Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (2008)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Fundamentals Of Gas Laws
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters. A standard cubic foot is defined as one cubic foot of gas at a pressure and temperature agreed upon by the buyer and seller. Common standard conditions are 14.73 psia and 60 Fahrenheit. The gas passing through a meter is rarely at standard conditions. It is necessary to convert the gas in the meter from the metered conditions to standard cubic feet. The tools we have for relating volume to pressure and temperature are Equations of State or, simply, the Gas Laws. The Gas Laws serve two purposes. They allow the conversion of a gas stream from metered conditions to standard conditions. They also provide an understanding of what the gas is doing and why. This paper will briefly present the Gas Laws and the physical properties of gas which the Gas Laws describe.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 6B7F370F

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): Bob Carlson
Abstract/Introduction:
Throughout the oil and gas industry, there stems the need for accurate and economical measurement of process fluids and natural gas. Orifice Meters, sometimes referred to as Orifice Fittings, satisfy most flow measurement applications and are the most common flow meter type in use today. The Orifice Meter, sometimes also called a head loss flow meter, is chosen most frequently because of its long history of use in many applications, versatility, and low cost, as compared to other available flow meter types.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 77765C92

Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meters For Custody Transfer Measurement
Author(s): Jim Micklos
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the operating principals and application of ultrasonic gas flow metering for custody transfer. Basic principles and underlying equations are discussed, as are considerations for applying ultrasonic flow meter technology to station design, installation, and operation. These applications are illustrated based on operating experience with the Instromet 3-path and 5-path Q.Sonic custody transfer flow meter however, many of these issues can be generalized to meters manufactured by others.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 800A63AA

Fundamental Principles Of Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): Nicole Ford
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement is the vertebrae of any natural gas utility. Without the ability to measure, it would be impossible to account for the flow of gas from receipt to delivery. Very much like an accountant that labors to keep the ledger balanced, a utility needs metering to balance the gas producers receipts against the end customer delivery.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 64EB49FF

Fundamental Principles Of Rotary Gas Meters
Author(s): John Michalak
Abstract/Introduction:
Rotary gas meters have been in use for over sixty years in the natural gas distribution industry. Over the years, the construction has switched from heavy cast iron bodies to lighter, high strength aluminum. Advances in manufacturing techniques such as CNC machining centers have enhanced the measurement performance of the rotary meter. Traditionally rotary meters are installed on applications requiring a flow capacity of 1,000 to 38,000 cfh.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 6ABD7C18

Fundamental Principles Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): John A. Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of all gas measurement used in the world today is performed by two basic types of meters, positive displacement and inferential. Positive displacement meters, consisting mainly of diaphragm and rotary style devices, generally account for lower volume measurement. Orifice, ultrasonic and turbine meters are the three main inferential class meters used for large volume measurement today. Turbines are typically considered to be a repeatable device used for accurate measurement over large and varying pressures and flow rates. They are found in a wide array of elevated pressure applications ranging from atmospheric conditions to 1440 psig. Turbine meters have also become established as master or reference meters used in secondary calibration systems such as transfer provers. A significant number of both mechanical and electrical outputs and configurations have become available over the past 50 years of production. This paper will focus on the basic theory, operating principles, performance characteristics and installation requirements used in turbine meter applications. A discussion of fundamental turbine meter terminology is also included.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 9A4E7883

Fundamentals In LNG
Author(s): Tom Quine
Abstract/Introduction:
The following discusses the historical use and future opportunities relating to natural gas, LNG and geological gas storage. New opportunities are presented by the nonlinear 23.5 tcf/y US gas use and declining production. This fact has created a significant need for LNG imports and LNG distributed assets in the US. In addition it has created a need for market based and production based geological storage with services ranging from firm contracts, wheeling and hub based park and loan.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: A99133E6

Fundamentals Of Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Dean Lightfoot
Abstract/Introduction:
A regulator may be defined as a mechanism for controlling or governing the movement of machines or the flow of liquids and gases, in order to meet a standard. The primary function of a gas or liquid regulator is to match the supply of the fluid moving through it to the demand for the fluid downstream. To accomplish this, it measures the downstream pressure and makes adjustments accordingly. Set Point Take, for example, a furnace using some type of combustible fluid as a fuel (See Figure 1). In a steady state operation, the number of molecules of fluid being consumed by the fire must equal the number of molecules of fluid passing through the regulator. Should the load or demand for the molecules decrease, then the flow of the fluid through the regulator must decrease or too much fluid will be forced into the downstream piping causing its pressure (P2) to increase. If the load increases, then the flow through the regulator must also increase to compensate for the increased lose of fluid molecules. Otherwise P2 will decrease from a lack of fluid being available to replenish that being used. To meet these fluctuations in demand the regulator senses the downstream pressure, compares it to the set point pressure (its standard), and opens or closes as needed.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 3315D70F

Clamp-On Ultrasonic Meter Applications
Author(s): William E. Frasier
Abstract/Introduction:
I have applied the Siemens clamp-on meter in many configurations in the field and will describe purposes and findings on the way to precise meter certainty. The clamp-on system provides an effective new tool for insight into the flowing regime within a pipe.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 33A135FF

Characteristics Of Rotary Meter Performance
Author(s): Kevin C. Beaver
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper highlights several rotary meter performance characteristics. These characteristics profile a rotary meters capabilities in a wide array of applications from production to transmission, and distribution. Most of the characteristics have minimum standards adopted by agencies like AGA or ASTM. Ill identify these standards, and incorporate them?where applicable?into my paper. In discussing these characteristics, I hope to give the reader a better understanding of the capabilities of rotary meters, and how the gas industry assesses these characteristics. Heres the performance characteristics Ill discuss: Rangeability Start Rate Stop Rate Stating & Running Differential Accuracy
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: A3FE25D3

Basic Electronics For Field Measurement
Author(s): Rick Heuer
Abstract/Introduction:
Try this at home. We are professionals. If you are able to install your own TV dish satellite system and a wireless home network for PCs, you have a head start on installing and maintaining electronic field measurement equipment. Todays Measurement Technicians and Engineers are required to operate and maintain a variety of Hi-Tech field measurement equipment. Most of the field instrumentation is tightly integrated in a complete system functional environment. The larger the metering station, the more complex the system.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 9E320613

Fundamentals Of Egm Electrical Installations
Author(s): Leon Black
Abstract/Introduction:
We have all heard of or seen the devastating effects of a direct lightning burst. Communication equipment destroyed. Transmitters and EFM devices vaporized into slag metal. Complete process and measurement systems down with extended recovery times. These effects are the most dramatic and the easiest to trace. However, these kinds of events are rare. The more prominent events are those that occur on a day-to-day basis without we, the user, even knowing. With the advent of the transistor and today when surface mount electronics is the norm and not the exception, transient suppression has become a science of necessity. Tight tolerances of voltage requirements and limited current carrying capabilities makes the new compact integrated circuits much more susceptible to many types of transients.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 36CCDAAD

Composition Analysis In Pipeline Gas & Ngl With Process Mass Spectrometry
Author(s): Larry E. Sieker
Abstract/Introduction:
Mass Spectrometry (MS) can be found in most industrial laboratories for detailed compositional analysis of process fluids and gases. Though accurate, fast, and complete, laboratory analysis using MS can only provide process information regarding intermediate or final product analysis for quality control programs and production history. MS is currently evolving from a laboratory instrument to an on line process analyzer so that a continuous compositional analysis can be utilized for process control purposes. There has been tremendous interest from the Natural Gas market, particularly in NGL production, for utilizing the speed of response and multi-component analysis that Mass Spectrometry can provide.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 5B92C870

Devices For Field Determination Of H2O In Natural Gas
Author(s): Charlie Cook
Abstract/Introduction:
H2O vapor is an undesirable component of natural gas. It takes up space in the pipeline and provides no fuel value. In higher concentrations it can condense into liquid water in the pipeline and cause corrosion, especially in the presence of carbon dioxide or H2S. Liquid water can also cause damage to the equipment utilizing the gas, for example to turbines. Because of this, most gas transfer tariffs include a limit on the acceptable concentration of H2O in the gas stream. This paper reviews the devices that can be used in the field to determine the amount of water vapor present in a natural gas stream.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: CCD669E0

Fundamentals Of Energy Determination
Author(s): David Hailey
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents fundamental information necessary to understand and appreciate the concept of total gas energy in a natural gas pipeline. That is, to be able to converse with peers within the natural gas industry and understand basic concepts and terminology. Discussed is the historical transition from volumetric measurement to total gas energy including some of the basic terminology, physics, measurement, as well as the reasons for changes in methodologies. Included is industry acceptance of new concepts and regulations involving custody transfer as well as the instrumentation and systems involved in traditional and newer, more progressive forms of gas measurement.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: B20325E9

Effects Of Entrained Liquids On Orifice Measurement
Author(s): Josh Kinney, Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice plate meters are one of the most widely used technologies in industry for gas flow metering. This is due to their relative simplicity, the extensive publicly available data sets that led to several orifice plate meter standards 1, 2, 3, and 4 and the fact that they are a relatively inexpensive method of gas metering. However, it is common in industry for gas meters to be installed in applications where the flows are actually wet gas flows, i.e., flows where there is some liquid entrainment in a predominantly gas flow. This is usually done out of economic necessity or due to the fact that the system designers were not aware at the conceptual design stage that the gas flow would have entrained liquid. Therefore, with the orifice plate meter being such a popular gas flow meter, it is by default possibly the most common wet gas flow meter. The effect of wet gas flow on an orifice plate meter configured for gas flow service is complicated. There are ongoing research programs worldwide aimed at improving the understanding of the reaction of the differential pressure meter family (of which the orifice plate meter is a member) to wet gas flow. Most of the research results are published in conference papers. However, it is not always immediately obvious to the technician in the field using an orifice plate meter with wet gas how this information can be practically applied. This paper attempts to review the current scientific knowledge from a practical users standpoint.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F4E7F108

Verifying Gas Chromatographs At Custody Transfer Locations
Author(s): Shane Hale
Abstract/Introduction:
Verifying the correct operation and accuracy of the Gas Chromatograph (GC) is an integral part of a custody transfer metering system, and involves ensuring the accuracy of the analyzer at the time of testing, as well as confirming that the GC performed properly during the periods between validations and assessing the likelihood of continued proper functioning until the next validation. Because the GC will be offline during much of a validation procedure, the validation should only be performed at a time when the composition of the gas flowing through the metering station is relatively stable. Since periods of stable gas composition can be hard to predict, stations with Ultrasonic Meters should measure the speed of sound and compare the result with the calculated speed of sound for a fixed composition to monitor the validity of the fixed composition during the validation. If the variation in the speed of sound varies by more than 2%, the validation procedure should be halted, and the GC should be returned to service until the gas composition stabilizes.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 129C60A7

Operations Of Online Chromatographs
Author(s): Burt Reed
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Chromatographs have become vitally important in todays gas industry for one very important reason. The reason is they provide the data that tells us how much energy in contained in a given sample of gas. With the escalating costs of natural gas, the capability of calculating the full energy of the gas sample has also increased in value. Currently, gas is exchanged based on the amount of energy contained in natural gas, not just the volume of that gas. The energy of a given gas quantity is derived by multiplying the gas volume by the quality or Btu value of the gas. The energy value is called a deka Therm or MM Btu.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 36B0AEF0

Advances In Natural Gas Sampling Technology
Author(s): Donald Mayeaux, Paula Lanoux
Abstract/Introduction:
The monetary value of natural gas is based on its energy content and volume. The energy content and physical constants utilized in determining its volume are computed from analysis. Therefore correct assessment of the value of natural gas is dependent to a large extent on overall analytical accuracy. The largest source of analytical error in natural gas is distortion of the composition during sampling. Sampling clean, dry natural gas, which is well above its Hydrocarbon Dew Point (HCDP) temperature is a relatively simple task. However, sampling natural gas that is at, near, or below its HCDP temperature is challenging. For these reasons, much attention is being focused on proper methods for sampling natural gas which have a high HCDP temperature.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: E4F72813

H2S Detection And Determination
Author(s): Marshall Schreve
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is a gas composed of one Sulfur Atom and two Hydrogen Atoms. H2S is formed by the decomposition of organic matter and is therefore, found naturally in crude oil and natural gas deposits. H2S is a highly toxic, transparent, colorless and corrosive gas. Due to the toxic and caustic properties of this gas and its natural presence within natural gas, it is imperative to measure and control the concentration levels of H2S within natural gas pipelines. This paper will discuss the Properties, Purpose of Measurement and Measurement Technologies for H2S and discuss how these technologies can be adapted for measurement of Total Sulfur.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 379F3234

Ultrasonic Meters For Residential And Commercial Applications
Author(s): Paul Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
An ultrasonic meter falls into the classification of inferential meters. Unlike positive displacement meters that capture volume to totalize volume, inferential meters measure flowing gas velocity to totalize volume. Orifice meters use pressure drop to measure velocity to infer volume and turbine meters use the speed of the rotor to measure velocity to infer volume, while ultrasonic meters use sound waves to measure flowing gas velocity to infer volume. Ultrasonic meters have been around for many years in primarily liquid measurement. However, their application in the measurement of natural gas is relatively new, and has become more commercialized over the last decade. A significant contributor to the commercialization of ultrasonic meters in gas is affordable, highly accurate timing devices, that are being mass produced for computers and digital devices. Since changes in the speed of sound are much less in gas than in liquids, measurement of these timing changes needs to be measured to greater precision.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: B576AF3F

Techniques Of Natural Gas Composite Sampling
Author(s): Linda Macdonald
Abstract/Introduction:
Energy companies focused on natural gas production, gathering, transmission, or distribution are ultimately valued on their ability to produce or deliver natural gas to its customers. Pressure and temperature measurement provides data that is required to quantify natural gas flow rates while natural gas sampling provides the heat content, or energy value, associated with this natural gas. Accurate measurement and data collection is the foundation for natural gas purchase, sales contracts and royalty payments. The underlying data that support these contracts are the ultimate economic value drivers for these energy companies.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: FEBA91AF

Flow Conditioning - A Technology Research Updated
Author(s): Blaine Sawchuk, Dale Sawchuk, Danny Sawchuk
Abstract/Introduction:
Inferential meters, such as orifice, turbine and ultrasonic meters, infer fluid flow based on an observed meter output combined with a number of fluid flow assumptions. Optimal flow conditions lead to optimal meter performance and in some cases fully developed turbulent pipeline flow is used to describe these optimal flow conditions. Unfortunately, the length of long/straight/uniform/clean pipe required to produce fully developed pipeline flow often exceeds practical installation constraints. Although flow conditioning has been successfully used to create optimal flow conditions and reduce meter run lengths, problems can still exist if they are incorrectly applied. This overview presents material available from the literature, which describes some of the installation effects that need to be managed.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 58557B2E

Calibration Standard Gases
Author(s): Ronald C. Geib
Abstract/Introduction:
Calibration standard gases are essential to quantitative analytical measurements in petrochemical processes, natural gas, environmental compliance, and health and safety programs - among others. The calibration gas standard establishes a known analyzer response to a certified chemical component concentration which enables the conversion of sample responses to a concentration with a determinable accuracy. In consideration of the criticality of calibration standard gases to valid measurements in chemical processes and environmental monitoring programs, the objective of this paper will be to provide an in-depth review of how calibration standard gases are manufactured, certified, and properly maintained.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C198D863

Field Inspection And Calibration Of Measurement Instruments
Author(s): George E. Brown III
Abstract/Introduction:
Timely, diligent field testing and calibration of gas volume recording and correcting instruments ensure that measurement information fairly represents actual volumes. The instruments save a company capitol and operating costs because they can record or integrate volumes at pressures and temperature above the normal pressurebase conditions specified in contracts for volume calculation. This allows the company to use smaller and fewer meters. Recording and correcting instruments normally are connected to positive displacement, rotary and turbine meters in lieu of a direct reading/compensating index. The compensating instruments include: Volume and pressure/temperature recording gauges Mechanical pressure/temperature volume correctors Electronic pressure/temperature volume correctors Electronic flow computer
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: A8193882

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Chemistry
Author(s): Steve Whitman
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to understand the chemistry of natural gas, it is important to be familiar with some basic concepts of general chemistry. Here are some definitions you should know: Matter - anything that has mass and occupies space. Energy - the capacity to do work or transfer heat. Elements - substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical changes. There are approximately 112 known elements. Examples: carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. Atom - the smallest unit in which an element can exist. Atoms are composed of electrons, protons, and neutrons. Compounds - pure substances consisting of two or more different elements in a fixed ratio. Examples: water and methane. Molecule - the smallest unit in which a compound can exist or the normal form in which an element exists. Example: One molecule of water consist of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. One molecule of nitrogen consist of two atoms of nitrogen. Mixture - combination of two or more pure substances in which each substance maintains its own composition and properties. Examples: natural gas, gasoline, and air.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: B31CFC74

Meter Selection For Various Load Requirements
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to provide meter station designers with a basic methodology for selection of an appropriate flow meter (or meters) for a given application. Since many applications require that a meter station operate over a broad range of flow rates or loads, examples are be provides on how to address system rangeability while maintaining accurate flow measurement. Detailed technical discussions pertaining to the various available gas metering technologies is beyond the scope of this paper, but information of that type can be found in other papers in these Proceedings.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: DF8AE711

Design And Installation Of A Complete Measurement & Control Facility
Author(s): Thomas G. Quine
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation is intended to illustrate the implementation of a successful project. These principles can be applied to measurement and control projects, LNG projects, and LPG projects. The strategy presented involves performing through preliminary engineering, performing final design and procurement, qualification of installers, construction, testing, commissioning and finally, training and documentation. This presentation focuses on the following items: Developing a project perspective Establishing a sound baseline from which to proceed Examples of actual designs Typical design deliverables Conclusion
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: DD8381C9

How To Perform A Lost & Unaccounted-For Gas Program
Author(s): John Mcdaniel
Abstract/Introduction:
Many (likely most) gas pipeline companies struggle with lostand- unaccounted-for-gas (L&U) and it can be a significant cost to their bottom line as shown below. As shown in this inset, by reducing L&U from 0.6 percent to .25 percent, a typical company with a 2 BCF daily throughput could save almost 18 million annually based on 7.00 gas prices, which is a daily loss of 49,000.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: FCAE6B15

Application And Verification Of Coriolis Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early 1980s, Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in gas, liquid, and slurry applications with an installed base of more than 500,000 units. Through significant design enhancements in the early 1990s Coriolis meters have rapidly gained worldwide acceptance in gas phase applications with over 35,000 meters installed world wide and most notably the 2003 publication of AGA Report Number 11, Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis Meter. Having the ability to bidirectionally measure almost any gas phase fluid from -400 to +400 degrees Fahrenheit without concern of error or damage due to flow profile disturbances, pulsations, regulator noise, surges, compressibility change, and density change, Coriolis meters are becoming the fiscally responsible meter of choice in many applications.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: AFB8ACC8

Principles Of Odorization
Author(s): Kyle Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Odorization is a process we are mandated to know about, and deal with on a daily basis. So why is it that no one likes to work with odorant? Could it be the distinctive smell that gets on our clothing, causing problems with family, friends, neighbors, and the public in general? Why do we odorize? We odorize primarily because it is a legal requirement. We also odorize for the public safety. We must inject odorant into natural gas in order to alert or warn of possible dangers (i.e. leaks). It was first proposed in Germany in the 1880s by Von Quaglios use of ethyl mercaptan as a means of lead detecting the escape of blue water gas. However, most people have heard about the New London tragedy. In 1937, there was an explosion that leveled an elementary school in New London, Texas, killing 293 people of which the majority were children. For this reason, it is important that we understand the tremendous responsibility of knowing and implementing the odorization process.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F09E3989

Onsite Proving Of Gas Flow Meters
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increased use of Natural Gas as a fuel, higher natural gas prices, and the new federal regulations, buyers and sellers of natural gas are seriously looking at ways to improve their natural gas measurement and reduce the amount of natural gas that is unaccounted for. An error in measurement of only one tenth of one percent (0.1%) on 100 MMSCF/D Natural Gas selling at 5.50/MCF will cause an over or under billing of 200,750.00 in one year. This will more than pay for a proving system. If the company undercharges it has lost money and if it over charges it has the risk of lawsuits later for huge amounts of money.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 715DE246

Flow Meter Installation Effects
Author(s): Eric Kelner
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter station piping installation configuration is one of a number of effects that may adversely affect meter accuracy. Some piping configurations can distort the flow stream and produce flow measurement bias errors (i.e., offsets in the meter output) of up to several percent of reading. Valves, elbows, or tees placed upstream of a flow meter are just some of the piping elements that can distort the flow stream. In this paper, installation effects are discussed with respect to two of the four main components of a flow measurement system: the meter, or primary element, and the secondary (pressure and temperature) instrumentation. The effect of the velocity profile of the flow stream on orifice, ultrasonic, and turbine flow meters is discussed next. Installation conditions that may adversely impact the accuracy of pressure and temperature measurements are discussed after that. The gas chromatograph and the flow computer, the third and fourth components, are treated in separate courses.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: E1E09711

Field Testing By Transfer Proving
Author(s): Larry K. Wunderlich
Abstract/Introduction:
Transfer proving was initially developed to provide an easier and more accurate field meter proving method. Because of the capacity capabilities of transfer provers (2000 CFH to 80,000 CFH) transfer provers are utilized in meter shops where bell prover capacity is limited and allow for shop testing of the larger capacity meters.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 4380ADB9

Unaccounted Gas Study
Author(s): Jay Shiflet
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Gas Distribution business Unaccounted Gas is referred to by various names or terms such as: Lost and Unaccounted-For, LUG, L&U, and UAF. In simplest terms, Unaccounted Gas is the result of the formula gas receipts minus gas deliveries. For the Measurement Group the process amounts to a gas inventory reconciliation based on the recorded volumes into the system(s) less the sum of the volumes out of the system(s). This can be a town by town or a total-system reconciliation. In a perfect world the gas receipt point is a single town border or city gate, and the deliveries are made to customers via a totally gas tight piping system. The city gate station measurement period and that of the customers meters are all based on the same time period. All meters have an uncertainty of less than 0.5%. All of the volume determinations and reporting is done in a single Gas Measurement System, and no revisions to original volumes is ever necessary. Regrettably not too many perfect world situations exist in the gas distribution business.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 106C6840

Periodic Inspection Of Regulators And Reiief Valves
Author(s): Mark T. Winsor
Abstract/Introduction:
I spent ten years as the instructor of Pressure Control for one the largest Natural gas companies in the United States. At least 200 days of each year, I taught in the field working with individuals responsible for all equipment used for pressure control and overpressure protection in more than 350 cities and towns. All classes were conducted in the field working on active stations. Students were taught to methodically research each station before any attempt at an inspection was made. Each student was first trained to comfortably control the station they were assigned manually, using block valves before conducting the inspection process.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: D5F4AF95

Proper Testing Of Odorant Concentration Levels
Author(s): Paul D. Wehnert
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper odorant monitoring is required to keep natural gas utilities under compliance with federal and state regulations. These monitoring requirements are generally handled through a combination of events including injection rate calculations, customer complaint calls, routine service personnel tests, odor concentration tests and chromatographic analysis. In the world today it is critical to have appropriate documentation to support proof that proper odorization of natural gas is occurring. This process will ultimately protect the public and hopefully keep us all from litigation.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 6C775C63

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Paul J. La Nasa
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents methods for determining the uncertainty of both differential and linear metering stations. It takes into account the type of meter, number of meters in parallel, type of secondary instruments, and the determination of physical properties. The paper then relates this information to potential influence on system balance.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: AD00FC7E

Use Of Equations Of State Eos() Software
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper sample conditioning is essential to providing a representative sample of natural gas to the analyzer. Sample conditioning consists of extracting a sample from a process stream, transporting it to an analyzer, and conditioning it so that it is compatible with the analyzer. Conditioning generally consists of controlling the gas temperature, pressure, and flow rate. It also includes the removal of contaminates which may alter the sample composition and/or damage the analyzer. It is imperative that the gas sample composition is not altered or distorted during the conditioning process.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: BC4F768B

Lessons Learned From The API 14.1 Gas Sampling Research Project
Author(s): Darin L. George, Eric Kelner
Abstract/Introduction:
Since 1999, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), the American Petroleum Institute (API), the United States Minerals Management Service (MMS), and Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) have co-sponsored an extensive natural gas sampling research program at the Metering Research Facility (MRF), located at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The results of this research provided a basis for recent revisions to the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) Chapter 14.1, Collecting and Handling of Natural Gas Samples for Custody Transfer. The research supported revisions that produced both the 5th edition of the standard, published in 2001, and the new 6th edition, published in February 2006.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 81ADA9DE

An Overview Of Industry Standards Related To Natural Gas Measurement
Author(s): Barry Balzer
Abstract/Introduction:
What is a standard? Why are standards important? Merriam-Webster dictionary defines standard as: 1) a conspicuous object (as a banner) formerly carried at the top of a pole and used to mark a rallying point especially in battle or to serve as an emblem 2) something established by authority, custom, or general consent as a model or example 3) something set up and established by authority as a rule for the measure of quantity, weight, extent, value, or quality 4) the fineness and legally fixed weight of the metal used in coins 5) the basis of value in a monetary system 6) a structure built for or serving as a base or support From these definitions, it appears that one could conclude that a standard should have value be established by general consent or by an organization be a yardstick to measure quantity, quality, and value and be a base or support upon which one can built procedures and policies.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: CD49EE0C

An Overview And Update Of AGA 9
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association published Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters Ref 1 in June 1998. It is a recommended practice for using ultrasonic meters (USMs) in fiscal (custody) measurement applications. This paper reviews some of history behind the development of AGA Report No. 9 (often referred to as AGA 9), key contents and includes information on meter performance requirements, design features, testing procedures, and installation criteria. This paper also discusses changes that will be incorporated in the next revision. At the time of this paper the expected publication date is the Fall of 2006.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 5FDD29C3

Pulsation Effects On Orifice Metering Considering Primary And Secondary Elements
Author(s): Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of orifices for commercial flow measurement has a long history dating back more than 70 years. Orifices are extensively used in the United States natural gas, petroleum and petro-chemical industries and are important as one of the most practical ways to meter large volumes of gas flow. These meters are very reliable and cost effective and if properly used, can be relied upon to give accurate results.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: E62A3DB3

AGA Calculations - 1985 Standard Vs 1992 Standard
Author(s): Brent Berry
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to help bridge the gap between the Old AGA-3 equation (hereafter referred to as AGA-3-1985) and the New AGA-3 equation (hereafter referred to as AGA-3-1992). As such the paper begins with a background section aimed at assisting those who are mostly familiar with the factored form of the orifice metering equation.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 24FF0FEA

A Review Of The Revisions To API 14.3/AGA 3 Part 2
Author(s): Fred G. Van Orsdol
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS), Chapter 14.3 is a living document, constantly reviewed and reconsidered for revision as new information and research data become available relative to the design and operation of orifice metering systems. In spite of this scrutiny within the API, the American Gas Association (AGA), and the International Standards organization (ISO), the latest recommendations and revisions are not well known in many areas of our industry. Many companies are still designing to AGA 3 1985 standards.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 03DF5191

Ultrasonic Flow Meter Calibration Considerations And Benefits
Author(s): Wayne Haner
Abstract/Introduction:
Although calibration is an important step for enhancing the accuracy of all measurement technologies, in ultrasonic metering, this activity plays an even more prominent role. The extended flow ranges capability of ultrasonic technology, although capacity adventitious can magnify measurement error if not corrected through proper calibration.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: BC145290

Problems Unique To Offshore Measurement
Author(s): Jackie R. Tims
Abstract/Introduction:
Some major problems and unique solutions will be addressed with gas measurement on offshore platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. This presentation will show the major roll safety, transportation, and weather play in the technicians ability to verify the accuracy of the gas measurement facility. Proper operation, design, and installation will ensure accurate measurement.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 70F680BE

Automating Gas Measurement
Author(s): Richard L. Cline
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address concepts of SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems) and their application to the measurement industry. An important focus of the paper is to provide the reader with an understanding of the technology and with guidelines to be used to evaluate this equipment as part of an automation project.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 045CA53F

The Importance Of Discerning The Impact Of New Measurement Technology
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
With the current demand for improved technologies in the area of fluid measurement, the rush to the market place is raising as many questions as it is answering. In the last 25 years, the natural gas pipeline industry has transitioned from the supplier of clean, dry gas to the mover of billable gas energy clean and dry or dirty and wet. The LNG market has impacted the operations of the typical gas supply systems worldwide. The demand for more and more crude oil has put pressure on old measurement designs to become increasingly flexible to a variety of crude oil deliveries. Designing and creating improved products for the measurement of volume and quality has provided new challenges as the marketing and transportation of oil and natural gas has changed. This paper will focus on the natural gas sector however, the lessons can be transferred to the entire industry.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: E8D1807E

High Pressure Calibration Of Gas Turbine Meters In Carbon Dioxide
Author(s): Paul W. Tang
Abstract/Introduction:
The pressure sensitivity of turbine meters is a well-observed phenomenon since the inception of these devices. Unfortunately, very little organized experimental data were available for study until recently. Due to the ever-rising energy costs, the natural gas industry is paying much more attention to improve the accuracy of natural gas flow measurement. The latest revision of the AGA No.7 report recommends that a turbine meter should be calibrated close to its intended operating conditions in order to minimize measurement error caused by pressure variation. This paper describes a novel approach in high-pressure turbine meter proving using carbon dioxide gas as a test medium. The concept of Reynolds number turbine meter proving is explained. Test data demonstrating the validity of the Reynolds number matching method are presented and the description of a high-pressure turbine meter calibration facility based on this new technology is given.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: E13D864B

D.O.T. Requirements For The Transportation Of Sample Cylinders
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The United States Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) is a department of the U.S. Federal Government, which oversees all issues regarding transportation within the United States of America and U.S. Territories. Its influence around the world is great and widely respected, but its jurisdiction and power of enforcement is limited to the USA and its territories. As regards this paper, we will discuss the D.O.T. and its involvement surrounding sample cylinders for the hydrocarbon industry and the rules regarding the movement of these cylinders from point to point in the United States.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: ACE870FB

Protection Of Natural Gas Measurement Equipment Against Moisture And Corrosion
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry relies very heavily on sensitive electronic equipment utilized in the production, gathering, transportation, and distribution phases. There is an increasing reliance on the use of electronics for performing important tasks relating to measurement, control, and safety. Coupled with increased reliance is the demand by users for increased reliability.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: EEC7FF3D

Scada And Telemetry In Gas Transmission Systems
Author(s): Edward H. Smyth
Abstract/Introduction:
operation of gas transmission systems. Advanced applications and interfaces to business systems provide the keys for highly profitable operation. This paper introduces the basic building blocks of the SCADA system, including field devices. The SCADA host and advanced applications are discussed in detail. The paper concludes with a discussion of SCADA trends.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 6150119C

Understanding DOT/PSM Operator Qualification Program
Author(s): Britt Mcneely
Abstract/Introduction:
The Operator Qualification (OQ) rule has greatly impacted pipeline operations for all major pipeline system operators. For Panhandle Energy, the efforts to satisfy all segments of the rule have required a significant investment in money and manpower, with many changes to most aspects of field operations. Several key efforts are worthy of further explanation concerning the companys approach to the rule. The first effort by the company dealt with writing a general OQ compliance procedure that outlined how the company would comply with all aspects of the OQ rule. Next was the task of establishing Panhandles interpretation of a Covered Task List, which is guided in the rule by the four part criteria listed in Subpart N 192.801 (b) (1), (2), (3) and (4). Since the rule also applies to contractors performing OQ tasks on the system, we determined that it would be best to use an Industry Standard task list numbering system (developed by Veriforce, an OQ contractor qualification firm, and multiple pipeline operating groups) to reduce confusion in the task identification for the field.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 39B4FEDC

Advance Communication Designs
Author(s): Bob Halford
Abstract/Introduction:
We say Advanced Wireless Data Radio Communication Systems Design Process not because this is a more indepth and more technical process, but because the systems involved are complex in nature and must be carefully designed and programmed. If anything, what I want to do is teach you a more simplified approach and technique to design a SCADA or Telemetry project, but one which you do the same whether the system is large or small.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C4BDADA4

Electronic Calibrators
Author(s): Roger Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure calibration is as important today as it has been for a very long time, but the way calibration is done and the equipment used to do it has changed drastically. In the past it was a standard practice to use a primary standard for pressure calibration. That standard was normally a dead weight tester or a manometer. Today with more accurate secondary standards available there is a larger choice in what can be used for pressure calibration. What is used normally will depend on the requirements that have to be met and the equipment that is available. This paper discusses issues that should be taken into consideration when choosing a pressure calibrator from the many that are available today.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 5A3E8F6A

Freeze Protection For Natural Gas Pipeline Systems And Measurement Instrumentation
Author(s): Tom Fay
Abstract/Introduction:
One way businesses in todays natural gas industry can be certain to maintain a presence in a competitive market is to be able to deliver a consistent supply to their customers. To ensure a reliable supply, companies must be aware of potential problems that could lead to interruptions or shutdowns in service and the procedures that can prevent these costly situations. Freezing is a major culprit not only in these pipeline shutdowns and interruptions, but it can also affect the accuracy of gas measurement.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: AA58C1BC

A New Perspective On Measurement The Impact Of Measurement In A Changing Business Environment
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of hydrocarbons has evolved significantly through the years, from both a technical and business application perspective. Developments and advances in technology have made the measurement of hydrocarbons more precise, efficient, and available. Changes in the energy business environment have placed the measurement of hydrocarbons into a more significant role within organizational and industry business processes.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 39AC91FE

Production Equipment Effects On Gas Measurement
Author(s): David Pulley
Abstract/Introduction:
American Gas Association states that measurement of natural gas by an orifice meter requires a single-phase hydrocarbon through the metering area, which allows an accurate measurement of differential pressure across the orifice plate, flowing temperature, and component analysis at a metering station. Some gas contracts state that the producer shall condition the gas for metering which would allow accurate measurement of gas flowing through the metering station. To meet the AGA and Contract requirements personnel need to have a knowledge and operational understanding of production equipment used to condition gas prior to the point of measurement. To achieve this condition, field personnel should have an operational understanding of production equipment by which they can perform maintenance on and make adjustments to achieving an optimum flowing condition within the metering tube.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: CE2E869C

Training Field Measurement Personnel
Author(s): Russel W. Treat
Abstract/Introduction:
Technology in the field of gas measurement and control is constantly evolving. While many are well trained in the specific equipment used in their own companys operation, it is also important to have a solid understanding of the fundamentals and theory of operation of the mechanical and physical processes involved. Therefore, the training of field measurement technicians is of the utmost importance. These technicians must be continually educated to have the most current knowledge of the latest equipment, electronics, communications, and metering devices on the market. Also, it is essential that this type of instruction be taught in a controlled environment where the technicians can learn and develop the necessary skills with the least amount of interruptions from external sources.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 9283EB32

Strategic Implementation Of Wireless Technologies
Author(s): Jim Gardner
Abstract/Introduction:
This SCADA design overview reviews the six key steps for specifying basic system requirements, followed by the primary considerations for developing a radio communications system that includes technology best meeting your objectives.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 53A376DC

Communication Between Office And Field Personnel
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry today is constantly changing, with increasing demands on office and field personnel. Initially there was FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission) Order 636 that forced the gas measurement departments into the electronic age. Next, corporate downsizing has required the gas measurement groups to perform at the same level of integrity in the measurement of gas with reductions in staff of up to 60%. Then GISB (Gas Industry Standards Board) made its way into the gas measurement department through proposed standardization. Today hourly processing requirements with a daily closing schedule is knocking on the door and has already arrived at some locations. To meet these demands timely communication between the office and field employees is required. Both of these locations (field and office) have been impacted with increased workloads and constant upgrades in equipment and software. With all of this occurring, it is very easy to overlook one of the key links to accurate measurement and that is communication.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 943B6736

Electronic Gas Measurement Auditing
Author(s): Perry Dee Hummel
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic Gas Measurement or EFM auditing is a very important process of the natural gas industry. Only a few short years ago, the dry flow chart recorder was the state of the art recording device for custody gas measurement. All that has changed with the advent of the flow computer volumes are recorded and generated at the field level, and imported to the measurement system. Careful review of meter data should be part of the monthly close process.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C2E2F8C5

Web-Based Solutions For Orifice Measurment & Monitering
Author(s): Mark B. Fillman
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays Internet age, the development of practical and cost-effective web-based solutions in energy measurement is a logical extension of the latest technologies. Major pipeline companies have long been dependent on advanced measurement and communication technologies, such as supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA). But with todays improved electronic flow measurement and communication technologies, ever-increasing bandwidth, ubiquitous Internet access, high energy prices, and chronic personnel shortages, remote monitoring services have become a profitable solution for every segment of the industryincluding small and mid-size companies. This whitepaper will provide the basic blueprint of a system for providing leading edge, web-based measurement and monitoring solutions, and will review some of the benefits and challenges facing this transition to a more digital environment.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 8D0C9714

Techniques Of Natural Gas Spot Sampling
Author(s): Adam Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
The quantity or volume of natural gas that is produced, transported, stored, and distributed in todays market is ever increasing, and with it the importance of accurate measurement continues to grow exponentially. Verifying the exact composition of the product is not only important from an economic standpoint, but it is also important from a product treatment standpoint as well. The reason being is that natural gas is used as feedstock for numerous petrochemical product streams. The final product, which will be derived from the gas feedstock, depends greatly on the composition and BTU level of the initial gas supply. Any small up front investment that is made to determine correctly the gas composition, will quickly allow one to recoup that investment, time and effort put into the proper equipment, which is designed specifically to obtain an optimum gas sample. Additionally, if approved sampling procedures are followed, the potential for financial disputes between a supplier and customer will be greatly reduced. As natural gas becomes increasingly more scarce and costly to produce, the importance of properly and accurately determining the composition of the gas product will continue to be paramount to all parties involved.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: EA471451

Determination Of Hydrocarbon Dew Point In Natural Gas
Author(s): Andy Benton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper considers the requirements for control of hydrocarbon dew point in natural gas and how measurement of this important gas quality parameter can be achieved. A summary of the commercially available on-line instrumentation is provided covering: Manual, visual technique with chilled mirror dewpointmeter Equation of state calculation from extended composition analysis by gas chromatograph Automatic, optical condensation dewpointmeter The role of each measurement technology is described and assessed in terms of the effectiveness of the measurement method utilised together with other technical considerations as well as initial and operating cost implications. Full consideration is given to the specific difficulties to be confronted resulting from the complex nature of the parameter concerned. Such peculiarities include the effects of pressure, fractional condensation, the minute proportion of heaviest molecular weight components within the gas composition that contributes to the formation of condensate at the hydrocarbon dew point, and the overall subjectivity of the measurement itself where no absolute reference or definition is possible. A case is presented for the use of advanced optical techniques in an adaptation of the fundamental chilled mirror principle to provide automatic on-line measurement with a degree of objectivity and repeatability unobtainable with other measurement techniques.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 528CD648

Gas Contracts Measurement Language And Its Evolution
Author(s): Lohit Datta-Barua
Abstract/Introduction:
The business environment in our industry has seen tremendous change since early 1980s. This has in turn forced the industry to change its measurement technology and the process. Open access concept with multiple shippers through the same meter requires timely data to monitor nomination and allocation and to comply with commercial terms. The introduction of digital flow computer for electronic gas measurement (EGM) system has resulted in almost real time transactional information with enhanced accuracy and reliability. With respect to orifice measurement, the transition from mechanical chart recorders to EGM had an unprecedented impact on our ability to measure natural gas and adjust to market demands throughout the country. In order to realize the benefits of EGM, gas contracts had to evolve with time and include measurement provisions specific to this technology and its downstream data management requirements. Furthermore, such contract language should represent transporter and shipper or buyer and seller as the case may be in the most equitable manner possible. This paper discusses gas contract language from a measurement perspective addressing some of those challenges while recommending more up-to-date measurement provisions for gas contracts.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 7B980A96

Grounding Practices For Automation Controls Understanding The Key Elements And Resolving Common Problems
Author(s): Donald R. Long
Abstract/Introduction:
Grounding is defined as electrical equipment connected directly to mother earth, or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth, such as the steel frame of a high-rise building on a concrete footing. Proper grounding is an essential component for safely operating electrical systems. Improper grounding methodology has the potential to bring disastrous results. There are many different categories and types of grounding principles. This papers focus is to demonstrate proper grounding techniques for low voltage Instrument and Control Systems (IACS) that have been proven safe and reliable when employed in gas measurement facilities.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 7955CD24

Methods Of Gathering Egm Data
Author(s): Ronald Sisk
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays natural gas industry, it is of paramount importance that we focus on the accuracy and timeliness for the transfer of gas measurement data from the field measurement sites to a centralized gas measurement database to be verified, edited, and shared with all applicable groups. Measurement of wellhead deliveries, pipeline interconnects to town plants, city gates, and ultimately the end-user must be efficient and verifiable. To achieve this goal, various methodologies for gathering EGM data have evolved and improved over the past few years.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 7E76174F

Understanding The Advantages Of Ip Networks
Author(s): Burke Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Convergence in the Oil and Gas Sector Todays oil and gas industry faces increasing pressure to maximize the capability of its wireless infrastructure while minimizing operational and developmental costs. Unprecedented uncertainty and business volatility are transforming the landscape, as the oil and gas industry becomes more competitive, profit-oriented, and responsive to a fickle and savvy clientele. The key to developing a successful enterprisewide networking strategy is to recognize that it is only part of a larger strategy-one in which modern oil and gas facilities must literally reinvent themselves.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 7571FE57

Training Office Measurement Personnel
Author(s): Perry Dee Hummel
Abstract/Introduction:
Experience is the best teacher. Weve all heard that saying, but, what if there arent any experienced personnel left to hire? After years of downsizing, mergers, and attrition, the industry finds itself in a shortage of good trained personnel. The only way to overcome this problem is to provide the new employee with comprehensive training. Successful training is paramount to the success of the gas measurement department and your company.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 6AB887B3

Requirements Of An Egm Editor
Author(s): R. Michael Squyres
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry is currently racing to update its downstream data handling capabilities to keep up with the technological advances of field automation. One area of concentration is electronic gas measurement (EGM) editing, recalculation, and reporting programs. Fundamental to all measurement systems is the ability to accurately measure, review, correct, and report the data. Any weakness in this chain undermines the speed and accuracy of the system, the primary reasons for automation. In this paper, I attempt to identify the ideal attributes necessary to streamline this process. One common thread among all successful programs is a good basic design that is easy to understand and use.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: E0A1E258


Copyright © 2017