agencies like AGA or ASTM. Ill identify these standards, and incorporate them-where applicable-into my paper. In discussing these characteristics, I hope to give the reader a better understanding of the capabilities of rotary meters, and how the gas industry assesses these characteristics. Heres the performance characteristics Ill discuss
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Document ID: DA261A1D

In-Situ On-Site() Gas Meter Proving
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas fl ow rate measurement errors at fi eld meter stations can result from the installation confi guration, the calibration of the meter at conditions other than the actual operating conditions, or the degradation of meter performance over time. The best method for eliminating these or other sources of error is with in-situ (on-site) calibration of the meter. That is, the measurement accuracy of the fi eld meter station should be verifi ed under actual operating conditions by comparing to a master meter or prover. Field provers have been developed for operation at high line pressures and fl ow rates. For purposes of this discussion, a high gas fl ow rate is any fl ow greater than 3,000 actual cubic feet per hour or (85 m3/h) at pressures to 1,440 psig (10 MPa).
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Document ID: 13B68925

Freeze Protection For Natural Gas Pipeline Systems And Measurement Instrumentation
Author(s): David J. Fish Sean Stevens
Abstract/Introduction:
Consistent and continuous pipeline operations are key and critical factors in todays natural gas pipeline industry. The competitive nature of the business, together with the strict rules and regulations of natural gas supply, mandate that companies stay on top of all operational parameters that could cause interruption or complete shut-down of the natural gas supply to customers. Identifying what may ultimately cause problems is a fi rst step to controlling and eliminating those problems for the supplier.
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Document ID: 138492CE

Basic Electronic Communications For The Gas Industry
Author(s): Kenneth J. Pollock
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper introduces the common communications mediums used to convey intelligence for the gas industry. The gas industry requires fast and reliable communications for the conveyance of data for control and measurement applications. The data may be analog, digital, or even voice types of signals and may require transmission over a short distance of less than a couple of feet to over several hundred miles. As the gas is passed from the well head to the fi nal user, many types of electronic devices are employed for fast and accurate measurement of the process. The link that is used to pass this information to the billing, control, or safety system is the communications system. Several communications circuits are required in order to convey the data and there is not any one perfect system that will meet the requirements in all situations.
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Document ID: 7DAC4055


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