Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (2009)

2009 AGA Operations Conference & Exhibition
Author(s): Lee Reynolds
Abstract/Introduction:
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Document ID: C0EA2D69

Revitalize Your LNG Asset(s) - Make Vehicle Fuel Grade LNG
Author(s): Chris Hosford
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[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 12891961

Nisource Gas Control Crm Presentation
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Document ID: 76CC3A25

Electronic Distribution Of User Manuals
Author(s): Diane Dougherty
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[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: B1D9A57A

Natural Gas Utilities In A Carbon-Constrained World - A Vision Of The Future
Author(s): Roger B. Cooper
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[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 7C2E4452

Comprehensive Risk Model For Distribution Integrity Management
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Document ID: 1ACA4633

Atmos Energy Dimp Data Acquisition
Author(s): Troy Paige
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[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 0AE2422C

Improved Meter-Factor Corrections For Turbine And Vortex Shedding Flow Meters
Author(s): G. E. Mattingly
Abstract/Introduction:
Increasingly, in todays world, flow meters are being used over extremely wide ranges of conditions, not only temperature and pressure, but also fluids, viscosities, and densities. Such ranges make it impossible to calibrate a meter for all of these conditions. Therefore, after any calibration, meters should be characterized using dimensionless parameters. Dimensionless characterizations of flow meter performance, when done appropriately, are superior to dimensional characterizations since they more completely encapsulate the salient physical phenomena that affect meter performance. However, such dimensionless parameters that are based on specific, selected characteristic quantities, i.e., length scales, velocities, fluid properties, and meter outputs, are not unique and therefore beg the question: Which parameters are best? Furthermore, while conventional dimensionless characterizations have generally produced satisfactory performance predictions when the conditions are not very different from those of the calibration, these characterizations can break down when usage conditions are very different and especially where the internal meter components have different materials with different thermal expansion coefficients. In such cases, there are three options: 1) try different selections of the dimensionless parameters, using the same characteristic quantities 2) look for different, more appropriate choices for the characteristic quantities, using the same dimensionless parameters 3) attempt a characterization using one or more additional dimensionless parameters.
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Document ID: ECAF1CB6

The Impact Of The Mechanical Coupling Replacement Legislation On A Distribution System
Author(s): Jerry V. Gann
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Document ID: A6B9001E

American Gas Association 2009 Operations Conference
Author(s): Gary W. Wojcik
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[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: BAE406C3

Test Watchdog Inter-Laboratory Comparison Test
Author(s): Wayne Haner, Paul Tang Terasen, Terrence A. Grimley, Edgar B. Bowles, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement agreement between the participating gas flow meter calibration laboratories has been evaluated as part of a voluntary quality assessment effort between the collaborating test facilities. Terasen Measurement (TM), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and TransCanada Pipeline (TCPL) have initiated the TeST program as a quality effort between the facilities. The TeST watchdog artifact used for the inter-lab comparison was a tandem meter package consisting of two 8-inch diameter Instromet SMRI turbine meters, and associated piping with CPA 50E flow conditioners. The first round of an ongoing, periodic inter-lab test comparison has been completed. The test results are reported herein. The test results show close agreement between the participating laboratories, and confirm the stated measurement uncertainty estimates for the individual facilities.
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Document ID: 035D5C37

Performance Testing Of Pe Pipe To Address Operator Needs & Concerns
Author(s): Angelo Fabiano
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Document ID: 5CE770B7

Understanding The Behavior Of Pcbs In Natural Gas Systems
Author(s): John P. Woodyard
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Document ID: E973B100

Engineering And Operating Standards
Author(s): Steven Himmelfarb
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Document ID: C0DCE355

Gas Controller Training
Author(s): Bill White
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Document ID: BF0DD93C

Large Diameter Gas Distribution Mains A North American Case Study Of 18 And 20 Diameter Main Installations
Author(s): Karen S. Lively
Abstract/Introduction:
Over 97 percent of all of the new gas distribution piping installed each year is polyethylene pipe. However, the installation of larger diameter polyethylene pipe gas pipe mains has not kept pace with the use of polyethylene in other industries. Using two case studies of 20 diameter and 18 diameter new installations, this presentation explores why polyethylene pipe was chosen for these applications. The information presented provides guidance for other utilities to consider large diameter polyethylene pipes.
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Document ID: 1CB4E04B

Distribution Capital Allocation And Prioritization At Nisource
Author(s): Brian Schenk, Charles Crews
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Document ID: CF9106DD

Ensuring The Role Of Natural Gas Utilities In The New Energy Economy
Author(s): Paula A. Gant
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Document ID: 279A855B

Background And Practical Application Of The Prci Multi Run Uncertainty Calculator
Author(s): Rick Rans
Abstract/Introduction:
The output results of uncertainty tools are dependant on the design basis of the tool and the error estimates it requires. During the literature search and multi-run uncertainty derivation phase of the tool development, word association became a major challenge. Random, systematic, quadrature, root mean square, correlated, uncorrelated, maximum permissible error, maximum probable error, bias, bias correction factor, etc. would pop up in the discussion. Each team member had their favorite way of describing uncertainty (error estimates) and a simple way of dealing with them. Using the GUM1, which is an international ISO/ANSI standard for the calculation of uncertainty, the team had to work through the terminology and tool requirements. After a discussion of key issues and assumptions, the PRCI Multi Run Uncertainty Calculator will be used to calculate the four uncertainty estimates: a three run orifice meter station and a three run turbine meter station, both with and with-out a gas chromatograph.
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Document ID: BFF00C28

Sequestration Program Overview
Author(s): Bob Kleinmann
Abstract/Introduction:
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Document ID: A26A2354

Interchageability Of Biogas - Assessment For End Use
Author(s): Rosemarie Halchuk
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[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 440FBFA8

Natural Gas Utility In A Carbon Constrained World - A Vision Of The Future
Author(s): Jack Lewnard, Edward Johnston
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Document ID: 26AD2A66

Distribution Integrity Management Update
Author(s): Victoria Plotkin, Andrew Lu
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Document ID: FD300940

Carbon Footprint Calculator
Author(s): Neil P. Leslie
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Document ID: 89A63746

Effect Of Orifice Plate Manufacturing Variations On Orifice Meter Performance
Author(s): Marybeth Nored
Abstract/Introduction:
In 2004, the Gas Technology Institute and the American Petroleum Institute (API) sponsored research at Southwest Research Institute to gather a new set of low pressure orifice meter data to support the orifice plate expansion factor research1. The results of this exploratory study were used to justify the equation for the expansion factor in the orifice meter standard, AGA Report No. 3, Part 1, also known as API MPMS Chapter 14.3, Part 1 (Reference 3). One requirement for the expansion factor research stipulated by the API Chapter 14.3, Part 1 Working Group was that Cd values measured under baseline (reference) conditions should fall within the 95% confidence limit for the Reader-Harris/Gallagher (RG) equation for the data to be used in the research. Surprisingly, during the 2004 research the measured discharge coefficient for several orifice plates was found to lie outside the confidence interval of the RG equation. This effect could produce a flow metering error for the orifice meter if the same orifice plate was used to measure flow with the RG regression equation. The cause of the orifice metering error was traced to physical variations in the plates themselves (predominately the sharpness of the leading bore edge). The plates in question were returned to the manufacturer, who tested them in a water flow and concurred with SwRIs findings.
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Document ID: 412201F6

Fundamentals Of Conducting Substandard Material Investigations Failure( Analysis)
Author(s): Gregory S. Efthemes
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Document ID: 8CE6AE98

The Cooldown Gap
Author(s): Jeff Beale
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Document ID: 6E8C0826

Carbon Dioxide Corrosion Management In Underground Storage
Author(s): Neil Anderson
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[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 05A04F49

New Tools Can Reduce Injuries And Improve Safety In Gas Distribution Field Operations... Including The Jackhammer Lift Assist
Author(s): Bruce Campbell, Steve Guthrie
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[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 7AEBC523

The Use Of Deep Well Anode Systems For Gas Well Casing Cathodic Protection
Author(s): Matt Matlas
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will cover the use of deep well anode systems to provide cathodic protection to gas well casings to prevent corrosion of the external casing. The discussion will cover the historical background of gas well casings and cathodic protection, the design criteria used to determine the current requirements and anode configuration, and the case history of the Sprayberry Field in west Texas where more than 1,300 deep well anode systems have been installed in the past five years to reduce casing failures, extend the life of the existing wells and ensure the reliability of new wells.
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Document ID: A35AA761

Status Of Plastic Piping Data Collection Project
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: DA433083

PG&Es Gas Efficiency Programs
Author(s): Duane Larson
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Document ID: 9D9742E5

Dynamics Of Pig Motion In Gas Pipelines
Author(s): K.K. Botros, H. Golshan
Abstract/Introduction:
Movements of pigs in gas pipelines are subject to more stringent parameters than that in liquid pipelines, predominantly due to the compressibility of gas. This is accentuated when the pig has to negotiate an upward inclination in the section of the pipeline, where the gravity force due to its weight can compromise the driving pressure drop across it. This could lead to the pig getting stuck in the line at certain condition, and cause interruption to the operation of the system. On a downward slope, a pig can accelerate to a velocity higher than the maximum required for the proper operation the instrumentation (which is typically around 5 m/s). The ability to accurately predict the functional performance of pigs is vital in the design and operation of pipelines and their associated pigging programs. Models and tools have been developed over the past several years based on a combination of mechanistic, correlation and phenomenological approaches.
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Document ID: E0783939

What Tools Are Available To Help Maintain A Code Compliant Maop For A Highly Complex And Changing Gas Pipeline System?
Author(s): Larry C. Decker
Abstract/Introduction:
Companies that operate large and complex gas pipeline systems face the difficult task of maintaining those assets while complying with code and continuing to operate. Continuous system additions and changes, implemented by diverse groups across the company, result in tedious data driven studies to ensure that operating pressure strictly complies with code. This document presents a model and an approach that utilizes Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data to accurately and efficiently calculate a code-compliant Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP), for systems that have thousands of miles of wide-ranging pipe segments and components.
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Document ID: 7A8EE117

Stitching Together Disparate Data Systems To Create A Single Version Of The Truth
Author(s): Jim Mlachnik
Abstract/Introduction:
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Document ID: 6855BD2F

Going Behind The Meter Educating Consumers About The Value Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Tom Moskitis
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[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: D774D35B

Examination Of Ultrasonic Flow Meter In CO2-Rich Applications
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
Exploration of less conventional natural gas sources will lead to more diverse operating conditions and compositions for natural gas measurement. One significant challenge is increased levels of CO2 in the gas. While standard applications deal with levels well below 5 mole percent, this amount may be as high as 20 mole percent, or even higher at some installations. Additionally there are some applications where CO2 is the major gas component. Re-injection of CO2 into declining oilfields will require accurate and reliable flow measurement. Such applications contain up to 60% CO2 and require an accuracy level comparable to custody transfer for natural gas. While the flow measurement is currently being done primarily using Ap devices, such as orifice meters, it would be a significant improvement to use ultrasonic meters with their increased functionality, larger turndown ratio reduced maintenance, and diagnostic capabilities. Applications such as CCS (Carbon capture and storage) with CO2 concentrations near 100% are even feasible today.
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Document ID: E0C4C409

Damage Prevention - Using Trenchless Technology
Author(s): Christine Maynard
Abstract/Introduction:
NiSource, Inc. is a Fortune 500 company engaged in natural gas transmission, storage, and distribution, as well as electric generation, transmission and distribution. NiSource operating companies deliver energy to 3.8 million customers located within the high-demand energy corridor stretching from the Gulf Coast through the Midwest to New England. NiSource Distribution Operations has natural gas distribution facilities in seven (7) states including Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, Ohio, Pennsylvania, & Virginia. 2
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Document ID: EC0BFC9C

Clamp-On Ultrasonic Meters As Diagnostic Tools
Author(s): Terrence A. Grimley
Abstract/Introduction:
Clamp-on ultrasonic flow meters are attractive to the gas industry because they are capable of providing portable, non-invasive gas flow measurement. This paper describes the results of a Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) funded project that addressed the ability of a clamp-on ultrasonic meter (CUSM) to measure distorted flow profiles. The test approach was to traverse a single ultrasonic transducer pair around the perimeter of the pipe in sufficiently small increments to measure the flow field at a given pipe cross section independent of the amount of flow distortion present. Detailed profile measurements at the same locations were also made with a wedge probe. The intent of this testing was to determine the accuracy with which CUSM measurements, performed with sufficient spatial fidelity, can be used to provide a reference flow rate for in-situ meter proving.
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Document ID: CD2F7A5B

Introduction To Inventory Assessment In Underground Gas Storage Reservoirs
Author(s): Ken Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: F9918A6E

Council For Responsible Energy
Author(s): Donna N. Peeples
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Document ID: C23B2EF2

Distribution Integrity Management For Plastic Gas Pipelines
Author(s): K. Oliphant
Abstract/Introduction:
The objective of a Distribution Integrity Management Program (DIMP) is to manage the integrity of our gas distribution systems. DIMP does this through applying structure to our knowledge to enable us to make a risk evaluation of the distribution system. This in turn enables us to plan and prioritize our integrity management programs. One of the challenges in DIMP is that we never have perfect knowledge to input into this process. We also do not have the resources to collect perfect knowledge. Knowledge Management, therefore, plays a critical role in DIMP. What do we need to know? What can we know? How can we cost effectively obtain the knowledge we need? How can we optimize the usefulness of what we already know? A successful DIMP program assists us in addressing these questions in an iterative fashion: we collect the knowledge available, make our preliminary assessments, identify the knowledge gaps and then prioritize those areas where we need to close the knowledge gap. This new knowledge then feeds back into the DIMP process to help us refine our assessments and further prioritize our knowledge gaps. With a well structured Knowledge Management approach we are able, through this process, to continue to build our knowledge in a targeted and cost effective manner. This, in turn, enables us to better manage our pipelines.
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Document ID: 198CD1DC

Ensuring Long Term Gas Distribution System Integrity By Performing Testing And Failure Analysis Of Materials
Author(s): Parashar Sheth
Abstract/Introduction:
Ensuring long term gas distribution system integrity requires a thorough evaluation and testing of new materials and failure analysis of materials to prevent premature and repetitive failures in-service. This paper emphasize the importance of owning an utility testing laboratory and engaging field installers in testing, failure analysis and implementation of corrective actions to prevent recurrence. Author would like to share common installation errors and manufacturing defects and how to prevent them. Most Gas Distribution Companies have a very robust in-house program to ensure their system integrity. One of the elements of this program is to conduct an independent evaluation of long term performance of new and existing materials used on their systems. To perform this analysis objectively, it is extremely important that the personnel involved in this effort have very thorough knowledge. The personnel must have familiarity with the gas system environment, operation, applications, system history, regulations and industry standards. Engaging company personnel and establishing a small in-house basic testing facility for new material and failure analysis provides a tremendous value in building high performance culture specific to materials and standards.
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Document ID: 74B370AC

Knowledge Transfer - The Education Of A New Workforce
Author(s): David J. Mccarthy
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 562EDE18

Ultrasonic Meter Condition Based Monitoring - A Fully Automated Solution
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
During the past several years the use of ultrasonic meters (USMs) has gained world-wide acceptance for fiscal applications. The many benefits of USMs have been documented in papers at virtually every major conference. As the cost of gas continues to increase, the significance of knowing that the ultrasonic meter is operating accurately has never been more important. The use of diagnostics to help identify metering issues has been discussed in several papers over the past few years Ref 1, 2 & 12. The traditional method of verifying whether the USM is operating accurately essentially requires using the USMs diagnostic information to help understand the meters health. This has often been referred to as Conditioned Based Maintenance, or CBM for short. Different USM meter designs require different analysis techniques, especially for the velocity profile analysis. For the field technician, it is often difficult to understand all the diagnostic features of each USM meter design. Through the years software has been developed to help determine if the meter is operating correctly or not. However, it is still very difficult to clearly define limits on some of the diagnostic parameters that translate into a quantifiable metering error. This paper will discuss two methods of providing a fully redundant self diagnosing meter. The first is a new CBM concept to assist in determining if the fiscal 4-path USM meter is operating accurately. Rather than relying entirely on the understanding and interpretation of the meters diagnostics, a meter designed with an additional built-in diagnostic path, has been developed. In this paper the meter design will be referred to as the CBM 2Plex 4+1 meter.
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Document ID: 8D317B30

Measurement Of Moisture And Carbon Dioxide In LNG
Author(s): Sam Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: D99084A1

Naturally Green Natural Gas Program
Author(s): Jim Ranfone
Abstract/Introduction:
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Document ID: F5118948

Recognizing Signs Of Fatigue
Abstract/Introduction:
Fatigue is an impairment of mental and physical function with a cluster of debilitating symptoms, including: - excessive sleepiness, - reduced physical and mental performance ability, - depressed mood and loss of motivation.
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Document ID: FF45F50A

The Business Case For A Remote Disconnect Meter
Author(s): Tal R. Centers, Jr.
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Document ID: 6D401069

The Green Building Initiative Gbi()
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Document ID: 3A1033CE

Introduction To Todays U.S. And Canadian Gas Efficiency Programs
Author(s): Marc Hoffman
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Document ID: 7E90DF09

Knowledge Transfer Training Tomorrows Workforce
Author(s): Paul D. Puckett
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Document ID: 1AE57CA4

Sewer Lateral Investigation Program Slip()
Author(s): Jerry Schmitz
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Document ID: 7F6BC055

AGA 4a (2009) Update - AGA Operations Conference
Author(s): Henry W. Poellnitz
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Document ID: E3D6F10C

Distribution Integrity Management Data Preparation & Conversion
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Document ID: 02FF43BE

Cross Bore Susceptibility Assessment Overview
Author(s): Jason Samara
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Document ID: 6C42069D

Commercialization And Further Development Of An Inferential Energy Meter
Author(s): Darin L. George, James N. Witte
Abstract/Introduction:
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Document ID: F24880BD

Pipeline Quality Biomethane From Dairy Waste: Guidance Document
Author(s): Diane L. Saber
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Document ID: 1277919B

Comprehensive Validation For The Use Of Polyamide 12 (PA12) For High Pressure Gas Distribution Applications Performance( Testing And Field Evaluations)
Author(s): Hitesh Patadia, George Ragula, John Kasinski, Andreas Dowe
Abstract/Introduction:
Since 2004, Evonik-Degussa, in conjunction with the Operations Technology Development (OTD) and other PA12 resin suppliers, have supported comprehensive research aimed at establishing the technical feasibility and validating the use of the Polyamide 12 (PA12) piping systems for high pressure gas distribution applications in larger diameters without sacrificing flow capacity considerations. Given its inherent chemical make-up and increased performance properties, the cumulative results of the overall program validate that PA12 piping systems can be safely utilized at operating pressure up to 250 psig and in pipe size up to 6-inch IPS as replacement alternative to metallic piping systems. This paper presents a comprehensive summary of the results from both laboratory testing and field evaluations related to the PA12 piping systems.
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Document ID: 11623B1C

Safety Violations Could Cost You More Than Money- They May Cost You Your Freedom
Author(s): Mark A. Lies II
Abstract/Introduction:
It is no secret that under the Obama Administration businesses can expect to face increased OSHA inspections, resulting in more citations and increased penalties. Businesses should also be aware that heightened enforcement of workplace safety regulations could result in penalties that reach beyond company monetary liability. Criminal sanctions for violations of OSHA standards are not new, however, referrals for prosecution of businesses and individuals where OSHA deems the violation to be willful are expected to rise in the coming the years. This article revisits some recent workplace safety cases that led to criminal charges and discusses the steps that companies, safety managers and supervisors should take to reduce the likelihood of criminal sanctions for workplace safety violations.
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Document ID: 9719B777

Gas Construction Standards At Peco Energy
Author(s): Michael J. Lyons
Abstract/Introduction:
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Document ID: 0E79BF4F

Key Strategies For Developing Distribution Integrity Management Plans
Author(s): Kaye White Walker
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Document ID: 0C2AA284

Utilization Technology Development Utd()
Author(s): Greg Maxfield
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Document ID: 3D542D9B

Green Building Program Update
Author(s): Thomas Schultz
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Document ID: F2D75AA9

Osha Defense 101: Avoiding The Osha Liability Pyramid
Author(s): Mark A. Lies II, Elizabeth Leifel Ash
Abstract/Introduction:
Under the Obama Administration, employers have already seen OSHAs enforcement budget increase. The Democratically-controlled Congress has publicly announced its intention to amend the OSHA law to increase civil and criminal penalties. OSHA representatives have also identified new aggressive inspection strategies directed toward certain hazards or groups of employers. Over the next four to eight years, at least, employer can expect increased enforcement activity from OSHA, including more workplace inspections, more citations issued, higher penalties, and higher severity classifications, even criminal exposure for individual managers. Thus, it is critical for employers to understand their potential exposure for violations of health and safety regulations and to develop enterprise-wide strategies for responding to OSHA inspections and citations. A recent decision from the OSHA Review Commission, the judicial body within OSHA, illustrates the pitfalls of navigating OSHA law and is a clear signal of the trends that will emerge from the agency over the next several years. Sec. of Labor v. E. Smalis Painting Co., slip op., O.S.H.R.C. Docket No. 94-1979 (Apr. 10, 2009) (Smalis). The cumulative impact of a history of citations resulted in an OSHA liability pyramid of multiple citations and millions in penalties. From large-scale construction sites to office buildings and factories, all employers can glean important lessons from Smalis.
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Document ID: C8063D14

Utility-Contractor SAFETY/QUALITY - A Contractors Perspective
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays utility business, contractors perform the largest share of new construction work, replacement work, and sometimes even maintenance work. Contractors and utilities operate under different business models due to the fact that contractors are not directly regulated by pipeline safety regulations and utilities are regulated by Federal & State pipeline safety regulations and rates. This difference in the way business is conducted often relates to how Safety and Quality are viewed and managed by different contractors. Many contractors operate to meet their minimum requirements, and some mirror their Safety and Quality to the utilities regulated requirements in lock-step with the utilities. Many contractors have a culture of minimum compliance, while best value contractors have a culture of discipline and a commitment to personal responsibility.
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Document ID: B8656B58

The Evolution Of Sonic Nozzles In Distribution And Small Transmission Measurement Testing Applications
Author(s): Gregory A. Germ
Abstract/Introduction:
Distribution gas meter testing has evolved over the past twenty years - specifically, the technology and test equipment. For decades, gas meter performance was determined using bell-type proving equipment. Bell-type provers provide the volume standard comparison for testing a wide range of distribution gas meters - from residential to industrial class meters (5000 cfh capacity). A large number of bell-type provers are still employed at distribution gas meter service and repair facilities. Bell-type provers, however, have a number of physical and operational disadvantages that directly effect measurement uncertainty. In addition, the use of bell-type proving equipment increase operating costs, decrease material handling efficiencies, and create local environmental workspace concerns. The Sonic Nozzle Flow Element and its application as a gas measurement device has led to the creation of a more modern gas meter prover, better suited for the common meter shop. Sonic Nozzle Provers have replaced bell-type provers as the primary distribution gas meter test fixture, leading to increased meter testing accuracies and process control. Utility gas meter repair facilities continue to move away from bell-type proving to the sonic nozzle proving of distribution gas meters. This paper will summarize sonic nozzle theory and how its applied to distribution gas measurement. The advancements of sonic nozzle proving technology and additional uses in gas measurement will be discussed, and how these future developments may benefit distribution measurement practices.
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Document ID: EDB5FC30

Benefits Of Injecting CO2 Into Depleted Natural Gas Reservoirs
Author(s): Curtis m. Oldenburg
Abstract/Introduction:
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Document ID: AF6C4DA7

Pa Evolution Of Electric Issues
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Document ID: 7AD3EDED

Quantification Of The Effect Of Dirty Upstream Pipe On Ultrasonic Meter Performance
Author(s): Terrence A. Grimley
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic meters are known to be affected by the buildup of material inside the meter and surrounding pipe due to common pipeline contaminants. The buildup affects the metering accuracy by reducing the flow area sampled by the ultrasonic transducers and by changing the shape of the velocity profile through the creation of additional roughness elements on the pipe wall. For this study, commercially-available multipath ultrasonic flow meters were installed downstream of piping with various levels of simulated dirt buildup with measured surface characteristics. Over the range of buildup described in this paper, there were no significant shifts in the measurement accuracy however, changes in the condition of the upstream pipe were detectable via a ratio of meter path velocities.
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Document ID: 262539E8

Internal Corrosion Mechanisms
Author(s): Keith Bartrip
Abstract/Introduction:
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Document ID: E72A67EC

Control Room Management
Author(s): Control Room Management
Abstract/Introduction:
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Document ID: 16BA57C4

Enhanced Osha Liability For Controlling Employers
Author(s): Mark A. Lies II, Elizabeth Leifel Ash
Abstract/Introduction:
From large-scale construction sites to office buildings and factories, many employers rely on one or more subcontractors to perform any number of specialized functions. In such an arrangement, the employer subcontracting work to another entity often assumes (and the contractual arrangement often directs) that the subcontractor is to retain exclusive responsibility for the safety and health of its own employees while performing the subcontracted work. In a recent decision from the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit, the court unequivocally held that an employer can no longer avoid OSHA liability simply by subcontracting work to another entity. Solis v. Summit Contractors, Inc., F.3d , 2009 WL 465978 (8th Cir. Feb. 26, 2009). With this case validating its ability to cite employers regardless of whether a violation affects the employers own employees, OSHA will undoubtedly increase its focus on work sites, particularly construction sites, where it can cite multiple employers for a single safety or health violation. This decision also increases the potential for criminal liability for multiple employers where an employee is killed at the work site.
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Document ID: 5E7ED84F

Modern Leak Detection Technologies
Author(s): Paul D. Wehnert
Abstract/Introduction:
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Document ID: 20541FA8

Human Factors Analysis Of Pipeline Monitoring And Control Operations
Author(s): Marvin Mccallum
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Document ID: BF547053

Creating The Climate For Change
Author(s): Sue Fleck
Abstract/Introduction:
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Document ID: A129ED40

Smart Notifications For Faster Incident Response
Author(s): Steve Pegram
Abstract/Introduction:
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Document ID: 4D4EDBB3

AGA 2009 Operating Section Proceedings May 19, 2009 Dimp Data Management Where To Start?
Author(s): Richard A. Cornell
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas distribution integrity management program (DIMP) requirements while probably not feasible for manual record keeping should be achievable at a reasonable cost if modern data processing technology is used. The use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) is prevalent in many utilities. GIS lays the groundwork for the know your system part of the regulation. The identification of threats such as leaks and excavation damage can be linked to the facilities through simple geo-coding and association. These are built in features of most GIS products. Some material characteristics are available from legacy systems and can be readily captured going forward. While not as prevalent as stand alone GIS many utilities are linking the GIS to work order systems. Marking work orders can be used to monitor one of the primary threats -- excavation damage in near real time. Leaks also processed through the work order system can be linked and used to determine not only threats from excavation damage but trends in corrosion, weld failures, joints, material and natural forces.
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Document ID: 2950D805

Utility Customer Field Services Sos Summary Of Field Customer Service Metrics
Author(s): Jim Selman
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: E77C1550

AGA - Control Room Management
Author(s): Steven Baroni
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 29F6F2C7

Mobile Work Force Management
Author(s): Jon Huddleston
Abstract/Introduction:
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Document ID: DE9E2151

Dispatch Operations And Nontraditional Shifts Surveys
Author(s): Lance Rainge
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: CC26828F

Loss Of Odor Through Conjugation, Suppression And Cross- Adaptation: How One Plus One Can Sometimes Equal Zero
Author(s): Thomas J. Bruno
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the days of the alchemist, the observation that some substances have a smell while others do not has been a source of fascination. The sense of smell, or olfaction, is our least developed and least understood sense, however it is important for many human functions, including digestion, food selection and hazard avoidance. The detailed explanation of why individual chemicals (called odorants) might have a particular smell is still elusive. The situation with mixtures of odorants is even more complex and interesting. A number of distinct odorant mixture phenomena have been documented. Odorant suppression (sometimes called masking), conjugation and cross-adaptation are among a collection of such phenomena. They are related to the differential effects that one odorant species will have when mixed with another. Masking is a term that describes situations in which one odorant can overpower the sensation of another. Conjugation describes the situation in which two odoriferous compounds, when sniffed together, produce the sensation of very little odor, or no odor at all. Cross adaptation is the desentization effect produced by one odoriferous compound on another. In this review, the basics of olfaction will be discussed briefly, followed by a description of masking, conjugation and cross adaptation.
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Document ID: FCEB3CB3

Predominance Of Pipe Fittings On Installation Effects
Author(s): Blaine D. Sawchuk, Danny A. Sawchuk
Abstract/Introduction:
There is some interest in industry as to the effects of multiple fittings on the net meter pipe installation effect. This Paper is focused on illustrating these effects via computational Fluid Dynamics results. Results indicate that pipe fitting installation effects are not cumulative. Spaghetti streamlines, and velocity profiles, are provided. These results, it appears are not supportive to industry intuition that fittings are additive in disturbance intensity. Rule of Thumb Meter station main line interconnection design recommendations are presented as well. As always, research creates more questions than answers and now we wonder if a quick tabulated analysis can be created to help designers avoid intense meter station piping design errors. The optimization of flow conditioner design is also revisited to help explain why good meter station piping design is important.
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Document ID: 698A488F

Atmos Energy Corporation
Author(s): Ed Ostrovich
Abstract/Introduction:
Atmos Energy is the largest natural-gas-only distributor in the United States. Our regulated distribution operations deliver natural gas to 3.2 million residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural and public-authority customers. Our distribution services are provided to more than 1,600 communities in 12 states.
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Document ID: EA9D9304

Performance Analysis Of An Operational Metering Station Using Ultrasonic Flowmeters
Author(s): Martin Bragg, Jeff Tilden, Mike Thackray, Michael Van Groezen
Abstract/Introduction:
In this paper the operation of a real life metering skid is discussed on the basis of general UFM principles, current and working standards/recommendations, and related to non-conformant results that were recorded during in-series meter proving. Data is shown for (i) normal operating conditions, (ii) in-series meter proving, and (iii) metering runs with and without a Flow Conditioner (FC). The paper provides an insight in to theoretical and practical engineering resulting in experiential learning for UFM Metering Skid design. The paper is written to comply with the guidelines: natural gas measurement unique operational problem current research activities and primary device ultrasonic.
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Document ID: 0E35A6CF

A Proven Strategy And Key Actions To Accelerate Safety Success
Author(s): Cathy Hansell
Abstract/Introduction:
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Document ID: 9BC09251

On The Difference Between Us Example Supply Gases, European Limit Gases, And Their Respective Interchangeability Indices
Author(s): C. J. Ennis, K. K. Botros, D. Engler
Abstract/Introduction:
Several gas interchangeability methods exist which describe a set of parameters and limit values to aid in determining the viability of using a gas composition different than the original adjustment gas. Numerous empirical and diagrammatic methods have been developed and are under further development both in the US (e.g. AGA Bulletin #36 and Weaver Indices) and in Europe (diagrammatic methods). In North America gas appliance performance testing is specified by ANSI/CSA standards. These standards were harmonized between the United States and Canada after the signing of the North America Free Trade Agreement, January 2, 1988. Similarly, the EN-437 standard in Europe defines a set of test gases and pressures to be used when testing appliances for compliance with the Gas Appliance Directive. In an attempt to determine the performance of modern gas appliances and to ensure that they are in compliance with respect to gas interchangeability issues, the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) and the American Gas Association (AGA) have undertaken a study of five distinct gas mixtures for the purpose of testing appliance performance. This paper provides a comparative analysis between these two sets of test gases to aid in the understanding of the gas interchangeability issues relative to the two continents. The approach used in this comparison is through the application of the different methods and techniques for gas interchangeability (indices and diagrammatic) in an attempt to map out any parity/disparity between these two sets of test gases and associated standards. In particular, in the present analysis the utilization curve developed by Halchuk-Harrington was used along with three European diagrammatic methods, namely: Delbourg, Gilbert & Prigg, and Dutton. Applicable indices included: incomplete combustion, flashback, lifting, sooting and yellow tipping.
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Document ID: C13BBA97

Benefits Of Laboratory Testing
Author(s): Phil La Susa
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: DEBC4738

Federal Appliance Standards & Local Building Codes What Works! What Doesnt Work! What We Need To Change!
Author(s): Jim Ranfone
Abstract/Introduction:
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Document ID: 35943808

Comparison Of AGA Report No. 8 And Gerg 2004 Equations For Gas Property Calculations
Author(s): Eric W. Lemmon
Abstract/Introduction:
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Document ID: F6941FD2

What Effects Will The New API 21.1 Standard Flow Measurement Using Electronic Metering Systems Have On Yesterdays And Todays Flow Computers?
Author(s): James Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
In the spring of 1988, API formed a committee to develop a standard focused on minimum requirements for electronic flow measurement. The committee comprised of 17 individuals representing the oil and gas industry and equipment suppliers. After 4-plus years and many meetings, the 1993 standard was born. Under normal API standards policy, most standards are reviewed about every 5 to 7 years. So, in March 2006, it was decided to update the standard after it had been in use for over 14 years! The proposed update is aimed at addressing new metering technologies such as intelligent transmitters and flowing devices that have become the norm in todays measurement world. The Scope section of the proposed standard focuses on encompassing these technologies as well as many other issues.
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Document ID: D0964CA3

Decommissioning Of Propane Air Plants And Standby Systems
Author(s): Robert Armentano
Abstract/Introduction:
Propane-air storage has been a common choice for natural gas utilities to meet their short-term peak demand energy supply needs and for large industrial customers to supplement or replace standard pipeline supply. Most propane-air peak systems produce propane-air to supplement the natural gas in the system during times of peak demand or when supplies are short, while industrial standby systems are typically used to replace natural gas when supplies are short or prices escalate. There are separate code provisions that govern such plants, dependent upon whether they are utility-owned or used as industrial standby systems. While the AGA Supplemental Gas Committee concerns itself with utility plants, which are governed by NFPA 59, there are occasions when utilities acquire or take over industrial plants and standby systems. In such instances, the rules of NFPA 58 and the different risks attendant to NFPA 58 plants should be reviewed.
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Document ID: 38212462

Rinnai The Next Generation Of Gas Products
Abstract/Introduction:
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Document ID: 52B29964

AGA Operations Conference & Biennial Exibition Green Building Standards Panel
Author(s): Catherine T. Sheane
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Document ID: A4292DA6


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