Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (2008)

Expanding Pipeline Repair/Replace Options
Author(s): Kevin Waddell,Dr. Steven Vitale,Tom Miesner
Abstract/Introduction:
Developed countries face an aging pipeline infrastructure with an increasing need for more and more maintenance. At the same time, burgeoning development places limits on access and restricts working areas, making maintenance more difficult and expensive. The natural gas industry is no exception to the challenges of aging infrastructure and choking development. The natural gas industry faces an additional challenge population sprawl that converts formerly rural areas to Class 2, 3, and even 4, reducing Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS) Maximum Allowed Operating Pressures (MAOP). All the while, increasing demands require more throughput and higher MAOPs to satisfy it.
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Document ID: 1D16296F

It Operations Systems - Trends And Responses
Author(s): Chuck Lang - Michael Moore - Chad Grey
Abstract/Introduction:
IT Systems have played an ever increasing role in Gas Operations over the last decade. Back office and mobile systems such as Work Management, GIS, Dispatch, Document Management, and Asset Management continue to provide opportunity for automating work processes, and continue to bring efficiencies and productivity gains to Gas Distribution utilities across the country. As the use of these systems has grown, the experience from the utility companies has been a major influence on the development and continued progress of these systems. This paper will focus on recent trends and potential future use of IT Gas Operations Systems, specifically highlighting opportunities for utilities to leverage Asset Management data driven by a map-centric approach for use in mobilizing the Compliance processes
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Document ID: FBFE1D55

Hand-Held Acoustic Pipe Locator
Author(s): Kiran Kothari,Robert Cribbs,
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides development of a hand-held prototype acoustic (sonic) locator for locating buried utility pipes. The operating principle of the locator is to send a sonic impulse into the ground and detect an echo from the pipe. A series of echo readings are taken at several locations and will result into an immediate cross sectional display showing the pipe or pipes in lateral position. The locator operates through dirt covered with grass, concrete, or blacktop. The response is essentially the same for plastic or metallic pipes of the same diameter
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Document ID: C22E65CC

A Practical Approach To Alarm Management Stephen m Apple, Director Of Sales, Tips Inc. Part One: Crawling Your Way Into Alarm Management
Abstract/Introduction:
Ive heard it dozens of times- perhaps a hundred. Alarm Rationalization just doesnt work (or didnt for us). Yeah, we tried that alarm management stuff and it didnt do what it was supposed to, so now were looking into other things like APC and predictive alarming. As someone who is supposed to make his living off of alarm management, every time I heard something like this, I did a double-take, but I asked enough questions to start understanding why
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Document ID: CC47B7CF

Alarm Management For Pipelines - Part 2 What Does This Mean To Me?
Author(s): Mark Mctavish
Abstract/Introduction:
Is the pipeline industry different than the process industries, with respect to how alarms are handled? Alarm Management for Pipelines - Part 2 looks at the similarities and the differences between the pipeline industry and other process industries. Furthermore, it examines how one can interpret and apply the existing standards, user guides, and publications to the pipeline control arena.
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Document ID: CEEDB87B

USERCENTEREDDESIGN Services Inc.
Author(s): Ian Nimmo
Abstract/Introduction:
Continuous controlled processes are evolving to centralized control rooms they have been popular since the early 80s. However, the initial ones made a few mistakes, and we have learned from them. Batch control was often done from the field or a primitive shelter and in many plants still is, some have evolved to hardened control rooms because of regulations
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Document ID: 8FD2DA4E

Bimodal Mdpe Pipe Resin For Improved Gas Distribution Pipe Performance
Author(s): William J. Michie, Jr,Stephanie Whited
Abstract/Introduction:
The first NA produced bimodal MDPE pipe resin developed through unique molecular architecture offers significantly better resistance to slow crack growth and rapid crack propagation than traditional PE2708/PE2406 products. This high performance resin extrudes well on conventional equipment, has good melt strength, and the pipes made can be cross-fused to various pipe grades commonly available on the market. Details in performance properties of this PE 2708/ PE80 resin will be discussed in this paper
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Document ID: 538E3A2E

Rate Process Method Applied To Service Life Forecast Of Pe Molded Fittings
Author(s): Dr. Gene Palermo, Sarah Chung
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will review several of the applications for the Rate Process Method such as, validation of the PE material hydrostatic design basis per ASTM D 2837, and service life forecast of old generation PE pipe still in service and correlation with actual field failures. We will also investigate a recent application in which the Rate Process Method was used to determine the service life forecast of a molded PE heat fusion fitting, that the manufacturer had flagged during a routine post-production quality check. Since several of these fittings had already been installed for gas distribution, the manufacturer wanted to know what the projected service life would be.
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Document ID: 339634DA

A Study Of The Correlation Factor Between Full-Scale And S4 Rapid Crack Propagation Rcp() Testing In Gas Piping Applications
Author(s): Pamela L. Maeger, Ashish m. Sukhadia And Mark J. Lamborn
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will show that the current ISO correlation factor between S4 testing and Full- Scale (FS) RCP testing is very conservative, based on our results of North American PE2406/2708 and PE3408/3608 polyethylene pipes that were tested. This paper will present actual test data using both the S4 and FS test methods and compare these data to predictions based on the current S4-to-FS conversion equation per the governing ISO standards. Based on the measured PcFS and PcS4 data, we estimated the Maximum Operating Pressures (MOP) and observed that the MOP based on RCP constraints exceeded the MOP based on design and pressure ratings. These results suggest, therefore, that the current polyethylene piping products in the gas distribution market have very good RCP performance
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Document ID: A8A7CED9

Pe 4710/PE100 High Performance Materials Testing & Evaluation For High Pressure Application
Author(s): Perry Sheth
Abstract/Introduction:
High-performance bimodal PE4710/PE100 materials recently introduced in the US gas distribution utilities require thorough evaluation to maximize benefits and to ensure their compatibility with the existing inventory of in-service PE materials and joining methods. Although all domestic bimodal PE 4710 materials meet or exceed industry standards, it is important that PE4710 pipes and fittings are thoroughly tested and evaluated. The test and evaluation must occur in an environment similar to that of the gas distribution system. This paper presents the testing and evaluation procedure used to qualify different PE 4710 materials.
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Document ID: 80AB60B2

Guidelines For Measurement Errors Caused By Buckled Orifice Plates
Author(s): D. L. George, Ph.D.,
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper documents research on flow measurement errors caused by orifice plates that have undergone permanent, plastic deformation. Tests were performed on orifice plates in both 6-inch and 10-inch diameter line sizes. The plates were flow calibrated in senior orifice fittings flowing natural gas, both before and after being permanently deformed. Results were used to assess measurement error as a function of plate deflection angle, orifice bore diameter, and other critical dimensions. Estimates of the flow measurement error for the bent plates were also predicted using the models published by Jepson and Chipchase (1975), and by Mason, Wilson, and Birkhead (
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Document ID: 4B5822CF

Testing Of Methods For Measuring Hydrocarbon Dew Points In Natural Gas Streams
Author(s): D. L. George, Ph.D., R. C. Burkey, And R. A. Hart,
Abstract/Introduction:
The hydrocarbon dew point (HCDP) is used as a measure of the quality of a natural gas stream and as a criterion for assessing compliance with transportation tariffs. Accurate gas quality data, including HCDPs, are crucial to the effective introduction of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and marginal gas supplies into the natural gas transmission network, and just as crucial to efficient use of the gas by customers. This paper discusses research to evaluate existing automated instruments to objectively measure HCDPs for a range of natural gas mixtures. Emphasis has been placed on accuracy, repeatability, and response time of the dew point instruments
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Document ID: 115ED4E9

Natural Gas Quality Measurement By Spectroscopy
Author(s): Sam Miller,
Abstract/Introduction:
Quality measurements in natural gas such as trace moisture, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide are important because of the corrosive nature of these compounds. Contaminants are found in natural gas in varying degrees from the production wells. Processors, pipeline operators, and gas processors must measure the contaminants to protect equipment and to conform to specifications from their customers. Traditionally, measurement solutions have been expensive to operate due to frequent replacement of probes, light sources, lead acetate tape and other consumables
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Document ID: D1A6B961

New Technology For Spot Sampling Of Natural Gas Having A High Hdp
Author(s): Jay St.Amant,
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation will cover development of a new type of sample cylinder. The cylinder eliminates sources of analytical error related to condensation of high molecular weight hydrocarbons during the sampling procedure. It also eliminates the potential for contamination of the sample gas by unclean cylinder walls. A disposable Tedlar bag inside the new cylinder allows it to be filled with a representative natural gas sample without purging. The Tedlar bag can be discarded should contamination occur. The new cylinder will facilitate the spot sampling of high hydrocarbon dew point natural gas at low ambient temperatures
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Document ID: 9E9F2840

Assessment Of A Gas Quality Survey For Interchangeability
Author(s): David Rue,Tanya Tickel
Abstract/Introduction:
The objective of this project is to provide sponsors an assessment regarding the possible impact of changing fuel gas from an adjust natural gas composition to a set of 38 substitute gases (LNG compositions). The assessment is for the operating characteristics of industrial and commercial burners, for engines, microturbines, and turbines, and for use as a feedstock. The substitute gas compositions in the report are representative of the possible LNG imports, and the equipment are identified by the local distribution company and end user members of the Northeast Stakeholders Group as possibly sensitive to the listed LNG compositions.
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Document ID: 7088169C

Advancements In Video Borescopes For Field Meter Tube Inspections
Author(s): Brad Massey,Jeff Webster,
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to investigate advancements in electronics, lens optics and LCD imagery which have led to an enhanced capability of internal inspections of meter tubes utilizing a video scope. These enhancements prove to be beneficial to a vastly improved method of minimal invasive inspection of meter tube critical components susceptible to damage and flow disturbances caused by debris and buildup of contaminants. The increased portability of the equipment and the ability to capture both video and still images provides users the capability of further review after the initial inspection
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Document ID: 2C2D3F28

Ultrasonic Meter Condition Based Monitoring - A Fully Automated Solution
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
During the past several years the use of ultrasonic meters (USMs) has gained world-wide acceptance for fiscal applications. The many benefits of USMs have been documented in several papers at virtually every major conference. As the cost of gas continues to increase, the importance of knowing that the ultrasonic meter is operating accurately has never been more important. The use of diagnostics to help identify metering issues has been discussed in several papers over the past few years Ref 1 & 2.
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Document ID: 68860DF8

How Advanced Usm Transducers Solve Control Valve Noise Applications
Author(s): Idriz Krajcin, E.ON Ruhrgas Martin Uhrig, Andrew Wrath, Toralf Dietz, Volker Herrmann, John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
The impact of noise originating from pressure regulators on the performance of ultrasonic meters is a well known issue. To date the installation of expensive noise attenuating piping configurations is often used to solve the problem. Extensive research and development has taken place to address this problem with a simpler, more cost effective solution
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Document ID: 71CAA46C

Moisture In Natural Gas Analyzer Design For Stability And Ease Of Maintenance
Author(s): Larry Sieker, Mike Fuller And Airat Amerov
Abstract/Introduction:
Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) provides a high degree of selectivity and sensitivities in the ppmv range for many small gas molecules in natural gas and other hydrocarbon streams. While the non-contact TDLAS approach does not typically require calibration updates and requires little periodic maintenance, it is important to have the ability to verify that the system is performing properly and that the results are valid. This paper describes a new TDLAS system that contains a sealed water reference cell which provides verification that the laser is locked on the selected water absorption line. In addition this system has a sophisticated Web enabled interface that allows easy and real-time updates to key operating parameters. The performance of this system for the analysis of moisture in natural gas will be described.
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Document ID: 1CD54866

Simplified Methods For Calculating Dispersion Of LNG Vapor From Tank/Dike Impoundments Using Integral-Type Models
Author(s): Ted A. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper addresses recent challenges to current practices for calculating liquefied natural gas (LNG) vapor dispersion hazards intended to address U. S. regulatory requirements for siting LNG storage facilities. The paper discusses technical issues of LNG vapor dispersion calculations, technical arguments behind the challenges to current practice, and outlines a potential means of addressing these challenges. The author has simplified technical descriptions of modeling procedures and the proposed alternative with the hope that the paper will stimulate additional technical discussion and analysis. In doing so, the author hopes to help contain controversy presented by these and similar challenges of current LNG facility siting cases within the U. S. regulatory framework
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Document ID: D87C1E30


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