Measurement Library

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (2007)

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course

Fundamentals Of Gas Laws
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters.
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Document ID: 78A2C34F

Basic Properties- Natural Gas
Author(s): John H. Batchelder
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is misunderstood by many. It is believed by some that all gas is a liquid that is pumped into automobiles or into tanks and is used as a fuel. It is thought of as a dangerous material that will blow up easily. Others do not differentiate between LP gas, natural gas, or gasoline - They are all the same thing, right? While it is true that the above mentioned materials are all made up of the same basic components, each has its own physical and chemical characteristics.
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Document ID: DE52D9EF

From The Wellhead To The Burner Tip: A System Overview
Author(s): John Rafferty, Powell Controls,
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is presented at the Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course - Fundamentals Section. The paper is designed for the first year student to understand the basic flow of natural gas and the terminology utilized from Production and Storage areas to end use by consumers. Specific focus is given to history of natural gas, gas transmission, city gate stations, and distribution systems.
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Document ID: FE9E7793

Pressure Control Basics
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure control is the fundamental operation of all natural gas delivery systems. It provides a safe and reliable energy source for manufacturing and heating systems throughout the world. Pressure control is utilized to balance the system supply demands with safe delivery pressures. Pressure control is used in all phases of the delivery system as follows: Production Wells Up to 5,000+ psig Compressor Stations Pumping into Storage or Boosting Transmission Supply. City Gate Stations Reduce Transmission Pressures to Distribution Pressures. District Regulation Stations cutting pressures for safe delivery End User Regulation Providing a safe pressure for end user appliances.
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Document ID: 1DE096CC

Factors Affecting Orifice Accuracy
Author(s): Reji George
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice Measurement is a proven method of gas measurement. As an industry, we have been talking about this metering method and problems associated with it for more than seven decades. In 1939, Mr. C. A. Smith (Superintendent of Gas Measurement, West Virginia Gas Corporation, Charleston, West Virginia) speaking at the Second Annual Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course, said the following about orifice plates: The orifice plate is the main part of the orifice meter, and must not be overlooked. You can have your meter gauges in the best possible working condition, but if an inferior, warped, or dirty plate, or dull edged orifice is used, you can have inaccurate results in gas measurement. That statement still holds true in 2003.
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Document ID: 635498BD

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement
Author(s): Pat Donnelly
Abstract/Introduction:
Samuel Clegg made the first practical gas meter in England in 1815. It was a water-sealed rotating drum meter that was improved in 1825 however, it was still very costly and very large. Thomas Glover developed the original diaphragm meter in England in 1843. It consisted of two diaphragms, sliding valves and linkage. T. S. Lacey patented the pre-payment meter in 1870. The most significant change to diaphragm meters over the years has been in the materials of construction. Brass parts have been replaced by plastic, and leather diaphragms have been replaced with synthetic rubber.
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Document ID: AE2EB305

Self-Operated Regulator Basics
Author(s): Trent Decker
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application that we need to look more deeply into the fundamental of the regulators operation.
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Document ID: 33093C74

Basic Principles Of Pilot Operated Flexible Element Regulators
Author(s): Michael Garvey
Abstract/Introduction:
Pilot Operated Flexible Element Regulators are capable of providing very accurate control in natural gas transmission and distribution pipelines. The Pilot Operated Regulator provides advantages over both self-operated regulators and control valves. Primary benefits include simplicity of operation and elimination of any fugitive emissions caused by atmospheric bleed gas. However, it is important to recognize the limitations of the pilot operated flexible element regulator and apply it accordingly. The original Flexible Element Regulator, the Flexflo, was developed by the Grove Valve and Regulator Company circa World War II. The original intent for the regulator was to regulate water in submarine ballasting systems. However, Grove quickly recognized that the Flexflo regulator product was ideally suited for pressure control applications in natural gas pipelines. Many advances have been made since the original Flexible Element was created more then fifty years ago, but the same basic operational advantages and principles of operation remain unchanged.
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Document ID: CE225F41

Basic Pressure And Flow Control
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry utilizes two devices to reduce gas pressure and control gas flow. The first is the regulator and the second is a control valve. The control valve is utilized for high volumes and it can perform flow control as will as pressure control. This paper will provide the fundamentals of control valve types, sizes, and the controllers that are utilized to operate the control valves. We will also investigate the differences between the regulator and the control valve and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
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Document ID: 1D389419

Orifice Meter Basics
Author(s): Kevin Finnan
Abstract/Introduction:
This class is going to be faithful to the title and focus on basics of orifice meters. It is intended as an introduction to any gas company employees who are interested in gaining a working knowledge of orifice meters, including where they are used and why. We will also briefly discuss the orifice meter from an operation and maintenance point-of-view. For field technicians and anyone else, who will be directly involved with orifice meter operations and maintenance, this class is an introduction and will give you an understanding of the basic concepts. However, it is not a replacement for your companys operating procedures but is, rather, a supplement to them.
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Document ID: 6BBB3281

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): John A. Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of all gas measurement used in the world today is performed by two basic types of meters, positive displacement and inferential. Positive displacement meters, consisting mainly of diaphragm and rotary style devices, generally account for lower volume measurement. Orifice, ultrasonic and turbine meters are the three main inferential class meters used for large volume measurement today. Turbines are typically considered to be a repeatable device used for accurate measurement over large and varying pressures and flow rates. They are found in a wide array of elevated pressure applications ranging from atmospheric conditions to 1440 psig. Turbine meters have also become established as master or reference meters used in secondary calibration systems such as transfer provers. A significant number of both mechanical and electrical outputs and configurations have become available over the past 50 years of production.
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Document ID: 11888A8F

Basics Of Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): Jerry Kamalieh
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the United States, The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat-rate basis. Its growth was slow, its charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority. By comparison, the New York Gas Light Company founded in 1823 prospered and expanded. They had built their system on the use of gas meters to measure the supply of gas to customers, and a large one to register the quantity made at the station before it is conveyed to the gasometers.
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Document ID: B1AD3125

Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meter Basics
Author(s): James W. Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the operating principal and application of ultrasonic gas flow metering for custody transfer. Basic principals and underlying equations are discussed, as are considerations for applying ultrasonic flow meter technology to station design, installation and operation. These applications are illustrated based on operating experience with the Instromet 3 path and 5-path Q.Sonic custody transfer flow meter, however, many of these issues may be generalized to devices manufactured by others.
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Document ID: DB989470

Rotary Displacement Meters Basics
Author(s): Todd Willis
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classes of gas meters. These are inferential type meters, which include orifice and turbine meters, and positive displacement meters, which include diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferential type meters are so-called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas flow and calculating the volume based on the measurements. The positive displacement type meters are so-called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them.
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Document ID: C39950F3

Clamp-On Gas Flow Technology Advancements Increase Performance And Diagnostic Capabilities For Check Metering And Custody Transfer Applications
Author(s): Mark Imboden
Abstract/Introduction:
The recent buzz created by the clamp-on wide beam technology in the gas measurement world has compelled even the gas industry skeptics among us to take notice. Rapid acceleration of successful installations across the globe and the surprising performance results being obtained (as shown in the following pages) has only added fuel to the excitement. Field clamp-on gas flowmeters provide a unique tool for solving flow related challenges without interrupting the operation of a gas pipeline.
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Document ID: 70F235E7

The Proper Application Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): Kevin C. Beaver
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper highlights several rotary meter performance characteristics. These characteristics profile a rotary meters capabilities in a wide array of applications from production to transmission, and distribution. Most of the characteristics have minimum standards adopted by agencies like AGA or ASTM. Ill identify these standards, and incorporate them-where applicable-into my paper. In discussing these characteristics, I hope to give the reader a better understanding of the capabilities of rotary meters, and how the gas industry assesses these characteristics. Heres the performance characteristics Ill discuss: Rangeability Start Rate Stop Rate Starting & Running Differential Accuracy
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Document ID: 714CDCAE

Differntial Testing Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): R.A. Ron() Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
Over a hundred years ago, the Brothers Root were searching for an innovative way to convert water into power. Their search led to two figure eight shaped lobes. Legend has it that the lobes did not pass water efficiently, but when the contraption blew one of the brothers hats into the air they knew they had an industrial strength blower. Nearly eighty years ago, the Roots Brothers Blower Company decided that their basic design, when a counter replaced the blower motor, could be used as a gas measurement device. The era of rotary gas measurement was born.
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Document ID: E37C446E

Gas Meter Proving: The Equipment And Methodology Used Today In The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): Gregory A. Germ
Abstract/Introduction:
To determine the accuracy of a natural gas meter, a known volume of air is passed through the meter, and the meter registration is compared against this known volume. The known volume of air originates from the meter prover. In earlier times, the gas meter prover was a stand-alone device (usually a bell-type prover), manually operated without any electronics or automation. Today, the majority of gas meter provers are fully automated computer controlled and operated, and responsible for other job functions besides the proving of gas meters. The bell-type meter prover - though still commonly used in the industry - is not the only kind of meter prover used today. The advancements and developments in electronics and computer technology has lead to an evolution of meter proving equipment - far from the manual proving methods that were commonplace only a few decades ago. Many utilities have replaced the bell-type prover with sonic nozzle and transfer provers. Provers can now store and retrieve information from a utilitys meter management system, reduce the human error factor in the proving operation, and provide self-diagnostics to assist the prover operator in maintenance and in troubleshooting problems.
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Document ID: AA8C9B74

Coriolis Expands The Capabilities For Measuring Natural Gas
Author(s): Keven Conrad
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis mass flow measurement for natural gas proves to minimize the uncertainties associated with volumetric flow measurement. The installation requirements and overall cost can be greatly simplified and reduced. The need for proper straight run and flow profile dependencies are shown to be virtually eliminated. While simulating such high level perturbation and installation effects, Coriolis continues to perform well within the accuracy specification of custody transfer. Engineering and manufacturing enhancements allow for Coriolis to now measure gas over an extended range of flow while maintaining a very precise method on inline, in-situ meter verification. The sensor itself and the electronics can also be tested periodically for defined tolerances and provide a preventative maintenance plan. Advanced diagnostics in Coriolis flowmeters today can allow one to monitor the quality of measurement and detect at an early phase trace amounts of liquid or condensate entrainment in the gas flow.
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Document ID: C6845419

Operation And Maintenance Considerations For Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses both basic and advanced diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USM), and how capabilities built into todays electronics can identify problems that often may not have been identified in the past. It primarily discusses fiscal-quality, multi-path USMs and does not cover issues that may be different with non-fiscal meters as they are often single path designs. Although USMs basically work the same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in AGA 9 Ref 1. However, some provide advanced features that can be used to help identify issues such as blocked flow conditioners and gas compositional errors. This paper is based upon the Westinghouse configuration (also knows as a chordal design) and the information presented here may or may not be applicable to other manufacturers.
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Document ID: 3E01CE16

AGA-9- Understanding The Measurement Report For Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
AGA (American Gas Association) Report No. 9 - Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters was originally released for publication in June, 1998. Since that time, much has been learned and the ultrasonic meter (UM) technology has advanced significantly. Over the past several years, the AGA 9 Transmission Measurement Committee has been working on the second edition of this document. Several issues relating to AGA Report No. 9 will be discussed at length however, this paper will especially focus on the changes and additions that have been implemented in the second revision.
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Document ID: DA645BEC

Flow Meter Installation Effects
Author(s): Eric Kelner
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter station piping installation configuration is one of a number of variables that may adversely affect meter accuracy. Some piping configurations can distort the flow stream and produce flow measurement bias errors (i.e., offsets in the meter output) of up to several percent of reading. Valves, elbows, or tees placed upstream of a flow meter are just some of the piping elements that can distort the flow stream. In this paper, installation effects are discussed with respect to two of the four main components of a flow measurement system: the meter, or primary element, and the secondary (pressure and temperature) instrumentation. The effect of the velocity profile of the flow stream on orifice, ultrasonic, and turbine flow meters is discussed next. Installation conditions that may adversely impact the accuracy of pressure and temperature measurements are discussed after that. The gas chromatograph and the flow computer, the third and fourth components, are treated in separate courses.
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Document ID: 159C2BA8

Methods Of Proving High Volume Meters
Author(s): T.M. Kegel
Abstract/Introduction:
The past several years have seen increasing use of large ultrasonic meters. In many instances these meters can measure much higher volumes than large orifice or turbine meters. A thirty inch ultrasonic meter, for example, can measure the same volume as ten twelve inch turbine meters. Such high capacity meters require specialized proving or calibration services. The first part of this paper describes the basic process of calibrating large volume ultrasonic meters. The second part briefly describes some options when a meter recalibration is being considered.
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Document ID: CFD27105

High Volume Measurement Using Tubine Meters
Author(s): John A. Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
For over one hundred years the turbine meter has been servicing large volume applications of the natural gas market. During this time the turbine has continuously evolved into a device that offers the industry new and unique features. This paper will focus on the significant advancements of this technology as well as how they are applied in the field today.
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Document ID: 20A07388

Lost And Unaccounted Natural Gas - The Effect And Control Of Pulsation In Natural Gas Measurement
Author(s): George L. Bell
Abstract/Introduction:
Lost and unaccounted for natural gas, particularly at pipeline custody transfer points, is becoming a focal point for both buyers and sellers. Even somewhat small measurement error can result in very large economic gains or losses at current natural gas prices. One relatively large source of lost and unaccounted for natural gas is due to pulsation at the orifice meter induced by compressors, flow control valves, regulators and some piping configurations The following article discusses some historical research and findings surrounding the topic of pulsation. In addition, we will provide some methods of measuring, monitoring and potentially correcting various types of pulsation supported by relevant examples.
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Document ID: CFC8878A

Understanding The Measurement Report For Turbine Meters
Author(s): Daniel W. Peace
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides an overview of the 2006 revised AGA 7 document, which updates the recommended practice for measurement of natural gas by turbine meter into the form of a performance-based specification.
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Document ID: 9E80B421

Selection And Sizing Of Control Valves For Natural Gas
Author(s): Carol L. Nolte
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to help the user understand the information needed to properly select and size a control valve for natural gas service. With so many different manufactures of control valves we wont focus on one however the information listed is required by all manufactures in order to provide you with the best valve for the application. Most manufactures will assist you in sizing your application. The first step in sizing a control valve is to determine the required Cv or capacity required through the control valve at different operating conditions. It is not enough to size for one condition, rather all the conditions must be considered. Once you have completed sizing a valve for the given conditions you need to determine if that valve will operate and control well over all of those conditions. Most valves have an optimum control range. For instance a manufacture may only guarantee good control if the valves is operated between 10-85% of its capacity. Its important to know those limits. Keep in mind that that information may not be part of sizing tables or programs.
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Document ID: B4ADC46F

Freeze Protection For Instruments And Instrument Supply Lines
Author(s): James E. Mueller
Abstract/Introduction:
Many natural gas systems suffer from time to time from bothersome equipment failures or line shut-off due to freeze-up. Cold, moist climates accentuate the problems of external freeze-up. With the temperature drop accompanying gas regulation, ice often accumulates on instrument gas regulators, plugs the vents and makes the equipment inoperable. Internal freeze-up occurs in instrument gas systems and pilot supply lines because of several factors. Residual water, left in a normally dry pipeline after hydrostatic testing, is often a cause. Hydrates sometime form at temperatures as high as 50 F. Summer months are difficult for some gas storage systems, when the storage pressures are generally at their highest level, instrument gas, taken from high pressure gas storage undergoes a severe temperature drop as the pressure is cut to the instrument gas pressures. Internal freeze-up from hydrate formation is a likely possibility.
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Document ID: 17E68BFA

Freeze Protection For Natural Gas Pipeline Systems And Measurement Instrumentation
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
Consistent and continuous pipeline operations are key and critical factors in todays natural gas pipeline industry. The competitive nature of the business, together with the strict rules and regulations of natural gas supply, mandate that companies stay on top of all operational parameters that could cause interruption or complete shut-down of the natural gas supply to customers. Identifying what may ultimately cause problems is a first step to controlling and eliminating those problems for the supplier. The natural phenomenon of freezing is a common occurrence in the operation of a natural gas pipeline system. Whether the gas is produced gas from a crude oil well, or natural gas from a gas well, the possibility for hydrates and the resultant problems, is real. Freezing is a potential and serious problem starting at the production well head through the last point in the customer delivery system. The occurrence of freezing is continuously reduced each step of the way, but care must be taken at each and every step to assure smooth operational conditions and satisfied consumers at the end of the line.
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Document ID: 940C8F42

Gate Station Design
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
The City Gate or, Take, Station, is the interchange of natural gas between: Two interstate pipelines An interstate pipeline and a local gas distribution company (LDC) An interstate pipeline and a large industrial end user (usually a power plant) The City Gate station is one of the more complex designs a natural gas engineer will deal with in the course of a career. Like all projects, a properly designed and constructed gate station begins with good preliminary engineering. In preliminary engineering, all of the major project goals and hurdles are defined. If the preliminary engineering document is written properly, it will serve as the backbone for the entire project.
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Document ID: 693C680A

Network Analysis - Part 1 Gas Flow Equation Fundamentals
Author(s): Tim Bickford, Gary Kenny
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this discussion (Part 1) is to review the fundamental concepts of steady-state pipeline flow equations with a focus on the development of the friction factor component and its use in the general-flow equation. This discussion is intended to provide a basic foundation of pipe equation concepts in laymans terms for those who are new to gas hydraulic network analysis. Although it is the intention here to describe these concepts in simplified terms, it is recommended that the reader review the full technical scope of these topics in order to gain a more analytical perspective.
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Document ID: A411A786

Fundamentals Of District Regulator Station Design
Author(s): James P. Davis, Scott A. Laplante
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the fundamental steps necessary to begin and complete a district regulator design. It will focus on the techniques NSTAR uses to develop target locations and the subsequent designs. This paper will cover replacements and new installations.
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Document ID: 61FFC4CE

The Unusual In The World Of Pressure Regulation
Author(s): William J. Teliska
Abstract/Introduction:
Usually, when you install a regulator, everything works as it should, and you move on to the next project. It is unusual to have a pressure regulation problem, but you learn more by having a problem, and correcting it, than by never having a problem. I have been involved in the natural gas industry for 39 years. Early in my career, I was the junior engineer in one operating area of an LDC. I was given the task of correcting a regulator problem at a station serving a new, large industrial customer. I learned quite a bit during that exercise. I will discuss the technical correction to that problem later in this paper. But, I also learned: 1) gas engineers without much field experience dont have a good understanding of regulator station design. 2) most regulator station problems have occurred in the past, and will occur again in the future. 3) when you need an answer to an application problem, ask an old guy.
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Document ID: 1803D276

Controller Fundamentals And Tuning
Author(s): Greg Thomas Shumate
Abstract/Introduction:
It is not very easy to start talking about PID controllers. But, once we get started we will go over many aspects of control and how PID controllers help us. Do we start with what they are used for, or how they work?
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Document ID: 3A8339C6

Field Communications For Ldc Pressure Monitoring
Author(s): Michael Marsters, Matthew Pawloski
Abstract/Introduction:
It seems that the next logical step for our increasingly intelligent correctors, data loggers and flow computers would be to give them the ability to communicate. This would seem natural, with the growing number of personal computers in the gas industry and the tendency toward automatic data collection for large industrial and commercial customers. New challenges arise almost every day in the timely collection of billing data from interruptible service monitoring to the daily balancing of transportation gas. Already, many electronic correctors are being used to store load profile and other timerelated data in onboard memory. This can be downloaded into a handheld terminal, a portable computer or into a remote computer via telephone modem link. It is now not only desirable to get information out of the field instrumentation. New information can be fed into the corrector, as well. For example, we can now make our supercompressibilty even more dynamic. With twoway remote communication we can change our preset numbers for specific gravity, CO2 and N2 as we get new information from our gate stations via our growing SCADA networks. Also, high and low consumption or pressure limits are available in many of the electronic instruments available, allowing utilities to have instant notification of abnormal conditions in the field, instead of having to wait for customer complaint calls.
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Document ID: 188F1024

Automating Gas Measurement
Author(s): Richard L. Cline
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the discovery of oil and gas and the advent of commercial conveniences, which use oil and gas, companies have been confronted with the need to accurately measure the oil and gas bought and sold in the marketplace. And, as usual, the technology available at the time was brought to bear on the measurement process. All gas companies must, of course, deal with gas measurement and are positioned somewhere on the automation curve. As time moves forward, so does the technology. New products and measurement techniques are constantly being offered to improve the gas measurement process. Unfortunately, adopting the new technology always brings with it a price. And the price is not only measured in dollars, but in ever increasing difficulty in making intelligent decisions and choices. So how does a company, with the need to progress on the automation curve, sort through the many options available today? The effort requires a continuing education process. The decision maker must understand not only what the available technology can do for his company today but must understand its future impact on the company.
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Document ID: 9EAE2355

Integrating Metering, Billing, Security And Control Processes
Author(s): Robert Findley
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement and process control equipment has been on a progressive trend over the past decade. Due to continuous improvements, products have developed from pneumatic to electronic processes, reduced in physical size and increased in overall functionality. While the core AGA flow/energy equations have not altered, the electronic equipment calculating these equations has undergone dynamic changes. These changes will dramatically affect the gas industry, bringing new ideas, concepts and realities. This paper has been written to provide the reader with information on recent advancements in measurement and control equipment and what they may offer in the future. Consider the following application: A measurement, billing and control solution that had the ability to integrate seamlessly into the overall company business model. An additional feature (virtual requirement) is the ability to include security/tamperproof methodologies to the measurement infrastructure in unique ways.
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Document ID: AA2D1104

The Art Of Mixing Propane/Air To Be Interchangeable With Natural Gas
Author(s): Dan Joubert
Abstract/Introduction:
Anyone who has vaporized and mixed Propane/Air for either Peak Shaving or day-to-day operations in distribution realizes that there is an art to finding and maintaining the proper mixture of Propane Vapor, Process Air and Natural Gas to make the resulting mixture roughly equivalent to Natural Gas. Adjustments are required to be made almost constantly to ensure that the final mixture of the gas leaving the facility is capable of being burned in most if not all appliances safely and efficiently without yellow tipping, lifting or flashbacks. It can be exhausting to constantly monitor and adjust the flows to come up with just the right mixture. In most Propane/Air Facilities, there is a burner connected to the plant outlet gas line that is constantly on while vaporizing and mixing the gases. In most cases, the operators spend a lot of time watching that burner to see if they are making the proper mixture of gases.
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Document ID: DC045B01

Proper Operation Of Gas Detection Instruments
Author(s): George Lomax
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the operation, maintenance and calibration for a number of instruments available today for the detection of combustible and toxic gases. The applications for these various instruments will also be discussed. This will include the investigation of odor complaints on a customers property, leakage survey applications, and other safety requirements.
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Document ID: 88BC0FE5

Use Of Equations Of State Eos() Software
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper sample conditioning is essential to providing a representative sample of natural gas to the analyzer. Sample conditioning consists of extracting a sample from a process stream, transporting it to an analyzer, and conditioning it so that it is compatible with the analyzer. Conditioning generally consists of controlling the gas temperature, pressure, and flow rate. It also includes the removal of contaminates which may alter the sample composition and/or damage the analyzer. It is imperative that the gas sample composition is not altered or distorted during the conditioning process. Equations of State (EOS) software programs are useful tools for modeling the behavior of natural gas as it flows through a sample system. With the use of an EOS program one can determine if conditions in a particular sample conditioning system are conducive to the proper sampling of a specific natural gas composition.
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Document ID: D4CA9FF1

Corrosion Control Considerations For M&R Stations
Author(s): Michael J. Placzek
Abstract/Introduction:
Corrosion control for a measurement/regulation station can be very challenging. The majority of scenarios that can cause corrosion occur at M&Rs. Corrosion at an M&R can be broken into three major categories: External (external surface of the piping in contact with the soil or water electrolyte), Atmospheric (external surface of the piping in contact with the air) and Internal (internal surface of the piping exposed to liquids, bacteria or other contaminants in the product or gas flow).
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Document ID: B7473F64

How To Perform A Lost & Unaccounted For Gas Program
Author(s): Rick Feldmann
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is written for the natural gas pipeline industry, from the vantage point of wellhead to burner tip. Its for: Production Companies wanting to ensure proper measurement of the Btus delivered to, and normally measured at their wellheads by, gathering companies, Gathering and Processing Companies wanting to control losses across their gathering lines and across treatment and processing plants, Transportation Companies wanting to control gas losses across high pressure pipe that extends for thousands of miles, and Distribution Companies that are concerned with gas losses across both high and low pressure distribution systems within city plants. The value proposition to most companies is that a physical loss of gas directly affects their bottom lines as either a loss of revenue or as an expense.
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Document ID: 6AB63146

Protection Of Measuring Station Instrumentation And Communication Equipment
Author(s): David Crandall
Abstract/Introduction:
Instrumentation installed on gas pipelines is forced to survive exposure to surges from lightning and electrical utility disturbances. The environmental setting is extreme compared to other types of installations. Without giving proper attention to protect instrumentation in this outdoor setting the chances of an instrument surviving the full extent of its useful life can be very low. This paper examines transients and surges and how to protect installations from those effects. Every year pipeline companies spend hundreds of thousands of dollars replacing equipment destroyed by lightning strikes that hit in the vicinity of installed equipment. What are the consequences of these losses? First, the damaged equipment is replaced but secondly, reduction of the system availability impacts profitability of the company. In addition, there is a personal element to the losses. For example personal time with the family may be impacted due to overtime requirements. It is possible the public safety can be compromised which would tarnish the reputation of the company. Surges are critically important to understand not only from the standpoint of protecting the investment your organization has in its facilities, but to think of the overall cost incurred which usually is much larger than the replacement cost of the equipment.
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Document ID: 19BCD9BE

Fundamentals & Development Of LNG Facilities
Author(s): John Gamble
Abstract/Introduction:
LNG (liquefied natural gas) is an economical alternative to firm pipeline capacity. The use of LNG is very common in the United States and other countries such as the United Kingdom, Spain, France, Japan and Korea. The process is not new. The liquefaction of natural gas dates back to the early 1900s. LNG has been used as a vehicle fuel since the mid-1960s. LNG is produced in a liquefaction plant where natural gas is liquefied, stored in an insulated storage tank, and distributed. LNG can be distributed as a liquid in ships, tanker trucks or rail cars, or as a vapor by pumping it out of the tank as a liquid, heating it in a vaporizer or re-gasifier and delivering it to a pipeline or distribution system at a compatible temperature and pressure. LNG technology was advanced by NASAs space program.
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Document ID: FA3DFED1

Performance Evaluation Of Gas Storage Wells Through Field Testing
Author(s): Alan Brannon
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Storage wells are continually evaluated by comparing well tests over time to determine if there has been any deterioration in performance. This is typically accomplished by performing certain types of tests on a pre-determined schedule. One of these methods involves performing a flow test where a well is flowed at several rates for certain durations. This type of testing is referred to as back pressure testing, where the well in question is tested at these predetermined rates and static shut in pressures before each of the flows are recorded and the final end of duration flowing pressures and rates are recorded. These tests can be performed while on injection or withdrawal but are typically performed on injection when the source gas can be controlled and the demands on the system are not as critical as they are during the withdrawal season when pipeline supply is being supplemented by storage withdrawals. Well tests that are performed on a continual basis can be collectively reviewed by the technician or engineer to determine if degradation in performance is indicated or if the well has responded to remedial operations. Also, these welltests can be used to predict overall storage field performance under certain conditions to help in deciding if various storage services are viable.
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Document ID: AE67318E

Life Of An Appalachian Gas Well
Author(s): Timothy L. Altier
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas was once an unwanted byproduct of oil production. Since it is the gas that pushes oil and brine to the wellbore, the gas was flared, sometimes in great quantities in order to produce the oil. No effort was made to conserve the gas so, ironically, the field pressure would decline rapidly and most of the oil would be left in the reservoir. Its first use as a fuel was in the immediate areas the surrounding oilfields and even then many times it was flared in the town square as a source of lighting and entertainment. No effective transportation system was in place to distribute the gas from the remote fields to metropolitan areas. It was not until after World War II that cross country pipelines were laid and large and reliable supplies of gas were available for residential, commercial and industrial consumers. The natural gas industry as we know it has developed in approximately 50 years. Im sure the wildcatters of the early 1900s would be amazed that today you could buy and sell 100 million BTU of gas from a computer screen in any given day!
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Document ID: F8519C0A

Coalbed Methane Resources In Pennsylvania: An Overview
Author(s): Antonette K. Markowski
Abstract/Introduction:
National demand for natural gas is increasing, with the resource now heating 50 percent of United States homes and fueling 95 percent of new power plants (Pinsker, 2000, p. 34). By 2020, demand for natural gas is forecast to increase by 53 percent coupled with the fact that during the 1990s United States production capacity did not keep pace with demand growth (Holtberg and others, 2000). This large, domestic shortfall was met by Canadian natural gas imports (American Gas Association, 2000). Another way to reduce this deficit is to fully develop known domestic reservoir basins and explore for untapped sources of natural gas, one of which is coalbed methane (CBM). CBM or coal seam natural gas is one of the fastest-growing energy plays in North America today.
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Document ID: 01E0DD55

Underground Storage Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Timothy D. Maddox
Abstract/Introduction:
Most people have never heard of natural gas storage. Even those working in related areas of the gas industry may not have had the opportunity to become completely familiar with it. Storage has historically been a unique but little discussed discipline. With recent changes in Natural Gas Industry regulation, storage has become an important service for utilities to economically serve markets. It is being discussed more frequently, therefore, I have attempted herein to provide the basics, or the what, why and how of underground natural gas storage.
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Document ID: CABC6E8C

Enhancing Liquid Lifting In Marginal Gas Wells With Reinforced Polymer Tubing
Author(s): Jay Wright
Abstract/Introduction:
Sizing the correct tubing diameters to exceed critical flow velocities to lift fluid, while utilizing polymers to dramatically reduce the pressure drop created by the high velocity flow rates allows low pressure wells to continuously lift fluid without the need for artificial lift technologies. The oil and gas industry experience with polymers has primarily focused on low pressure polyethylene tubing for gathering lines and gas distribution. The benefits include excellent corrosion resistance, low cost installation and reduced pressure drops versus steel. Polyflow Inc has expanded upon these benefits with higher strength polymers, reinforcement braiding and well modeling capabilities to provide tubing sized to lift both fluid and gas in marginal wells without creating excessive backpressure against the formation. The constant flow of gas and fluid mist results in very stable gas production and fluid removal without continual well operator intervention.
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Document ID: D77301A3

The Basics Of Well Tendering
Author(s): Twain Faulkner
Abstract/Introduction:
The well tenders job duties are classified into the following areas: 1. Safety 2. Field Integrity and Inventory 3. Deliverability Maintenance 4. Troubleshooting 5. Operations
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Document ID: 24D517FB

Advances In Natural Gas Sampling Technology
Author(s): Paula B. Lanoux
Abstract/Introduction:
The monetary value of natural gas is based on its energy content and volume. The energy content and physical constants utilized in determining its volume are computed from analysis. Therefore correct assessment of the value of natural gas is dependent to a large extent on overall analytical accuracy. The largest source of analytical error in natural gas is distortion of the composition during sampling. Sampling clean, dry natural gas, which is well above its Hydrocarbon Dew Point (HCDP) temperature is a relatively simple task. However, sampling natural gas that is at, near, or below its HCDP temperature is challenging. For these reasons, much attention is being focused on proper methods for sampling natural gas which have a high HCDP temperature. This presentation will address problems associated with sampling natural gas which is at, near, or below its HCDP temperature. Various approaches for solving these problems will also be discussed.
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Document ID: 0AEC7435

Theory And Application Of Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Mark F. Maxwell
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1978, The Natural Gas Policy Act was passed by Congress as a method of deregulating the gas industry. This act specified that natural gas was to be bought and sold based on energy content per cubic foot. This new standard combined volume measurement and gas heating value measurement to produce an energy measurement system for natural gas. As a result of this act, the on-line gas chromatograph has become a vital element in accurate energy measurement. The individual components of natural gas and the calculated heating value generally note the quality of natural gas. In the USA, the standard of measurement is in British Thermal Units (Btu). A Btu is generally thought of as the heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit. There are two general methods for determining Btu, direct and indirect. Calorimetry is a direct method while Chromatography is an indirect method.
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Document ID: D2308AA7

The Impact Of API 14.1 And Other Standards To Practical Considerations For Gas Sampling
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to be able to take a representative sample of a hydrocarbon product is necessary to ensure proper accounting for transactions and efficient product processing. The various sampling methods that are available and the options and limitations of these methods are investigated the most appropriate equipment to use the reasons for its use and correct installation of the equipment are also addressed.
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Document ID: 2E8D4A0D

Natural Gas Dehydration
Author(s): Matthew E. Vavro
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented at SPE meetings are subject to publication review by Editorial Committees of the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper for commercial purposes without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O. Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836, U.S.A., fax 01-214-952-9435.
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Document ID: AF769316

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Water Vapor Measurement
Author(s): Samuel C. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
This document will introduce the basic approaches to trace moisture measurements for natural gas and provide some advantages and disadvantages of each approach. There are many applications where trace moisture measurements are necessary such as in clean dry air, hydrocarbon processing, heat treatment processes, pure semiconductor gases, bulk pure gases, insulating gases such as those in transformers and power plants, and in natural gas pipelines. Natural gas presents a unique situation where the gas can have extremely high levels of solid and liquid contaminants as well as corrosive gases present in varying concentrations.
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Document ID: D73FEF61

Basic Electronics For Gas Measurement Technicians
Author(s): Tushar Shah
Abstract/Introduction:
At present, the use of electronics in gas measurement and control has become a necessity and a reality. In todays competitive environment, it is very important to measure, control and communicate gas related field parameters on time, accurately and reliably. The information may be used for marketing, operations/engineering, safety, or billing. As the gas industry moves gas from wellhead to burner tip, several types of electronic devices are used along the way for the gas measurement and control. Most of these devices utilize electronics to do their function. It is important for gas industry field service personnel to understand the basics of electronics to specify, purchase, operate and maintain these devices effectively. However, the material covered in this paper is not limited to personnel in the gas industry. It may also be useful for anyone wanting to refresh his or her knowledge, or begin learning basic electronics.
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Document ID: 4A8349B5

Flow Measurement And Scada Technology
Author(s): Robert Findley, Michael Rozic
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement and process control equipment has been on a progressive trend over the past decade. Due to continuous improvements, products have developed from pneumatic to electronic processes, reduced in physical size, minimized proprietary programming languages and protocols and increased overall functionality and accessibility. While the core AGA flow/energy equations have not altered, the electronic equipment calculating these equations has undergone dynamic changes. These changes will dramatically affect the gas industry, bringing new ideas, concepts and realities. The goal here is to provide the reader with information on recent advancements in measurement and control (M&C) equipment, and what they may offer in the future.
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Document ID: D7A718D0

Proper Grounding Techniques At Plants And Gate Stations
Author(s): Donald R. Long
Abstract/Introduction:
Grounding is defined as electrical equipment connected directly to mother earth, or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth, such as the steel frame of a high-rise building on a concrete footing. Proper grounding is an essential component for safely operating electrical systems. Improper grounding methodology has the potential to bring disastrous results. There are many different categories and types of grounding principles. This papers focus is to demonstrate proper grounding techniques for low voltage Instrument and Control Systems (IACS) that have been proven safe and reliable when employed in natural gas facilities.
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Document ID: E8986EF4

Clamp-On Ultrasonic Meter Applications
Author(s): William E. Frasier
Abstract/Introduction:
I have applied the Siemens clamp-on meter in many configurations in the field and will describe purposes and findings on the way to precise meter certainty. The clamp-on system provides an effective new tool for insight into the flowing regime within a pipe.
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Document ID: 76D451FE

Basic Electronic Communications For The Gas Industry
Author(s): Kenneth J. Pollock
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper introduces the common communications mediums used to convey intelligence for the gas industry. The gas industry requires fast and reliable communications for the conveyance of data for control and measurement applications. The data may be analog, digital, or even voice types of signals and may require transmission over a short distance of less than a couple of feet to over several hundred miles. As the gas is passed from the well head to the final user, many types of electronic devices are employed for fast and accurate measurement of the process. The link that is used to pass this information to the billing, control, or safety system is the communications system. Several communications circuits are required in order to convey the data and there is not any one perfect system that will meet the requirements in all situations.
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Document ID: DA5294A2

Advanced Electronic Communications For The Gas Industry
Author(s): Jeff Randolph
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss advanced communication options for the gas industry. The advanced communication options are not necessarily new technologies, but possibly new technologies to the gas industry.
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Document ID: 71CA6670

Principles Of Odorization
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
Odorization injection and monitoring technology has advanced dramatically in the past 15 years. A former Chairperson of the Appalachian Short Course, Harold Englert of Columbia Gas Virginia, used to refer to odorization as, A little bit of science, and a whole lot of magic. The intent of this paper is to provide the reader with practical solutions to develop a solid odorization program, even in dense urban environments, in the hope of removing the, Magic, to a successful odorization program.
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Document ID: 6A9D932D


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