Measurement Library

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (2008)

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course

Fundamentals Of Gas Laws
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters. A standard cubic foot is defi ned as one cubic foot of gas at a pressure and temperature agreed upon by the buyer and seller. Common standard conditions are 14.73 psia and 60 Fahrenheit. The gas passing through a meter is rarely at standard conditions. It is necessary to convert the gas in the meter from the metered conditions to standard cubic feet. The tools we have for relating volume to pressure and temperature are Equations of State or, simply, the Gas Laws.
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Document ID: 1BEB24AE

Basic Properties Of Natural Gas
Author(s): John H. Batchelder
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is misunderstood by many. It is believed by some that all gas is a liquid that is pumped into automobiles or into tanks and is used as a fuel. It is thought of as a dangerous material that will blow up easily. Others do not differentiate between LP gas, natural gas, or gasoline - They are all the same thing, right? While it is true that the above mentioned materials are all made up of the same basic components, each has its own physical and chemical characteristics.
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Document ID: 67759D13

From The Wellhead To The Burner Tip: A System Overview
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is presented at the Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course - Fundamentals Section. The paper is designed for the fi rst year student to understand the basic fl ow of natural gas and the terminology utilized from Production and Storage areas to end use by consumers. Specifi c focus is given to history of natural gas, gas transmission, city gate stations, and distribution systems.
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Document ID: 031909DD

Pressure Control Basics
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure control is the fundamental operation of all natural gas delivery systems. It provides a safe and reliable energy source for manufacturing and heating systems throughout the world. Pressure control is utilized to balance the system supply demands with safe delivery pressures. Pressure control is used in all phases of the delivery system as follows: Production Wells Up to 5,000+ psig Compressor Stations Pumping into Storage or Boosting Transmission Supply. City Gate Stations Reduce Transmission Pressures to Distribution Pressures. District Regulation Stations cutting pressures for safe delivery End User Regulation Providing a safe pressure for end user appliances.
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Document ID: E301ED9A

Application Of Common Conversion Factors
Author(s): Alfred Wettemann
Abstract/Introduction:
Purpose of this program is to review some basic conversion factors used in Measurement, and how they are used in everyday Measurement applications in the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: 6352C022

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement
Author(s): Pat Donnelly
Abstract/Introduction:
Samuel Clegg made the fi rst practical gas meter in England in 1815. It was a water-sealed rotating drum meter that was improved in 1825 however, it was still very costly and very large. Thomas Glover developed the original diaphragm meter in England in 1843. It consisted of two diaphragms, sliding valves and linkage. T. S. Lacey patented the pre-payment meter in 1870. The most signifi cant change to diaphragm meters over the years has been in the materials of construction. Brass parts have been replaced by plastic, and leather diaphragms have been replaced with synthetic rubber.
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Document ID: 040DB3A6

Self-Operated Regulator Basics
Author(s): Trent Decker
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application that we need to look more deeply into the fundamental of the regulators operation.
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Document ID: 4AD1FB66

Basic Principles Of Pilot Operated Flexible Element Regulators
Author(s): Michael Garvey
Abstract/Introduction:
Pilot Operated Flexible Element Regulators are capable of providing very accurate control in natural gas transmission and distribution pipelines. The Pilot Operated Regulator provides advantages over both self-operated regulators and control valves. Primary benefi ts include simplicity of operation and elimination of any fugitive emissions caused by atmospheric bleed gas. However, it is important to recognize the limitations of the pilot operated fl exible element regulator and apply it accordingly. The original Flexible Element Regulator, the Flexfl o, was developed by the Grove Valve and Regulator Company circa World War II. The original intent for the regulator was to regulate water in submarine ballasting systems. However, Grove quickly recognized that the Flexfl o regulator product was ideally suited for pressure control applications in natural gas pipelines. Many advances have been made since the original Flexible Element was created more then fi fty years ago, but the same basic operational advantages and principles of operation remain unchanged.
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Document ID: 699723DD

Basic Pressure And Flow Control
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry utilizes two devices to reduce gas pressure and control gas fl ow. The fi rst is the regulator and the second is a control valve. The control valve is utilized for high volumes and it can perform fl ow control as will as pressure control. This paper will provide the fundamentals of control valve types, sizes, and the controllers that are utilized to operate the control valves. We will also investigate the differences between the regulator and the control valve and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
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Document ID: 8D3D302E

Orifice Meter Basics
Author(s): Kevin Finnan
Abstract/Introduction:
This class is going to be faithful to the title and focus on basics of orifi ce meters. It is intended as an introduction to any gas company employees who are interested in gaining a working knowledge of orifi ce meters, including where they are used and why. We will also briefl y discuss the orifi ce meter from an operation and maintenance point-of-view. For fi eld technicians and anyone else, who will be directly involved with orifi ce meter operations and maintenance, this class is an introduction and will give you an understanding of the basic concepts. However, it is not a replacement for your companys operating procedures but is, rather, a supplement to them.
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Document ID: 1AAE7E40

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): John A. Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of all gas measurement used in the world today is performed by two basic types of meters, positive displacement and inferential. Positive displacement meters, consisting mainly of diaphragm and rotary style devices, generally account for lower volume measurement. Orifi ce, ultrasonic and turbine meters are the three main inferential class meters used for large volume measurement today. Turbines are typically considered to be a repeatable device used for accurate measurement over large and varying pressures and fl ow rates. They are found in a wide array of elevated pressure applications ranging from atmospheric conditions to 1440 psig. Turbine meters have also become established as master or reference meters used in secondary calibration systems such as transfer provers. A signifi cant number of both mechanical and electrical outputs and confi gurations have become available over the past 50 years of production.
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Document ID: 32568027

Basics Of Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): Jerry Kamalieh
Abstract/Introduction:
The fi rst gas company in the United States, The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with fi nancial and technical problems while operating on a fl at-rate basis. Its growth was slow, its charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority. By comparison, the New York Gas Light Company founded in 1823 prospered and expanded. They had built their system on the use of gas meters to measure the supply of gas to customers, and a large one to register the quantity made at the station before it is conveyed to the gasometers. The pattern of operation used by this New York company was quickly copied by other companies throughout the east coast, including the Baltimore company. Seeing the success in New York, businessmen formed new gas companies in Albany, Boston, Philadelphia, New York, etc., and the new industry in the United States began to fl ourish.
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Document ID: 4C47C87F

Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meter Basics
Author(s): James W. Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the operating principal and application of ultrasonic gas fl ow metering for custody transfer. Basic principals and underlying equations are discussed, as are considerations for applying ultrasonic fl ow meter technology to station design, installation and operation. These applications are illustrated based on operating experience with the Instromet 3 path and 5-path Q.Sonic custody transfer flow meter, however, many of these issues may be generalized to devices manufactured by others.
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Document ID: 5DF55E8E

Rotary Displacement Meters Basics
Author(s): Todd Willis
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classes of gas meters. These are inferential type meters, which include orifi ce and turbine meters, and positive displacement meters, which include diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferential type meters are so-called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas fl ow and calculating the volume based on the measurements. The positive displacement type meters are so-called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them. The rotary positive displacement meter has been in existence for over 75 years. Its reliability, rangeability, longterm accuracy, and ease of installation, maintenance and testing have made this meter a favorite among gas utilities for billing purposes in industrial and commercial applications. Rotary meters have also gained popularity in the production and transmission markets.
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Document ID: 8D5B4AAE

Coriolis Expands The Capabilities For Measuring Natural Gas
Author(s): Keven Conrad
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis mass fl ow measurement for natural gas proves to minimize the uncertainties associated with volumetric fl ow measurement. The installation requirements and overall cost can be greatly simplifi ed and reduced. The need for proper straight run and fl ow profi le dependencies are shown to be virtually eliminated. While simulating such high level perturbation and installation effects, Coriolis continues to perform well within the accuracy specifi cation of custody transfer. Engineering and manufacturing enhancements allow for Coriolis to now measure gas over an extended range of fl ow while maintaining a very precise method on inline, in-situ meter verifi cation. The sensor itself and the electronics can also be tested periodically for defi ned tolerances and provide a preventative maintenance plan. Advanced diagnostics in Coriolis flow meters today can allow one to monitor the quality of measurement and detect at an early phase trace amounts of liquid or condensate entrainment in the gas fl ow.
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Document ID: 094EA6E1

The Proper Application Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): Kevin C. Beaver
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper highlights several rotary meter performance characteristics. These characteristics profi le a rotary meters capabilities in a wide array of applications from production to transmission, and distribution. Most of the characteristics have minimum standards adopted by agencies like AGA or ASTM. Ill identify these standards, and incorporate them-where applicable-into my paper. In discussing these characteristics, I hope to give the reader a better understanding of the capabilities of rotary meters, and how the gas industry assesses these characteristics. Heres the performance characteristics Ill discuss: Rangeability Start Rate Stop Rate Starting & Running Differential Accuracy
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Document ID: EB93AA19

Differential Testing Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): R.A. Ron() Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
Over a hundred years ago, the Brothers Root were searching for an innovative way to convert water into power. Their search led to two fi gure eight shaped lobes. Legend has it that the lobes did not pass water effi ciently, but when the contraption blew one of the brothers hats into the air they knew they had an industrial strength blower. Nearly eighty years ago, the Roots Brothers Blower Company decided that their basic design, when a counter replaced the blower motor, could be used as a gas measurement device. The era of rotary gas measurement was born. Early on the rotary meter was used in applications similar to those where the blowers were used, i.e. large volumes at low pressure. Today, rotary meters can be used to measure fl ows from 3 or 4 cubic feet per hour through to 102,000 cubic feet per hour. This range of applications stretches from large residential, through commercial to small and large industrial gas users. Pressure ratings available range from 15 pound per square inch up to 1480 psi.
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Document ID: C7407CEA

D.P. Cone Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Philip A. Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will describe how generic differential pressure cone meters differ from other differential pressure meters as well as how they may be used for the measurement of gas and other hydrocarbons. The D.P. Cone Meter has become synonymous with specialist metering applications over the past years due to the special traits that inherent by this type of meter design. The original concept venturi will be mentioned in the paper also for fi rst principle overview purposes. Wet gas applications, where liquids that have trash, asphaltenes and wax in pipes, offshore meter runs with short lengths, steam measurement, custody transfer with end user-party agreement all which have been quite successful in implementation and measurement may be achieved with this meter design.
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Document ID: 5C2AB5DE

Gas Meter Proving: The Equipment And Methodology Used Today In The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): Gregory A. Germ
Abstract/Introduction:
To determine the accuracy of a natural gas meter, a known volume of air is passed through the meter, and the meter registration is compared against this known volume. The known volume of air originates from the meter prover. In earlier times, the gas meter prover was a stand-alone device (usually a bell-type prover), manually operated without any electronics or automation. Today, the majority of gas meter provers are fully automated computer controlled and operated, and responsible for other job functions besides the proving of gas meters. The belltype meter prover - though still commonly used in the industry - is not the only kind of meter prover used today. The advancements and developments in electronics and computer technology has lead to an evolution of meter proving equipment - far from the manual proving methods that were commonplace only a few decades ago. Many utilities have replaced the bell-type prover with sonic nozzle and transfer provers. Provers can now store and retrieve information from a utilitys meter management system, reduce the human error factor in the proving operation, and provide self-diagnostics to assist the prover operator in maintenance and in troubleshooting problems.
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Document ID: 56DB67A7

Clamp-On Gas Flow Technology Advancements Increase Performance And Diagnostic Capabilities For Check Metering And Custody Transfer Applications
Author(s): Mark Imboden
Abstract/Introduction:
The recent buzz created by the clamp-on wide beam technology in the gas measurement world has compelled even the gas industry skeptics among us to take notice. Rapid acceleration of successful installations across the globe and the surprising performance results being obtained (as shown in the following pages) has only added fuel to the excitement. Field clamp-on gas fl owmeters provide a unique tool for solving fl ow related challenges without interrupting the operation of a gas pipeline. This paper describes how to utilize this technology for ideal conditions as well as some of the most challenging fl ow applications we encounter. Externally mounted sensors have also proven to have much greater immunity to valve noise that has plagued the wetted sensors and can signifi cantly reduce the cost of Ultrasonic Meter Station Designs. In addition, the clamp-on technologys unique capability to auto zero without shutting off your fl ow provides the user a way to improve low fl ow performance, check for leaking valves and other diagnostic benefi ts.
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Document ID: E517C1FC

AGA 7 (2006) Understanding The Measurement Report For Turbine Meters
Author(s): Daniel W. Peace
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides an overview of the 2006 revised AGA 7 document, which updates the recommended practice for measurement of natural gas by turbine meter into the form of a performance-based specifi cation.
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Document ID: 503195E3

AGA 9 - Understanding The Measurement Report For Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Joel Clancy, Dan Rebman
Abstract/Introduction:
INTRODUCTION AGA (American Gas Association) Report No. 9 - Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters was originally released for publication in June, 1998. Since that time, much has been learned and the ultrasonic meter (UM) technology has advanced signifi cantly. Over the past several years, the AGA 9 Transmission Measurement Committee has been working on the second edition of this document. Several issues relating to AGA Report No. 9 will be discussed at length however, this paper will especially focus on the changes and additions that have been implemented in the second revision. Also highlighted will be the performance based discussions and how this has changed from the fi rst release to the second addition. What impact do these changes have on the user? This paper will be broken down into sections that correspond directly to the AGA 9 document. In doing so it will make it easier to reference this paper against the AGA 9 Report itself.
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Document ID: 7AB7078D

Operation And Maintenance Considerations For Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses both basic and advanced diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USM), and how capabilities built into todays electronics can identify problems that often may not have been identifi ed in the past. It primarily discusses fi scal-quality, multi-path USMs and does not cover issues that may be different with nonfi scal meters as they are often single path designs. Although USMs basically work the same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in AGA 9 Ref 1. However, some provide more advanced features that can be used to help identify issues such as blocked fl ow conditioners and gas compositional errors. This paper is based upon the Westinghouse configuration (also knows as a chordal design) and the information presented here may or may not be applicable to other manufacturers.
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Document ID: C893ACF7

Flow Meter Installation Effects
Author(s): Eric Kelner
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter station piping installation confi guration is one of a number of variables that may adversely affect meter accuracy. Some piping confi gurations can distort the fl ow stream and produce fl ow measurement bias errors (i.e., offsets in the meter output) of up to several percent of reading. Valves, elbows, or tees placed upstream of a fl ow meter are just some of the piping elements that can distort the fl ow stream. In this paper, installation effects are discussed with respect to two of the four main components of a fl ow measurement system: the meter, or primary element, and the secondary (pressure and temperature) instrumentation. The effect of the velocity profi le of the fl ow stream on orifi ce, ultrasonic, and turbine fl ow meters is discussed next. Installation conditions that may adversely impact the accuracy of pressure and temperature measurements are discussed after that. The gas chromatograph and the fl ow computer, the third and fourth components, are treated in separate courses.
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Document ID: 043FAC07

High Volume Measurement With Turbine Meters
Author(s): John Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
Lost and unaccounted for natural gas, particularly at pipeline custody transfer points, is becoming a focal point for both buyers and sellers. Even somewhat small measurement error can result in very large economic gains or losses at current natural gas prices. One relatively large source of lost and unaccounted for natural gas is due to pulsation at the orifi ce meter induced by compressors, fl ow control valves, regulators and some piping confi gurations The following article discusses some historical research and fi ndings surrounding the topic of pulsation. In addition, we will provide some methods of measuring, monitoring and potentially correcting various types of pulsation supported by relevant examples.
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Document ID: 34AA5E7D

Methods Of Proving High Volume Meters
Author(s): T.M. Kegel
Abstract/Introduction:
The past several years have seen increasing use of large ultrasonic meters. In many instances these meters can measure much higher volumes than large orifi ce or turbine meters. A thirty inch ultrasonic meter, for example, can measure the same volume as ten twelve inch turbine meters. Such high capacity meters require specialized proving or calibration services. The fi rst part of this paper describes the basic process of calibrating large volume ultrasonic meters. The second part briefl y describes some options when a meter recalibration is being considered.
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Document ID: 17FEDA87

Selection And Sizing Of Control Valves For Natural Gas
Author(s): Carol L. Nolte
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to help the user understand the information needed to properly select and size a control valve for natural gas service. With so many different manufactures of control valves we wont focus on one however the information listed is required by all manufactures in order to provide you with the best valve for the application. Most manufactures will assist you in sizing your application. The first step in sizing a control valve is to determine the required Cv or capacity required through the control valve at different operating conditions. It is not enough to size for one condition, rather all the conditions must be considered.
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Document ID: 5C697471

Freeze Protection For Instruments And Instrument Supply Lines
Author(s): James E. Mueller
Abstract/Introduction:
Many natural gas systems suffer from time to time from bothersome equipment failures or line shut-off due to freeze-up. Cold, moist climates accentuate the problems of external freeze-up. With the temperature drop accompanying gas regulation, ice often accumulates on instrument gas regulators, plugs the vents and makes the equipment inoperable. Internal freeze-up occurs in instrument gas systems and pilot supply lines because of several factors. Residual water, left in a normally dry pipeline after hydrostatic testing, is often a cause. Hydrates sometime form at temperatures as high as 50 F. Summer months are diffi cult for some gas storage systems, when the storage pressures are generally at their highest level, instrument gas, taken from high pressure gas storage undergoes a severe temperature drop as the pressure is cut to the instrument gas pressures. Internal freeze-up from hydrate formation is a likely possibility.
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Document ID: 5C17968D

Freeze Protection For Natural Gas Pipeline Systems And Measurement Instrumentation
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
Consistent and continuous pipeline operations are key and critical factors in todays natural gas pipeline industry. The competitive nature of the business, together with the strict rules and regulations of natural gas supply, mandate that companies stay on top of all operational parameters that could cause interruption or complete shut-down of the natural gas supply to customers. Identifying what may ultimately cause problems is a fi rst step to controlling and eliminating those problems for the supplier. The natural phenomenon of freezing is a common occurrence in the operation of a natural gas pipeline system. Whether the gas is produced gas from a crude oil well, or natural gas from a gas well, the possibility for hydrates and the resultant problems, is real. Freezing is a potential and serious problem starting at the production well head through the last point in the customer delivery system. The occurrence of freezing is continuously reduced each step of the way, but care must be taken at each and every step to assure smooth operational conditions and satisfi ed consumers at the end of the line.
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Document ID: F2E1DA21

Gate Station Design
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
The City Gate or, Take, Station, is the interchange of natural gas between: Two interstate pipelines An interstate pipeline and a local gas distribution company (LDC) An interstate pipeline and a large industrial end user (usually a power plant) The City Gate station is one of the more complex designs a natural gas engineer will deal with in the course of a career. Like all projects, a properly designed and constructed gate station begins with good preliminary engineering. In preliminary engineering, all of the major project goals and hurdles are defi ned. If the preliminary engineering document is written properly, it will serve as the backbone for the entire project.
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Document ID: 6D7D522F

Vortex Pilot Gas Heater
Author(s): Hugh Masterson
Abstract/Introduction:
Energy costs money. Heat costs money. With regulation being a necessary function in the natural gas industry, money is spent to see that regulation works properly. Pilot operated regulators, while very reliable and inexpensive relative to other options, can experience freezing in the inner valve of their pilots. This results in regulator malfunction. Traditionally, the industry has pre-heated pilot gas with catalytic heaters. Catalytics use natural gas as fuel. With the marked increase in the price of gas, the industry has sought alternative ways to pre-heat pilot gas. The Vortex Pilot Gas Heater is being used nationwide and around the world to pre-heat pilot gas. And it uses no gas or electricity as fuel. Once installed, it doesnt cost one dime to operate. The industry is experiencing signifi cant fuel and maintenance savings through the use of this revolutionary technology.
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Document ID: 14F68C4E

Fundamentals Of District Regulator Station Design
Author(s): James P. Davis, Scott A. Laplante
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the fundamental steps necessary to begin and complete a district regulator design. It will focus on the techniques NSTAR uses to develop target locations and the subsequent designs. This paper will cover replacements and new installations.
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Document ID: 4ACFA72F

Controller Fundamentals And Tuning
Author(s): Greg Thomas Shumate
Abstract/Introduction:
It is not very easy to start talking about PID controllers. But, once we get started we will go over many aspects of control and how PID controllers help us. Do we start with what they are used for, or how they work? Or for that matter, what is PID? That might be a good place to start. Proportional - Integral - Derivative. Thats it! PID. In this paper we will go over the practical aspects of using and tuning mechanical, pneumatic, and electronic controllers. In our natural gas business nearly all control systems maintain pressure. However, there are many systems that require fl ow, temperature, level, blending and other types of control. The basic reason for using a controller is to automatically maintain the desired level or value of a given product being supplied to a user.
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Document ID: 52828144

Field Communications For Ldc Pressure Monitoring
Author(s): Michael Marsters, Matthew Pawloski
Abstract/Introduction:
It seems that the next logical step for our incresingly intelligent correctors, data loggers and flow computers would be to give them the ability to communicate. This would seem natural with the growing number of personal computers in the gas industry and the tendency toward automatic data collection for large industrial and commercial customers. New challenges arise almost every day in the timely collection of billing data from interruptible service monitoring to the daily balancing of transportation gas. Already, many electronic correctors are being used to store load profile and other time-related data in onboard memory. This can be downloaded into handheld terminal, a portable computer or into a remote computer via telephone modern link.
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Document ID: EAA0A629

Automating Gas Measurement
Author(s): Richard L. Cline
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the discovery of oil and gas and the advent of commercial conveniences, which use oil and gas, companies have been confronted with the need to accurately measure the oil and gas bought and sold in the marketplace. And, as usual, the technology available at the time was brought to bear on the measurement process. All gas companies must, of course, deal with gas measurement and are positioned somewhere on the automation curve. As time moves forward, so does the technology. New products and measurement techniques are constantly being offered to improve the gas measurement process. Unfortunately, adopting the new technology always brings with it a price. And the price is not only measured in dollars, but in ever increasing diffi culty in making intelligent decisions and choices.
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Document ID: 9C21CF30

Data, This Is Your Life
Author(s): Robert Findley
Abstract/Introduction:
It is the realization by many famous thinkers, physicists and mathematicians over the course of history that everything in the world can be represented by groups of 1s and 0s. The foundation of almost all information can be broken down into a simple true/false, yes/no, 1/0 over time. (Quantum Mechanics theories can prove the writer wrong someday, but for the purposes of this paper, this is a fair statement.) Information (or data) can be represented by electronic, mechanical, printed text or smoke signal and the objective of distributing it over any communication medium is the key to its existence.
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Document ID: 0099DB94

Integrating Metering, Billing, Security And Control Processes
Author(s): Robert Findley
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement and process control equipment has been on a progressive trend over the past decade. Due to continuous improvements, products have developed from pneumatic to electronic processes, reduced in physical size and increased in overall functionality. While the core AGA fl ow/energy equations have not altered, the electronic equipment calculating these equations has undergone dynamic changes. These changes will dramatically affect the gas industry, bringing new ideas, concepts and realities.
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Document ID: 5A04741E

The Art Of Mixing PROPANE/AIR To Be Interchangeable With Natural Gas
Author(s): Dan Joubert
Abstract/Introduction:
Anyone who has vaporized and mixed Propane/Air for either Peak Shaving or day-to-day operations in distribution realizes that there is an art to fi nding and maintaining the proper mixture of Propane Vapor, Process Air and Natural Gas to make the resulting mixture roughly equivalent to Natural Gas. Adjustments are required to be made almost constantly to ensure that the fi nal mixture of the gas leaving the facility is capable of being burned in most if not all appliances safely and effi ciently without yellow tipping, lifting or fl ashbacks. It can be exhausting to constantly monitor and adjust the fl ows to come up with just the right mixture. In most Propane/Air Facilities, there is a burner connected to the plant outlet gas line that is constantly on while vaporizing and mixing the gases. In most cases, the operators spend a lot of time watching that burner to see if they are making the proper mixture of gases.
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Document ID: 20B55D29

Proper Operation Of Gas Detection Instruments
Author(s): George Lomax
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the operation, maintenance and calibration for a number of instruments available today for the detection of combustible and toxic gases. The applications for these various instruments will also be discussed. This will include the investigation of odor complaints on a customers property, leakage survey applications, and other safety requirements.
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Document ID: 8A4FC1CB

Corrosion Control Considerations For M&R Stations
Author(s): Michael J. Placzek
Abstract/Introduction:
Corrosion control for a measurement/regulation station can be very challenging. The majority of scenarios that can cause corrosion occur at M&Rs. Corrosion at an M&R can be broken into three major categories: External (external surface of the piping in contact with the soil or water electrolyte), Atmospheric (external surface of the piping in contact with the air) and Internal (internal surface of the piping exposed to liquids, bacteria or other contaminants in the product or gas fl ow).
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Document ID: 7AC956E2

How To Perform A Lost & Unaccounted-For Gas Program
Author(s): Rick Feldmann
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is written for the natural gas pipeline industry, from the vantage point of wellhead to burner tip. Its for: Production Companies wanting to ensure proper measurement of the Btus delivered to, and normally measured at their wellheads by, gathering companies, Gathering and Processing Companies wanting to control losses across their gathering lines and across treatment and processing plants, Transportation Companies wanting to control gas losses across high pressure pipe that extends for thousands of miles, and Distribution Companies that are concerned with gas losses across both high and low pressure distribution systems within city plants. The value proposition to most companies is that a physical loss of gas directly affects their bottom lines as either a loss of revenue or as an expense.
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Document ID: 500F3109

Fundamentals & Development Of LNG Facilities
Author(s): John Jay Gamble
Abstract/Introduction:
History and Projected Role of LNG in USA Properties of LNG Design of LNG Facilities Development & Implementation of LNG Projects Project Examples
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Document ID: CC70A668

Life Of An Appalachian Gas Well
Author(s): Timothy L. Altier
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas was once an unwanted byproduct of oil production. Since it is the gas that pushes oil and brine to the wellbore, the gas was fl ared, sometimes in great quantities in order to produce the oil. No effort was made to conserve the gas so, ironically, the fi eld pressure would decline rapidly and most of the oil would be left in the reservoir. Its fi rst use as a fuel was in the immediate areas the surrounding oilfi elds and even then many times it was fl ared in the town square as a source of lighting and entertainment. No effective transportation system was in place to distribute the gas from the remote fi elds to metropolitan areas. It was not until after World War II that cross country pipelines were laid and large and reliable supplies of gas were available for residential, commercial and industrial consumers. The natural gas industry as we know it has developed in approximately 50 years. Im sure the wildcatters of the early 1900s would be amazed that today you could buy and sell 100 million BTU of gas from a computer screen in any given day!
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Document ID: 267187D6

Underground Storage Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Timothy D. Maddox
Abstract/Introduction:
Most people have never heard of natural gas storage. Even those working in related areas of the gas industry may not have had the opportunity to become completely familiar with it. Storage has historically been a unique but little discussed discipline. With recent changes in Natural Gas Industry regulation, storage has become an important service for utilities to economically serve markets. It is being discussed more frequently, therefore, I have attempted herein to provide the basics, or the what, why and how of underground natural gas storage.
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Document ID: 216FA32F

The Basics Of Well Tendering
Author(s): Twain Faulkner
Abstract/Introduction:
The well tenders job duties are classifi ed into the following areas: 1. Safety 2. Field Integrity and Inventory 3. Deliverability Maintenance 4. Troubleshooting 5. Operations
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Document ID: AFF7F91C

Elements Of Proper Chart Integration
Author(s): Charles T. Hunter
Abstract/Introduction:
Chart Integration is the process of measuring (interpreting) the amount of natural gas recorded on a chart. It is a manual process that has been around for decades and is a MAJOR COMPONENT of the gas industry. A large part of sales are based upon proper measurement as well as royalty payments to land and lease holders. Chart Integration information becomes the basis for ultimately how revenue is received and paid. This session will explain the process of CHART INTEGRATION and show examples of GOOD and BAD charts.
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Document ID: 01B03926

Fundamentals Of Hydrocarbon Dew Point Measurement
Author(s): Jack Herring
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrocarbon Dew Point is becoming a critical tariff parameter but it has always been a vital operational parameter for the pipeline industry. Measuring it must be done properly or serious errors can jeopardize tariff compliance resulting in shut-ins. If liquids build up, especially if water condensates are present allowing hydrate formation to occur, in the pipeline, that can damage compressors, valves and other in-pipe devices. Overcompensation for poor analysis techniques, or a less than optimal choice of instrumentation, will also add signifi cantly to operational costs. The focus of this paper is to identify the major factors that contribute to best practices for measuring the hydrocarbon dew point (HCDP) in natural gas. The three most popular methods for measuring this parameter will be discussed. These three techniques are: Manual visual method with a Bureau of Mines chilled mirror dew point instrument. Equation of state calculations from constituent analysis by gas chromatography. Automatic optical condensation dew point in stru ment. Each technique will be described along with the inherent issues that can enhance the use of the specifi c technique along with results that have been achieved by independent laboratory testing. Pros and cons for each technique will be listed that will provide a basis for comparing these three methods of measurement for this important parameter.
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Document ID: B8874B87

Theory And Application Of Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Mark F. Maxwell
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1978, The Natural Gas Policy Act was passed by Congress as a method of deregulating the gas industry. This act specifi ed that natural gas was to be bought and sold based on energy content per cubic foot. This new standard combined volume measurement and gas heating value measurement to produce an energy measurement system for natural gas. As a result of this act, the on-line gas chromatograph has become a vital element in accurate energy measurement. The individual components of natural gas and the calculated heating value generally note the quality of natural gas. In the USA, the standard of measurement is in British Thermal Units (Btu). A Btu is generally thought of as the heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit. There are two general methods for determining Btu, direct and indirect. Calorimetry is a direct method while Chromatography is an indirect method.
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Document ID: 89C73CDC

Practical Considerations Of Gas Sampling And Gas Sampling Systems
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to be able to take a representative sample of a hydrocarbon product is necessary to ensure proper accounting for transactions and effi cient product processing. The various sampling methods that are available and the options and limitations of these methods are investigated the most appropriate equipment to use the reasons for its use and correct installation of the equipment are also addressed.
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Document ID: 3BB8C4D4

Natural Gas Dehydration
Author(s): Matthew E. Vavro
Abstract/Introduction:
The key to effectively drying natural gas is planning and proper design. With increasingly stringent environmental concerns, dry bed desiccants are gaining rapid acceptance over traditional methods such as triethylene glycol. By properly selecting the correct desiccant, and operating the system in a way that is conducive to effective dehydration, costs can be kept to a minimum. Engineering support, coupled with adequate product choices, has dramatically reduced dehydration costs. Proper design of the entire system is probably the single largest cost saver. Historically, gas dehydration equipment has been non-integrated, with parts being purchased separately and assembled in the fi eld, without considering how the plumbing, vessels, and desiccants work together. Our new approach offers an integrated system, where plumbing, gas fl ow, dryer design, and desiccant performance are all considered. Additionally, new technology has enabled us to dry gas at nearly two linear feet per second, compared with traditional velocities of 0.5 - 0.75 ft/s, while at the same time greatly increasing the amount of water removed per pound of desiccant (referred to as dilution rate). The benefi t to the operator is that vessels can be smaller, thereby reducing equipment costs. Consequently, gas dehydration units can contain multiple vessels on the same skid, allowing either multistage drying, which greatly reduces costs by removing as much water as possible with lower-cost desiccants, or increased fl ow capacity by fl owing gas in parallel through several vessels.
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Document ID: E69E651E

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Water Vapor Measurement
Author(s): Samuel C. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
This document will introduce the basic approaches to trace moisture measurements for natural gas and provide some advantages and disadvantages of each approach. There are many applications where trace moisture measurements are necessary such as in clean dry air, hydrocarbon processing, heat treatment processes, pure semiconductor gases, bulk pure gases, insulating gases such as those in transformers and power plants, and in natural gas pipelines. Natural gas presents a unique situation where the gas can have extremely high levels of solid and liquid contaminants as well as corrosive gases present in varying concentrations.
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Document ID: 8D7DAB66

Basic Electronics For Gas Measurement Technicians
Author(s): Tushar Shah
Abstract/Introduction:
At present, the use of electronics in gas measurement and control has become a necessity and a reality. In todays competitive environment, it is very important to measure, control and communicate gas related fi eld parameters on time, accurately and reliably. The information may be used for marketing, operations/engineering, safety, or billing. As the gas industry moves gas from wellhead to burner tip, several types of electronic devices are used along the way for the gas measurement and control. Most of these devices utilize electronics to do their function. It is important for gas industry fi eld service personnel to understand the basics of electronics to specify, purchase, operate and maintain these devices effectively. However, the material covered in this paper is not limited to personnel in the gas industry. It may also be useful for anyone wanting to refresh his or her knowledge, or begin learning basic electronics.
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Document ID: 7159D932

Flow Measurement And Scada Technology
Author(s): Robert Findley, Michael Rozic
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement and process control equipment has been on a progressive trend over the past decade. Due to continuous improvements, products have developed from pneumatic to electronic processes, reduced in physical size, minimized proprietary programming languages and protocols and increased overall functionality and accessibility. While the core AGA fl ow/energy equations have not altered, the electronic equipment calculating these equations has undergone dynamic changes. These changes will dramatically affect the gas industry, bringing new ideas, concepts and realities. The goal here is to provide the reader with information on recent advancements in measurement and control (M&C) equipment, and what they may offer in the future.
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Document ID: 1092C04E

Proper Grounding Techniques At Plants And Gate Stations
Author(s): Donald R. Long
Abstract/Introduction:
Grounding is defi ned as electrical equipment connected directly to mother earth, or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth, such as the steel frame of a high-rise building on a concrete footing. Proper grounding is an essential component for safely operating electrical systems. Improper grounding methodology has the potential to bring disastrous results. There are many different categories and types of grounding principles. This papers focus is to demonstrate proper grounding techniques for low voltage Instrument and Control Systems (IACS) that have been proven safe and reliable when employed in natural gas facilities.
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Document ID: 1C5BC9D9

Clamp-On Ultrasonic Meter Applications
Author(s): William E. Frasier
Abstract/Introduction:
I have applied the Siemens clamp-on meter in many confi gurations in the fi eld and will describe purposes and fi ndings on the way to precise meter certainty. The clamp-on system provides an effective new tool for insight into the fl owing regime within a pipe. Meter Error Assessment Simple comparisons between the clamp-on meter and a custody meter provide assessment of the custody meter operation. I expect the clamp-on to provide fi eld velocity and actual volume data with a 0.5% uncertainty and repeatability is excellent. Southwest Research Institute demonstrated an uncertainty level of about 0.3% in their lab.(1) Then if we experience greater deviation between two meters, we can begin to suspect the meter under test.
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Document ID: 2D8A21DC

Basic Electronic Communications For The Gas Industry
Author(s): Kenneth J. Pollock
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper introduces the common communications mediums used to convey intelligence for the gas industry. The gas industry requires fast and reliable communications for the conveyance of data for control and measurement applications. The data may be analog, digital, or even voice types of signals and may require transmission over a short distance of less than a couple of feet to over several hundred miles. As the gas is passed from the well head to the fi nal user, many types of electronic devices are employed for fast and accurate measurement of the process. The link that is used to pass this information to the billing, control, or safety system is the communications system. Several communications circuits are required in order to convey the data and there is not any one perfect system that will meet the requirements in all situations.
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Document ID: 77DC90E9

Advanced Electronic Communications For The Gas Industry
Author(s): Jeff Randolph
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss advanced communication options for the gas industry. The advanced communication options are not necessarily new technologies, but possibly new technologies to the gas industry.
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Document ID: 798D2C07

Principles Of Odorization
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
Odorization injection and monitoring technology has advanced dramatically in the past 15 years. A former Chairperson of the Appalachian Short Course, Harold Englert of Columbia Gas Virginia, used to refer to odorization as, A little bit of science, and a whole lot of magic. The intent of this paper is to provide the reader with practical solutions to develop a solid odorization program, even in dense urban environments, in the hope of removing the, Magic, to a successful odorization program.
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Document ID: 30D89EF1

Urban Odorization Issues And Concerns
Author(s): Patrick Callahan
Abstract/Introduction:
An article commenting on the issues concerning todays odorization and gate station odor injection and control. In todays world what was once an open fi eld is now a new subdivision with hundreds of new neighbors. So with new neighbors come new issues, at many of our facilities. The noise, traffi c and the smell of a natural gas take station may be common to us in the industry but not to the common person who now lives next door. These issues to us as owners / employees are not new but have been tolerated for a number of seemingly reasonable concerns. Natural gas utilities used various devices to overcome a sites fl aws since none of the fl aws were inherently hazardous. We would use ear protection for noise vent any process exhausts above the roof line to minimize the buildup or smell of natural gas traffi c was never a problem since most sites were either in industrial areas or remote locations away from the public areas.
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Document ID: 25679F49

Gas Odorants: Health, Environment And Safe Handling
Author(s): Vicente Santa Cruz, David C. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Mercaptans are the most effective chemical substances for odorizing natural and liquid propane gas. Their extremely low odor threshold and powerful olfactory impact make them ideal warning agents. Mercaptans unique physical properties, including flammability, present unique challenges to personnel, communities, and emergency response services. In addition, mercaptans health and environmental concerns have prompted further studies and assessments to better understand how to protect the public and ensure that these materials are handled safely. This paper is an overview of current hazard information and recommended safe handling procedures as applicable to natural and liquid propane gas odorants.
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Document ID: 35F7B99C


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