Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (2009)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Flow Conditioning - A Technology Research Updated
Author(s): Blaine Sawchuk, Dale Sawchuk, Danny Sawchuk
Abstract/Introduction:
Inferential meters, such as orifice, turbine and ultrasonic meters, infer fluid flow based on an observed meter output combined with a number of fluid flow assumptions. Optimal flow conditions lead to optimal meter performance and in some cases fully developed turbulent pipeline flow is used to describe these optimal flow conditions. Unfortunately, the length of long/straight/uniform/clean pipe required to produce fully developed pipeline flow often exceeds practical installation constraints. Although flow conditioning has been successfully used to create optimal flow conditions and reduce meter run lengths, problems can still exist if they are incorrectly applied. This overview presents material available from the literature, which describes some of the installation effects that need to be managed
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Document ID: 3562ACF7

Communication Between Office And Field Personnel
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry today is constantly changing, with increasing demands on office and field personnel. Initially there was FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission) Order 636 that forced the gas measurement departments into the electronic age. Next, corporate downsizing has required the gas measurement groups to perform at the same level of integrity in the measurement of gas with reductions in staff of up to 60%. Then GISB (Gas Industry Standards Board) made its way into the gas measurement department through proposed standardization.
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Document ID: 5537A99B

Methods Of Gathering Egm Data
Author(s): Ronald Sisk
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays natural gas industry, it is of paramount importance that we focus on the accuracy and timeliness for the transfer of gas measurement data from the field measurement sites to a centralized gas measurement database to be verified, edited, and shared with all applicable groups. Measurement of wellhead deliveries, pipeline interconnects to town plants, city gates, and ultimately the end-user must be efficient and verifiable. To achieve this goal, various methodologies for gathering EGM data have evolved and improved over the past few years
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Document ID: FDFCD129

Advances In Natural Gas Sampling Technology
Author(s): Donald Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
The monetary value of natural gas is based on its energy content and volume. The energy content and physical constants utilized in determining its volume are computed from analysis. Therefore correct assessment of the value of natural gas is dependent to a large extent on overall analytical accuracy.
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Document ID: F762849A

Fundamental Principles Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): John A. Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of all gas measurement used in the world today is performed by two basic types of meters, positive displacement and inferential. Positive displacement meters, consisting mainly of diaphragm and rotary style devices, generally account for lower volume measurement. Orifice, ultrasonic and turbine meters are the three main inferential class meters used for large volume measurement today. Turbines are typically considered to be a repeatable device used for accurate measurement over large and varying pressures and flow rates. They are found in a wide array of elevated pressure applications ranging from atmospheric conditions to 1440 psig
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Document ID: 3EFAC107

An Overview Of Industry Standards Related To Natural Gas Measurement
Author(s): Barry Balzer
Abstract/Introduction:
What is a standard? Why are standards important? Merriam-Webster dictionary defines standard as: 1) a conspicuous object (as a banner) formerly carried at the top of a pole and used to mark a rallying point especially in battle or to serve as an emblem 2) something established by authority, custom, or general consent as a model or example 3) something set up and established by authority as a rule for the measure of quantity, weight, extent, value, or quality 4) the fineness and legally fixed weight of the metal used in coins 5) the basis of value in a monetary system 6) a structure built for or serving as a base or support
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Document ID: 744F5CC1

AGA Calculations - 1985 Standard Vs 1992 Standard
Author(s): Brent Berry
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to help bridge the gap between the Old AGA-3 equation (hereafter referred to as AGA-3-1985) and the New AGA-3 equation (hereafter referred to as AGA-3-1992). As such the paper begins with a background section aimed at assisting those who are mostly familiar with the factored form of the orifice metering equation.
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Document ID: C7300D36

Characteristics Of Rotary Meter Performance
Author(s): Kevin C. Beaver
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper highlights several rotary meter performance characteristics. These characteristics profile a rotary meters capabilities in a wide array of applications from production to transmission, and distribution. Most of the characteristics have minimum standards adopted by agencies like AGA or ASTM. Ill identify these standards, and incorporate them?where applicable?into my paper. In discussing these characteristics, I hope to give the reader a better understanding of the capabilities of rotary meters, and how the gas industry assesses these characteristics. Heres the performance characteristics Ill discuss
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Document ID: 8EFD8014

Freeze Protection For Natural Gas Pipeline Systems And Measurement Instrumentation
Author(s): Tom Fay
Abstract/Introduction:
One way businesses in todays natural gas industry can be certain to maintain a presence in a competitive market is to be able to deliver a consistent supply to their customers. To ensure a reliable supply, companies must be aware of potential problems that could lead to interruptions or shutdowns in service and the procedures that can prevent these costly situations.
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Document ID: 229D7800

Operations Of Online Chromatographs
Author(s): Burt Reed
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Chromatographs have become vitally important in todays gas industry for one very important reason. The reason is they provide the data that tells us how much energy in contained in a given sample of gas. With the escalating costs of natural gas, the capability of calculating the full energy of the gas sample has also increased in value.
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Document ID: B586F357

Fundamentals Of Energy Determination
Author(s): David Hailey
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents fundamental information necessary to understand and appreciate the concept of total gas energy in a natural gas pipeline. That is, to be able to converse with peers within the natural gas industry and understand basic concepts and terminology
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Document ID: A0D8FFD9

Requirements Of An Egm Editor
Author(s): R. Michael Squyres
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry has adopted EGM as a means of increasing the speed and accuracy with which measurement information is obtained. This has created the need for an electronic data management system. These systems, if not properly designed and implemented, could potentially render the entire process useless. Therefore, it is essential that the system add functionality that complements the power of the hardware. With proper implementation, such a system will not only facilitate operations in todays fast paced, post-FERC 636 environment, but also will establish a foundation for meeting tomorrows measurement challenges.
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Document ID: F10F5E5A

Fundamentals In LNG
Author(s): Tom Quine
Abstract/Introduction:
The following discusses the historical use and future opportunities relating to natural gas, LNG and geological gas storage. New opportunities are presented by the nonlinear 23.5 tcf/y US gas use and declining production. This fact has created a significant need for LNG imports and LNG distributed assets in the US. In addition it has created a need for market based and production based geological storage with services ranging from firm contracts, wheeling and hub based park and loan.
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Document ID: 693F732C

Training Office Measurement Personnel
Author(s): Perry Dee Hummel
Abstract/Introduction:
Experience is the best teacher. Weve all heard that saying, but, what if there arent any experienced personnel left to hire? After years of downsizing, mergers, and attrition, the industry finds itself in a shortage of good trained personnel. The only way to overcome this problem is to provide the new employee with comprehensive training. Successful training is paramount to the success of the gas measurement department and your company.
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Document ID: 07EA9352

An Overview And Update Of AGA 9
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association published Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters Ref 1 in June 1998. It is a recommended practice for using ultrasonic meters (USMs) in fiscal (custody) measurement applications. This paper reviews some of history behind the development of AGA Report No. 9 (often referred to as AGA 9), key contents and includes information on meter performance requirements, design features, testing procedures, and installation criteria. This paper also discusses changes that will be incorporated in the next revision. At the time of this paper the expected publication date is the Fall of 2006.
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Document ID: DFC18D70

Production Equipment Effects On Gas Measurement
Author(s): David Pulley
Abstract/Introduction:
American Gas Association states that measurement of natural gas by an orifice meter requires a single-phase hydrocarbon through the metering area, which allows an accurate measurement of differential pressure across the orifice plate, flowing temperature, and component analysis at a metering station. Some gas contracts state that the producer shall condition the gas for metering which would allow accurate measurement of gas flowing through the metering station. To meet the AGA and Contract requirements personnel need to have a knowledge and operational understanding of production equipment used to condition gas prior to the point of measurement. To achieve this condition, field personnel should have an operational understanding of production equipment by which they can perform maintenance on and make adjustments to achieving an optimum flowing condition within the metering tube
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Document ID: EDEFB10B

Training Field Measurement Personnel
Author(s): Russel W. Treat
Abstract/Introduction:
Technology in the field of gas measurement and control is constantly evolving. While many are well trained in the specific equipment used in their own companys operation, it is also important to have a solid understanding of the fundamentals and theory of operation of the mechanical and physical processes involved. Therefore, the training of field measurement technicians is of the utmost importance. These technicians must be continually educated to have the most current knowledge of the latest equipment, electronics, communications, and metering devices on the market.
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Document ID: 8B6B78CD

Devices For Field Determination Of H2O In Natural Gas
Author(s): Charlie Cook
Abstract/Introduction:
H2O vapor is an undesirable component of natural gas. It takes up space in the pipeline and provides no fuel value. In higher concentrations it can condense into liquid water in the pipeline and cause corrosion, especially in the presence of carbon dioxide or H2S. Liquid water can also cause damage to the equipment utilizing the gas, for example to turbines. Because of this, most gas transfer tariffs include a limit on the acceptable concentration of H2O in the gas stream. This paper reviews the devices that can be used in the field to determine the amount of water vapor present in a natural gas stream.
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Document ID: B5B2CD65

D.O.T. Requirements For The Transportation Of Sample Cylinders
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The United States Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) is a department of the U.S. Federal Government, which oversees all issues regarding transportation within the United States of America and U.S. Territories. Its influence around the world is great and widely respected, but its jurisdiction and power of enforcement is limited to the USA and its territories. As regards this paper, we will discuss the D.O.T. and its involvement surrounding sample cylinders for the hydrocarbon industry and the rules regarding the movement of these cylinders from point to point in the United States.
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Document ID: 02EE5171

Application And Verification Of Coriolis Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early 1980s, Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in gas, liquid, and slurry applications with an installed base of more than 500,000 units. Through significant design enhancements in the early 1990s Coriolis meters have rapidly gained worldwide acceptance in gas phase applications with over 35,000 meters installed world wide and most notably the 2003 publication of AGA Report Number 11, Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis Meter
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Document ID: 40D7BFB7

Lessons Learned From The API 14.1 Gas Sampling Research Project
Author(s): Darin L. George Eric Kelner
Abstract/Introduction:
Since 1999, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), the American Petroleum Institute (API), the United States Minerals Management Service (MMS), and Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) have co-sponsored an extensive natural gas sampling research program at the Metering Research Facility (MRF), located at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The results of this research provided a basis for recent revisions to the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) Chapter 14.1, Collecting and Handling of Natural Gas Samples for Custody Transfer. The research supported revisions that produced both the 5th edition of the standard, published in 2001, and the new 6th edition, published in February 2006
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Document ID: 810DC73C

Flow Meter Installation Effects
Author(s): Eric Kelner
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter station piping installation configuration is one of a number of effects that may adversely affect meter accuracy. Some piping configurations can distort the flow stream and produce flow measurement bias errors (i.e., offsets in the meter output) of up to several percent of reading. Valves, elbows, or tees placed upstream of a flow meter are just some of the piping elements that can distort the flow stream. In this paper, installation effects are discussed with respect to two of the four main components of a flow measurement system: the meter, or primary element, and the secondary (pressure and temperature) instrumentation
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Document ID: 53B8B63F

Protection Of Natural Gas Measurement Equipment Against Moisture And Corrosion
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
Desiccants, Moisture and Corrosion Control, VCI ABSTRACT This presentation addresses problems associated with moisture and corrosion caused by high relative humidity and airborne contaminants. By controlling moisture and corrosion long-term, many problems associated with sensitive field electronics can be avoided
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Document ID: 0E8769F9

Effects Of Entrained Liquids On Orifice Measurement
Author(s): Josh Kinney Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice plate meters are one of the most widely used technologies in industry for gas flow metering. This is due to their relative simplicity, the extensive publicly available data sets that led to several orifice plate meter standards 1, 2, 3, and 4 and the fact that they are a relatively inexpensive method of gas metering. However, it is common in industry for gas meters to be installed in applications where the flows are actually wet gas flows, i.e., flows where there is some liquid entrainment in a predominantly gas flow. This is usually done out of economic necessity or due to the fact that the system designers were not aware at the conceptual design stage that the gas flow would have entrained liquid. Therefore, with the orifice plate meter being such a popular gas flow meter, it is by default possibly the most common wet gas flow meter. The effect of wet gas flow on an orifice plate meter configured for gas flow service is complicated. There are ongoing research programs worldwide aimed at improving the understanding of the reaction of the differential pressure meter family (of which the orifice plate meter is a member) to wet gas flow. Most of the research results are published in conference papers. However, it is not always immediately obvious to the technician in the field using an orifice plate meter with wet gas how this information can be practically applied. This paper attempts to review the current scientific knowledge from a practical users standpoint
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Document ID: 14BAB0A6

Electronic Gas Measurement Auditing
Author(s): Perry Dee Hummel
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic Gas Measurement or EFM auditing is a very important process of the natural gas industry. Only a few short years ago, the dry flow chart recorder was the state of the art recording device for custody gas measurement. All that has changed with the advent of the flow computer volumes are recorded and generated at the field level, and imported to the measurement system. Careful review of meter data should be part of the monthly close process
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Document ID: 49E4044C

Use Of Equations Of State Eos() Software
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper sample conditioning is essential to providing a representative sample of natural gas to the analyzer. Sample conditioning consists of extracting a sample from a process stream, transporting it to an analyzer, and conditioning it so that it is compatible with the analyzer. Conditioning generally consists of controlling the gas temperature, pressure, and flow rate. It also includes the removal of contaminates which may alter the sample composition and/or damage the analyzer. It is imperative that the gas sample composition is not altered or distorted during the conditioning process.
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Document ID: AFF9FC83

Composition Analysis In Pipeline Gas & Ngl With Process Mass Spectrometry
Author(s): Larry E. Sieker
Abstract/Introduction:
Mass Spectrometry (MS) can be found in most industrial laboratories for detailed compositional analysis of process fluids and gases. Though accurate, fast, and complete, laboratory analysis using MS can only provide process information regarding intermediate or final product analysis for quality control programs and production history
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Document ID: E829E415

Advance Communication Designs
Author(s): Bob Halford
Abstract/Introduction:
We say Advanced Wireless Data Radio Communication Systems Design Process not because this is a more indepth and more technical process, but because the systems involved are complex in nature and must be carefully designed and programmed. If anything, what I want to do is teach you a more simplified approach and technique to design a SCADA or Telemetry project, but one which you do the same whether the system is large or small
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Document ID: 7B20C04F

Proper Testing Of Odorant Concentration Levels
Author(s): Paul D. Wehnert
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper odorant monitoring is required to keep natural gas utilities under compliance with federal and state regulations. These monitoring requirements are generally handled through a combination of events including injection rate calculations, customer complaint calls, routine service personnel tests, odor concentration tests and chromatographic analysis. In the world today it is critical to have appropriate documentation to support proof that proper odorization of natural gas is occurring. This process will ultimately protect the public and hopefully keep us all from litigation
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Document ID: D33D7471

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Chemistry
Author(s): Steve Whitman
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to understand the chemistry of natural gas, it is important to be familiar with some basic concepts of general chemistry. Here are some definitions you should know:
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Document ID: 4BD84476

Web-Based Solutions For Orifice Measurment & Monitering
Author(s): Mark B. Fillman
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays Internet age, the development of practical and cost-effective web-based solutions in energy measurement is a logical extension of the latest technologies. Major pipeline companies have long been dependent on advanced measurement and communication technologies, such as supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA). But with todays improved electronic flow measurement and communication technologies, ever-increasing bandwidth, ubiquitous Internet access, high energy prices, and chronic personnel shortages, remote monitoring services have become a profitable solution for every segment of the industryincluding small and mid-size companies.
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Document ID: B5B2306B

Onsite Proving Of Gas Flow Meters
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increased use of Natural Gas as a fuel, higher natural gas prices, and the new federal regulations, buyers and sellers of natural gas are seriously looking at ways to improve their natural gas measurement and reduce the amount of natural gas that is unaccounted for. An error in measurement of only one tenth of one percent (0.1%) on 100 MMSCF/D Natural Gas selling at 5.50/MCF will cause an over or under billing of 200,750.00 in one year. This will more than pay for a proving system. If the company undercharges it has lost money and if it over charges it has the risk of lawsuits later for huge amounts of money
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Document ID: 5FE63685

The Importance Of Discerning The Impact Of New Measurement Technology
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
With the current demand for improved technologies in the area of fluid measurement, the rush to the market place is raising as many questions as it is answering. In the last 25 years, the natural gas pipeline industry has transitioned from the supplier of clean, dry gas to the mover of billable gas energy clean and dry or dirty and wet. The LNG market has impacted the operations of the typical gas supply systems worldwide. The demand for more and more crude oil has put pressure on old measurement designs to become increasingly flexible to a variety of crude oil deliveries
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Document ID: 13EA1A3E

Fundamental Principles Of Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): Nicole Ford
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement is the vertebrae of any natural gas utility. Without the ability to measure, it would be impossible to account for the flow of gas from receipt to delivery. Very much like an accountant that labors to keep the ledger balanced, a utility needs metering to balance the gas producers receipts against the end customer delivery.
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Document ID: 3494C8A1

Scada And Telemetry In Gas Transmission Systems
Author(s): Edward H. Smyth
Abstract/Introduction:
SCADA systems provide for safe, reliable, semi-efficient operation of gas transmission systems. Advanced applications and interfaces to business systems provide the keys for highly profitable operation. This paper introduces the basic building blocks of the SCADA system, including field devices. The SCADA host and advanced applications are discussed in detail. The paper concludes with a discussion of SCADA trends.
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Document ID: E72FE4AD

Field Testing By Transfer Proving
Author(s): Larry K. Wunderlich
Abstract/Introduction:
Transfer proving was initially developed to provide an easier and more accurate field meter proving method. Because of the capacity capabilities of transfer provers (2000 CFH to 80,000 CFH) transfer provers are utilized in meter shops where bell prover capacity is limited and allow for shop testing of the larger capacity meters.
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Document ID: 235C9008

Understanding The Advantages Of Ip Networks
Author(s): Burke Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Convergence in the Oil and Gas Sector Todays oil and gas industry faces increasing pressure to maximize the capability of its wireless infrastructure while minimizing operational and developmental costs. Unprecedented uncertainty and business volatility are transforming the landscape, as the oil and gas industry becomes more competitive, profit-oriented, and responsive to a fickle and savvy clientele. The key to developing a successful enterprisewide networking strategy is to recognize that it is only part of a larger strategy-one in which modern oil and gas facilities must literally reinvent themselves
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Document ID: 54F0253A

Automating Gas Measurement
Author(s): Richard L. Cline
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address concepts of SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems) and their application to the measurement industry. An important focus of the paper is to provide the reader with an understanding of the technology and with guidelines to be used to evaluate this equipment as part of an automation project
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Document ID: BF3F0F0E

Strategic Implementation Of Wireless Technologies
Author(s): Jim Gardner
Abstract/Introduction:
This SCADA design overview reviews the six key steps for specifying basic system requirements, followed by the primary considerations for developing a radio communications system that includes technology best meeting your objectives
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Document ID: CF5670A5

Grounding Practices For Automation Controls Understanding The Key Elements And Resolving Common Problems
Author(s): Donald R. Long
Abstract/Introduction:
Grounding is defined as electrical equipment connected directly to mother earth, or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth, such as the steel frame of a high-rise building on a concrete footing. Proper grounding is an essential component for safely operating electrical systems. Improper grounding methodology has the potential to bring disastrous results. There are many different categories and types of grounding principles. This papers focus is to demonstrate proper grounding techniques for low voltage Instrument and Control Systems (IACS) that have been proven safe and reliable when employed in gas measurement facilities.
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Document ID: 05B0CC79

Verifying Gas Chromatographs At Custody Transfer Locations
Author(s): Shane Hale
Abstract/Introduction:
Verifying the correct operation and accuracy of the Gas Chromatograph (GC) is an integral part of a custody transfer metering system, and involves ensuring the accuracy of the analyzer at the time of testing, as well as confirming that the GC performed properly during the periods between validations and assessing the likelihood of continued proper functioning until the next validation.
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Document ID: E23D8FB5

Electronic Calibrators
Author(s): Roger Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure calibration is as important today as it has been for a very long time, but the way calibration is done and the equipment used to do it has changed drastically. In the past, it was a standard practice to use a primary standard for pressure calibration. That standard was normally a deadweight tester or a manometer. Today, with more accurate secondary standards available, there is a larger choice in what can be used for pressure calibration. What is used normally will depend on the requirements that have to be met and the equipment that is available.
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Document ID: 2EEE52E4

Meter Selection For Various Load Requirements
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to provide meter station designers with a basic methodology for selection of an appropriate flow meter (or meters) for a given application. Since many applications require that a meter station operate over a broad range of flow rates or loads, examples are be provides on how to address system rangeability while maintaining accurate flow measurement. Detailed technical discussions pertaining to the various available gas metering technologies is beyond the scope of this paper, but information of that type can be found in other papers in these Proceedings
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Document ID: 42A074E4

Calibration Standard Gases
Author(s): Fred Deangelo
Abstract/Introduction:
Calibration Standards are known concentrations of components of interest used to confirm or determine component concentrations in samples. Calibration standards are used for quality assurance, quality control, measurement and balance, quantitative sample analysis and custody transfer. They should be used anytime it is important to know the composition of your samples and to determine if your process is performing as expected
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Document ID: 52BA91BC

Techniques Of Natural Gas Composite Sampling
Author(s): Brad Oneal
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays competitive market, a producer of natural gas must strive to maximize their market value and achieve the highest return of invested income. In order to accomplish this goal they must ensure they are receiving full value for the natural gas products they produce. In addition to the producer, it is extremely important for the other stakeholders, whether they be government, gathering system operator, processor, or transporter to do their due diligence to ensure they are also receiving or properly accounting for the true and full value of the natural gas products that pass through their systems. Royalty rates, transportation levies, and processing fees are based on the value of the natural gas being commercially bought and sold, processed or transported.
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Document ID: 23727FA0

Fundamentals Of Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Dean Lightfoot
Abstract/Introduction:
A regulator may be defined as a mechanism for controlling or governing the movement of machines or the flow of liquids and gases, in order to meet a standard. The primary function of a gas or liquid regulator is to match the supply of the fluid moving through it to the demand for the fluid downstream. To accomplish this, it measures the downstream pressure and makes adjustments accordingly.
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Document ID: BA06F029

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): Bob Carlson
Abstract/Introduction:
Throughout the oil and gas industry, there stems the need for accurate and economical measurement of process fluids and natural gas. Orifice Meters, sometimes referred to as Orifice Fittings, satisfy most flow measurement applications and are the most common flow meter type in use today. The Orifice Meter, sometimes also called a head loss flow meter, is chosen most frequently because of its long history of use in many applications, versatility, and low cost, as compared to other available flow meter types
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Document ID: CBA42DA9

Basic Electronics For Field Measurement
Author(s): Rick Heuer
Abstract/Introduction:
Try this at home. We are professionals. If you are able to install your own TV dish satellite system and a wireless home network for PCs, you have a head start on installing and maintaining electronic field measurement equipment. Todays Measurement Technicians and Engineers are required to operate and maintain a variety of Hi-Tech field measurement equipment. Most of the field instrumentation is tightly integrated in a complete system functional environment. The larger the metering station, the more complex the system.
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Document ID: 3AC87871

Gas Contracts Measurement Language And Its Evolution
Author(s): Lohit Datta-Barua
Abstract/Introduction:
GENERAL: The business environment in our industry has seen tremendous change since early 1980s. This has in turn forced the industry to change its measurement technology and the process. Open access concept with multiple shippers through the same meter requires timely data to monitor nomination and allocation and to comply with commercial terms. The introduction of digital flow computer for electronic gas measurement (EGM) system has resulted in almost real time transactional information with enhanced accuracy and reliability. With respect to orifice measurement, the transition from
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Document ID: E739FEF6

Design And Installation Of A Complete Measurement & Control Facility
Author(s): Thomas G. Quine
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation is intended to illustrate the implementation of a successful project. These principles can be applied to measurement and control projects, LNG projects, and LPG projects. The strategy presented involves performing through preliminary engineering, performing final design and procurement, qualification of installers, construction, testing, commissioning and finally, training and documentation.
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Document ID: F55269ED

H2S Detection And Determination
Author(s): Marshall Schreve
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is a gas composed of one Sulfur Atom and two Hydrogen Atoms. H2S is formed by the decomposition of organic matter and is therefore, found naturally in crude oil and natural gas deposits. H2S is a highly toxic, transparent, colorless and corrosive gas. Due to the toxic and caustic properties of this gas and its natural presence within natural gas, it is imperative to measure and control the concentration levels of H2S within natural gas pipelines. This paper will discuss the Properties, Purpose of Measurement and Measurement Technologies for H2S and discuss how these technologies can be adapted for measurement of Total Sulfur
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Document ID: 32F1AC49

How To Perform A Lost & Unaccounted-For Gas Program
Author(s): John Mcdaniel
Abstract/Introduction:
Many (likely most) gas pipeline companies struggle with lostand- unaccounted-for-gas (L&U) and it can be a significant cost to their bottom line as shown below. As shown in this inset, by reducing L&U from 0.6 percent to .25 percent, a typical company with a 2 BCF daily throughput could save almost 18 million annually based on 7.00 gas prices, which is a daily loss of 49,000.
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Document ID: 602193E0

Periodic Inspection Of Regulators And Relief Valves
Author(s): James m. Doyle
Abstract/Introduction:
Inspections and tests on regulators and relief valves are a Department of Transportation (DOT) compliance rule. The sections within the DOT manual stating the rule include 192.351 through 192.359, 192.751, 192.479, 192.481, 192.739, and 192.741. Keep in mind these rules are the minimum required tests. Your company or governing regulatory agency may be more stringent and require more detailed testing. You must also keep in mind that the manufacturer of your equipment will provide guidelines pertaining to maintenance of the equipment. These tests are not only required for safe, reliable service to your customers, but the results could also be used in any legal proceeding for documentation purposes.
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Document ID: AC504AF3

A New Perspective On Measurement The Impact Of Measurement In A Changing Business Environment
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of hydrocarbons has evolved significantly through the years, from both a technical and business application perspective. Developments and advances in technology have made the measurement of hydrocarbons more precise, efficient, and available. Changes in the energy business environment have placed the measurement of hydrocarbons into a more significant role within organizational and industry business processes.
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Document ID: 09F1505E

High Pressure Calibration Of Gas Turbine Meters In Carbon Dioxide
Author(s): Paul W. Tang
Abstract/Introduction:
The pressure sensitivity of turbine meters is a well-observed phenomenon since the inception of these devices. Unfortunately, very little organized experimental data were available for study until recently. Due to the ever-rising energy costs, the natural gas industry is paying much more attention to improve the accuracy of natural gas flow measurement. The latest revision of the AGA No.7 report recommends that a turbine meter should be calibrated close to its intended operating conditions in order to minimize measurement error caused by pressure variation.
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Document ID: 296FB908

Fundamental Principles Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): Lawrence H. Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished using two different classes of gas meters. These are inferential type meters, which include orifice and turbine meters, and positive displacement meters, which include diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferential type meters are so-called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas flow and calculating the volume based on the measurements. The positive displacement type meters are so-called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them.
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Document ID: 39E916A3

Determination Of Hydrocarbon Dew Point In Natural Gas
Author(s): Andy Benton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper considers the requirements for control of hydrocarbon (HC) dew point in natural gas and how measurement of this important gas quality parameter can be achieved. A summary of the commercially available on-line instrumentation is provided covering: ? Manual, visual technique with cooled mirror dew point meter ? Equation-of-state calculation from extended compositional analysis by gas chromatograph (GC) ? Automatic, optical condensation dew point meter
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Document ID: 65AB352F

A Review Of The Revisions To API 14.3/AGA 3 Part 2
Author(s): Fred G. Van Orsdol
Abstract/Introduction:
API Chapter 14.3 is a living document, constantly reviewed and considered for revision as new information and research data become available relative to the design and operation of orifice metering systems. In spite of this scrutiny within the API, AGA, and ISO, the latest recommendations and revisions are not well known in many areas of our industry. Many companies are still designing to AGA 3 1985 standards or internal standards that do not meet current API recommendations
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Document ID: C223A61E

Ultrasonic Meters For Residential And Commercial Applications
Author(s): Paul Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
An ultrasonic meter falls into the classification of inferential meters. Unlike positive displacement meters that capture volume to totalize volume, inferential meters measure flowing gas velocity to totalize volume. Orifice meters use pressure drop to measure velocity to infer volume and turbine meters use the speed of the rotor to measure velocity to infer volume, while ultrasonic meters use sound waves to measure flowing gas velocity to infer volume. Ultrasonic meters have been around for many years in primarily liquid measurement
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Document ID: E1027E11

Understanding DOT/PSM Operator Qualification Program
Author(s): Britt Mcneely
Abstract/Introduction:
The Operator Qualification (OQ) rule has greatly impacted pipeline operations for all major pipeline system operators. For Panhandle Energy, the efforts to satisfy all segments of the rule have required a significant investment in money and manpower, with many changes to most aspects of field operations
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Document ID: F841CAA6

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Paul J. La Nasa
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents methods for determining the uncertainty of both differential and linear metering stations. It takes into account the type of meter, number of meters in parallel, type of secondary instruments, and the determination of physical properties. The paper then relates this information to potential influence on system balance
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Document ID: 395D7DF8

Clamp-On Ultrasonic Meter Applications
Author(s): William E. Frasier
Abstract/Introduction:
I have applied the Siemens clamp-on meter in many configurations in the field and will describe purposes and findings on the way to precise meter certainty. The clamp-on system provides an effective new tool for insight into the flowing regime within a pipe
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Document ID: E6E5D2C5

Problems Unique To Offshore Measurement
Author(s): Jackie R. Tims
Abstract/Introduction:
Some major problems and unique solutions will be addressed with gas measurement on offshore platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. This presentation will show the major roll safety, transportation, and weather play in the technicians ability to verify the accuracy of the gas measurement facility. Proper operation, design, and installation will ensure accurate measurement.
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Document ID: E4FFFB42

Principles Of Odorization A Discussion Of Odorant, Odorizers, And Odorization
Author(s): Kyle Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Odorization is a process we are mandated to know about, and deal with on a daily basis. So why is it that no one likes to work with odorant? Could it be the distinctive smell that gets on our clothing, causing problems with family, friends, neighbors, and the public in general? Why do we odorize? We odorize primarily because it is a legal requirement. We also odorize for the public safety. We must inject odorant into natural gas in order to alert or warn of possible dangers (i.e. leaks). It was first proposed in Germany in the 1880s by Von Quaglios use of ethyl mercaptan as a means of lead detecting the escape of blue water gas.
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Document ID: 7721BE91

Fundamentals Of Egm Electrical Installations
Author(s): Leon Black
Abstract/Introduction:
We have all heard of or seen the devastating effects of a direct lightning burst. Communication equipment destroyed. Transmitters and EFM devices vaporized into slag metal. Complete process and measurement systems down with extended recovery times. These effects are the most dramatic and the easiest to trace. However, these kinds of events are rare. The more prominent events are those that occur on a day-to-day basis without we, the user, even knowing
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Document ID: 6A409AF3

Pulsation Effects On Orifice Metering Considering Primary And Secondary Elements
Author(s): Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of orifices for commercial flow measurement has a long history dating back more than 70 years. Orifices are extensively used in the United States natural gas, petroleum and petro-chemical industries and are important as one of the most practical ways to meter large volumes of gas flow. These meters are very reliable and cost effective and if properly used, can be relied upon to give accurate results
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Document ID: 5212BC7A

Field Inspection And Calibration Of Volume Correcting Devices
Author(s): George E. Brown III
Abstract/Introduction:
Timely,diligent field testing and calibration of gas volume recording and correcting instruments ensure that measurement information fairluy represents actual volume.
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Document ID: 30A081A3

Fundamentals Of Gas Laws
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters.
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Document ID: DA547C27

Unaccounted Gas Study
Author(s): Jay Shiflet
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Gas Distribution business Unaccounted Gas is referred to by various names or terms such as: Lost and Unaccounted-For, LUG, L&U, and UAF. In simplest terms, Unaccounted Gas is the result of the formula gas receipts minus gas deliveries. For the Measurement Group the process amounts to a gas inventory reconciliation based on the recorded volumes into the system(s) less the sum of the volumes out of the system(s). This can be a town by town or a total-system reconciliation
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Document ID: B44F57E7

Techniques Of Natural Gas Spot Sampling
Author(s): John T. Burford
Abstract/Introduction:
Collecting a representative sample of natural gas is important for several reasons, but arguably, the main goal of a sampling procedure will be to determine ultimately the value of the gas in question. Other important information that will be gained by analyzing a sample can include specific gravity, total gas composition, or the gass hydrocarbon dew point level. Gas samples can be gathered by three primary techniques spot sampling, continuous composite sampling, or continuous on-line analysis sampling systems. This paper is focused on examining the various spot sampling techniques that are currently available in the industry along with their proper implementation, in addition to the most suitable equipment to utilize
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Document ID: 99C8DD78

Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meters For Custody Transfer
Author(s): Jim Micklos
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the operating principals and application of ultrasonic gas flow metering for custody transfer. Basic principles and underlying equations are discussed, as are considerations for applying ultrasonic flow meter technology to station design, installation, and operation. These applications are illustrated based on operating experience with the Instromet 3-path and 5-path Q.Sonic custody transfer flow meter however, many of these issues can be generalized to meters manufactured by others
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Document ID: 9D8ADC68

Ultrasonic Flow Meter Calibration Considerations And Benefits
Author(s): Wayne Haner
Abstract/Introduction:
The increased use of natural gas as the primary source of energy in countries all over the world combined with the increased market price for natural gas is creating an intricate network for gas transportation and trade of energy that is demanding more accurate measurements of gas flows. To ensure the fair gas transaction at custody transfer locations, pipeline companies are looking towards the credibility and excellence of meter calibration as the main parameter to ensure the reliability of the gas invoiced
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Document ID: BF0E6DF6


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