Measurement Library

Measurement Science Conference Publications (2009)

Enough Is Enough Selecting Points For Range Calibration
Author(s): Mark Kuster
Abstract/Introduction:
While the highest level measurement standards are frequently artifacts that provide a single reference value or a series of discrete references, test equipment (TE) encountered in the typical metrology laboratory provides or measures quantities over a continuous range of values. Typically, the manufacturer specifies the TE accuracy of each range with a continuous, if not smooth, function. A specification that applies to every possible value in the range challenges the laboratory to intelligently select an adequate, but not wasteful, number of test points at which to verify compliance to the specification.
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Document ID: 05252C3E

Control Charting Laboratory References For Quality Control
Author(s): Nicholas Mason
Abstract/Introduction:
What would you do if you had to Control Chart 200 laboratory references? Control charts are a graphical means to determine if the current measured value falls within the expected range of values based on the history of the reference. It gives instant feedback to the operator that a measurement may be suspect and indicates if systems are in control. Control charts also allow managers to be notified if a measurement is outside the expected limits and take appropriate corrective action.
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Document ID: 86B709D3

A Systems Engineering Approach To Calibration Procedure Development
Author(s): Bruce Bluteau
Abstract/Introduction:
The United States Navy, as well as, other Department of Defense (DoD) organizations use calibration procedures to define methods for verifying the performance of Test and Monitoring Systems (TAMS). These systems maintain the operational capability of weapons and systems that are an integral part of upholding U.S. national security. The traditional method for calibration procedure development is a hardwired (or hard-coded) approach that results in a product that is difficult to maintain and expensive to modernize. This paper describes a Systems Engineering approach that creates a modular group of measurement processes that can be combined to form a traditional calibration procedure. The advantage to this is the reduction of development time for new calibration procedures and a reduction in time and cost needed to modernize existing calibration procedures.
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Document ID: 9EF52476

Engineering Modification Of Environmental Chambers For Paper Conservation
Author(s): Unknown
Abstract/Introduction:
Many of us maintain and service environmental test chambers used for reliability testing and environmental testing. The paper chart recorder is a cause for concern because many of the operators forget to change the paper. Eliminating the human error variable from the measurement uncertainty budget is approximately twenty percent of the budget
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Document ID: E5C8258F

Accurately Measuring Unsteady Water Flows Using A Dynamic Standard
Author(s): I. I. Shinder And m. R. Moldover
Abstract/Introduction:
We recently presented and tested a model for a dynamic gravimetric standard for steady water flows. In the range 10 kg/s to 60 kg/s, the difference between the dynamic standard and NISTs static primary standard was 0.015 % with a standard deviation of 0.033 %, Here, we extend the model for the dynamic gravimetric standard to account for unsteady flows and we account for the different response times of the dynamic standard and an electromagnetic flow meter (EMF). After these improvements, we measured water flows with diverse time dependences during 100 s collection intervals. These flows averaged 12 kg/s however, the flows ramped or stepped up or down 5 kg/s. When integrated over the collection interval, the difference between the dynamic standard and a statically-calibrated EMF was 0.008 % with a standard deviation of 0.012 %. This agreement justifies the further study of the dynamic standard, particularly at higher flows where the mechanical simplicity of a dynamic standard might reduce the cost of accurate measurements.
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Document ID: 8A208DEB

Metroval A Calibration Software With Advanced Uncertainty And Prediction Capabilities Including Complex Numbers
Author(s): Alex Lepek
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the present version of the MetroVal calibration program. The calibration procedure is edited in a simple table. This approach enables non-programmers to prepare calibration procedures. The procedure can call various modules (which can be stand-alone) to calculate uncertainty, do prediction or run the Sequencer and math Evaluator and finally issue the result report. To do automatic measurements and control instruments the Sequencer can call the VISA Dynamic Link Library. The uncertainty module can estimate measurement uncertainties per ISO GUM or by Monte-Carlo simulation directly from the measurement equation. The Prediction module can estimate parameter values and uncertainties of measurement standards due to drifts from their past calibrations. The combination of prediction with uncertainty enables the use in real time of the predicted values of the of measurement standards as components in the uncertainty budget. MetroVal modules can deal with complex numbers. The program complies with relevant international standards and recommendations such as ISO/IEC 17025, ISO GUM (and supplement 1 draft describing Monte-Carlo method), the use of BMC, ILAC G8 document for compliance with specification and ILAC G24/OIML D 10 for recalibration intervals
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Document ID: 4AB1A240

A Review Of The Cipm International Key Comparisons For Flow
Author(s): John D. Wright
Abstract/Introduction:
Ensure world-wide uniformity of measurements and their traceability to the International System of Units Reduce technical barriers to trade Improve flow measurement standards and reduce biases between National Metrology Institutes (and secondary labs)
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Document ID: B4940A06

Lower Uncertainty (0.015 % To 0.025 %) Of Nists Standards For Gas Flows From 0.01 To 2000 Standard Liters / Minute
Author(s): John D. Wright, Aaron N. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
NIST has reduced the uncertainty of its 34 L and 677 L Pressure-Volume-Temperaturetime (PVTt) primary flow standards from 0.05 % to 0.025 % (k 2) for air flow in the range from 0.01 slm* to 2000 slm. Over the restricted range from 0.1 slm to 1000 slm, the uncertainty was reduced to 0.015 %. The reductions in uncertainty were primarily the result of accurately accounting for the water vapor present in the flowing air. Additional uncertainty reductions result from improved measurements of the pressure and of the collection tank volumes. The latter two improvements slightly reduced flow uncertainties for dry gases (e.g., N2, Ar, He, and CO2) from 0.03 % to 0.025 % in the wider range.
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Document ID: A894820B

Federal Technology Transfer Resources For The Metrology Lab
Author(s): Mark Kaufman, Tracie Griffin
Abstract/Introduction:
The technical and laboratory facilities and the technologies owned by the Federal government represent a huge investment. It is Congresss intent, as codified by law, to get the most effective return on this investment. This return consists of not only the use of those facilities and technology by the Federal government, but the use of those facilities and technology by industry, educational institutions, and other governments.
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Document ID: 74E7D8E8

Measuring And Certifying Phase Noise Performance Of A Low-Noise Rf Source
Author(s): Paul Roberts
Abstract/Introduction:
A low phase noise version of a new signal source instrument has been developed specifically for RF and Microwave calibration applications. In addition to developing the signal source itself, it was necessary to implement a solution for phase noise measurement which could be easily and cost effectively integrated into existing factory and service center calibration systems. Performing measurements to evaluate the performance achieved against aggressive target specifications during design development and also to routinely test and certify product performance in manufacturing and service presented a variety of technical challenges. This paper outlines the measurement techniques employed and the steps taken to confirm and validate the results obtained.
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Document ID: 5ACAE4B5

Exploring And Understanding Error Sources In High Accuracy Ac Measurements
Author(s): Paul Roberts
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past the choice of instruments for making high accuracy AC measurements was limited to traditional laboratory type thermal transfer standards, but nowadays there are a variety of deceptively easy to use measuring instruments ranging from precision Dmms to alternating voltage measurement standards that offer high resolution high accuracy measurement capability. Unexpected measurement results and differences are often encountered because users are unaware of the impact of lead effects and other configuration related factors that these instruments are capable of revealing. This paper explores a number of the error sources and effects responsible, enabling users to rationalizing differences perceived with variety of source and measuring instruments.
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Document ID: 42EB7421

Become A Metrology Ambassador - 164 Education Liaison & Outreach Interactive Session
Author(s): Elizabeth J. Gentry,Chris Grachanen
Abstract/Introduction:
The 164 Education Liaison and Outreach Committee will host an interactive session where participants will learn about becoming a Metrology Ambassador. But what is a Metrology Ambassador? A Metrology Ambassador is a measurement scientist that volunteers in their community to educate students, parents, educators, and others about basic measurement science principles and a career in Metrology
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Document ID: 95C0ECA2

Calibration Interval Interpreted Within Reliability Centered Calibration
Author(s): Ding Huang
Abstract/Introduction:
The Reliability Centered Calibration (RCC) methodology is a newly developed statistical methodology for computing calibration intervals. It is inspired by the scheduled maintenance interval concept of the Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) discipline
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Document ID: 30CBA865

Calibration Of Sugar In Soft Drinks Using Electrical Conductance And Density Measurement Techniques
Author(s): Mohammad Amin,Pradip Peter Dey,Khadija Amin
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this project was to determine the sugar contents of various soft drinks using density and electrical conductance measurements. The background research indicates that soft drinks have many components that can contribute to electrical conductance, most importantly sugar and sugar substitutes (splenda). An initial investigation was carried out on various soft drinks and bottled water at different concentrations of sugar and sucralose. The electrical conductivity of tap water was measured to compare with bottled water. The experimental results for soft drinks and water were found to be consistent except for a few unanswered questions.
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Document ID: 3A2206FB

Discrete Ray Modeling For Ultrasonic Flowmeters
Author(s): Fuzhang Zhao,Thomas O. Maginnis
Abstract/Introduction:
Methods for modeling sound propagation in moving inhomogeneous media have been reviewed. The kinematic ray formulations are very effective for modeling ultrasonic transit-time flowmeters. We have derived the generalized refraction law for ray transmission from a stationary medium into an arbitrarily moving medium in two dimensions based on the Fermat principle. For nonflat flow profiles, the results obtained by the ray model can be compensated with the flow profile correction factor. In order to study the effects of non-flat flow profiles and temperature gradients on elastic waves, the discrete ray method has been developed and implemented with the MATLAB code.
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Document ID: F8DDC0C3

Improving Measurements Uncertainty For Large Laser Attenuators
Author(s): Shen Zhu,Timothy Adcock
Abstract/Introduction:
A laser attenuator with large surface area is measured. The laser attenuator module used on an electro-optic test system has a nominal 140 mm diameter surface, which is mounted in a nominal 400 mm tube. By using a 5-demensional translation stage, the attenuation distribution of the attenuator module was determined along every 45 degree axis. Two measurement methods, singledetector and dual-detectors, were used. The uncertainty for the first method is almost 50% higher than the uncertainty from the second method.
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Document ID: 1D4805C9

Ultra Low Flow Fast Primary Gas Prover
Author(s): Harvey Padden
Abstract/Introduction:
Traditionally, constant-pressure gas provers have been used in the range of 5 sccm to 50 slm. Our recent work with viscous-sealed provers has extended the range upward to 500 slm. However, there has been a growing demand for primary standards in the sub - 1 sccm range. We have built prototype provers designed for flows of approximately 0.1 to 20 sccm. Using a quartz tube and piston of 2.5 mm diameter and 5 micron diametric difference, we are initially experimenting with a measured piston path of 5 cm. This will allow 1 sccm flows to be measured in approximately 21 seconds
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Document ID: E65F061B

Geometry Of Irregular Particles: Direct 3-D Measures By Surface Scans And Ct Imaging.
Author(s): Michael A. Taylor
Abstract/Introduction:
Until recently the geometry of irregular particles has been difficult or impossible to measure. The paper describes two relatively new devices and techniques that now permit 3-d geometry to be measured directly. Scores of rocks from the construction industry were scanned and their volume and surface areas calculated. From this data many other characteristics of interest may be computed: examples presented here include density and some candidates for shape characterization.
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Document ID: C74E5295

A New Ultra-Low-Cost Power Quality And Energy Measurement Technology
Author(s): Andreas Eberhard
Abstract/Introduction:
Power Quality Disturbances 2. Intro into IEC 61000-4-30 Class A 3. Affect on Power Quality Instruments 4. A new Technology
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Document ID: C41D2CCD

About The Challenge Of Calibration And Standardization Of Ultraviolet Uv() Photometric Analyzers
Author(s): Andreas Mueller-Blecking, Jeff Lukas
Abstract/Introduction:
During the past two decades, ultraviolet (UV) photometric analyzers have become essential tools for process analysis and product quality assurance in various industries - significant and foremost in the heavily regulated biopharmaceutical industry, where real-time process UV measurements control its drug-making processes
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Document ID: 4F32DCF5

Tunable Broadband Spectrum System For Bio-Chemical Agent Detection Test And Simulation
Author(s): Lance S. Doddridge
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents the theory and development of a tunable light emitting diode (LED) system, designed for bio-chemical test applications. The tunable LED test system is designed to specifically test the spectral responsivity of the photomultiplier tubes used in bio-chemical agent detection systems, which are subjected to continual ultraviolet irradiance for long periods at a time.
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Document ID: 70A817E4

Fit-For-Purpose Measurement Software
Author(s): Graeme Parkin,Robin Barker
Abstract/Introduction:
A guide has been developed to show what techniques should be used to develop fit-forpurpose software aimed at both users and suppliers. This guide Software Support for Metrology Best Practice Guide 1, Validation of Software in Measurement Systems (BPG1) 1 is beginning to be used to help to show that software is fit-for-purpose. The guide uses a risk based approach to select what techniques should be used and indicates how these can be audited.
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Document ID: 96B70588

Web-Assisted Management Of Test- And Measuring Equipment
Author(s): Peter Jager
Abstract/Introduction:
According to EN ISO 9001, any organization or company shall establish processes to ensure that measuring equipment shall be calibrated and/or verified, or both, at specified intervals, or prior to use, against measurement standards traceable to international or national measurement standards where no such standards exists
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Document ID: 416EA821

International Military Metrology Cooperation
Author(s): Gerhard Mihm
Abstract/Introduction:
NATO military services face new challenges. Costs of modern weapon systems are rising not only for procurement but also for maintenance. The amount of identical equipment is decreasing while the number of different types of equipment is increasing. Costs of services needed are screened very carefully and every method is taken to reduce these costs to an absolute minimum. The word spreads Industry is doing it better and at a lower price than internal resources. So conventional military services face two different challenges: the experience needed to
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Document ID: 0908DAB5

How To Develop Fit-For-Purpose Spreadsheet Applications
Author(s): Robin Barker,Graeme Parkin
Abstract/Introduction:
Spreadsheets are widely used by scientists and engineers because of their ease of use for the analysis and presentation of results. However, spreadsheets errors are both common and often very difficult to detect. In addition, there are the inherent errors built into the most widely used spreadsheets, which can result in strange computation errors. NPLs own experience over many years is that the most effective antidote is to treat the development of spreadsheet applications as a software development project. We describe how scientists and engineers can develop advanced spreadsheet applications that are fit-for-purpose.
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Document ID: 0409BAB1

A New International Guide For Software Measurement
Author(s): Graeme Parkin, Norbert Greif
Abstract/Introduction:
Software is an intrinsic part of measurement. It is used in instruments to control experiments, store and process measurement data, analyse and display results and to implement many mathematical techniques. Some innovations in measurement have been enabled through the use of software for simulations or complex analysis. For example the international temperature scale ITS90 requires the processing of high order polynomials and can only be implemented using software. Given this reliance, improvements in the quality of software and reduced cost of its development are vital to the effective delivery of metrology
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Document ID: 7E005B2C

Gaining Knowledge In Measurement As A Critical Prerequisite For Maintenance Activities
Author(s): Msc. Mladen Jakovcic,MSc. Vinja Galjevic
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurements are part of many everyday activities. They have pushed their way into many professions, traditionally not connected with it. One of those is maintenance where measurements can be a part of: servicing measurements devices that are part of physical assets, diagnostic of malfunctions or errors, post maintenance testing, validation processes,
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Document ID: 5B37F2C4

Prospective Study Of The Effectiveness Of Thermal Imaging In The Diagnosis Of Arthritis
Author(s): Shay Edwards
Abstract/Introduction:
The objective of this study is to see if a radiometric thermal imager can detect preclinical stages of arthritis in a quick and noninvasive method.
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Document ID: E0A00EBF

Continuous Process Improvement In A Quality Calibration Program
Author(s): Jay L. Bucher
Abstract/Introduction:
Nobody is ignorant enough to believe that any quality calibration program is perfect. Quite the opposite is true. Many individuals of higher intellect, training, and knowledge have come before and put together great systems and programs for calibration. But they have never written them down for others to emulate, evaluate, or improve upon. This is indeed a travesty. A quality calibration program needs to be put in writing so that others can copy and improve upon it. And the optimum words here are improve upon . . . continuously!
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Document ID: AADB72BD

Ftir Spectral Calibration Of Blackbodies
Author(s): Todd Uzzell
Abstract/Introduction:
The Navy Primary Standards Laboratory (NPSL) is implementing a measurement system to achieve high accuracy spectral calibration of blackbody sources with traceability to the SI unit of spectral radiance through the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The purpose of the system is to provide enhanced high-accuracy primary standards at various required temperatures over a spectral range for military systems that include Forward-Looking Infrared (FLIR) and radiation missile guidance systems that require non-contact temperature calibration support
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Document ID: 503084E0

Metrology For A Competitive Advantage
Author(s): Rick Rios,John Brandon
Abstract/Introduction:
Metrology impacts the entire Product Life Cycle (PLC). From R&D to Product Shipment, Metrology systems and their data are being used to: establish product specifications determine if the results of a specific measurement conform to stated specifications and customer requirements monitor environmental, safety and health parameters report results in external publications inspect products and services establish data used for marketing purposes verify and validate processes and products
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Document ID: B5DD0E5E

Pressure Ror Gas Flow Measurement: When Is The Fill Isothermal?
Author(s): Thomas O. Maginnis
Abstract/Introduction:
The rate of rise of gas pressure in a vacuum tank of known volume has been used to measure the steady flow of gas into the tank. An equation of state for the gas is required to relate gas pressure, tank volume, fill time and gas temperature to the mass of gas collected in the tank. Normally the ideal gas equation (or a simple correction) is used for this purpose. The difficulty of accurately measuring the real-time temperature of a low pressure gas during the fill process has caused much confusion. Many practitioners simply measure the tank wall temperature and assume that it is always equal to the gas temperature. This is certainly not correct when adiabatic compression causes the gas to heat up during the fill, and thermal conduction to the wall makes the gas temperature time dependent and spatially non-uniform. However, the ROR technique appears empirically to work well at sufficiently low gas pressures, for some gases better than others. This gas dependence has until now not been theoretically modeled. This paper will examine the basic physics of the ROR flow measurement process and derive pressure and flow restrictions required for the fill to take place isothermally, as a function of the gas properties
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Document ID: C620ED30

Calibration Of Nonlinear Laminar Flow Elements For Multigas Applications
Author(s): Chiun Wang,
Abstract/Introduction:
Laminar flow elements are frequently used in flow measurement devices either as flow splitters or to establish the pressure drop required for flow metering. All laminar flow elements suffer from the entrance effect to a certain extent, rendering the pressure versus flow relationship nonlinear. The non-linearity is sensitive to even minor differences in the entrance geometry, which is susceptible to the manufacturing tolerance. Attempts to model the nonlinear laminar-flow elements for high accuracy applications by scaling the calibration curve in native variables or to construct a universal function for the pressure-flow relationship have only seen limited success. This paper presents a method to extract the pressure-flow relationship in dimensionless variables and to derive the multi-gas model using similarity theory. Without resorting to any explicit functional forms, the method allows the flow meter to accurately predict the flow rate of any process gas once it is calibrated by using a single inert gas.
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Document ID: 792EFA02

Managing Your Metrology As A Business To Meet And Exceed Customer And Compliance Requirements
Author(s): Jake. A. Jacanin
Abstract/Introduction:
With budgets to keep and customers to satisfy some of the best run metrology operations manage the department as a business, instead of just another department in the larger corporation. Using approaches common to the business owner can encourage more disciplined decision-making about costs, greater focus on customer satisfaction and drive a balance between these needs and the industry and corporate compliance requirements
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Document ID: 0564DB41

Learning And Development: Strategic Roadmap Updates
Author(s): Georgia L. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides updates on the Metrology Education and Training Strategic Roadmap. This paper highlights new efforts and partnerships for 2009. The Roadmap was originally developed in 2005 as an effort to address widening gaps in available education and training resources and adequate numbers of trained metrology professionals to meet government and industry needs.
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Document ID: 7044AFD9

An Automated High Precision Saturation / Dilution Calibration System For Trace Moisture Sensors
Author(s): Daryl Belock
Abstract/Introduction:
The paper discusses the physical construction and operating principles of this saturation / dilution type calibration system for water vapor in a nitrogen carrier gas used for the purpose of trace moisture sensor calibration. The system generates known moisture standards, allows for settling time, takes readings from sensors, records sensor readings and creates data tables.
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Document ID: FDEA958E

Vanguard For Change: Leadership And Determinants Of Organizational Effectiveness For National Measurement Institutes
Author(s): Charles A. Motzko
Abstract/Introduction:
This report presents findings based on the research data from a doctorial dissertation, makes recommendations for leadership, suggests areas for future research, and proposes some conclusions based on the data. The rationalization for this subject and methodology is contained in a prophetic comment made by the British scientist Lord William Thomson Kelvin (1824- 1907) to the Institution of Civil Engineers, on May 3, 1883. Lord Kelvin argued that knowledge and science are based on measurements, usually expressed as numbers. Lord Kelvins argument centers on the ability to succinctly express ones thoughts, one must be able to quantify the knowledge. Without numbers, knowledge is lacking substance.
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Document ID: CF80396D

A New Method For Measuring The Surface Energy Of Solids
Author(s): Alan E. Scrivner,Craig Macdougall
Abstract/Introduction:
Although the surface tension of liquids has been understood and measured since the time of Young and Laplace, the surface energy of solids has proven to be difficult to understand and measure despite its wide applicability in manufacturing and production processes. Furthermore, current methods for measuring surface energy are complex, require costly equipment, and often use toxic substances. A new technique is reported that depends on the fracture characteristics of thin adhesive films. Based upon the authors prototype, this technique should lend itself to the development of a surface energy measurement device that will be inexpensive to manufacture, easily portable for field applications, and uses no toxic materials. The theory and implementation of this technique will be discussed as well as some metrology related issues.
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Document ID: 3A4D991A

Interaction Of Water Vapor With Hydrogen And Oxygen: A Critical Review For Humidity Measurement
Author(s): Peter H. Huang
Abstract/Introduction:
Recent theoretical work has produced quantitatively accurate potential-energy surfaces for water vapor with common gases. These pair potentials have been used to calculate second interaction virial coefficients for water-hydrogen and water-oxygen mixtures with an accuracy superior to that obtained by most experiments. The results are in agreement iwht the existing experimental data, but they cover a wider range of temperature. These results have been used for new humidity standards, which has greatly facilitated the calibration of hygrometers for industrial applications.
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Document ID: BF6FE21A

Calibration Intervals, A Manufacturers Perspective
Author(s): David Deaver
Abstract/Introduction:
The analysis tools that are currently available for Calibration Intervals focus on setting intervals to achieve a desired reliability target. This paper suggests there is another perspective that these tools do not currently address consequence cost or accumulated liability. A case is made that sometimes the reliability target is a secondary consideration to managing this consequence cost. The paper also addresses how manufacturers establish calibration intervals. The paper presents, and defends, the practice of using no analysis whatsoever in establishing the manufacturers recommended calibration interval
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Document ID: 295B110E

Helpful Extensions To The Kragten Spreadsheet For Uncertainty Analysis Of Measurement Equations
Author(s): Dennis Jackson
Abstract/Introduction:
The estimation of the combined standard uncertainty for measurement equations can be done using the Kragten spreadsheet. The advantage of this approach is that it has a simple layout that performs the required measurement equation derivatives numerically without the user needing to derive the derivatives analytically. A possible disadvantage of this approach is that the numerical differentiation implemented by the Kragten spreadsheet is somewhat low in accuracy
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Document ID: 7E885125


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